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Pontic Steppe

Domestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe cultures

Bug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk Yamna

Mikhaylovka culture

Caucasus

Maykop

East-Asia

Afanasevo

Eastern Europe

Usatovo Cernavodă Cucuteni

Northern Europe

Corded ware

Baden Middle Dnieper

Bronze Age

Pontic Steppe

Chariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka Srubna

Northern/Eastern Steppe

Abashevo culture Andronovo Sintashta

Europe

Globular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus Urnfield Lusatian

South-Asia

BMAC Yaz Gandhara grave

Iron Age

Steppe

Chernoles

Europe

Thraco-Cimmerian Hallstatt Jastorf

Caucasus

Colchian

India

Painted Grey Ware Northern Black Polished Ware

Peoples and societies

Bronze Age

Anatolians Armenians Mycenaean Greeks Indo-Iranians

Iron Age

Indo-Aryans

Indo-Aryans

Iranians

Iranians

Scythians Persians Medes

Europe

Celts

Gauls Celtiberians Insular Celts

Hellenic peoples Italic peoples Germanic peoples Paleo-Balkans/Anatolia:

Thracians Dacians Illyrians Phrygians

Middle Ages

East-Asia

Tocharians

Europe

Balts Slavs Albanians Medieval Europe

Indo-Aryan

Medieval India

Iranian

Greater Persia

Religion and mythology

Reconstructed

Proto-Indo-European religion Proto-Indo-Iranian religion

Historical

Hittite

Indian

Vedic

Hinduism

Buddhism Jainism

Iranian

Persian

Zoroastrianism

Kurdish

Yazidism Yarsanism

Scythian

Ossetian

Others

Armenian

Europe

Paleo-Balkans Greek Roman Celtic

Irish Scottish Breton Welsh Cornish

Germanic

Anglo-Saxon Continental Norse

Baltic

Latvian Lithuanian

Slavic Albanian

Practices

Fire-sacrifice Horse sacrifice Sati Winter solstice/Yule

Indo-European studies

Scholars

Marija Gimbutas J.P. Mallory

Institutes

Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European

Publications

Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture The Horse, the Wheel and Language Journal of Indo-European Studies Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch Indo-European Etymological Dictionary

v t e

The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent. They constitute a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family. Indo-Aryan speakers form about one-half of all Indo-European speakers (about 1.5 of 3 billion), and more than half of all Indo-European languages recognized by Ethnologue. While the languages are primarily spoken in South Asia, pockets of Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
are found to be spoken in Europe and the Middle East. The largest in terms of speakers are Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu, about 329 million),[2] Bengali (242 million),[3] Punjabi (about 100 million),[4] and other languages, with a 2005 estimate placing the total number of native speakers at nearly 900 million.[5]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Proto-Indo-Aryan 1.2 Indian subcontinent

1.2.1 Old Indo-Aryan 1.2.2 Middle Indo-Aryan (Prakrits) 1.2.3 New Indo-Aryan

1.2.3.1 Dialect continuum 1.2.3.2 Hindustani

1.3 Mitanni-Aryan 1.4 Romani, Lomavren, and Domari languages

1.4.1 Domari 1.4.2 Lomavren 1.4.3 Romani

2 Classification

2.1 Dardic 2.2 Northern Zone 2.3 Northwestern Zone 2.4 Western Zone 2.5 Central Zone (Madhya or Hindi) 2.6 Eastern Zone 2.7 Southern Zone languages

2.7.1 Marathi-Konkani 2.7.2 Insular Indic

2.8 Unclassified

3 Phonology

3.1 Consonants

3.1.1 Stop positions[22] 3.1.2 Nasals[23]

3.2 Charts

4 Language and dialect 5 Language comparison chart

5.1 Interrogative pronouns 5.2 Personal pronouns

6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

History[edit]

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Proto-Indo-Aryan[edit] Main article: Proto-Indo-Aryan language Proto-Indo-Aryan, or sometimes Proto-Indic, is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Aryan languages. It is intended to reconstruct the language of the Proto-Indo-Aryans. Proto-Indo-Aryan is meant to be the predecessor of Old Indo-Aryan (1500–300 BCE) which is directly attested as Vedic and Mitanni-Aryan. Despite the great archaicity of Vedic, however, the other Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
preserve a small number of archaic features lost in Vedic. Indian subcontinent[edit] See also: Linguistic history of the Indian subcontinent

Proto-Indo-Aryan (reconstructed) Old Indo-Aryan (ca. 1500–300 BCE)

early Old Indo-Aryan: Vedic Sanskrit (1500 to 500 BCE) late Old Indo-Aryan: Epic Sanskrit, Classical Sanskrit
Classical Sanskrit
(500 to 300 BCE)

Middle Indo-Aryan or Prakrits, Old Odia (ca. 300 BCE to 1500 CE) [see] Early Modern Indo-Aryan (Late Medieval India)

early Dakkhini
Dakkhini
and emergence of Khariboli

Old Indo-Aryan[edit] The earliest evidence of the group is from Vedic and Mitanni-Aryan. Vedic has been used in the ancient preserved religious hymns, the foundational canon of Hinduism
Hinduism
known as the Vedas. Mitanni-Aryan is of similar age to the language of the Rigveda, but the only evidence of it is a few proper names and specialized loanwords. The language of the Vedas - commonly referred to as "Vedic Sanskrit" by modern scholars - is only marginally different from reconstructed Proto-Indo-Aryan. From the Vedic, "Sanskrit" (literally "put together", meaning perfected or elaborated) developed as the prestige language of culture, science and religion, as well as the court, theatre, etc. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is, by convention, referred to by modern scholars as 'Classical Sanskrit' in contradistinction to the so-called 'Vedic Sanskrit', which is largely intelligible to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
speakers. Middle Indo-Aryan (Prakrits)[edit] Outside the learned sphere of Sanskrit, vernacular dialects (Prakrits) continued to evolve. The oldest attested Prakrits are the Buddhist and Jain canonical languages Pali
Pali
and Ardha Magadhi, respectively. By medieval times, the Prakrits had diversified into various Middle Indo-Aryan dialects. "Apabhramsa" is the conventional cover term for transitional dialects connecting late Middle Indo-Aryan with early Modern Indo-Aryan, spanning roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. Some of these dialects showed considerable literary production; the Sravakachar of Devasena (dated to the 930s) is now considered to be the first Hindi
Hindi
book. The next major milestone occurred with the Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
in the 13th–16th centuries. Under the flourishing Turco-Mongol Mughal empire, Persian became very influential as the language of prestige of the Islamic courts due to adoptation of the foreign language by the Mughal emperors. However, Persian was soon displaced by Hindustani. This Indo-Aryan language is a combination with Persian, Arabic, and Turkic elements in its vocabulary, with the grammar of the local dialects. The two largest languages that formed from Apabhramsa were Bengali and Hindustani; others include Sindhi, Gujarati, Odia, Marathi, and Punjabi. New Indo-Aryan[edit] Dialect continuum[edit] The Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
of Northern India
Northern India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
form a dialect continuum. What is called "Hindi" in India is frequently Standard Hindi, the Sanskrit-ized version of the colloquial Hindustani spoken in the Delhi
Delhi
area since the Mughals. However, the term Hindi
Hindi
is also used for most of the central Indic dialects from Bihar
Bihar
to Rajasthan. The spoken New Indo-Aryan dialects from Assam in the east to the borders of Afghanistan in the west form a linguistic continuum across the plains of North India, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Bangladesh. Hindustani[edit] Main articles: Hindustani language
Hindustani language
and History of Hindustani In the Western Hindi-speaking areas, for a long time the prestige dialect was Braj Bhasha, but this was replaced in the 19th century by the Khariboli-based Hindustani. Hindustani was strongly influenced by Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Persian, with these influences leading to the emergence of Modern Standard Hindi
Hindi
and Modern Standard Urdu
Urdu
as registers of the Hindustani language.[6][7] This state of affairs continued until the division of the British Indian Empire in 1947, when Hindi
Hindi
became the official language in India and Urdu
Urdu
became official in Pakistan. Despite the different script the fundamental grammar remains identical, the difference is more sociolinguistic than purely linguistic.[8][9][10] Today it is widely understood/spoken as a second or third language throughout South Asia[11] and one of the most widely known languages in the world in terms of number of speakers. Mitanni-Aryan[edit] Main article: Mitanni-Aryan Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggest that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian
Hurrian
population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion. In a treaty between the Hittites
Hittites
and the Mitanni, the deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya
Nasatya
(Ashvins) are invoked. Kikkuli's horse training text includes technical terms such as aika (eka, one), tera (tri, three), panza (pancha, five), satta (sapta, seven), na (nava, nine), vartana (vartana, turn, round in the horse race). The numeral aika "one" is of particular importance because it places the superstrate in the vicinity of Indo-Aryan proper as opposed to Indo-Iranian or early Iranian (which has "aiva") in general[12] Another text has babru (babhru, brown), parita (palita, grey), and pinkara (pingala, red). Their chief festival was the celebration of the solstice (vishuva) which was common in most cultures in the ancient world. The Mitanni warriors were called marya, the term for warrior in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
as well; note mišta-nnu (= miẓḍha, ≈ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
mīḍha) "payment (for catching a fugitive)" (M. Mayrhofer, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen, Heidelberg, 1986–2000; Vol. II:358). Sanskritic interpretations of Mitanni royal names render Artashumara (artaššumara) as Arta-smara "who thinks of Arta/Ṛta" (Mayrhofer II 780), Biridashva (biridašṷa, biriiašṷa) as Prītāśva "whose horse is dear" (Mayrhofer II 182), Priyamazda (priiamazda) as Priyamedha "whose wisdom is dear" (Mayrhofer II 189, II378), Citrarata as citraratha "whose chariot is shining" (Mayrhofer I 553), Indaruda/Endaruta as Indrota "helped by Indra" (Mayrhofer I 134), Shativaza (šattiṷaza) as Sātivāja "winning the race price" (Mayrhofer II 540, 696), Šubandhu as Subandhu 'having good relatives" (a name in Palestine, Mayrhofer II 209, 735), Tushratta (tṷišeratta, tušratta, etc.) as *tṷaiašaratha, Vedic Tvastr "whose chariot is vehement" (Mayrhofer, Etym. Wb., I 686, I 736). Romani, Lomavren, and Domari languages[edit] Domari[edit] Main article: Domari language Domari is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by older Dom people scattered across the Middle East and North Africa. The language is reported to be spoken as far north as Azerbaijan and as far south as central Sudan, in Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Iraq, Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Syria and Lebanon.[13] Based on the systematicity of sound changes, we know with a fair degree of certainty that the names Domari and Romani derive from the Indo-Aryan word ḍom.[14] Lomavren[edit] Main article: Lomavren language Lomavren is a nearly extinct mixed language, spoken by the Lom people, that arose from language contact between a language related to Romani and Domari[15] and the Armenian language. Romani[edit] Main article: Romani language The Romani language
Romani language
is usually included in the Western Indo-Aryan languages.[16] Romani — spoken mainly in various parts of Europe — is conservative in maintaining almost intact the Middle Indo-Aryan present-tense person concord markers, and in maintaining consonantal endings for nominal case – both features that have been eroded in most other modern languages of Central India. It shares an innovative pattern of past-tense person concord with the languages of the Northwest, such as Kashmiri and Shina. This is believed to be further proof that Romani originated in the Central region, then migrated to the Northwest. There are no known historical documents about the early phases of the Romani language. Linguistic evaluation carried out in the nineteenth century by Pott (1845) and Miklosich (1882–1888) showed that the Romani language
Romani language
is to be classed as a New Indo-Aryan language (NIA), not Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA), establishing that the ancestors of the Romani could not have left India significantly earlier than AD 1000. The principal argument favouring a migration during or after the transition period to NIA is the loss of the old system of nominal case, and its reduction to just a two-way case system, nominative vs. oblique. A secondary argument concerns the system of gender differentiation. Romani has only two genders (masculine and feminine). Middle Indo-Aryan languages (named MIA) generally had three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter), and some modern Indo-Aryan languages retain this old system even today. It is argued that loss of the neuter gender did not occur until the transition to NIA. Most of the neuter nouns became masculine while a few feminine, like the neuter अग्नि (agni) in the Prakrit became the feminine आग (āg) in Hindi
Hindi
and jag in Romani. The parallels in grammatical gender evolution between Romani and other NIA languages have been cited as evidence that the forerunner of Romani remained on the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
until a later period, perhaps even as late as the tenth century. Classification[edit]

Language region map of India, most commonly spoken first language.[17] Right click to see image summary giving 'List of percentage of people speaking as L1'.

There can be no definitive enumeration of Indic languages because their dialects merge into one another. The major ones are illustrated here; for the details, see the dedicated articles. The classification follows Masica (1991) and Kausen (2006). Dardic[edit] Main article: Dardic languages

Kashmiri - 5.6 million speakers Shina

Shina - 500,000 speakers Brokskat - 10,000 speakers Domaaki - 340 speakers Kundal Shahi - 700 speakers Kalkoti - 6,000 speakers Ushoji - 2,000 speakers Palula - 10,000 speakers Savi - 3,000 speakers

Pashayi - 400,000 speakers Kunar

Dameli - 5,000 speakers Gawar-Bati - 9,500 speakers Nangalami - 5,000 speakers Shumashti - 1,000 speakers

Chitral

Kalasha - 5,000 speakers Khowar - 290,000 speakers

Kohistani

Maiya - 200,000 speakers Bateri - 29,000 Chilisso - 1,000 speakers Gowro - 200 speakers Kalami - 100,000 speakers Tirahi - 100 speakers Torwali - 80,000 speakers Wotapuri-Katarqalai †

Northern Zone[edit] Main article: Northern Indo-Aryan languages

Central Pahari

Garhwali - 2.9 million speakers Kumaoni - 2.4 million speakers

Eastern Pahari

Nepali - 17 million speakers Jumli - 850 Palpa †

Northwestern Zone[edit]

Dogri-Kangri (Western Pahari)

Dogri - 4 million speakers Kangri - 1.1 million speakers Mandeali - 1.7 million Jaunsari - 100,000 speakers Kullu - 110,000 Pahari Kinnauri - 6,300 speakers Mahasu Pahari - 1 million speakers Hinduri - 30,000 speakers Sirmauri - 400,000 speakers

Punjabi

Punjabi - 122 million speakers Doabi Lahnda

Saraiki - 20 million speakers Hindko
Hindko
- 3.7 million speakers Jakati † Pothwari
Pothwari
- 2.5 million speakers

Majhi Malwai

Sindhi

Sindhi - 25 million speakers Jadgali - 25,000 speakers Kutchi - 873,000 speakers Luwati - 5,000 speakers Memoni

Western Zone[edit] Ethnologue
Ethnologue
lists the following languages under the Western Zone that are not already covered in other subgroups:[18]

Rajasthani

Marwari - 22 million speakers Rajasthani proper - 20 million speakers Mewati - 3 million speakers Malvi - 5.6 million speakers Dhundari - 9.6 million speakers Harauti - 4.7 million speakers Mewari - 5.1 million speakers Shekhawati - 3 million speakers Bagri - 2.1 million speakers Dhatki - 150,000 speakers

Gujarati

Gujarati - 49 million speakers Jandavra - 5,000 speakers Sourashtra - 190,000 speakers Aer - 100 speakers Vaghri - 10,000 speakers Vasavi - 1.2 million speakers Koli - 1.4 million speakers

Parkari Koli - 250,000 speakers Kachi Koli - 500,000 speakers Wardiyara Koli - 542,000 speakers

Bhil

Northern Bhil

Bauria - 27,000 speakers Bhilori - 200,000 speakers Magari

Central Bhil

Bhili proper - 3.5 million speakers Bhilali - 1.1 million speakers Chodri - 210,000 speakers Dhodia - 170,000 speakers Dhanki - 140,000 speakers Dubli - 250,000 speakers

Bareli

Palya Bareli - 10,000 speakers Pauri Bareli - 640,000 speakers Rathwi Bareli - 100,000 speakers Pardhi - 49,000 speakers

Kalto - 15,000 speakers

Khandeshi - 1.9 million speakers Domari - 4 million speakers Romani

Northern Romani

Sinte Romani - 200,000 speakers Carpathian Romani
Carpathian Romani
- 160,000 speakers Finnish Kalo - 12,000 speakers Baltic Romani - 35,000 speakers

Balkan Romani
Balkan Romani
- 560,000 speakers Vlax Romani - 540,000 speakers

Central Zone (Madhya or Hindi)[edit]

Indic, Central Zone

Main article: Hindi
Hindi
languages Parya - 4,000 speakers

Western Hindi

Hindustani (including Standard Hindi
Hindi
and Standard Urdu) - 329 million speakers Braj - 21 million speakers Haryanvi - 8 million speakers Bundeli - 3.1 million speakers Kannauji - 9.5 million speakers

Eastern Hindi

Awadhi - 3.5 million speakers

Fiji Hindi
Hindi
- 460,000 speakers

Bagheli - 8.4 million speakers Chhattisgarhi - 24 million speakers

Parya historically belonged to the Central Zone but lost intelligibility with other languages of the group due to geographic distance and numerous grammatical and lexical innovations. Eastern Zone[edit] These languages derive from Magadhan Apabhraṃśa Prakrit. The most widely-spoken languages in this family are Bengali with 250 million speakers, Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
with 40 million speakers, and Odia with 33 million speakers. The Eastern Nagari script
Eastern Nagari script
is the most widely used script, and is used for the Bengali-Assamese languages, and for Maithili and Angika which use the Tirhuta
Tirhuta
and Anga Lipi variations of the script respectively. The Kaithi
Kaithi
script was once a commonly used script used for the Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
language and Magahi language
Magahi language
but has now been replaced by the Devanagari
Devanagari
script. The Odia script
Odia script
is used for the Odia language,[19] Sylheti Nagari
Sylheti Nagari
script (closely related to the Kaithi
Kaithi
script) is used for Sylheti and Hanifi script is used for the Rohingya language
Rohingya language
(along with Perso-Arabic, Latin and Burmese script).

Bihari

Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
- 40 million speakers

Fiji Hindi
Hindi
- 460,000 speakers Caribbean Hindustani - 166,000 speakers

Magahi/मगही - 14 million speakers Maithili/মৈথিলি - 33.9 million speakers Angika/অঙ্গিকা - 743,000 speakers

Tharu - 1.9 million speakers Odia (ଓଡ଼ିଆ) - 33 million speakers Halbic

Halbi - 600,000 speakers Bhatri - 220,000 speakers Kamar - 40,000 speakers Mirgan - 60,000 speakers Nahari - 20,000 speakers

Bengali–Assamese

Bengali/বাংলা - 268 million speakers Assamese/অসমীয়া - 24 million speakers Bishnupriya Manipuri (বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মনিপুরী) - 120,000 speakers Chakma (𑄌𑄋𑄴𑄟𑄳𑄦) - 330,000 speakers Sylheti (ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ/ছিলটি) - 11 million speakers Chittagonian (চাঁটগাঁইয়া) - 16 million speakers Rohingya/Ruáingga - 1.8 million speakers KRNB (কোচ ৰাজবংশী/রংপুরী/কমতা)

Southern Zone languages[edit] This group of languages developed from Maharashtri Prakrit. It is not clear if Dakhini
Dakhini
(Deccani, Southern Urdu) is part of Hindustani along with Standard Urdu, or a separate Persian-influenced development from Marathi. Marathi-Konkani[edit]

Marathi - 73 million speakers Phudagi - 1,000 speakers Kadodi Konkani - 12.6 million speakers Katkari - 12,000 speakers Kukna - 110,000 speakers Varli - 600,000 speakers Maharashtrian Konkani
Maharashtrian Konkani
- 2.4 million speakers

Insular Indic[edit]

Sinhalese - 16 million Maldivian - 340,000 speakers

Mahl - 10,000 speakers

The Insular Indic languages share several characteristics that set them apart significantly from the continental languages. Unclassified[edit] The following languages are related to each other, but otherwise unclassified within Indo-Aryan: Kuswaric[20]

Danwar - 46,000 speakers Bote-Darai - 20,000 speakers

Chinali–Lahul Lohar[21]

Chinali - 750 speakers Lahul Lohar - 750 speakers

The following other poorly attested languages are listed as unclassified within the Indo-Aryan family by Ethnologue
Ethnologue
17:

Kanjari (Punjabi?), Od (Marathi?), Vaagri Booli, Andh, Kumhali (perhaps in Central).

Also Degaru, Mina, Bhalay and Gowlan are all names for the Gowli caste, rather than a language.

Kholosi

The Kholosi language is a more recently discovered Indo-Aryan language spoken in two villages in southern Iran and remains currently unclassified. Phonology[edit] Consonants[edit] Stop positions[22][edit] The normative system of New Indo-Aryan stops consists of five points of articulation: labial, dental, "retroflex", palatal, and velar, which is the same as that of Sanskrit. The "retroflex" position may involve retroflexion, or curling the tongue to make the contact with the underside of the tip, or merely retraction. The point of contact may be alveolar or postalveolar, and the distinctive quality may arise more from the shaping than from the position of the tongue. Palatals stops have affricated release and are traditionally included as involving a distinctive tongue position (blade in contact with hard palate). Widely transcribed as [tʃ], Masica (1991:94) claims [cʃ] to be a more accurate rendering. Moving away from the normative system, some languages and dialects have alveolar affricates [ts] instead of palatal, though some among them retain [tʃ] in certain positions: before front vowels (esp. /i/), before /j/, or when geminated. Alveolar as an additional point of articulation occurs in Marathi and Konkani where dialect mixture and others factors upset the aforementioned complementation to produce minimal environments, in some West Pahari dialects through internal developments (*t̪ɾ, t̪ > /tʃ/), and in Kashmiri. The addition of a retroflex affricate to this in some Dardic languages maxes out the number of stop positions at seven (barring borrowed /q/), while a reduction to the inventory involves *ts > /s/, which has happened in Assamese, Chittagonian, Sinhala (though there have been other sources of a secondary /ts/), and Southern Mewari. Further reductions in the number of stop articulations are in Assamese and Romany, which have lost the characteristic dental/retroflex contrast, and in Chittagonian, which may lose its labial and velar articulations through spirantization in many positions (> [f, x]).

Stop series Language(s)

/p/, /t̪/, /ʈ/, /tʃ/, /k/ Hindi, Punjabi, Dogri, Sindhi, Gujarati, Bihari, Maithili, Sinhala, Odia, Standard Bengali, dialects of Rajasthani (except Lamani, NW. Marwari, S. Mewari)

/p/, /t̪/, /ʈ/, /ts/, /k/ Nepali, dialects of Rajasthani (Lamani and NW. Marwari), Northern Lahnda's Kagani, Kumauni, many West Pahari dialects (not Chamba Mandeali, Jaunsari, or Sirmauri)

/p/, /t̪/, /ʈ/, /ts/, /tʃ/, /k/ Marathi, Konkani, certain W. Pahari dialects (Bhadrawahi, Bhalesi, Padari, Simla, Satlej, maybe Kulu), Kashmiri

/p/, /t̪/, /ʈ/, /ts/, /tʃ/, /tʂ/, /k/ Shina, Bashkarik, Gawarbati, Phalura, Kalasha, Khowar, Shumashti, Kanyawali, Pashai

/p/, /t̪/, /ʈ/, /k/ Rajasthani's S. Mewari

/p/, /t̪/, /t/, /ts/, /tɕ/, /k/ E. and N. dialects of Bengali (Dhaka, Mymensing, Rajshahi)

/p/, /t/, /k/ Assamese

/p/, /t/, /tʃ/, /k/ Romani

/t̪/, /ʈ/, /k/ (with /i/ and /u/) Sylheti

/t̪/, /t/ Chittagonian

Nasals[23][edit] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
was noted as having five nasal-stop articulations corresponding to its oral stops, and among modern languages and dialects Dogri, Kacchi, Kalasha, Rudhari, Shina, Saurasthtri, and Sindhi have been analyzed as having this full complement of phonemic nasals /m/ /n/ /ɳ/ /ɲ/ /ŋ/, with the last two generally as the result of the loss of the stop from a homorganic nasal + stop cluster ([ɲj] > [ɲ] and [ŋɡ] > [ŋ]), though there are other sources as well. Charts[edit] The following are consonant systems of major and representative New Indo-Aryan languages, as presented in Masica (1991:106–107), though here they are in IPA. Parentheses indicate those consonants found only in loanwords: square brackets indicate those with "very low functional load". The arrangement is roughly geographical.

Romani

p t (ts) tʃ k pʲ tʲ kʲ

b d (dz) dʒ ɡ bʲ dʲ ɡʲ

pʰ tʰ

tʃʰ kʰ

m n

(f) s

ʃ x (fʲ) sʲ

v (z)

ʒ ɦ vʲ zʲ

ɾ l

j

Shina

p t̪ ʈ ts tʃ tʂ k

b d̪ ɖ

dʒ ɖʐ ɡ

pʰ t̪ʰ ʈʰ tsʰ tʃʰ tʂʰ kʰ

m n ɳ

ɲ

ŋ

(f) s ʂ

ɕ

z ʐ

ʑ

ɦ

ɾ l ɽ

w

j

Kashmiri

p t̪ ʈ ts tʃ k pʲ t̪ʲ ʈʲ tsʲ kʲ

b d̪ ɖ

dʒ ɡ bʲ d̪ʲ ɖʲ

ɡʲ

pʰ t̪ʰ ʈʰ tsʰ tʃʰ kʰ pʲʰ t̪ʲʰ ʈʲʰ tsʲʰ kʲʰ

m n

ɲ

mʲ nʲ

s

ʃ

z

ɦ

ɦʲ

ɾ l

ɾʲ lʲ

w

j

Saraiki

p t̪ ʈ tʃ k

b d̪ ɖ dʒ ɡ

pʰ t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ kʰ

bʱ d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ

ɓ

ɗ ʄ ɠ

m n ɳ ɲ ŋ

mʱ nʱ ɳʱ

s

(ʃ) (x)

(z)

(ɣ) ɦ

ɾ l ɽ

ɾʱ lʱ ɽʱ

w

j

Punjabi

p t̪ ʈ tʃ k

b d̪ ɖ dʒ ɡ

pʰ t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ kʰ

m n ɳ [ɲ ŋ

(f) s ʃ

(z)

ɦ

ɾ l ɽ ɭ

[w]

[j]

Nepali

p t̪ ʈ ts k

b d̪ ɖ dz ɡ

pʰ t̪ʰ ʈʰ tsʰ kʰ

bʱ d̪ʱ ɖʱ dzʱ ɡʱ

m n

ŋ

mʱ nʱ

s

ʃ ɦ

ɾ l

ɾʱ lʱ

[w]

[j]

Assamese

p t k

b d ɡ

pʰ tʰ kʰ

bʱ dʱ ɡʱ

m n ŋ

s x

z ɦ

ɹ l

[w]

Sylheti

t̪ ʈ (tʃ) k

b d̪ ɖ (dʒ) ɡ

m n

ŋ

f s

(ʃ) x

z

ɦ

ɾ l ɽ

[w]

Sindhi

p t̪ ʈ tʃ k

b d̪ ɖ dʒ ɡ

pʰ t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ kʰ

bʱ d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ

ɓ

ɗ ʄ ɠ

m n ɳ ɲ ŋ

mʱ nʱ ɳʱ

s

(ʃ) (x)

(z)

(ɣ) ɦ

ɾ l ɽ

ɾʱ lʱ ɽʱ

w

j

Marwari

p t̪ ʈ tʃ k

b d̪ ɖ dʒ ɡ

pʰ t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ kʰ

bʱ d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ

ɓ ɗ̪ ɗ

ɠ

m n ɳ

mʱ nʱ

s

ɦ

ɾ l ɽ ɭ

w

j

Hindustani

p t̪ ʈ tʃ k

b d̪ ɖ dʒ ɡ

pʰ t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ kʰ

bʱ d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ

m n

(f) s

(ʃ)

(z)

ɦ

ɾ l ɽ

ɽʱ

([w])

([j])

Assamese

p t k

b d g

pʰ tʰ kʰ

bʱ dʱ ɡʱ

m n ŋ

s x

z ɦ

ɹ l

[w]

Bengali

p t̪ ʈ tʃ k

b d̪ ɖ dʒ ɡ

pʰ t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ kʰ

bʱ d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ

m n

ʃ ɦ

ɾ l ɽ

[w]

[j]

Gujarati

p t̪ ʈ tʃ k

b d̪ ɖ dʒ ɡ

pʰ t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ kʰ

bʱ d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ

m n ɳ

mʱ nʱ ɳʱ

s

ʃ ɦ

ɾ l ɭ

ɾʱ lʱ

w

j

Marathi

p t̪ ʈ ts tʃ k

b d̪ ɖ dz dʒ ɡ

pʰ t̪ʰ ʈʰ

tʃʰ kʰ

bʱ d̪ʱ ɖʱ dzʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ

m n ɳ

mʱ nʱ

s

ʃ ɦ

ɾ l ɭ

ɾʱ lʱ

w

j

Odia

p t̪ ʈ tʃ k

b d̪ ɖ dʒ ɡ

pʰ t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ kʰ

bʱ d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ

m n ɳ

s

ɦ

ɾ l [ɽ] ɭ

[ɽʱ]

[w]

[j]

Sinhala

p t̪ ʈ tʃ k

b d̪ ɖ dʒ ɡ

ᵐb ⁿ̪d̪ ᶯɖ

ᵑɡ

m n

ɲ ŋ

s

ɦ

ɾ l

w

j

Language and dialect[edit] In the context of South Asia, the choice between the appellations "language" and "dialect" is a difficult one, and any distinction made using these terms is obscured by their ambiguity. In one general colloquial sense, a language is a "developed" dialect: one that is standardised, has a written tradition and enjoys social prestige. As there are degrees of development, the boundary between a language and a dialect thus defined is not clear-cut, and there is a large middle ground where assignment is contestable. There is a second meaning of these terms, in which the distinction is drawn on the basis of linguistic similarity. Though seemingly a "proper" linguistics sense of the terms, it is still problematic: methods that have been proposed for quantifying difference (for example, based on mutual intelligibility) have not been seriously applied in practice; and any relationship established in this framework is relative.[24] Language comparison chart[edit]

This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (February 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

English Dhivehi Sanskrit Gujarati Rajasthani Marathi Hindustani Punjabi Sindhi Bengali Sylheti Kashmiri Konkani Bhojpuri Odia Sambalpuri Odia Assamese Maithili Sinhala Nepali Pali Romani Saraiki

beautiful reethi sundara sundar futaro sundara sundar sohnā suhɳā šundor,sudarshon shundor sondar chand, sundar suhnar, khapsoorat sundor sundar dhuniya, xundôr sundar sonduru, sundara, lassana sundar sundaro shukar sohnra

blood ley rakta, loha, lohita, shoNita lohi, khoon, rakt ragat rakta khūn, rakta, lahū lahū, ratt ratu rokto, lohit, lohu roxto, lou ratth rakt, ragat khūn, lahū rakta, Lohu, Rudhira Rakat, Ruder tez shonit le, rudiraya, ruhiru ragat ratta rat laho, rat

bread roshi rotika, polika paũ, roṭlā falko chapāti, poli, bhākarī chapātī, roṭī roṭi pʰulko, maanī (pau-)ro̊ŧi ruti tçhot roti, rot, polo, poli, chapati, pav roṭī pauruṭi Ruti, Paanruti pauruti, ruti roṭi, sohāri paan, roti roṭī, paũroṭi,

manro roti, ma(n)ri, dhodha

bring geney anayati lā-v lajyo ān- lā- lyā ɖe an, an- an- ann haad lāv- Aanantu, Aana, Aane Aanan, Aana, Aan an- ān ghenna lyaunu

anel ghin aa, Lai aa

brother beybe bhrātṛ, bandhu, sahodara bhāi beero, bhayo, veer bhau, bandhu bhāī prā, pāh bʱau bhai, bhaiya bai, baiya boéy bhav, bhau bhāī, bhaīyā bhai, bhaina Bhe, Dada bhai (bhaiti, bhayek), dada, kaka/kokai bhé, bhaīyā sahodarayā, bæyā bhāi (younger) dāi, dāju, dādā, dājai (elder

phral bhrā, vīr, lala

come aadhey āgachchhati āv- av- yē ā- ā, āo, ājā ach aš- a- vall yo, ye āv- āsantu, ās-, ā- āsun, Aa ah- abhin,āu enna, ena āunu āgachcha āvel āo

cry ruin roditi, rauti, krandati raḍ- rodno, roosno raḍ- rō- rō- rōaɳ kãd, kand-, rodan kor-, kann xand-, xañ- wódun rad- ro- kanda, Krandana kaandna kand- kan- aňdanawa, haňdanawa runu rodanam rovel rovanra

dark andhiri andhaḥkāra andhārũ gairo andhāra, kāḷokha andhera hanerā ôndʱah ondhokar, ãdhar andair anyí-got andhakar, andhar, kalok anhār, anhera andhāra, Andhakara andhār andhar, ôndhôkar anhār aňduru, andhakara, kaluwara andhyaro, andhakāra andhakaaro kalo andhara

daughter manje duhitṛ, putrī chhokḍi sagi, sago, chori leka, mulagī, poragī beṭi dʱī dʱī meye, beṭi furi, zi koor dhuv dhiyā, beṭi, chhori, bitiya jhiya jhi, Tukil ziyôri, zi (ziyek) dhiā duva, dū, diyaniya chhori

chhai Dhee

day dhuvas divasa, dina divas dina, din divas, din din din, dihara ɖīhn din, diboš din dóh dis, din, divas din dina, Dibasa Din din din dinaya, dawasa din

dives denh, jehara

do kurun kṛ-, karoti kar- kar- kar- kar- kar- kar- kor- xor- kar kor kar- kara- kar- kôr- kôr karanna garnu

kerel karo

door dhoru dvāra, kapāṭa darvāzo, kerel kivand dār, darvāzā darvāzā, kavad būha, dar, darvāza darvāzo dorja, dur dorza, doroza darwaaz, dār, daer ("window") daar, kavad, bagilu darvājā, kevadi daraja, Dwara, kabata Kapat, Dwar duwar, dôrza kebār dora, dwāraya dhoka

vudar buha, dar

die maru mṛ-, glah- mar- mar- mar- mar-, mar jā- mar-, mar ja- mar- mor-, more ja- mor-, mori za- marun mar mu, mar ja mar- mar- môr-, môri za- môr maranaya, märena marnu

merel marna

egg bis aṇḍa, ḍimba iṇḍũ ando aṇḍa anḍā aṇḍā aṇɖo, bedo đim dim, enda, boida thool ande, motto anḍā anḍā, ḍimba anḍā, ḍim, Gaar kôni anḍā bittharaya, biju aṇḍā

anro anda, aana

salt lonu kṣāra, sala, lavaṇa mithu loon lavana/meeth namak lūn/nūn namak lūn lobon, nun lobon, nun, nimox noon mith, loni noon/namak labana, Luna Noon nimôkh, nun, lôbôn nūn lunu nun khar/lavan lon loon/noon

earth dhuniye, bin pṛthvi, mahi, bhuvana, dharitrī pruthvi dharti, basudhara pruthvi, dharani prithvī, dhartī, zamīn dhartī dhartī prithibi, duniya, dhora duniai, dunya, zomin daertī (voiced-aspirated /dh/ > /d/) dhartari, zamin, bhui, pruthvi jamīn, pirthvi pruthibi, Dhara, Dhartiri, Dharani Pruthi, Dharni prithiwi

pruthuvi, polova, bhoomi, bima prithivi

phuv zameen, dharti

eye loa netra, lochna, akshi, chakshu āñkh aankharli ḍoḷā, netra āñkh akh akh chokh, āñkhi, noyon souk aéchh dolo āñkh ākhi ayenk sôku ainkh äsa, akshi, neth, nuwan ānkhā

yakh akh

father bappa pitṛ, janaka, tāta bāp baap, kaako pitā, vaḍil, bāba bāp piyō, pite, pita piu, baba baba, abba, bap abba, abbu, baba, baf mol, bab bapuy, anna, aan bāp, bābuji, pitāji bāpa, bābā bāpā, Bua dêuta, bap (bapek) bābū piyā, thātthā buwā, bāu, pitā

dad abbā, piyoo

fear biru bhaya, bhīti, traasa bik, ḍar bhau bhītī, bhaya, ghābar- ḍar, ghabrāhat ḍar, bhau ɖapu bhoy, đor dor dar bhay ḍar ḍara, Bhaya ḍar, Bhee bhoy bhay baya, biya, bhīthiya dar

dar, trash darr

finger ingili añguli, añguliyaka āñgḷi aangli bōt anguli, ungli ungal, ungli āngur angul, onguli angul ungij bot, aangal anguri ānguthi āngthi aŋuli āngur äňgili aunlā

angusht ungil

fire alifaan agni, bhujyu agni, jvaḷa baste āaga, agni, jāḷa, vistava āg agg bāh agoon agun agénn, nār ujo (from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
udyota), aag, agni āgh agni, nia Joye, nia zui āig agni, gini, gindara āgo manta yag bhaa

fish mas matsya māchhli maachhali māsā machhlī machhī machhī mach maas gāda nuste, masoli, jalkay machhri māchha māch mass māch masun, mathsya, mālu māchā

machho machhey

food kaana bhojana, khadati, anna, posha(Na), āhāra, etc. anna, khorāk, poshaṇ khaano, lyojibhaya jēvana, bhojan, anna, āhār khānā, bhojan khānā khādho, ann, māni khabar, khani xani khyann jevan, anna, khana khana, bhojan khādya, bhojana, āhāra āhāra, Khed, Bhojan ahar, khaiddyô, khuwa bostu khenāi āhāra, kæma, bojun, bhojana khānā, anna, āhār

xal roti-tukkur, khanra

go dhey gachchhati, yāti jā- jā- jā- jā- jā- vaɲ ja- za- gatçh vach (from Vedic Ach) jā jāntu, Ja- jāun, Ja- zu-, za- jāhin yanna, yana janu, jā

jal vanj

god raskalaange deva, īśvara, parmeśvara, devata, bhagavān, prabhu parmeshvar, dev, bhagvān isar, bavji, dai deva, parmeshwara, ishwara bhagvān, parmeshvar, ishvar, khudā pagvān, rab, ishwar, parmesar bhagvān, parmeshvar, ishvar, khudā, sāin, mālik rob, khoda rob, xuda dai, divta, bagvān, parmeeshar dev, sarvesvar bhagvān, mālik, iswar, daiva, daiya bhagabāna, ṭhākura, diyan Maphru, bhagbān, Devta, dewôta, bhôgôwan bhagvān devi, dēvathāvā bhagawān, deutā, ishwor

devel rab, mālik

good rangalhu shobhna, uttama sārũ chokho chāngle, chhān, uttama achhā changa suʈʰo bhalo bala rut (moral "good"), jān (physical "good") bare, chand, layak badhiya, changa, achha bhāla Bane, bhāl bhal neek, neeman hoňdhai, hoňda raamro, asal

lachho, mishto changa

grass vina tṛṇa, kusha ghāsthāro chaaro gavata ghās ghāh ghãhu ghaš gash, gah dramunn tan (from Prakrit
Prakrit
tiṇa, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
tṛṇa) ghās ghāsa Jhaar, ghāns ghãh ghās, duib thana, thruna ghaas, dubo

char ghā

hand aiyy hasta hāth haat hāt hāth hath hatʰu haat aat atth haat hāth hāta hāt, Bahu hat hāth atha, hasthaya hāt

vast hat

head boa śira, mastaka, kapāla, mūrdhā māthũ sir, maatha ḍoke, munḍake, mastaka, tāḷke sir, shīsh sir, sīs matʰo matha, shir matha kalla maate (from Prakrit
Prakrit
matthao, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Mastaka) sīr, šīs, kapār munḍa Mud mur, matha māth, mūri oluwa, sirasa, hisa tauko, seer

shero ser

heart hiyy hrdaya hruday hivado, kaljo hrudaya, kāḷij dil, hriday, antar dil, riday dil dil, hridoy, ontor dil, ontor ryeda Hadde, Hardey (From Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Hrdaya), Hrdaya dil, hivara, jiyara hrudaya hurud hridoy, hiya

hada, hardaya, hadawatha hridaya, mutu

ilo Dil

horse as ashva, ghotaka, hayi, turanga ghoḍũ ghodo ghoda ghoṛa koṛa ghoɽʱo ghoɍa ghuɍa gur ghodo ghoṛa ghoda ghoda ghůra ghodā ashvaya, thuranga ghodā

khoro, grast ghora

house ge' gṛha, alaya ghar ghar, taaparo ghar kār ghôr ɡʱar, jaɡʱah ghor ghor ghar ghar ghar ghara, Gruha ghar ghôr ghôr, gedhara, gruha gruhaya, geya, gedara, niwasa ghar, griha kher ghar

hunger banduhai bubuksha, kshudhā bhukh bhukh bhūk bhūkh pukh bhūkhayal bhukh, khida bhuk bo'tchh bhuk bhūkh bhoka bhok bhuk bhūkh kusagini, badagini bhok

bokh bhuk

language bas bhāshā, vāNī bhāshā boli, zaban bhāshā bhāshā, zabān, baat boli, zabān, pasha ɓoli, bhasha, zabān bhaša basha, zobān, maat booyl, zabān bhasha, bhas bhākhā, boli, jubaan bhāsā bhāsā bhaxa bhāshā bhashawa, basa bhāshā

chhib boli, zaban

laugh (v.) hunun hāsa, smera has- has- hās- hãs- hassa kʰillu haš, hãš ash- assun has- has- hãs- hās- hãh- hôs hina, sinaha, sina hasnu asal khill

life dhiriulhun jivana, jani jivan, jindagi bhav jīvan, jīv jīvan, zindagī jindrī, jīvan, jind zindagī ɉibon, zindegi zibon, zindegi zoo, zindagayn jivit, jivan jinigi jibana, prāna jiban ziwôn jiban jeevithe, jivana jeewan, jindagi

jivipen zindgey

moon handhu chandramā, soma, māsa chandra, chāndo chaan, chando chandra chandramā, chandā, chānd chann, chānd chanɖ cãd, condro, chand sand tçandram chandra, chandrim channa, channarma, mah chandra, Janha Jan, JanhaMamu zunbai, zun, sôndrô jonhi, chan chandra, saňdu, haňda chandramā, juun

chhon chandr

mother mamma janani, mātṛ mā, bā mai, ma āi, māi mā mā, mata, mai māo, amma ma, amma, ammu ma, amma, ammu maeyj amma, mai matāri, māi, amma mā, bou mā ai, ma mé mawa, amma, matha, mæni āmā, muwā, mumā, mātā

dai amma, maa

mouth anga ās, mukha moḍhũ, mukha moondo tond, mukha mūñh mūñh, mukh mūñh, vāt mukh muk mūñh tond, mukh mūñh mukha, Paati Tund, Paati mukh mūh mukha, kata mukh, thutuno

name nan nāma nām naam nāv nām nā nālo nam naam naav naav nā, nām nāma, nā nā nam nām nama, nāmaya nām

nav nā

night reygandu raatri, rajani, nishā, naktam, etc. rāt, rātri, nishā raati, raat rātra rāt, rātri, nishā rāt rāt rat, ratri, nishi rait, ratri, shob raath raat, ratri rāt rāti, Ratri, Nishi Rayet rati rāit rāthriya, ræ raati, raat, raatri

raat

open hulhuvaa uttana, udhatita khullũ khulyuda ughad, khol khulā khulla, khol khol khulā kulā khol ughad, ukt-, udhaar khullā kholā kholā khula khujal harinna khulla

rat khulla

peace sul'ha shānti shānti, shāntatā shaanti shānti shānti, aman shānti, aman, sakūn shānti, aman, sukoon šanti shanti aman, shaenti shanti, santatay sānti-sakoon, aman sānti sānti xanti shānti sāmaya, shāntiya shaanti

kotor aman, sakoon

place than stapana, sthala, bhu, sthāna jagyā, sthaļ jageh sthān, sthal, jāga sthān, jagah thāñ, asthān jaɠah, thāñ ɉaega, sthan, zomin zega, zaga, zomin jaay jaag, thal jagah jāgā jāgā thai tthām sthanaya, thäna thaaun, jagga, sthal

than jaga

queen ranin rāni, rājpatni rāṇi, madhurāṇi raani rāni, rājmātā rāni, malkā rāni, malka rāɳi rani rani māhraeny (also used for "newly-wed bride") raani rāni, begam rāṇi rāṇi rani rāni räjina, dēvi, bisawa rāni

rani, thagarni ranri, malka

read kiun pathati, vachana vānch- baanch- vāch- paṛh- paṛh- paɽʱ- poṛh- foṛh- parun vajji/vaach paṛh- paḍh- paḍdh- pôrh- pôdh kiyawanna padh-

chaduvu parhnra, parh

rest araamu vishrāma ārām aaraam vishrānti ārām arām ārām aram, bišrom araam araam aaraam rām ārām, bisrām thāk, bisrām aram, zirôni arām vishrāma, viwēka ārām, bishrām

Araam

say buney vadati, braviti, brūté, bōl- bōl- bōl-, mhaṇ-, sāng- bōl, ākh, keh bôl-, keh chao bol-, koh- xo- bōl- mhan, sang, ulay bol-, kah- kũhantu, Kuha, Kah- Kahan, kaha, kah kô bāj pawasanna, kiyanna bhannu, bolnu

phenel bol, aakh

sister dhahtha svasṛ, bhagini bêhn bain, bayee, beeri bhaginī, bahīṇ behn pēn bēɳ bon, apa, didi boin, afa baeynn bhaini bahin, didi, didiya bhauṇi bahen bhônti, bhôni bôhin sahodariya bahini, didi

phen bheinr

small kuda alpa, laghu, kanishtha, kshudra nāhnũ nāhnũ lahān, laghu chhoṭā nikka, chhoṭā nanɖo cho̊ŧo huru lokutt, nyika, pyoonth Saan chhoṭ, nanhi choṭa, sana chot, alap, tike xôru, suti (for short) chhot chuti, podi, kudā saano, chhoto

tikno, xurdo nikka, chauta

son kalo sunu, putra chhokḍo choora, betoo mulgā, porgā bēṭā put, puttar puʈ chele, put, bēṭā fua, fut, bēṭā nyechu, pothur put putt/chhora pua Po, Pila put (putek) pūt puthra, puthā, puthu chhora, putra

chhavo putr

soul furaana ātmā, atasa ātmā aatma ātmā ātmā, rūh ātmā, rūh ātmā, rūh ātmā, rūh ruh āthmā atma, jeev rūh ātmā ātmā atma ātmā ātmā ātmā

di rooh

sun iru sūrya sūraj, sūrya suraj sūrya sūrya, sūraj sūraj siju šurɉo surzo, shurzo siri surya sūraj sūrjya sūrjya beli beri, sūrj ira, hiru, sūrya sūrya, ghām

kham sijh

ten dhihayeh dasha das das dahā das das, daha ɖaha doš dosh duh dha das dasa das dôh dôs dahaya, dasa das

desh dah

three thineh trī, trayah, trīNi (neut. nom. pl.) traṇ tiin tīn tīn tin, traiy ʈeh tin teen t're teen tīn tini tīn tini tīn thuna tin

trin trai

village avah grāma gāñḍu gaaon, dhaani gāv, khēda gāoñ pinḍ, gāñ ɠoʈʰ gram, ga gau gām ganv gāoñ-dehāt, jageer gān, grāma gān gaû gām gama, gramaya gaun gav dehat, jhoauk, vasti

want beynun ichhati, kankshati, amati, apekshati joi- chai- pāhijē, havē chāh- chāh- kʰap, chāh- cha- sa-, lag- yatshun, kan'tchun jaay- chāh- Chanunchi, Loduchi Chounchen bisar-, lag-, khuz- chāhi oone, awashyayi chāhanā, ichhya

kamel, mangel chah

water fen pāniya, jala pāṇi paani pāṇi pāni, jal pāni, jal pāṇi pani, ɉol fani poyn, zal (used for "urine" only) udak, uda, pani, jal pāni pāṇi, jala pāyeṇ pani pain jalaya, wathura, pän pāni, jal

pani panri

when kon iraku kada, ched kyahre kadine kēvhā, kadhee kab kad, kadoñ kaɖahn kokhon, kobe kumbala, khobe karr kedna, kenna kab kebe Ketebele, kebe ketiya kakhan, kahiyé kawadhāda, kedinada kahile

kana kadanr

wind vai pavana, vāyu, vātā havā, pavan havaa vāra havā, pavan havā, paun. vah havā bataš, haoa batash tshath, hava vaar hāvā pabana Dhuka, haba, paban bôtãh basāt hulan, sulan, pavana, nala hāwā, batās

balval hava, phook

wolf hiyalhu vrka, shvaka shiyāl bheriyo kōlha bhēṛhiyā pēṛhiyā ɡidʱar nekre, shiyal hiyal vrukh kolo bhērhiyā gadhiyā Kulia xiyal siyār vurkaya bwānso

ruv baghiyaar

woman anhenaa nāri, vanitā, strī, mahilā, lalanā mahilā, nāri lugai, aurat bāi, mahilā, stree aurat, strī, mahilā, nāri naar, mutiyar māi mohila, nari, stri beti, mohila zanaan baayal, stree mehraru, aurat, janaani stree, nāri Mayeji môhila, maiki manuh maugi, stri kānthāwa, gähäniya, sthriya, mahilāwa, lalanāwa, liya, laňda, vanīthāwa mahilaa, naari, stree

juvli aurat, treimat, zaal, zanaani

year aharu varsh, shārad varash saal, uun varsh sāl, baras, varsh sāl, varah sāl bocchor, shal, boshor, bosor, sāl váreeh varas sāl, baris, barikh barsa baras, Bachar bôsôr barakh varshaya, vasara barsha

bersh saal

yes / no aan, labba, aadhe / noon, nooney hyah, kam / na, ma hā / nā hon/koni hōy, hō, hā / nāhi, nā hāñ / nā, nahīñ hāñ, āho / nā, nahīñ hā/ na hæ, ho, oi / na ii, oe / na aa / ná, ma Vayi/naa hāñ / nā han /Na Hoye/nei hôy / nôhôy hô/nai ow / næ ho / hoina, la / nai

va / na ha / na

yesterday iyye hyah, gatadinam, gatakāle (gai-)kāl(-e) kaal kāl kal kal kalla (goto-)kal(-ke) (goto-)khail, (goto-)khal, khal(-ke), khail(-ku) kāla, rāth kaal kālh (gata-)kāli gala kāli (zuwa-)kali kāilh īyē hijo

ij kal

English Dhivehi Sanskrit Gujarati Rajasthani Marathi Hindi Punjabi Sindhi Bengali Sylheti Kashmiri Konkani Bhojpuri Odia Kosli Assamese Maithili Sinhala Nepali Pali Romani Saraiki (Southern Punjabi)

Interrogative pronouns[edit]

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English Dhivehi Sanskrit Assamese Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindustani Punjabi Sindhi Sylheti Kashmiri Nepali Sinhala

who kaaku

kün, kai ke koṇ, koṇa kōṇa kaun kauna

xe

ko kavuda

what keekey

ki, kih ki śũ kāya kya ki čhā kita

ke

where konthaaku

kót, keni kothay, koi

kuṭhe kahan kithe

xoi, xano kithé kaham koheda

when kon iraku

ketia, kahani kokhon, kobe kyāre kadhī kab kadom

kumbela, kunbala, xobe

kahile, kab kavada

why keevve

kio, kelei keno

kā kyun kiun

xene, kitarlagi

kina æyi

how kihineh

kene, kene (-koi/ke, -kua), kidore kemon, kibhabe

kasē kaise kive

kila, xemne

kasari

English Dhivehi Sanskrit Assamese Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindustani Punjabi Sindhi Sylheti Kashmiri Nepali Sinhala

Personal pronouns[edit]

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English Dhivehi Sanskrit Assamese Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindustani Punjabi Rajasthani Sindhi Sylheti Kashmiri Konkani Kamatapuri Bhojpuri Odia Sambalpuri Odia Maithili Sinhala Nepali Pali Romani Saraiki

i aharun aham moi ami huṁ mī maiṁ

maa mui, ami

aav mui haum mu͂

haum

ma

we aharumen

ami amra ame āmhī ham asīṁ

asā amra

aami hami

aame

hāmī

you (inf) kaley, theena

toi tui tu tū tu

tū tui

tu

taṁ

you (mid frm)

tumi tumi tame tūmhī tum

tū tumi

tume

timī

you (frm)

apüni apni āp āpaṅ āp

tāhā afne

tumi

aapaNa

tapāīṁ

you (inf, pl) kaleymen, thimeehun

tohõt tora

Not used

you (mid frm, pl)

tümalük tomra

tumlog

tumitain, tumra

tumi

tumemaane

timīharū

you (frm, pl)

apünalük apnara

āplog

afnain, afnara

tumi

aapaNamaane

tapāīṁharū

he (mid frm) eyna

xi śe

who

ho he

to

se

ū

she (mid frm) eyna

tai śe

who

huā tai

ti

se

ū

he (frm)

teü, tekhet tini

ve

tain

se

unī

she (frm)

teü, tekhet tini

tain

se

unī

they (mid frm) emeehun

xihõt õra

wohlog

huā tara

taani

semaane

unīharū, tinīharū

they (frm)

teülük, tekhetxokol tara

ve

tara

semaane

unīharū, tinīharū

English Dhivehi Sanskrit Assamese Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindi Punjabi Rajasthani Sindhi Sylheti Kashmiri Konkani Kamatapuri Bhojpuri Odia Sambalpuri Odia Maithili Sinhala Nepali Pali Romani Saraiki (Southern Punjabi)

See also[edit]

Indo-Aryans Iranic languages Indo-Aryan migration Proto-Vedic Continuity The family of Brahmic scripts Linguistic history of the Indian subcontinent Indo-Aryan loanwords in Tamil Languages of Bangladesh Languages of India Languages of Pakistan Languages of Nepal

References[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Indo-Aryan". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Standard Hindi
Hindi
first language: 260.3 million (2001), as second language: 120 million (1999). Urdu
Urdu
L1: 68.9 million (2001-2014), L2: 94 million (1999): Ethnologue
Ethnologue
19. ^ Bengali or Bangla-Bhasa, L1: 242.3 million (2011), L2: 19.2 million (2011), Ethnologue ^ "världens-100-största-språk-2010". Nationalencyclopedin. Govt. of Sweden publication. Retrieved 30 August 2013.  ^ Edwin Francis Bryant; Laurie L. Patton (2005). The Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History. Routledge. pp. 246–247. ISBN 978-0-7007-1463-6.  ^ Kulshreshtha, Manisha; Mathur, Ramkumar (24 March 2012). Dialect Accent Features for Establishing Speaker Identity: A Case Study. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-4614-1137-6.  ^ Robert E. Nunley; Severin M. Roberts; George W. Wubrick; Daniel L. Roy (1999), The Cultural Landscape an Introduction to Human Geography, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-080180-1, ... Hindustani is the basis for both languages ...  ^ " Urdu
Urdu
and its Contribution to Secular Values". South Asian Voice. Archived from the original on 11 November 2007. Retrieved 26 February 2008.  ^ "Hindi/ Urdu
Urdu
Language Instruction". University of California, Davis. Archived from the original on 3 January 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2015.  ^ " Ethnologue
Ethnologue
Report for Hindi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 26 February 2008.  ^ Otto Zwartjes Portuguese Missionary Grammars in Asia, Africa and Brazil, 1550-1800 Publisher John Benjamins Publishing, 2011 ISBN 9027283257, 9789027283252 ^ Paul Thieme, The 'Aryan' Gods of the Mitanni Treaties. JAOS 80, 1960, 301–17 ^ Matras (2012) ^ "History of the Romani language".  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015.  Encyclopedia Iranica ^ "Romani (subgroup)". SIL International. n.d. Retrieved September 15, 2013.  ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.  ^ https://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/indo-aryan ^ Ray, Tapas S. (2007). "Chapter Eleven: "Oriya". In Jain, Danesh; Cardona, George. The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. p. 445. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kuswaric". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chinali–Lahul Lohar". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Masica (1991:94–95) ^ Masica (1991:95–96) ^ Masica 1991, pp. 23–27.

Further reading[edit]

John Beames, A comparative grammar of the modern Aryan languages of India: to wit, Hindi, Panjabi, Sindhi, Gujarati, Marathi, Oriya, and Bangali. Londinii: Trübner, 1872–1879. 3 vols. Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, eds. (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5 . Madhav Deshpande (1979). Sociolinguistic attitudes in India: An historical reconstruction. Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers. ISBN 0-89720-007-1, ISBN 0-89720-008-X (pbk). Chakrabarti, Byomkes (1994). A comparative study of Santali and Bengali. Calcutta: K.P. Bagchi & Co. ISBN 81-7074-128-9 Erdosy, George. (1995). The Indo-Aryans
Indo-Aryans
of ancient South Asia: Language, material culture and ethnicity. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-014447-6. Ernst Kausen, 2006. Die Klassifikation der indogermanischen Sprachen (Microsoft Word, 133 KB) Kobayashi, Masato.; & George Cardona (2004). Historical phonology of old Indo-Aryan consonants. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ISBN 4-87297-894-3. Masica, Colin (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2 . Misra, Satya Swarup. (1980). Fresh light on Indo-European classification and chronology. Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan. Misra, Satya Swarup. (1991–1993). The Old-Indo-Aryan, a historical & comparative grammar (Vols. 1–2). Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan. Sen, Sukumar. (1995). Syntactic studies of Indo-Aryan languages. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Foreign Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. Vacek, Jaroslav. (1976). The sibilants in Old Indo-Aryan: A contribution to the history of a linguistic area. Prague: Charles University.

External links[edit]

The Indo-Aryan languages, 10-25-2009 The Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
Colin P.Masica Survey of the syntax of the modern Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
(Rajesh Bhatt), February 7, 2003.

v t e

Old and Middle Indo-Aryan languages

Old

Mitanni-Aryan Vedic Sanskrit Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit

Middle

Abahattha Apabhraṃśa Dramatic Prakrits

Ardhamagadhi Maharashtri Shauraseni

Elu Gāndhārī Kamarupi Magadhi Paishachi Pāli Prakrit

See also

Proto-Indo-Iranian Indo-Iranian languages Modern Indo-Aryan languages

v t e

Modern Indo-Aryan languages

Dardic

Dameli Domaaki Gawar-Bati Indus Kohistani Kalami Kalash Kashmiri Khowar Kundal Shahi Mankiyali Nangalami Palula Pashayi Sawi Shina Shumashti Torwali Ushoji

Northern

Eastern

Doteli Jumli Nepali Palpa

Central

Garhwali Kumaoni

Western

Dogri Kangri Mandeali

North- western

Punjabi

Punjabi

dialects

Lahnda

Hindko Khetrani Pahari-Pothwari Saraiki

Sindhi

Jadgali Kutchi Luwati Memoni Sindhi

Western

Gujarati

Aer Gujarati Jandavra Koli Lisan ud-Dawat Parkari Koli Saurashtra Vaghri

Bhil

Bhili Gamit Kalto Vasavi

Rajasthani

Bagri Goaria Gujari Jaipuri Malvi Marwari Mewari Dhatki

Others

Domari Khandeshi Romani

list of languages

Central

Western

Braj Bhasha Bundeli Haryanvi Hindustani

Hindi

Bombay Hindi

Urdu

Dakhini Hyderabadi Urdu Rekhta

Khariboli Kannauji Sansi Sadhukadi

Eastern

Awadhi Bagheli Chhattisgarhi Fiji Hindi

Others

Danwar Parya

Eastern

Bihari

Angika Bhojpuri Caribbean Hindustani Vajjika Magahi Maithili Majhi Sadri

Bengali– Assamese

Assamese Bengali

dialects

Bishnupriya Manipuri Chakma Chittagonian Goalpariya Hajong Kamrupi Kharia Thar Kurmukar Rangpuri Rohingya Sylheti Tanchangya

Odia

Odia Kosli Bodo Parja Kupia Reli

Halbic

Halbi Bhatri Kamar Mirgan Nahari

Others

Mal Paharia

Southern

Marathi–Konkani

Konkani Kukna Marathi others..

Insular

Maldivian Sinhalese

Unclassified

Chinali Sheikhgal

Pidgins/ creoles

Andaman Creole Hindi Haflong Hindi Nagamese Nefamese Vedda

See also: Old and Middle Indo-Aryan; Indo-Iranian languages; Nuristani languages; Iranian languages

v t e

Major languages of South Asia

Main articles

Languages of India

list by number of speakers scheduled

Languages of Pakistan Languages of Bangladesh Languages of Bhutan Languages of the Maldives Languages of Nepal Languages of Sri Lanka

Contemporary languages

Austronesian

Sri Lankan Creole Malay

Dravidian

Brahui Jeseri Kannada Malayalam Tamil Telugu Tulu

Indo-Aryan

Angika Assamese Bhojpuri Bengali Chakma Chittagonian Dhivehi Dogri Gujarati Hindi Hindko Kashmiri Konkani Kumaoni Magahi Mahal Maithili Marathi Nepali Odia Punjabi Sanskrit Saraiki Sindhi Sinhala Sylheti Rajasthani language Urdu

Iranian

Balochi Pashto Wakhi

Isolates

Great Andamanese Burushaski Nihali Kusunda

Mon–Khmer

Khasi Nicobarese

Munda

Ho Korku Mundari Santali Sora

Ongan

Önge Jarawa

Tibeto-Burman

Ao Bodo Dzongkha Garo Meithei Mizo Nepal Bhasa Sikkimese Tenyidie Tibetan Tripuri

European influence

English

Indian English Pakistani English Sri Lankan English

French Portuguese

Scripts

Historical

Indus (Undeciphered) Brahmi (Abugida) Kharosthi

Brahmic

Devanagari Bengali Gujarati Gurmukhī Malayalam Kannada Odia Ranjana Sinhala Tamil Telugu

European

Latin alphabet

Arabic

Arwi Nastaʿlīq Shahmukhi Arabi Malayalam

Language activism

Hela Havula Bengali Language Movement Sanskrit
Sanskrit
revival Pure Tamil movement Nepal Bhasa
Nepal Bhasa
movement Punjabi Language Movement Urdu
Urdu
movement

Authority control

GND: 41335

.