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The term Greater India
India
is most commonly used to encompass the historical and geographic extent of all political entities of the Indian subcontinent, and the regions which are culturally linked to India
India
or received significant Indian cultural influence. These countries have to varying degrees been transformed by the acceptance and induction of cultural and institutional elements of India. Since around 500 BCE, Asia's expanding land and maritime trade had resulted in prolonged socio-economic and cultural stimulation and diffusion of Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist
Buddhist
beliefs into the region's cosmology, in particular in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and Sri Lanka.[1] In Central Asia, transmission of ideas were predominantly of a religious nature.[2] By the early centuries of the common era most of the principalities of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
had effectively absorbed defining aspects of Hindu culture, religion and administration. The notion of divine god-kingship was introduced by the concept of Harihara, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and other Indian epigraphic systems were declared official, like those of the south Indian Pallava dynasty
Pallava dynasty
and Chalukya dynasty.[3][4] These Indianized Kingdoms, a term coined by George Cœdès in his work Histoire ancienne des états hindouisés d'Extrême-Orient[5], were characterized by surprising resilience, political integrity and administrative stability.[6] To the north, Indian religious ideas were accepted into the cosmology of Himalayan peoples, most profoundly in Tibet
Tibet
and Bhutan. Buddhist monasticism extended into Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and other parts of Central Asia, and Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
and ideas were readily accepted in China and Japan in the east.[7] To the west, Indian culture
Indian culture
converged with Greater Persia
Greater Persia
via the Hindukush
Hindukush
and the Pamir Mountains.[8]

Contents

1 Other uses

1.1 European designations 1.2 Geology 1.3 Nationalist movement

2 Indianization

2.1 Distinction from Colonialism 2.2 Theories of Indianization 2.3 Literature 2.4 Religion, authority and legitimacy 2.5 Caste System 2.6 Adaption and adoption 2.7 Mainland kingdoms 2.8 Island kingdoms 2.9 Issues with Indianization

2.9.1 Development in Southeast Asia 2.9.2 Development of Caste System

2.10 Fall of Indianization

2.10.1 Khmer Kingdom 2.10.2 Rise of Islam

3 Indian cultural sphere

3.1 Cultural expansion

4 Cultural commonalities

4.1 Religion, mythology and folklore 4.2 Architecture and monuments

5 Linguistic influence

5.1 Linguistic commonalities 5.2 Toponyms

6 Issues with Indianization

6.1 Development in Southeast Asia 6.2 Caste Systems

7 See also 8 Citations 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Other uses[edit]

The 9th-century Shivaistic temple of Prambanan
Prambanan
in Central Java
Central Java
near Yogyakarta, the largest Hindu
Hindu
temple in Indonesia

European designations[edit] Further information: Indies
Indies
and Geography (Ptolemy) The concept of the Three Indias was in common circulation in pre-industrial Europe. Greater India
India
was the southern part of South Asia, Lesser India
India
was the northern part of South Asia, and Middle India
India
was the region near the Middle East.[9] The Portuguese form (Portuguese: India
India
Maior[9][10][11][12]) was used at least since the mid-15th century.[10] The term, which seems to have been used with variable precision,[13] sometimes meant only the Indian subcontinent;[14] Europeans used a variety of terms related to South Asia to designate the South Asian peninsula, including High India, Greater India, Exterior India
India
and India
India
aquosa.[15] However, in some accounts of European nautical voyages, Greater India (or India
India
Major) extended from the Malabar Coast
Malabar Coast
(present-day Kerala) to India
India
extra Gangem[16] (lit. "India, beyond the Ganges," but usually the East Indies, i.e. present-day Malay Archipelago) and India Minor, from Malabar to Sind.[17] Farther India
India
was sometimes used to cover all of modern Southeast Asia.[15] Until the fourteenth century, India
India
could also mean areas along the Red Sea, including Somalia, South Arabia, and Ethiopia (e.g., Diodorus of Sicily of the first century BCE says that "the Nile rises in India" and Marco Polo of the fourteenth century says that "Lesser India
India
... contains ... Abash [Abyssinia]")[18] In late 19th-century geography, Greater India
India
referred to British India, Hindustan
Hindustan
(Northwestern Subcontinent) which included the Punjab, the Himalayas, and extended eastwards to Indochina
Indochina
(including Tibet
Tibet
and Burma), parts of Indonesia
Indonesia
(namely, the Sunda Islands, Borneo
Borneo
and Celebes), and the Philippines."[19] German atlases distinguished Vorder-Indien (Anterior India) as the South Asian peninsula and Hinter-Indien as Southeast Asia.[15] Geology[edit] Greater India, or Greater India
India
Basin signifies "the Indian Plate
Indian Plate
plus a postulated northern extension", the product of the Indian–Asia collision.[20] Although its usage in geology pre-dates Plate tectonic theory,[21] the term has seen increased usage since the 1970s. It is unknown when and where the India–Asia (Indian and Eurasian Plate) convergence occurred, at or before 52 Million years ago. The plates have converged up to 3,600 km (2,200 mi) ± 35 km (22 mi). The upper crustal shortening is documented from geological record of Asia and the Himalaya
Himalaya
as up to approximately 2,350 km (1,460 mi) less.[22] Nationalist movement[edit] Here the use of Greater India
India
refers to a popularization by a network of Bengali scholars in the 1920s who were all members of the Calcutta-based Greater India
India
Society. The movement's early leaders included the historian R. C. Majumdar (1888–1980), the philologists Suniti Kumar Chatterji
Suniti Kumar Chatterji
(1890–1977) and P. C. Bagchi (1898–1956), and the historians Phanindranath Bose and Kalidas Nag (1891–1966).[23] The term Greater India, whether aligned or separate from the notion of ancient Hindu
Hindu
expansion into Southeast Asia, was linked to both Indian nationalism[24] and Hindu
Hindu
nationalism.[25] Indianization[edit] Further information: Hinduism
Hinduism
in Southeast Asia

Ruins of Ayutthaya in Thailand
Thailand
which was named after Ayodhya

The concept of the Indianized kingdoms, a term coined by George Coedès, describes Southeast Asian principalities that flourished since the early common era as a result of centuries of socio-economic interaction having incorporated central aspects of Indian institutions, religion, statecraft, administration, culture, epigraphy, literature and architecture.[26][27] Iron Age trade expansion caused regional geostrategic remodeling. Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
was now situated in the central area of convergence of the Indian and the East Asian maritime trade routes, the basis for economic and cultural growth. The earliest Hindu
Hindu
kingdoms emerged in Sumatra
Sumatra
and Java, followed by mainland polities such as Funan and Champa. Adoption of Indian civilization elements and individual adaptation stimulated the emergence of centralized states and the development of highly organized societies. Ambitious local leaders realized the benefits of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Indian methods of administration, culture, literature, etc. Rule in accord with universal moral principles, represented in the concept of the devaraja, was more appealing than the Chinese concept of intermediaries.[28][29][30] Distinction from Colonialism[edit] Indianization is different from traditional colonialism as it mostly did not involve strangers conquering a unknown land, with exceptions such as the Chola invasions of mediaeval times. Instead, Indian influence from trade routes and language use slowly permeated through Southeast Asia, making the traditions a part of the region. The interactions between India
India
and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
were marked by waves of influence and dominance. At some points the Indian culture
Indian culture
solely found its way into the region, and at other points the influence was used to take over. Indianization was seen as total influence of all aspects of Southeast Asian history. Before the take over of the influence of Indian culture, Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
was seen as a place with no history. The beginning of Indianization marked the start of the cultural commencement in Southeast Asia.[31] Theories of Indianization[edit] Further information: Indianization of Southeast Asia As conclusive evidence is missing numerous Indianization theories of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
have emerged since the early 20th century. The central argument usually revolves around the question, who was the main propagator exporting Indian institutional and cultural ideas to Southeast Asia. One theory of the spread of Indianization that focuses on the caste of Vaishya
Vaishya
traders and their role for spreading Indian culture
Indian culture
and language into Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
through trade. There were many trade incentives that brought Vaishya
Vaishya
traders to Southeast Asia, the most important of which was gold. During the 4th century C.E., when the first evidence of Indian trader in Southeast Asia, the Indian sub-continent was at a deficiency for gold due to extensive control of overland trade routes by the Roman Empire. This made many Vaishya traders look to the seas to acquire new gold, of which Southeast Asia was abundant. However, the conclusion that Indianization was just spread through trade is insufficient, as Indianization permeated through all classes of Southeast Asian society, not just the merchant classes.[32] Another theory states that Indianization spread through the warrior class of Kshatriya. This hypothesis effectively explains state formation in Southeast Asia, as these warriors came with the intention of conquering the local peoples and establishing their own political power in the region. However, this theory hasn’t attracted much interest from historians as there is very little literary evidence to support it.[32] The most widely accepted theory for the spread of Indianization into Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
is through the class of Brahman
Brahman
scholars. These Brahmans brought with them many of the of Hindu
Hindu
religious and philosophical traditions and spread them to the elite classes of Southeast Asian polities. Once these traditions were adopted into the elite classes, it disseminated throughout all the lower classes, thus explaining the Indianization present in all classes of Southeast Asian society. Brahmans were also experts in art and architecture, and political affairs, thus explaining the adoption of many Indian style law codes and architecture into Southeast asian society[32] Literature[edit] Scripts in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
discovered during the early centuries of the Common Era
Common Era
are the earliest known forms of writing to have extended all the way to Southeast Asia. Its gradual impact ultimately resulted in its widespread domain as a means of dialect which evident in regions, from Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to Cambodia, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Thailand
Thailand
and additionally a few of the larger Indonesian islands. In addition, alphabets from languages spoken in Burmese, Thai, Laos
Laos
and Cambodia are a variations formed off of Indian ideals that have localized the language.[33] The utilization of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
has been prevalent in all aspects of life including legal purposes. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
terminology and vernacular appears in ancient courts to establish procedures that have been structured by Indian models such as a system composed of a code of laws.[33] The concept of legislation demonstrated through codes of law and organizations particularly the idea of "God King" was embraced by numerous rulers of Southeast Asia.[34] The rulers amid this time, for example, the Lin-I Dynasty of Vietnam
Vietnam
once embraced the Sanskrit dialect and devoted sanctuaries to the Indian divinity Shiva. Many rulers following even viewed themselves as “reincarnations or descendants” of the Hindu
Hindu
G-d’s. However once Buddhism
Buddhism
began entering the nations, this practiced view was eventually altered.[34] Religion, authority and legitimacy[edit] The pre-Indic political and social systems in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
were marked by a relative indifference towards lineage descent. Hindu
Hindu
God kingship enabled rulers to supersede loyalties, forge cosmopolitan polities and the worship of Shiva
Shiva
and Vishnu
Vishnu
was combined with ancestor worship, so that Khmer, Javanese, and Cham rulers claimed semi-divine status as descendants of a God. Hindu
Hindu
traditions especially the relationship to the sacrality of the land and social structures inherent in Hinduism's transnational features. The epic traditions of the Mahābhārata and the Rāmāyaṇa further legitimized a ruler identified with a God who battled and defeated the wrong doers that threaten the ethical order of the world.[35] Hinduism
Hinduism
does not have a single historical founder, a centralized imperial authority in India
India
proper nor a bureaucratic structure, thus ensuring relative religious independence for the individual ruler. It also allows for multiple forms of divinity, centered upon the Trimurti the triad of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, the deities responsible for the creation, preservation, and destruction of the universe.[36] The effects of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
applied a tremendous impact on the many civilizations inhabiting Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
which significantly provided some structure to the composition of written traditions. An essential factor for the spread and adaptation of these religions originated from trading systems of the third and fourth century[33]. In order to spread the message of these religions Buddhist
Buddhist
monks and Hindu
Hindu
priests joined mercantile classes in the quest to share their religious and cultural values and beliefs. Along the Mekong
Mekong
delta, evidence of Indianized religious models can be observed in communities labeled Funan. There can be found the earliest records engraved on a rock in Vocanh.[37] The engravings consist of Buddhist
Buddhist
archives and a south Indian scripts written in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
that have been dated to belong to the early half of the third century. Indian religion was profoundly absorbed by local cultures that formed their own distinctive variations of these structures in order to reflect their own ideals. Champa, Dvaravati, Funan, Gangga Negara, Kadaram, Kalingga, Kutai, Langkasuka, Pagan, Pan Pan, Po-ni, and Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
had by the 1st to 4th centuries CE adopted Hinduism's cosmology and rituals, the devaraja concept of kingship, and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
as official writing. Despite the fundamental cultural integration, these kingdoms were autonomous in their own right and functioned independently.[38] Caste System[edit] The caste system divides Hindus into a hierarchical groups based on their work (karma) and duty (dharma).The caste system, defined by authoritative book on hindu law wrote that the system is a basis of order and regularity of society. Once born into a group, one can not move into different levels. Lower castes are never able to climb higher within the caste system, limiting the economies progress from growing. The system divides Hindus into four categories - Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and the Shudras. Brahmins consist of those who teach and educate such as priest and teachers. Kshatriyas include those who maintain law and order. Vaishyas consist of businessmen such as farmers and merchants. Shudras contain all skilled and unskilled laborers.[39] The Brahmins from the Indian culture
Indian culture
spread their religion to southeast asia. By traveling to these countries they were able to inform others on their beliefs and spark the beginning of the Hindu and Buddhist
Buddhist
cultures in Southeast Asia. These Brahmins introduced the caste system to all the countries; however, more so in Java, Bali, Madura, and Sumatra. Unlike India
India
the caste system was not as strict[34]. As a result of all these different writings, there are big speculations that the Brahmins has a big role on their religion. There are multiple similarities between the two caste systems such that both state that no one is equal within society and that everyone has their own place. It also promoted the upbringing of highly-organized central states. Although they have some similarities, Southeast Asians did not use the Hindu
Hindu
system enitirely and adjusted what they did use to their local context. The Brahmins were still able to implement their religion, political ideas, literature, mythology, and art[34]. Adaption and adoption[edit] It is unknown how immigration, interaction, and settlement took place, whether by key figures from India
India
or through Southeast Asians visiting India
India
who took elements of Indian culture
Indian culture
back home. It is likely that Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist
Buddhist
traders, priests, and princes traveled to Southeast Asia from India
India
in the first few centuries of the Common Era
Common Era
and eventually settled there. Strong impulse most certainly came from the region’s ruling classes who invited Brahmans to serve at their courts as priests, astrologers and advisers.[40] Divinity and royalty were closely connected in these polities as Hindu
Hindu
rituals validated the powers of the monarch. Brahmans and priests from India
India
proper played a key role in supporting ruling dynasties through exact rituals. Dynastic consolidation was the basis for more centralized kingdoms that emerged in Java, Sumatra, Cambodia, Burma, and along the central and south coasts of Vietnam
Vietnam
from the 4th to 8th centuries.[41] Art, architecture, rituals, and cultural elements such as the Rāmāyaṇa and the Mahābhārata had been adopted and customized increasingly with a regional character. The caste system, although adopted, was never applied universally and reduced to serve for a selected group of nobles only.[42] States such as Srivijaya, Majapahit
Majapahit
and the Khmer empire
Khmer empire
had territorial continuity, resilient population and surplus economies that rivaled those in India
India
itself. Borobudur
Borobudur
in Java
Java
and Angkor
Angkor
in Cambodia
Cambodia
are, apart from their grandeur, examples of a distinctly developed regional culture, style, and expression.[43][44] Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
is called Suvarnabhumi
Suvarnabhumi
or Sovannah Phoum - the golden land and Suvarnadvipa - the golden Islands in Sanskrit.[45] It was frequented by traders from eastern India, particularly Kalinga. Cultural and trading relations between the powerful Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
of South India
India
and the Southeast Asian Hindu
Hindu
kingdoms led the Bay of Bengal
Bengal
to be called "The Chola Lake", and the Chola attacks on Srivijaya
Srivijaya
in the 10th century CE are the sole example of military attacks by Indian rulers against Southeast Asia. The Pala dynasty of Bengal, which controlled the heartland of Buddhist
Buddhist
India, maintained close economic, cultural and religious ties, particularly with Srivijaya.[46] Mainland kingdoms[edit]

Angkor
Angkor
Wat in Cambodia
Cambodia
is the largest Hindu
Hindu
temple in the world

Funan: Funan was a polity that encompassed the southernmost part of the Indochinese peninsula during the 1st to 6th centuries. The name Funan is not found in any texts of local origin from the period, and so is considered an exonym based on the accounts of two Chinese diplomats, Kang Tai and Zhu Ying who sojourned there in the mid-3rd century CE.[47]:24 It is not known what name the people of Funan gave to their polity. Some scholars believe ancient Chinese scholars transcribed the word Funan from a word related to the Khmer word bnaṃ or vnaṃ (modern: phnoṃ, meaning "mountain"); while others thought that Funan may not be a transcription at all, rather it meant what it says in Chinese, meaning something like "Pacified South". Centered at the lower Mekong,[48] Funan is noted as the oldest Hindu culture in this region, which suggests prolonged socio-economic interaction with India
India
and maritime trading partners of the Indosphere.[49] Cultural and religious ideas had reached Funan via the Indian Ocean trade
Indian Ocean trade
route. Trade with India
India
had commenced well before 500 BC as Sanskrit
Sanskrit
hadn't yet replaced Pali.[49] Funan's language has been determined as to have been an early form of Khmer and its written form was Sanskrit.[50] Chenla
Chenla
was the successor polity of Funan that existed from around the late 6th century until the early 9th century in Indochina, preceding the Khmer Empire. Like its predecessor, Chenla
Chenla
occupied a strategic position where the maritime trade routes of the Indosphere and the East Asian cultural sphere
East Asian cultural sphere
converged, resulting in prolonged socio-economic and cultural influence, along with the adoption of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
epigraphic system of the south Indian Pallava dynasty
Pallava dynasty
and Chalukya dynasty.[51][52] Chenla's first ruler Vīravarman adopted the idea of divine kingship and deployed the concept of Harihara, the syncretistic Hindu
Hindu
"god that embodied multiple conceptions of power". His successors continued this tradition, thus obeying the code of conduct Manusmṛti, the Laws of Manu for the Kshatriya
Kshatriya
warrior caste and conveying the idea of political and religious authority.[3] Langkasuka: Langkasuka
Langkasuka
(-langkha Sanskrit
Sanskrit
for "resplendent land" -sukkha of "bliss") was an ancient Hindu
Hindu
kingdom located in the Malay Peninsula. The kingdom, along with the Old Kedah
Kedah
settlement, are probably the earliest territorial footholds founded on the Malay Peninsula. According to tradition, the founding of the kingdom happened in the 2nd century; Malay legends claim that Langkasuka
Langkasuka
was founded at Kedah, and later moved to Pattani.[53] Champa: The kingdom of Champa
Champa
(or Lin-yi in Chinese) controlled what is now south and central Vietnam
Vietnam
since approximately 192 CE. The dominant religion was Hinduism
Hinduism
and the culture was heavily influenced by India. By the late fifteenth century, the Vietnamese — proponents of the Sinosphere
Sinosphere
— had eradicated the last remaining traces of the once powerful maritime kingdom of Champa.[54] The last surviving Chams began their diaspora in 1471, many re-settling in Khmer territory.[55][56] Kambuja: The Khmer Empire
Khmer Empire
was established by the early 9th century in a mythical initiation and consecration ceremony by founder Jayavarman II at Mount Kulen (Mount Mahendra) in 802 CE[57] A succession of powerful sovereigns, continuing the Hindu
Hindu
devaraja tradition, reigned over the classical era of Khmer civilization until the 11th century. Buddhism
Buddhism
was then introduced temporarily into royal religious practice, with discontinuities and decentralisation resulting in subsequent removal.[58] The royal chronology ended in the 14th century. During this period of the Khmer empire, societal functions of administration, agriculture, architecture, hydrology, logistics, urban planning, literature and the arts saw an unprecedented degree of development, refinement and accomplishment from the distinct expression of Hindu
Hindu
cosmology.[59] Mon kingdoms: From the 9th century until the abrupt end of the Hanthawaddy Kingdom
Hanthawaddy Kingdom
in 1539, the Mon kingdoms (Hariphunchai, Pegu, Pagan) were notable for facilitating Indianized cultural exchange in lower Burma, in particular by having strong ties with Sri Lanka.[60] Sukhothai: The first Tai peoples
Tai peoples
to gain independence from the Khmer Empire and start their own kingdom in the 13th century. Sukhothai was a precursor for the Ayutthaya Kingdom
Ayutthaya Kingdom
and the Kingdom of Siam. Though ethnically Thai, the Sukhothai kingdom in many ways was a continuation of the Buddhist
Buddhist
Mon- Dvaravati
Dvaravati
civilizations, as well as the neighboring Khmer Empire.[citation needed][61]

Island kingdoms[edit]

A statue of Hindu
Hindu
goddess Durga
Durga
Mahisasuramardini in Prambanan northern cella, dated to the 9th-century Medang I Bhumi Mataram kingdom in Central Java.

Salakanagara: Salakanagara kingdom is the first historically recorded Indianized kingdom in Western Java, established by an Indian trader after marrying a local Sundanese princess. This Kingdom existed between 130-362 CE.[62] Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
was an early Sundanese Indianized kingdom, located not far from modern Jakarta, and according to Tugu inscription ruler Purnavarman apparently built a canal that changed the course of the Cakung River, and drained a coastal area for agriculture and settlement. In his inscriptions, Purnavarman associated himself with Vishnu, and Brahmins ritually secured the hydraulic project. Kalingga: Kalingga
Kalingga
(Javanese: Karajan Kalingga) was the 6th century Indianized kingdom on the north coast of Central Java, Indonesia. It was the earliest Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
kingdom in Central Java, and together with Kutai
Kutai
and Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
are the oldest kingdoms in Indonesian history. Malayu was a classical Southeast Asian kingdom. The primary sources for much of the information on the kingdom are the New History of the Tang, and the memoirs of the Chinese Buddhist
Buddhist
monk Yijing who visited in 671 CE, and states that it was "absorbed" by Srivijaya
Srivijaya
by 692 CE, but had "broken away" by the end of the eleventh century according to Chao Jukua. The exact location of the kingdom is the subject of studies among historians. Srivijaya: From the 7th to 13th centuries Srivijaya, a maritime empire centered on the island of Sumatra
Sumatra
in Indonesia, had adopted Mahayana and Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
under a line of rulers from Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa to the Sailendras. A stronghold of Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism, Srivijaya
Srivijaya
attracted pilgrims and scholars from other parts of Asia. I Ching reports that the kingdom was home to more than a thousand Buddhist
Buddhist
scholars. A notable Buddhist
Buddhist
scholar of local origin, Dharmakirti, taught Buddhist
Buddhist
philosophy in Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and Nalanda
Nalanda
(in India), and was the teacher of Atisha. Most of the time, this Buddhist Malay empire enjoyed cordial relationship with China and the Pala Empire in Bengal, and the 860 CE Nalanda
Nalanda
inscription records that Maharaja Balaputra dedicated a monastery at Nalanda
Nalanda
university near Pala territory. The Srivijaya
Srivijaya
kingdom ceased to exist in the 13th century due to various factors, including the expansion of the Javanese, Singhasari, and Majapahit
Majapahit
empires.[63] Tambralinga
Tambralinga
was an ancient kingdom located on the Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
that at one time came under the influence of Srivijaya. The name had been forgotten until scholars recognized Tambralinga
Tambralinga
as Nagara Sri Dharmaraja (Nakhon Si Thammarat). Early records are scarce but its duration is estimated to range from the seventh to the fourteenth century. Tambralinga
Tambralinga
first sent tribute to the emperor of the Tang dynasty in 616 CE. In Sanskrit, Tambra means "red" and linga means "symbol", typically representing the divine energy of Shiva. Medang Mataram: The Medang i Bhumi Mataram Kingdom flourished between the 8th and 11th centuries. It was first centered in central Java before moving later to east Java. This kingdom produced numbers of Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
temples in Java, including Borobudur
Borobudur
Buddhist
Buddhist
mandala and the Prambanan
Prambanan
Trimurti
Trimurti
Hindu
Hindu
temple dedicated mainly to Shiva. The Sailendras were the ruling family of this kingdom at an earlier stage in central Java, before being replaced by the Isyana Dynasty. Kadiri: In the 10th century, Mataram challenged the supremacy of Srivijaya, resulting in the destruction of the Mataram capital by Srivijaya
Srivijaya
early in the 11th century. Restored by King Airlangga
Airlangga
(c. 1020–1050), the kingdom split on his death; the new state of Kediri, in eastern Java, became the centre of Javanese culture for the next two centuries, spreading its influence to the eastern parts of Southeast Asia. The spice trade was now becoming increasingly important, as demand from European countries grew. Before they learned to keep sheep and cattle alive in the winter, they had to eat salted meat, made palatable by the addition of spices. One of the main sources was the Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
(or " Spice
Spice
Islands") in Indonesia, and so Kediri became a strong trading nation. Singhasari: In the 13th century, however, the Kediri dynasty was overthrown by a revolution, and Singhasari
Singhasari
arose in east Java. The domains of this new state expanded under the rule of its warrior-king Kertanegara. He was killed by a prince of the previous Kediri dynasty, who then established the last great Hindu-Javanese kingdom, Majapahit. By the middle of the 14th century Majapahit
Majapahit
controlled most of Java, Sumatra
Sumatra
and the Malay peninsula, part of Borneo, the southern Celebes and the Moluccas. It also exerted considerable influence on the mainland. Majapahit: The Majapahit
Majapahit
empire, centered in East Java, succeeded the Singhasari
Singhasari
empire and flourished in the Indonesian archipelago between the 13th and 15th centuries. Noted for their naval expansion, the Javanese spanned west-east from Lamuri in Aceh
Aceh
to Wanin in Papua. Majapahit
Majapahit
was one of the last and greatest Hindu
Hindu
empires in Maritime Southeast Asia. Most of Balinese Hindu
Hindu
culture, traditions and civilisations were derived from Majapahit
Majapahit
legacy. A large number of Majapahit
Majapahit
nobles, priests, and artisans found their home in Bali
Bali
after the decline of Majapahit
Majapahit
to Demak Sultanate. Galuh was an ancient Hindu
Hindu
kingdom in the eastern Tatar Pasundan (now west Java
Java
province and Banyumasan region of central Java
Java
province), Indonesia. It was established following the collapse of the Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
kingdom around the 7th century. Traditionally the kingdom of Galuh was associated with the eastern Priangan cultural region, around the Citanduy
Citanduy
and Cimanuk rivers, with its territory spanning from Citarum river on the west, to the Pamali (present-day Brebes river) and Serayu
Serayu
rivers on the east. Its capital was located in Kawali, near present-day Ciamis city. Sunda: The Kingdom of Sunda was a Hindu
Hindu
kingdom located in western Java
Java
from 669 CE to around 1579 CE, covering the area of present-day Banten, Jakarta, West Java, and the western part of Central Java. According to primary historical records, the Bujangga Manik manuscript, the eastern border of the Sunda Kingdom
Sunda Kingdom
was the Pamali River (Ci Pamali, the present day Brebes River) and the Serayu
Serayu
River (Ci Sarayu) in Central Java.

Issues with Indianization[edit] Development in Southeast Asia[edit] One of the major issues with Indianization is the common debate whether or not indianization is the reason for the development in South East Asia. Many struggle to date and determine when colonization in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
occurred because of the structures and ruins found that were similar to those in India.[64]Several books and anthropologists believe that India
India
is seen as the superior culture that influenced a lot of Southeast Asian countries. However, throughout this time that many began to debate, other anthropologists suggested that Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
had indigenous civilization and the idea of indianization was just seen as a ‘national motivation. These debates continued for some time, until the Pacific War, which led to legitimately ending the debates and reviewing Southeast Asia’s response to Indianzation Development of Caste System[edit] Another main concern for indianization was the understanding and development of caste systems. The debate was often whether or not the caste systems were seen as an elite process or just the process of picking up the Indian culture
Indian culture
and calling it their own in each region. This had showed that the Southeast Asian countries were civilized and able to flourish their own interests. For example, Cambodia’s caste system is based on people in society. However, in India, the caste system was based on which class they belonged to when they were born. Based on the evidence of the caste system in Southeast Asia, shows that they were applying Indian culture
Indian culture
to their own, also known/seen as indianization[65] Similar to the caste systems, the cultures were a huge part of determining the legitimacy of indianization. Many argue that only writing could really date the culture and prove indianization. The lives of rulers, daily lives of people, rituals of funeral, weddings and specific customs were a few that helped anthropologists date the indianization of countries. The religions found in India
India
and Southeast Asian countries was another piece of evidence that led anthropologists to understand where the cultures and customs were adopted from.[34] Fall of Indianization[edit] Khmer Kingdom[edit] Beginning shortly after the 12th century, the Khmer kingdom, one of the first kingdoms that began the dissipation of Indianization started after Jayavarman VII in which expanded a substantial amount of territory, thus going into war with Champs. Leading into the fall of the Khmer Kingdom, the Khmer political and cultural zones were taken, overthrown, and fallen as well[66]. Not only did Indianization change many cultural and political aspects, but it also changed the spiritual realm as well, creating a type of Northern Culture which began in the early 14th century, prevalent for its rapid decline in the Indian kingdoms. The decline of Hinduism
Hinduism
kingdoms and spark of Buddhist kingdoms led to the formation of orthodox Sinhalese Buddhism
Buddhism
and is a key factor leading to the decline of Indianization. Sukhothai and Ceylon
Ceylon
are the prominent characters who formulated the center of Buddhism
Buddhism
and this became more popularized over Hinduism.[34] Rise of Islam[edit] Not only was the spark of Buddhism
Buddhism
the driving force for Indianization coming to an end, but Islamic control took over as well in the midst of the thirteenth century to trump the Hinduist kingdoms. In the process of Islamism coming to the traditional Hinduism
Hinduism
kingdoms, trade was heavily practiced and the now Islamic Indians started becoming merchants all over Southeast Asia.[34] Moreover, as trade became more saturated in the Southeast Asian regions wherein Indianization once persisted, the regions had become more Muslim populated. This so called Islamic control has spanned to many of the trading centers across the regions of Southeast Asia, including one of the most dominant centers, Malacca, and has therefore stressed a widespread rise of Islamization.[34] Indian cultural sphere[edit] Further information: Indosphere

Expansion of Hinduism
Hinduism
in Southeast Asia.

The use of Greater India
India
to refer to an Indian cultural sphere was popularised by a network of Bengali scholars in the 1920s who were all members of the Calcutta-based Greater India
India
Society. The movement's early leaders included the historian R. C. Majumdar (1888–1980); the philologists Suniti Kumar Chatterji
Suniti Kumar Chatterji
(1890–1977) and P. C. Bagchi (1898–1956), and the historians Phanindranath Bose and Kalidas Nag (1891–1966).[23][67] Some of their formulations were inspired by concurrent excavations in Angkor
Angkor
by French archaeologists and by the writings of French Indologist Sylvain Lévi. The scholars of the society postulated a benevolent ancient Indian cultural colonisation of Southeast Asia, in stark contrast — in their view — to the Western colonialism of the early 20th century.[68][69][70]

Candi Bukit Batu Pahat of Bujang Valley. A Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
kingdom ruled ancient Kedah
Kedah
possibly as early as 110 CE, the earliest evidence of strong Indian influence which was once prevalent among the Kedahan Malays.

The term Greater India
India
and the notion of an explicit Hindu
Hindu
expansion of ancient Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
have been linked to both Indian nationalism[71] and Hindu
Hindu
nationalism.[72] However, many Indian nationalists, like Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
and Rabindranath Tagore, although receptive to "an idealisation of India
India
as a benign and uncoercive world civiliser and font of global enlightenment,"[73] stayed away from explicit "Greater India" formulations.[74] In addition, some scholars have seen the Hindu/ Buddhist
Buddhist
acculturation in ancient Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
as "a single cultural process in which Southeast Asia was the matrix and South Asia
South Asia
the mediatrix."[75] In the field of art history, especially in American writings, the term survived due to the influence of art theorist Ananda Coomaraswamy. Coomaraswamy's view of pan-Indian art history was influenced by the "Calcutta cultural nationalists."[76] By some accounts Greater India
India
consists of "lands including Burma, Java, Cambodia, Bali, and the former Champa
Champa
and Funan polities of present-day Vietnam,"[77] in which Indian and Hindu
Hindu
culture left an "imprint in the form of monuments, inscriptions and other traces of the historic "Indianizing" process."[77] By some other accounts, many Pacific societies and "most of the Buddhist
Buddhist
world including Ceylon, Tibet, Central Asia, and even Japan were held to fall within this web of Indianizing culture colonies"[77] This particular usage — implying cultural "sphere of influence" of India
India
— was promoted by the Greater India
India
Society, formed by a group of Bengali men of letters,[78] and is not found before the 1920s. The term Greater India was used in historical writing in India
India
into the 1970s [79] Cultural expansion[edit]

Atashgah of Baku, a fire temple in Azerbaijan used by both Hindus[80][81] and Persian Zoroastrians

Culture spread via the trade routes that linked India
India
with southern Burma, central and southern Siam, the Malay peninsula
Malay peninsula
and Sumatra
Sumatra
to Java, lower Cambodia
Cambodia
and Champa. The Pali
Pali
and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
languages and the Indian script, together with Theravada
Theravada
and Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism, Brahmanism and Hinduism, were transmitted from direct contact as well as through sacred texts and Indian literature. Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
had developed some prosperous and very powerful colonial empires that contributed to Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
artistic creations and architectural developments. Art
Art
and architectural creations that rivaled those built in India, especially in its sheer size, design and aesthetic achievements. The notable examples are Borobudur
Borobudur
in Java
Java
and Angkor monuments in Cambodia. The Srivijaya
Srivijaya
Empire to the south and the Khmer Empire to the north competed for influence in the region. A defining characteristic of the cultural link between Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
was the adoption of ancient Indian Vedic/ Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist
Buddhist
culture and philosophy into Myanmar, Tibet, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaya, Laos
Laos
and Cambodia. Indian scripts are found in Southeast Asian islands ranging from Sumatra, Java, Bali, South Sulawesi
Sulawesi
and part of the Philippines.[82] The Ramayana
Ramayana
and the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
have had a large impact on South Asia
South Asia
and Southeast Asia. One of the most tangible evidence of dharmic Hindu
Hindu
traditions is the widespread use of the Añjali Mudrā
Añjali Mudrā
gesture of greeting and respect. It is seen in the Indian namasté and similar gestures known throughout Southeast Asia; its cognates include the Cambodian sampeah, the Indonesian sembah, the Japanese gassho and Thai wai. Cultural commonalities[edit] Religion, mythology and folklore[edit]

Hinduism
Hinduism
is practised by the majority of Bali's population.[83] The Cham people
Cham people
of Vietnam
Vietnam
still practices Hinduism
Hinduism
as well. Though officially Buddhist, many Thai, Khmer, and Burmese people also worship Hindu
Hindu
gods in a form of syncretism. This echoes the beliefs of the past Hindu
Hindu
civilizations such as the Khmer Empire.[citation needed] Brahmins have had a large role in spreading Hinduism
Hinduism
in Southeast Asia. Even today many monarchies such as the royal court of Thailand still have Hindu
Hindu
rituals performed for the King by Hindu Brahmins.[84][85] Garuda, a Hindu
Hindu
mythological figure, is present in the coats of arms of Indonesia, Thailand
Thailand
and Ulaanbaatar. Muay Thai, a fighting art that is the Thai version of the Hindu Musti-yuddha
Musti-yuddha
style of martial art. Kaharingan, an indigenous religion followed by the Dayak people
Dayak people
of Borneo, is categorised as a form of Hinduism
Hinduism
in Indonesia. Philippine mythology
Philippine mythology
includes the supreme god Bathala
Bathala
and the concept of Diwata
Diwata
and the still-current belief in Karma—all derived from Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
concepts. Malay folklore
Malay folklore
contains a rich number of Indian-influenced mythological characters, such as Bidadari, Jentayu, Garuda
Garuda
and Naga. Wayang
Wayang
shadow puppets and classical dance-dramas of Indonesia, Cambodia, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Thailand
Thailand
took stories from episodes of Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Architecture and monuments[edit]

The same style of Hindu temple architecture
Hindu temple architecture
was used in several ancient temples in South East Asia
East Asia
including Angkor
Angkor
Wat, which was dedicated to Hindu
Hindu
god Vishnu
Vishnu
and is shown on the flag of Cambodia, also Prambanan
Prambanan
in Central Java, the largest Hindu
Hindu
temple in Indonesia, is dedicated to Trimurti — Shiva, Vishnu
Vishnu
and Brahma. Borobudur
Borobudur
in Central Java, Indonesia, is the world's largest Buddhist monument. It took shape of a giant stone mandala crowned with stupas and believed to be the combination of Indian-origin Buddhist
Buddhist
ideas with the previous megalithic tradition of native Austronesian step pyramid. The minarets of 15th- to 16th-century mosques in Indonesia, such as the Great Mosque of Demak and Kudus mosque resemble those of Majapahit Hindu
Hindu
temples. The Batu Caves
Batu Caves
in Malaysia
Malaysia
are one of the most popular Hindu
Hindu
shrines outside India. It is the focal point of the annual Thaipusam
Thaipusam
festival in Malaysia
Malaysia
and attracts over 1.5 million pilgrims, making it one of the largest religious gatherings in history.[86] Erawan Shrine, dedicated to Brahma, is one of the most popular religious shrines in Thailand.[87]

Linguistic influence[edit] See also: Indosphere

A map of East, South and Southeast Asia. Red signifies current and historical (Vietnam) distribution of Chinese characters. Green signifies current and historical (Malaysia, Pakistan, the Maldives parts of Indonesia
Indonesia
and parts of the Philippines) distribution of Indic scripts. Blue signifies current use of non-Sinitic or non-Indic scripts.

Scholars like Sheldon Pollock have used the term Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Cosmopolis to describe the region and argued for millennium-long cultural exchanges without necessarily involving migration of peoples or colonisation. Pollock's 2006 book The Language of the Gods in the World of Men makes a case for studying the region as comparable with Latin Europe and argues that the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language was its unifying element. Scripts in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
discovered during the early centuries of the Common Era
Common Era
are the earliest known forms of writing to have extended all the way to Southeast Asia. Its gradual impact ultimately resulted in its widespread domain as a means of dialect which evident in regions, from Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to Cambodia, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Thailand
Thailand
and additionally a few of the larger Indonesian islands. In addition, alphabets from languages spoken in Burmese, Thai, Laos
Laos
and Cambodia are a variations formed off of Indian ideals that have localized the language [88] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and related languages have also influenced their Tibeto-Burman-speaking neighbors to the north through the spread of Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
in translation.[89] The spread of Buddhism
Buddhism
to Tibet allowed many Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts to survive only in Tibetan translation (in the Tanjur). Buddhism
Buddhism
was similarly introduced to China by Mahayanist missionaries sent by the Indian Emperor Ashoka mostly through translations of Buddhist
Buddhist
Hybrid Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Classical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts, and many terms were transliterated directly and added to the Chinese vocabulary. In Southeast Asia, languages such as Thai and Lao contain many loan words from Sanskrit, as does Khmer to a lesser extent. For example, in Thai, Rāvaṇa, the legendary emperor of Sri Lanka, is called 'Thosakanth' which is derived from his Sanskrit
Sanskrit
name 'Daśakaṇṭha' ("having ten necks"). Many Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanwords are also found in Austronesian languages, such as Javanese particularly the old form from which nearly half the vocabulary is derived from the language.[90] [91] Other Austronesian languages, such as traditional Malay, modern Indonesian, also derive much of their vocabulary from Sanskrit, albeit to a lesser extent, with a large proportion of words being derived from Arabic. Similarly, Philippine languages
Philippine languages
such as Tagalog have many Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanwords. A Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanword encountered in many Southeast Asian languages is the word bhāṣā, or spoken language, which is used to mean language in general, for example bahasa in Malay, Indonesian and Tausug, basa in Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese, phasa in Thai and Lao, bhasa in Burmese, and phiesa in Khmer. The utilization of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
has been prevalent in all aspects of life including legal purposes. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
terminology and vernacular appears in ancient courts to establish procedures that have been structured by Indian models such as a system composed of a code of laws.[92] The concept of legislation demonstrated through codes of law and organizations particularly the idea of "God King" was embraced by numerous rulers of Southeast Asia[93]. The rulers amid this time, for example, the Lin-I Dynasty of Vietnam
Vietnam
once embraced the Sanskrit dialect and devoted sanctuaries to the Indian divinity Shiva. Many rulers following even viewed themselves as “reincarnations or descendants” of the Hindu
Hindu
gods. However once Buddhism
Buddhism
began entering the nations, this practiced view was eventually altered. Linguistic commonalities[edit]

In the Malay Archipelago: Indonesian, Javanese and Malay have absorbed a large amount of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanwords into their respective lexicons (see: Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loan words in Indonesian). Many languages of native lowland Filipinos
Filipinos
such as Tagalog, Ilocano[94] and Visayan[95] contain numerous Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanwords. In Mainland Southeast Asia: Thai, Lao, Burmese, and Khmer language
Khmer language
has absorbed a significant amount of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
as well as Pali. Many Indonesian names have Sanskrit
Sanskrit
origin (e.g. Dewi Sartika, Megawati Sukarnoputri, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, Teuku Wisnu). Southeast Asian languages are traditionally written with Indic alphabets and therefor have extra letters not pronounced in the local language, so that original Sanskrit
Sanskrit
spelling can be preserved. An example is how the name of the King of Thailand, Bhumibol Adulyadej, is spelled in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
as "Bhumibol"ภูมิพล, yet is pronounced in Thai as "Phumipon" พูมิพน using Thai- Sanskrit
Sanskrit
pronunciation rules since the original Sanskrit
Sanskrit
sounds do not exist in Thai. [96]

Toponyms[edit]

Suvarnabhumi
Suvarnabhumi
is a toponym that has been historically associated with Southeast Asia. In Sanskrit, it means "The Land of Gold". Thailand's Suvarnabhumi
Suvarnabhumi
Airport is named after this toponym, signifying its intent to be a major transport hub of Southeast Asia.[citation needed] Several of Indonesian toponyms has Indian parallel or origin, such as Madura
Madura
with Mathura, Serayu
Serayu
and Sarayu
Sarayu
river, Semeru
Semeru
with Sumeru mountain, Kalingga
Kalingga
from Kalinga Kingdom, and Ngayogyakarta from Ayodhya. Siamese ancient city of Ayutthaya also derived from Ramayana's Ayodhya. Names of places could simply renders their Sanskrit
Sanskrit
origin, such as Singapore, from Singapura (Singha-pura the "lion city"), Jakarta
Jakarta
from Jaya and kreta ("complete victory"). Some of the Indonesian regencies such as Indragiri Hulu and Indragiri Hilir derived from Indragiri River, Indragiri itself means "mountain of Indra". Some Thai toponyms also often have Indian parallels or Sanskrit origin, although the spellings are adapted to the Siamese tongue, such as Ratchaburi
Ratchaburi
from Raja-puri ("king's city"), and Nakhon Si Thammarat from Nagara Sri Dharmaraja. The tendency to use Sanskrit
Sanskrit
for modern neologism also continued to modern day. In 1962 Indonesia
Indonesia
changed the colonial name of New Guinean city of Hollandia to Jayapura
Jayapura
("glorious city"), Orange mountain range to Jayawijaya Mountains. Malaysia
Malaysia
named their new government seat as Putrajaya
Putrajaya
("prince of glory") in 1999.

Issues with Indianization[edit] Development in Southeast Asia[edit] One of the major issues with Indianization is the common debate whether or not it is the reason for the development in Southeast Asia. Many struggle to date and determine when colonization in Southeast Asia occurred because of the structures and ruins found that were similar to those in India.[97] Several books and anthropologists believe that India
India
is seen as the superior culture that influenced a lot of Southeast Asian countries. However, throughout this time that many began to debate, other anthropologists suggested that Southeast Asia had indigenous civilization and the idea of Indianization was just seen as a ‘national motivation.’ These debates continued for some time, until the Pacific War (1941-45), which led to legitimately ending the debates and reviewing Southeast Asia’s response to Indianzation. [98] Caste Systems[edit] Another main concern for Indianization was the understanding and development of caste systems. The debate was often whether or not the caste systems were seen as an elite process or just the process of picking up the Indian culture
Indian culture
and calling it their own in each region. This had showed that the Southeast Asian countries were civilized and able to flourish their own interests. For example, Cambodia’s caste system is based on people in society. However, in India, the caste system was based on which class they belonged to when they were born. Based on the evidence of the caste system in Southeast Asia, shows that they were applying Indian culture
Indian culture
to their own, also known/seen as Indianization[99] See also[edit]

SAARC portal

Silk Road transmission of Buddhism Hinduism
Hinduism
in Southeast Asia Indianization of Southeast Asia Indian diaspora Indies Indosphere

Citations[edit]

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Harihara
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Angkor
Borei, Cambodia" (PDF). University of Hawai'i-Manoa. Retrieved 5 July 2015.  ^ Coedes, George (1968). The indianized states of Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 082480368X.  ^ Pierre-Yves Manguin, “From Funan to Sriwijaya: Cultural continuities and discontinuities in the Early Historical maritime states of Southeast Asia”, in 25 tahun kerjasama Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi dan Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient, Jakarta, Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi / EFEO, 2002, p. 59-82. ^ " Buddhism
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Indies
in Mediaeval nomenclature, "Greater India" can usually be recognized as restricted to the " India
India
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Southeast Asia
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India
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Hindu
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Hindu
culture, and the theory of Greater India
India
derived sustenance from Pan-Hinduism. A curious pride was taken in the supposed imperialist past of India, as expressed in sentiments such as these: "The art of Java
Java
and Kambuja was no doubt derived from India
India
and fostered by the Indian rulers of these colonies." (Majumdar, R. C. et al. (1950), An Advanced History of India, London: Macmillan, p. 221) " ^ National Library of Australia. Asia's French Connection : George Coedes and the Coedes Collection Archived 21 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Urban Morphology of Commercial Port Cities and Shophouses in Southeast Asia". Sciencedirect. Retrieved January 14, 2018.  ^ "Societies, Networks, and Transitions, Volume I: To 1500: A Global History". Google Books. Retrieved December 20, 2016.  ^ "The Mon- Dvaravati
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- Many scholars attribute the halt of the development of Angkor
Angkor
to the rise of Theravada..." (PDF). Studies Of Asia. Retrieved 11 June 2015.  ^ "Khmer Empire". The Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 7 July 2015.  ^ Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.  ^ พระราชพงษาวดาร ฉบับพระราชหัดถเลขา ภาค 1 [Royal Chronicle: Royal Autograph Version, Volume 1]. Bangkok: Wachirayan Royal Library. 1912. p. 278.  ^ "Salakanagara, Kerajaan "Tertua" di Nusantara" (in Indonesian). Retrieved 25 January 2015.  ^ "Thailand's World : The Srivijaya
Srivijaya
Kingdom in Thailand". Retrieved 25 August 2015.  ^ Coedes, George (1964). Some Problems in Ancient History of the Hinduized States of South-East Asia. Journal of Southeast Asian History.  ^ O'Reilly, Dougald J. W (2007). "Early Civilizations of Southeast Asia". AltaMira Press.  ^ Lehman, Don (2015). The Rise & Fall of Southeast Asia's Empires (5 ed.). Lulu.  ^ Ram Gopal and K. V. Paliwal, Hindu
Hindu
renaissance, page 83, Hindu Writers Forum, 2005 Quote: "Colonial and Cultural Expansion (of Ancient India)",[citation needed] written by R. C. Majumdar, concluded with: "We may conclude with a broad survey of the Indian colonies in the Far East. For nearly fifteen hundred years, and down to a period when the Hindus had lost their independence in their own home, Hindu kings were ruling over Indo-China and the numerous islands of the Indian Archipelago, from Sumatra
Sumatra
to New Guinea. Indian religion, Indian culture, Indian laws and Indian government moulded the lives of the primitive races all over this wide region, and they imbibed a more elevated moral spirit and a higher intellectual taste through the religion, art, and literature of India. In short, the people were lifted to a higher plane of civilisation." ^ (Bayley 2004, p. 712) ^ Review by 'SKV' of The Hindu
Hindu
Colony of Cambodia
Cambodia
by Phanindranath Bose [Adyar, Madras: Theosophical Publishing House 1927] in The Vedic Magazine and Gurukula Samachar 26: 1927, pp. 620–1. ^ Lyne Bansat-Boudon, Roland Lardinois, and Isabelle Ratié, Sylvain Lévi (1863-1935), page 196, Brepols, 2007, ISBN 9782503524474 Quote: "The ancient Hindus of yore were not simply a spiritual people, always busy with mystical problems and never troubling themselves with the questions of 'this world'... India
India
also has its Napoleons and Charlemagnes, its Bismarcks and Machiavellis. But the real charm of Indian history does not consist in these aspirants after universal power, but in its peaceful and benevolent Imperialism — a unique thing in the history of mankind. The colonisers of India
India
did not go with sword and fire in their hands; they used... the weapons of their superior culture and religion... The Buddhist
Buddhist
age has attracted special attention, and the French savants have taken much pains to investigate the splendid monuments of the Indian cultural empire in the Far East." ^ (Keenleyside 1982, pp. 213–214) Quote: "Starting in the 1920s under the leadership of Kalidas Nag - and continuing even after independence - a number of Indian scholars wrote extensively and rapturously about the ancient Hindu
Hindu
cultural expansion into and colonisation of South and Southeast Asia. They called this vast region "Greater India" – a dubious appellation for a region which to a limited degree, but with little permanence, had been influenced by Indian religion, art, architecture, literature and administrative customs. As a consequence of this renewed and extensive interest in Greater India, many Indians came to believe that the entire South and Southeast Asian region formed the cultural progeny of India; now that the sub-continent was reawakening, they felt, India
India
would once again assert its non-political ascendancy over the area.... While the idea of reviving the ancient Greater India
India
was never officially endorsed by the Indian National Congress, it enjoyed considerable popularity in nationalist Indian circles. Indeed, Congress leaders made occasional references to Greater India
India
while the organisation's abiding interest in the problems of overseas Indians lent indirect support to the Indian hope of restoring the alleged cultural and spiritual unity of South and Southeast Asia." ^ (Thapar 1968, pp. 326–330) Quote: "At another level, it was believed that the dynamics of many Asian cultures, particularly those of Southeast Asia, arose from Hindu
Hindu
culture, and the theory of Greater India
India
derived sustenance from Pan-Hinduism. A curious pride was taken in the supposed imperialist past of India, as expressed in sentiments such as these: "The art of Java
Java
and Kambuja was no doubt derived from India
India
and fostered by the Indian rulers of these colonies." (Majumdar, R. C. et al. (1950), An Advanced History of India, London: Macmillan, p. 221) This form of historical interpretation, which can perhaps best be described as being inspired by Hindu
Hindu
nationalism, remains an influential school of thinking in present historical writings." ^ (Bayley 2004, pp. 735–736) Quote:"The Greater India
India
visions which Calcutta thinkers derived from French and other sources are still known to educated anglophone Indians, especially but not exclusively Bengalis from the generation brought up in the traditions of post-Independence Nehruvian secular nationalism. One key source of this knowledge is a warm tribute paid to Sylvain Lévi and his ideas of an expansive, civilising India
India
by Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
himself, in his celebrated book, The Discovery of India, which was written during one of Nehru’s periods of imprisonment by the British authorities, first published in 1946, and reprinted many times since.... The ideas of both Lévi and the Greater India
India
scholars were known to Nehru through his close intellectual links with Tagore. Thus Lévi’s notion of ancient Indian voyagers leaving their invisible ‘imprints’ throughout east and southeast Asia was for Nehru a recapitulation of Tagore’s vision of nationhood, that is an idealisation of India
India
as a benign and uncoercive world civiliser and font of global enlightenment. This was clearly a perspective which defined the Greater India
India
phenomenon as a process of religious and spiritual tutelage, but it was not a Hindu
Hindu
supremacist idea of India’s mission to the lands of the trans-gangetic Sarvabhumi or Bharat Varsha." ^ (Narasimhaiah 1986) Quote: "To him (Nehru), the so-called practical approach meant, in practice, shameless expediency, and so he would say, "the sooner we are not practical, the better". He rebuked a Member of Indian Parliament who sought to revive the concept of Greater India
India
by saying that ‘the honorable Member lived in the days of Bismarck; Bismarck is dead, and his politics more dead!' He would consistently plead for an idealistic approach and such power as the language wields is the creation of idealism—politics’ arch enemy—which, however, liberates the leader of a national movement from narrow nationalism, thus igniting in the process a dead fact of history, in the sneer, "For him the Bastille has not fallen!" Though Nehru was not to the language born, his utterances show a remarkable capacity for introspection and sense of moral responsibility in commenting on political processes." ^ (Wheatley 1982, pp. 27–28) Quote: "The tide of revisionism that is currently sweeping through Southeast Asian historiography has in effect taken us back almost to the point where we have to consider reevaluating almost every text bearing on the protohistoric period and many from later times. Although this may seem a daunting proposition, it is nonetheless supremely worth attempting, for the process by which the peoples of western Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
came to think of themselves as part of Bharatavarsa (even though they had no conception of "India" as we know it) represents one of the most impressive instances of large-scale acculturation in the history of the world. Sylvain Levi was perhaps overenthusiastic when he claimed that India
India
produced her definitive masterpieces — he was thinking of Angkor
Angkor
and the Borobudur
Borobudur
— through the efforts of foreigners or on foreign soil. Those masterpieces were not strictly Indian achievements: rather were they the outcome of a Eutychian fusion of natures so melded together as to constitute a single cultural process in which Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
was the matrix and South Asia
South Asia
the mediatrix." ^ (Guha-Thakurta 1992, pp. 159–167) ^ a b c (Bayley 2004, p. 713) ^ (Handy 1930, p. 364) Quote: "An equally significant movement is one that brought about among the Indian intelligentsia of Calcutta a few years ago the formation of what is known as the "Greater India Society," whose membership is open "to all serious students of the Indian cultural expansion and to all sympathizers of such studies and activities." Though still in its infancy, this organisation has already a large membership, due perhaps as much as anything else to the enthusiasm of its Secretary and Convener, Dr. Kalidas Nag, whose scholarly affiliations with the Orientalists in the University of Paris and studies in Indochina, Insulindia and beyond, have equipped him in an unusual way for the work he has chosen, namely stimulating interest in and spreading knowledge of Greater Indian culture
Indian culture
of the past, present and future. The Society's President is Professor Jadunath Sarkar, Vice-Chancellor of Calcutta University, and its Council is made up largely of professors on the faculty of the University and members of the staff of the Calcutta Museum, as well as of Indian authors and journalists. Its activities have included illustrated lecture series at the various universities throughout India
India
by Dr. Nag, the assembling of a research library, and the publication of monographs of which four very excellent examples have already been printed: 1)Greater India, by Kalidas Nag, M.A., D.Litt(Paris), 2) India
India
and China, by Prabodh Chandra Bagchi, M.A., D.Litt., 3) Indian Culture in Java
Java
and Sumatra, by Bijan Raj Chatterjee, D.Litt. (Punjab), Ph.D. (London), and 4) India
India
and Central Asia, by Niranjan Prasad Chakravarti, M.A., Ph.D.(Cantab.)." ^ (Majumdar 1960, pp. 222–223) ^ Abraham Valentine Williams Jackson (1911), From Constantinople to the home of Omar Khayyam: travels in Transcaucasia and northern Persia for historic and literary research, The Macmillan company, ... they are now wholly substantiated by the other inscriptions.... They are all Indian, with the exception of one written in Persian... dated in the same year as the Hindu
Hindu
tablet over it... if actual Gabrs (i.e. Zoroastrians, or Parsis) were among the number of worshipers at the shrine, they must have kept in the background, crowded out by Hindus, because the typical features Hanway mentions are distinctly Indian, not Zoroastrian... met two Hindu
Hindu
Fakirs who announced themselves as 'on a pilgrimage to this Baku Jawala Ji'....  ^ Richard Delacy, Parvez Dewan (1998), Hindi & Urdu phrasebook, Lonely Planet, ISBN 0-86442-425-6, ... The Hindu
Hindu
calendar (Vikramaditya) is 57 years ahead of the Christian calendar. Dates in the Hindu
Hindu
calendar are prefixed by the word: samvat संवत ...  ^ Martin Haspelmath, The World Atlas of Language Structures Archived 29 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine., page 569, Oxford University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-19-925591-1 ^ Balinese Religion Archived 10 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ McGovern, Nathan (2010). "Sacred Texts, Ritual Traditions, Arts, Concepts: "Thailand"". In Jacobsen, Knut A. Brill’s Encyclopedia of Hinduism
Hinduism
(Volume 2 ed.). Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. pp. 371–378.  ^ McGovern, Nathan (31 August 2015). "Intersections Between Buddhism and Hinduism
Hinduism
in Thailand". doi:10.1093/obo/9780195393521-0128. Retrieved 25 July 2017.  ^ " Batu Caves
Batu Caves
Inside and Out, Malaysia". lonelyplanet.tv. Archived from the original on 7 December 2008.  ^ Buddhist
Buddhist
Channel Buddhism
Buddhism
News, Headlines Thailand
Thailand
Phra Prom returns to Erawan Shrine
Erawan Shrine
Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Smith, Monica L. (1999). ""INDIANIZATION" FROM THE INDIAN POINT OF VIEW: TRADE AND CULTURAL CONTACTS WITH SOUTHEAST ASIA IN THE EARLY FIRST MILLENNIUM C.E.')" (PDF). Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient,. 42. (11-17).  ^ van Gulik (1956:?) ^ See this page from the Indonesian for a list ^ Zoetmulder (1982:ix) ^ Smith, Monica L. (1999). ""INDIANIZATION" FROM THE INDIAN POINT OF VIEW: TRADE AND CULTURAL CONTACTS WITH SOUTHEAST ASIA IN THE EARLY FIRST MILLENNIUM C.E.')" (PDF). Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient,. 42. (11-17).  ^ Coedes, George (1967). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia (PDF). Australian National University Press. p. 98.  ^ Khatnani, Sunita (11 October 2009). "The Indian in the Filipino". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 24 April 2015.  ^ Kuizon, Jose G. (1962). "The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loan-words in the Cebuano-Bisayan language and the Indian elements to Cebuano-Bisayan culture". University of San Carlos, Cebu.  ^ Sharma, Sudhindra. "King Bhumibol and King Janak". nepalitimes.com. Himalmedia Private Limited. Retrieved 13 July 2011.  ^ Giang, Do Truong. "Historiography of the "Indianization" in Ancient Southeast Asian History".  ^ Lieberman, Victor (2003). Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
in Global context. Cambridge University Press.  ^ Coedes, George (1964). "Some Problems in the Ancient History of the Hinduized States of South East Asia". Journal of Southeast Asia. 

References[edit]

Ali, Jason R.; Aitchison, Jonathan C. (2005), "Greater India", Earth-Science Reviews, 72 (3–4): 169–188, doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2005.07.005 . Azurara, Gomes Eannes de (1446), Chronica do Discobrimento e Conquista de Guiné (eds. Carreira and Pantarem, 1841), Paris . Bayley, Susan (2004), "Imagining 'Greater India': French and Indian Visions of Colonialism in the Indic Mode", Modern Asian Studies, 38 (3): 703–744, doi:10.1017/S0026749X04001246 . Beazley, Raymond (December 1910), "Prince Henry of Portugal and the Progress of Exploration", The Geographical Journal, 36 (6): 703–716, doi:10.2307/1776846, JSTOR 1776846 . Caverhill, John (1767), "Some Attempts to Ascertain the Utmost Extent of the Knowledge of the Ancients in the East Indies", Philosophical Transactions, 57: 155–178, doi:10.1098/rstl.1767.0018  Guha-Thakurta, Tapati (1992), The making of a new ‘Indian’ art. Artists, aesthetics and nationalism in Bengal, c. 1850–1920, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press . Handy, E. S. Craighill (April 1930), "The Renaissance of East Indian Culture: Its Significance for the Pacific and the World", Pacific Affairs, University of British Columbia, 3 (4): 362–369, doi:10.2307/2750560, JSTOR 2750560 . Keenleyside, T. A. (Summer 1982), "Nationalist Indian Attitudes Towards Asia: A Troublesome Legacy for Post-Independence Indian Foreign Policy", Pacific Affairs, University of British Columbia, 55 (2): 210–230, doi:10.2307/2757594, JSTOR 2757594 . Majumdar, R. C., H. C. Raychaudhuri, and Kalikinkar Datta (1960), An Advanced History of India, London: Macmillan and Co., 1122 pages . Narasimhaiah, C. D. (1986), "The cross-cultural dimensions of English in religion, politics and literature", World Englishes, 5 (2–3): 221–230, doi:10.1111/j.1467-971X.1986.tb00728.x . Thapar, Romila (1968), "Interpretations of Ancient Indian History", History and Theory, Wesleyan University, 7 (3): 318–335, doi:10.2307/2504471, JSTOR 2504471 . Wheatley, Paul (November 1982), "Presidential Address: India
India
Beyond the Ganges—Desultory Reflections on the Origins of Civilisation in Southeast Asia", The Journal of Asian Studies, Association for Asian Studies, 42 (1): 13–28, doi:10.2307/2055365, JSTOR 2055365 

Further reading[edit]

Language variation: Papers on variation and change in the Sinosphere and in the Indosphere in honour of James A. Matisoff, David Bradley, Randy J. LaPolla and Boyd Michailovsky eds., pp. 113–144. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. Bijan Raj Chatterjee (1964). Indian Cultural Influence in Cambodia. University of Calcutta.  Ankerl, Guy (2000). Global communication without universal civilisation. INU societal research. Vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilisations : Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU Press. ISBN 2-88155-004-5.  Cœdès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.  Lokesh, Chandra, & International Academy of Indian Culture. (2000). Society and culture of Southeast Asia: Continuities and changes. New Delhi: International Academy of Indian Culture and Aditya Prakashan. R. C. Majumdar, Study of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
in South-East Asia R. C. Majumdar, India
India
and South-East Asia, I.S.P.Q.S. History and Archaeology Series Vol. 6, 1979, ISBN 81-7018-046-5. R. C. Majumdar, Champa, Ancient Indian Colonies in the Far East, Vol.I, Lahore, 1927. ISBN 0-8364-2802-1 R. C. Majumdar, Suvarnadvipa, Ancient Indian Colonies in the Far East, Vol.II, Calcutta, R. C. Majumdar, Kambuja Desa Or An Ancient Hindu
Hindu
Colony In Cambodia, Madras, 1944 Daigorō Chihara (1996). Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
Architecture in Southeast Asia. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-10512-3.  Hoadley, M. C. (1991). Sanskritic continuity in Southeast Asia: The ṣaḍātatāyī and aṣṭacora in Javanese law. Delhi: Aditya Prakashan.

External links[edit]

Rethinking Tibeto-Burman – Lessons from Indosphere THEORIES OF INDIANISATION Exemplified by Selected Case Studies from Indonesia
Indonesia
(Insular Southeast Asia), b

.