18 BC as Michuhol 1995 AD as Incheon Metropolitan City
* 8 DISTRICTS ("GU") * Bupyeong-gu (부평구; 富平區) * Gyeyang-gu (계양구; 桂陽區) * Jung-gu (중구; 中區) * Nam-gu (남구; 南區) * Namdong-gu (남동구; 南洞區) * Seo-gu (서구; 西區) * Yeonsu-gu (연수구; 延壽區) * * 2 COUNTIES ("GUN") * Ganghwa-gun (강화군; 江華郡) * Ongjin-gun (옹진군; 甕津郡)
• TYPE Metropolitan City
• MAYOR Yoo jung-bok
• COUNCIL CHAIRMAN Ryu Su-yong
• TOTAL 1,029.43 km2 (397.47 sq mi)
POPULATION (JANUARY 2017)
• TOTAL 3,002,645
• DENSITY 2,900/km2 (7,600/sq mi)
TIME ZONE Korea Standard Time ( UTC+9 )
TREE Tulip tree
INCHEON ( Hangul : 인천; Hanja : 仁川; Korean pronunciation: ; formerly romanized as INCHON; literally "kind river"), officially the INCHEON METROPOLITAN CITY (인천광역시), is a city located in northwestern South Korea , bordering Seoul and Gyeonggi to the east. Inhabited since the Neolithic , Incheon was home to just 4,700 people when it became an international port in 1883. Today, about 3 million people live in the city, making it Korea’s third most populous city after Seoul and Busan . The city's growth has been assured in modern times with the development of its port due to its natural advantages as a coastal city and its proximity to the South Korean capital. It is part of the Seoul Capital Area , along with Seoul itself and Gyeonggi Province , forming the world's fourth largest metropolitan area by population .
Incheon has since led the economic development of Korea by opening its port to the outside world, ushering in the modernization of Korea as a center of industrialization. In 2003, the city was designated as Korea’s first free economic zone. Since then, large local companies and global enterprises have increasingly invested in the Incheon Free Economic Zone , including Samsung which chose Songdo International City as its new investment destination for its bio industry.
As an international city, Incheon has held numerous large scale international conferences, such as the Incheon Global Fair the city officially separated from the province. In 1989, neighbouring islands and Gyeyang township of Gimpo County were ceded to Incheon and in 1995 Geomdan township of Gimpo Country and two counties of Ganghwa and Onjin were annexed to Incheon Metropolitan City.
Incheon was known as INCHON prior to South Korea's adoption of a new Romanization system in 2000.
During the Korean War , Incheon was occupied by North Korean troops on 4 September 1950. Eleven days later, Incheon was the site of the Battle of Inchon , when United States troops landed to relieve pressure on the Pusan Perimeter and to launch a United Nations offensive northward. The result was a decisive UN victory and it was recaptured on 19 September 1950. The USS _Inchon_ was named after the tide-turning battle that ensued.
Incheon has also hosted a series of major international events. The Global Fair color:#000000;">15.8 (60.4) 18.2 (64.8) 21.9 (71.4) 32.7 (90.9) 31.2 (88.2) 33.8 (92.8) 38.9 (102) 38.9 (102) 33.4 (92.1) 28.6 (83.5) 26.2 (79.2) 17.5 (63.5) 38.9 (102)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 1.7 (35.1) 4.4 (39.9) 9.6 (49.3) 16.1 (61) 21.3 (70.3) 25.4 (77.7) 27.6 (81.7) 29.0 (84.2) 25.5 (77.9) 19.7 (67.5) 11.8 (53.2) 4.7 (40.5) 16.4 (61.5)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −2.1 (28.2) 0.3 (32.5) 5.1 (41.2) 11.3 (52.3) 16.4 (61.5) 20.9 (69.6) 24.0 (75.2) 25.2 (77.4) 21.1 (70) 15.0 (59) 7.6 (45.7) 0.9 (33.6) 12.1 (53.8)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −5.4 (22.3) −3.1 (26.4) 1.7 (35.1) 7.6 (45.7) 12.8 (55) 17.6 (63.7) 21.5 (70.7) 22.4 (72.3) 17.5 (63.5) 11.0 (51.8) 3.9 (39) −2.6 (27.3) 8.7 (47.7)
RECORD LOW °C (°F) −21.0 (−5.8) −18.4 (−1.1) −13.8 (7.2) −3.6 (25.5) 3.4 (38.1) 8.7 (47.7) 12.8 (55) 14.4 (57.9) 5.3 (41.5) −3.2 (26.2) −12.0 (10.4) −18.6 (−1.5) −21.0 (−5.8)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 20.6 (0.811) 20.8 (0.819) 40.5 (1.594) 57.7 (2.272) 100.3 (3.949) 112.0 (4.409) 319.6 (12.583) 285.8 (11.252) 153.5 (6.043) 53.4 (2.102) 51.0 (2.008) 19.3 (0.76) 1,234.4 (48.598)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM) 6.6 5.3 6.7 7.3 8.7 9.7 14.9 12.5 8.2 6.2 8.5 7.3 101.9
AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS 7.6 4.3 2.5 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.5 5.8 21.9
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 61.5 61.8 63.4 64.1 70.3 74.8 82.2 79.1 73.1 67.3 63.9 62.0 68.6
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 178.0 181.5 204.9 219.4 231.4 203.4 156.8 191.0 197.6 211.2 168.6 171.0 2,314.9
PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 58.0 59.5 55.3 55.6 52.7 46.1 35.0 45.4 52.9 60.6 55.2 57.3 52.0
Source: Korea Meteorological Administration (percent sunshine and snowy days)
Incheon forms the heart of Capital Industrial Region. During the industrialization of South Korea, several industrial complexes were built throughout the city, and as a result, the city was largely dependent on manufacturing industry. But with the designation of Incheon Free Economic Zone in 2003, the city is now making an effort to foster new growth industries. Major industrial parks include Bupyeong industrial complex, which hosts GM Incheon plant(formerly a GM Daewoo Incheon plant), Juan industrial complex, and Namdong Industrial complex.
In recent years, bio industry is emerging as a new growth industry of the city. Currently, with the total production capacity of 330kℓ per year, the city ranks 2nd in the world by production capacity along with San Francisco , United States. The capacity is under expansion, and after completion in 2018, the city will rank 1st with the production capacity of 510kℓ. Also, logistics industry is also experiencing a rapid growth, thanks to Incheon Airport , which was ranked fourth in the world by cargo traffic, and the expansion of Incheon Port.
Incheon International Airport is South Korea's primary international airport and a regional air hub. In 2015 it was the world's 22nd busiest airport by passenger traffic, with 49,412,750 passengers.
There were a total of 305,446 flights (300,634 international, 4,812 domestic) to and from Incheon International Airport in 2015, an average of 837 flights (824 international, 13 domestic) daily. 50.9% of the flights were serviced by Korea’s two main carriers, Korean Air and Asiana Airlines , with low-cost and foreign carriers servicing the remaining 49.1%. The airport is experiencing a rapid increase in passengers, and the opening of the 2nd terminal in December 2017 should spur additional traffic.
Also featured in the Korean drama series, "Air City."
Incheon's sea port is the second largest port in Korea after Busan 's sea port.
The International Passenger Terminal located at the port offers ferries to five cities in China : Dalian , Qingdao , Tianjin , Dandong , and Weihai . There are also ferries to Incheon's outlying islands as well as Baengnyeong Island inside of the Northern Limit Line .
Incheon Bus Terminal , located at its eponymous subway stop, offers express bus transportation to all parts of Korea. Many city bus lines offer transportation within city limits as well as to the neighboring cities of Bucheon , Gimpo , Seoul , and Siheung .
Many BRT lines offer transportation between Seoul and Incheon.
Local service to Guro , Seoul , Cheongnyangni , Uijeongbu and Soyosan is offered by Seoul's subway Line 1. The line has 11 stations within Incheon and connects to the Incheon Subway at Bupyeong and Juan stations.
The Airport Express ( AREX ) line runs from Incheon International Airport to Seoul Station via Gimpo International Airport . The Incheon- Gimpo section was opened in March 2007 and was extended to Seoul station in December 2010. Passengers can choose a high-speed service stopping only at Incheon airport and Seoul, which takes 43 minutes but departs only every half-hour; or the all-station service which takes 53 minutes but leaves every six minutes.
KTX service was introduced on the AREX line on 30 June 2014, with stops at Incheon International Airport Station and Geoman Station . There are additional plans to use the newly built Suin Line to bring KTX service to Incheon Station by 2021
Main article: Incheon Subway
The Incheon Subway has two subway lines serving the city. The first line connects to the Seoul Metropolitan Subway system at Bupyeong Station ( Seoul Subway Line 1 ), and AREX line at Gyeyang Station . It connects International Business District Station in Songdo to Gyeyang Station. The line has 28 stations on 29.4 kilometres (18.3 miles) of track. The line also has transfer stations with the Suin Line at Woninjae Station , with the Incheon Subway Line 2 at Incheon City Hall Station , and with Seoul Subway Line 7 at Bupyeong-gu Office Station . Incheon Subway Line 2 opened in July 2016 and runs from Geomdan Oryu Station to Unyeon Station. The automated line is 29.2 kilometres (18.1 miles) long, and has 27 stations, including transfer stations at Geomam Station with the AREX line, Juan Station with Seoul Subway Line 1 and Incheon Subway Line 2 at Incheon City Hall Station .
There are additional plans for a third subway line in Incheon
Korail has also constructed a new commuter rail line named Suin Line . The line opened in 2012 from Oido Station in Siheung to Songdo Station in Incheon. It was then extended in 2016, and now reaches Incheon Station where passengers can transfer to Seoul Subway Line 1 . In 2017, the line will be extended from Oido Station to Suwon Station .
SMRT (one of three operating companies of Seoul Metropolitan Subway) has extended Seoul Metropolitan Subway Line 7 to Bupyeong-gu office by 2011 and provided transfers to the Incheon Subway system. It has 3 stations within Incheon. By 2020, he line will further be extended westwards to Seongnam Station where it will be possible to transfer to Incheon Subway Line 2
FREE ECONOMIC ZONE
The Incheon Free Economic Zone consists of the three regions of Songdo , Cheongna , and the island of Yeongjong , and has a total area of 51,739 acres (20,938 ha). The goal of IFEZ is to transform these three areas into hubs for logistics, international business, leisure, and tourism for the Northeast Asian region. The term 'Free Economic Zone' applies to the development in these three areas with the aim of improving the business environment for foreign-invested enterprises and the living conditions for foreigners. The zone is a specially designated area to create the most favorable business and living environment where foreign nationals can live and invest freely and conveniently. Incheon's Free Economic Zone, the first in Korea, was officially designated by the Korean government in August 2003. IFEZ is planned to be a self-contained living and business district featuring air and sea transportation, a logistics complex, an international business center, financial services, residences, schools and hospitals, and shopping and entertainment centres.
NEW SONGDO CITY
Songdo International City began development in 1994 and is being built on reclaimed land . It is designated to become a center of diverse international businesses, a hub for international trade, an area for knowledge-based technologies, and a place for eco-friendly urban living. Construction is due to be completed in 2020.
* Development size: 13,162 acres (53.26 km2) * Planned population: 252,000 persons * Construction duration: 1994~2020
As of 2012 , Yeongjong International City ’s 34,183 acres (13,833 ha) centering on the Incheon International Airport is being developed as an eco-friendly airport city scheduled to be completed by 2020. Paradise Co, a South Korean casino operator, said in October 2013 that it will build the country’s largest casino on Yeongjong Island.
The Cheongna district, on the mainland adjacent Yeongjong Island, will focus on entertainment and will feature a world class theme park. It will also be a residential area with sports facilities, a floriculture complex, and a business area specially designed for international finance.
* Development Size: 4,394 acres (1,778 ha) * Planned population: 90,000 persons * Duration: 2004~2008
Main article: List of districts and counties of Incheon Administrative divisions
Incheon is divided into 8 districts (_gu_) and 2 counties (_gun_).
* Bupyeong District (부평구; 富平區) * Dong District (동구; 東區) * Gyeyang District (계양구; 桂陽區) * Jung District (중구; 中區) * Nam District (남구; 南區) * Namdong District (남동구; 南洞區) * Seo District (서구; 西區) * Yeonsu District (연수구; 延壽區) * Ganghwa County (강화군; 江華郡)
* Ongjin County (옹진군; 甕津郡)
According to the census of 2005, of the people of Incheon 36.1% follow Christianity (22.4% Protestantism and 13.7% Catholicism ) and 13.8% follow Buddhism . 50.1% of the population is mostly not religious or follow Muism and other indigenous religions.
Incheon is home to the following professional and semi professional sports teams:
ASSOCIATION FOOTBALL: The K League Classic team Incheon United FC . The Incheon team was known to have a popular rivalry against former Bucheon SK (now Jeju United ), due to the teams' close geographical relationship.
The WK League team is named Hyundai Steel Red Angels .
ICE HOCKEY: The Daemyung Killer Whales of the Asia League Ice Hockey play their games at Incheon's Seonhak Ice Rink.
MUNHAK SPORTS COMPLEX: The Munahk Sports Complex houses both a football stadium and a baseball stadium . The football stadium was Incheon's venue for the 2002 Football World Cup , and is also the home venue for Incheon United. The baseball stadium is the home venue for the SK Wyverns.
YEONHUI CRICKET GROUND: Yeonhui Cricket Ground is a newly built cricket stadium in Incheon. The 2014 Asian Games will feature cricket for both the men's and the women's event and this ground will be used for the scheduled cricket matches to be played in the games. It has been reported that the crowd capacity of this ground will be 2,353. This first cricket stadium in South Korea .
INCHEON FOOTBALL STADIUM (SUNGUI ARENA): Incheon Football Stadium is the first football-only stadium in Incheon. It was built in 2012 with a capacity for 20,891 spectators.
POINTS OF INTEREST
* Bupyeong Station is where the Seoul Subway Line 1 and Incheon subway line intersect. There is a large under ground shopping center there mostly selling trendy women's clothing and cell phones. Above ground, there are many restaurants, additional shops, and a Lotte Mart. * Jayu (Freedom) Park is a park near the city's port. The statue of General Douglas MacArthur , as well as a memorial to the centennial anniversary of U.S. and Korea relations is located there. * Chinatown is Korea's only official Chinatown, located across from Incheon Station near Jayu Park. * Incheon Bus Terminal refers to an area surrounding the city's bus terminal. There is also a performance venue and a subway station. Within this area of Guwol-dong is Rodeo Street, a busy central square packed with restaurants and department stores. * Wolmido is the location of Green Beach , one of the landing sites for MacArthur's invasion force. It is now a local tourist attraction with a boardwalk , an amusement park and many raw fish restaurants. Ferries run from Wolmido to Yeongjongdo and Jakyakdo. * Jakyakdo is a tiny island located in the harbor close between Wolmido and Yeongjongdo. There are many walkways and picnic spots, a restaurant, and seasonal rental rooms. * Incheon Landing Operation Memorial Hall is a plaza and small museum dedicated to the Incheon Landing. Weapons and artifacts from the war and operation are displayed. * Incheon Dohobu Cheongsa is the old government complex for Incheon. Located near Munhak Stadium, it has existed since at least the reign of King Sejong, about 1424 A.D. * Ara Canal is a waterway connecting the Han River and the Yellow Sea . Along the canal is a park and a bike path that is increasingly becoming popular with the locals.
Monument to 100 years of friendship between Korea and the USA in Jayu Park *
The statue of MacArthur at Jayu Park *
A walkway in Jayu Park *
Port of Incheon *
The tiny island of Jakyakdo
PEOPLE FROM INCHEON
* Hapkido Grand Master Bong Soohan * Myung Jaenam * Kim Ryeowook , Super Junior * Kim Hyoyeon , Girls\' Generation * Choi Minho , Shinee * Kim Gura * Kim Namil , footballer * Cho Yonghyung , football defender * Yoon Shiyoon , actor * Shin Ji , Koyote * Yoon Chae-kyung , APRIL * Kang Hyejung , actress * Kim Eunjung , footballer * Lee Sunghyun , kickboxer * Bang Yongguk , B.A.P * Goo Hyesun , actress * Hyolyn , Sistar * Roh Jihoon , singer under Cube Entertainment * Ryu Hyunjin , Major League Baseball pitcher for the Los Angeles Dodgers * Park Choa , AOA * Bang Minah , Girl\'s Day * Kang Daesung , BIGBANG * Nam Jihyun * Kyung Soo-jin * Kim Young-kwang * JinJoo Lee , DNCE * Jung Ye-rin, Kim Ye-won, GFriend
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in South Korea
TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES
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Incheon is twinned with:
* Burbank, California , United States (1961) * Philadelphia , Pennsylvania United States (1983) * Anchorage, Alaska , United States (1986) * Kitakyushu , Japan (1988) * Tianjin , China (1993) * Dalian , China (1994) * Hai Phong , Vietnam (1997) * Panama City , Panama (2000) * Tel Aviv , Israel (2000) * Alexandria , Egypt (2000) * Honululu , United States (2003) * Chongqing , China (2007) * Mérida , Mexico (2007) * Manila , Philippines (2008) * Phnom Penh , Cambodia (2009) * Yekaterinburg , Russia (2009) * Banten Province , Indonesia (2009) * Kobe , Japan (2010) * Vladivostok , Russia (2012) * Caloocan , Philippines (2015)
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* List of Korea-related topics * List of cities in South Korea * List of East Asian ports * Battle of Chemulpo Bay * Battle of Incheon * Global Fair -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">
* ^ 연령별 인구현황 . _EGOV.GO.KR_. * ^ Incheon Metropolitan City * ^ Ewing, Stefan (25 January 2006). "By Train from Seoul to Incheon – and Jemulpo, too". Korea Web. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. * ^ Prior to 1973, the township belonged to Bucheon or old Bupyeong. * ^ Bill Sloan, _The Darkest Summer: Pusan and Inchon 1950: The Battles That Saved South Korea—and the Marines—From Extinction_(2009) * ^ " G20 Information Centre". _utoronto.ca_. * ^ Garcia, Cathy Rose A. (30 July 2009). "Spotlight on Women Artists at Incheon Biennale". _Korea Times_. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. * ^ "Arirang News". Arirang.co.kr. 20 March 2007. Retrieved 13 May 2013. * ^ "Overseas Chinese primary and middle, high school, Incheon". International School Information, Government of South Korea. Archived from the original on 30 March 2016. * ^ "Inchon, Korea: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data". _climate-charts.com_. * ^ "AsiaRooms – LateRooms – Last Minute Hotel Deals & Cheap Hotels". _asiarooms.com_. * ^ "평년값자료(1981–2010), 인천(112)" (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 8 December 2016. * ^ "기후자료 극값(최대값) 전체년도 일최고기온 (℃) 최고순위, 인천(112)" (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 8 December 2016. * ^ "기후자료 극값(최대값) 전체년도 일최저기온 (℃) 최고순위, 인천(112)" (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 8 December 2016. * ^ "Climatological Normals of Korea" (PDF). Korea Meteorological Administration. 2011. p. 499 and 649. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016. * ^ 송도국제도시 세계 최대 바이오의약품 생산기지로 뜬다 (IN KOREAN). 12 OCTOBER 2015. ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON 14 OCTOBER 2015. * ^ "Year to date Passenger Traffic: December 2015". Airports Council International (ACI). Archived from the original on 29 January 2017. * ^ AIRPORT STATISTICS: 인천공항 (IN KOREAN). * ^ Bae, Joon-yong (19 April 2016). 인천역에 KTX 들어오나? . _INCHEON DAILY NEWS_ (IN KOREAN). ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON 8 AUGUST 2016. * ^ Kim, Peter (22 October 2013). "New casino complex to be built near Incheon airport". _The Korea Observer_. Archived from the original on 14 November 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ 2005 Census – Religion Results Archived 4 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Yoo, Soh-jung (6 July 2010). " 2014 Asian Games to promote regional harmony". _The Korea Herald_. Archived from the original on 19 April 2014. * ^ Metropolitan City Archived 30 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "International Friendship Agreements". _Official website of the City of Incheon_. Retrieved 31 December 2014. * ^ " Incheon Metropolitan City - Incheon City - Sister Cities". Incheon Metropolitan City. Archived from the original on 25 February 2017. * ^ "Kobe\'s Sister Cities". _ Kobe Trade Information Office_. Archived from the original on 2013-04-21. Retrieved 2013-08-11. * ^ "Sister cities". _ Manila Bulletin_. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
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