Hutterites (German: Hutterer) are an ethnoreligious group that is a
communal branch of
Anabaptists who, like the
Amish and Mennonites,
trace their roots to the Radical
Reformation of the 16th century.
Since the death of their eponym
Jakob Hutter in 1536, the beliefs of
the Hutterites, especially living in a community of goods and absolute
pacifism, have resulted in hundreds of years of diaspora in many
countries. They embarked on a series of migrations through central and
eastern Europe. Nearly extinct by the 18th and 19th centuries, the
Hutterites found a new home in North America. Over 130 years, their
population recovered from 400 to around 45,000. Today, most Hutterites
Western Canada and the upper
Great Plains of the United
2.1 Governance and leadership
2.2 Community ownership
2.3 Daughter colonies
2.4 Agriculture and manufacturing
2.5 Use of technology
2.7 Major branches
2.12 In the courts
5 Depiction in media
6 See also
8 Further reading
8.1 Scholarly works
8.2 Personal accounts
8.3 Photo book
8.4 Further books
9 External links
Spread of the early Anabaptists, 1525–1550
Bill of impeachment
Originating in the Austrian province of Tyrol in the 16th century, the
forerunners of the
Hutterites migrated to
Moravia to escape
persecution. There, under the leadership of Jakob Hutter, they
developed the communal form of living based on the
New Testament books
Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles (Chapters 2 (especially Verse 44), 4, and
5) and 2 Corinthians—which distinguishes them from other Anabaptists
such as the
Amish and Mennonites. Their first community settlements
were known as Haushaben or Bruderhofs.
A basic tenet of Hutterian society has always been absolute pacifism
(nonresistance), forbidding its members from taking part in military
activities, taking orders, wearing a formal uniform (such as a
soldier's or a police officer's) or contributing to war taxes. This
has led to expulsion or persecution in the several lands in which they
have lived. In Moravia, the
Hutterites flourished for over a century,
until renewed persecution caused by the Austrian takeover of the Czech
lands forced them once again to migrate, first to Transylvania, and,
then, in the early 18th century, to Ukraine, in the Russian Empire.
Hutterites converted to Catholicism and retained a separate
ethnic identity in Slovakia as the Habans until the 19th century (by
the end of World War II, the Haban group had become essentially
extinct). At this time the number of
Hutterites had fallen to around
100. In Ukraine, the
Hutterites enjoyed relative prosperity,
although their distinctive form of communal life was influenced by
neighboring Russian Mennonites. In time, though, Russia had installed
a new compulsory military service law, and the pressure was on again.
Hutterite migrations in
Europe 1526–1874 before their move to North
After sending scouts to
North America in 1873 along with a Mennonite
delegation, three groups totaling 1,265 individuals migrated to North
America between 1874 and 1879 in response to the new Russian military
service law. Of these, 400 identified as Eigentümler (literally,
'owner') and shared a community of goods. Most
descended from these 400. Named for the leader of each group (the
Schmiedeleut, Dariusleut, and Lehrerleut, leut being based on the
German word for people), they settled initially in the Dakota
Dariusleut colonies were established in central
Montana. Here, each group reestablished the traditional Hutterite
Several state laws were enacted seeking to deny
legal status to their communal farms (colonies). Some colonies were
disbanded before these decisions were overturned in the Supreme
Court. By this time, many
Hutterites had already established new
Alberta and Saskatchewan.
Michael Hofer – Martyr
Joseph Hofer – Martyr
During World War I, the pacifist
Hutterites suffered persecution in
the United States. In the most severe case, four
subjected to military draft who refused to comply were imprisoned and
physically abused. Ultimately, two of the four men, the brothers
Joseph and Michael Hofer, died at Leavenworth Military Prison from
mistreatment, after the Armistice had been signed ending the war.
Hutterite community responded by abandoning Dakota and moving 17
of the 18 existing American colonies to the Canadian provinces of
Manitoba and Saskatchewan. With the passage of laws
protecting conscientious objectors, however, some of the Schmiedeleut
ultimately returned to the Dakotas beginning in the 1930s, where they
built and inhabited new colonies. Some of the abandoned structures
from the first wave still stand in South Dakota.
In 1942, alarmed at the influx of Dakota
Hutterites buying copious
tracts of land, the province of
Alberta passed the Communal Properties
Act, severely restricting the expansion of the
Lehrerleut colonies. The act was repealed in 1973, allowing Hutterites
to purchase land. This act resulted in the establishment of a number
of new colonies in
British Columbia and
Saskatchewan and at the same
time there was expansion into
Montana and eastern Washington in the
1940s and 1950s. Today, approximately three of every four Hutterite
colonies are in Canada (mostly in Alberta,
Manitoba and Saskatchewan),
with almost all of the remainder in the United States (primarily South
Dakota and Montana). The total
Hutterite population in both countries
is generally estimated between forty and fifty thousand.
For a few years in the early 1950s, and in 1974–1990, the Arnoldleut
Bruderhof Communities) were recognized as Hutterites. Although
Hutterites live in the Midwestern United States and in Western
Hutterite colonies have been established in Australia, Nigeria
Bon Homme Limestone House
Hutterite communes, called "colonies", are all rural; many depend
largely on farming or ranching, depending on their locale for their
income. More and more colonies are getting into manufacturing as it
gets harder to make a living on farming alone. The colony is virtually
self-sufficient as far as contracting outside labor, constructing its
own buildings, doing its own maintenance and repair on equipment,
making its own clothes, etc. This has changed in recent years and
colonies have started to depend a little more on outside sources for
food, clothing, and other goods. It is interesting to note that
Hutterite children are more likely to develop asthma compared to Amish
Governance and leadership
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Hutterite colonies are male-managed with women participating in roles
such as cooking, medical decisions, and selection and purchase of
fabric for clothing. Each colony has three high-level leaders. The two
top-level leaders are the Minister and the Secretary. A third leader
is the Assistant Minister. The Minister also holds the position as
President in matters related to the incorporation of the legal
business entity associated with each colony. The Secretary is widely
referred to as the colony "Manager", "Boss" or "Business Boss" and is
responsible for the business operations of the colony, such as
book-keeping, cheque-writing and budget organization. The Assistant
Minister helps in church leadership (preaching) responsibilities, but
will often also be the "German Teacher" for the school-aged
The Secretary's wife sometimes holds the title of Schneider (from
German "tailor") and thus she is in charge of clothes making and
purchasing the colony's fabric requirements for making of all
clothing. The term "boss" is used widely in colony language. Aside
from the Secretary who functions as the business boss, there are a
number of other significant "boss" positions in most colonies. The
most significant in the average colony is the "Farm Boss". This person
is responsible for all aspects of overseeing grain farming operations.
This includes crop management, agronomy, crop insurance planning and
assigning staff to various farming operations.
Beyond these top-level leadership positions there will also be the
"Hog Boss", "Dairy Boss" and so on, depending on what agricultural
operations exist at the specific colony. In each case, these
individuals are fully responsible for their area of responsibility and
will have other colony residents working in their area.
The Minister, Secretary and all "boss" positions are elected positions
and many decisions are taken to a vote before they are implemented.
The voting and decision-making process at most colonies is based upon
a two-tiered structure including a council—usually seven senior
males—and the voting membership which includes all the married men
of the colony. For "significant" decisions the council will first vote
and, if passed, the decision will be carried to the voting membership.
This structure has resulted in a democratic culture in most colonies.
Officials not following the democratically selected decisions can be
removed by a similar vote of a colony.
There is a wide range of leadership cultures and styles between the
three main colony varieties. In some cases very dominant ministers or
secretaries may hold greater sway over some colonies than others.
However, the general prevailing culture in most colonies is strongly
Women and children hold no formal vote in decision-making power in a
colony. They often hold influence on decision-making through the
informal processes of a colony's social framework.
Overarching all internal governance processes within a single colony
is the broader "Bishop" structure of leaders from across a "branch"
(Lehrer-, Darius- or Schmiedeleut) such that all colonies within each
branch are subject to the broader decision-making of that branch's
"Bishop" council. A minister of a colony who does not ensure his
colony follows broader "Bishop" council decisions can be removed from
Hutterites practice a near-total community of goods: all property is
owned by the colony, and provisions for individual members and their
families come from the common resources. This practice is based
Hutterite interpretation of passages in chapters 2, 4, and
5 of Acts, which speak of the believers "having all things in common".
Thus the colony owns and operates its buildings and equipment like a
corporation. Housing units are built and assigned to individual
families but belong to the colony and there is very little personal
property. Lunch and dinner meals are taken by the entire colony in a
dining or fellowship room. Men and women sit in a segregated fashion.
Special occasions sometimes allow entire families to enjoy meals
together. Individual housing units do have kitchens which are used for
Each colony may consist of about 10 to 20 families (may not always
apply), with a population of around 60 to 250. When the colony's
population grows near the upper limit and its leadership determines
that branching off is economically and spiritually necessary, they
locate, purchase land for, and build a "daughter" colony.
The process by which a colony splits to create a new daughter colony
varies across the branches of colonies. In Lehrerleut, this process is
quite structured, while in Darius and
Schmiedeleut the process can be
somewhat less structured. In a
Lehrerleut colony, the land will be
purchased and buildings actually constructed before anyone in the
colony knows who will be relocating to the daughter colony location.
The final decision as to who leaves and who stays will not be made
until everything is ready at the new location. During the construction
process, the colony leadership splits the colony up as evenly as
possible, creating two separate groups of families. The two groups are
made as close as possible to equal in size, taking into account the
practical limits of family unit sizes in each group. Additionally, the
leadership must split the business operations as evenly as possible.
This means deciding which colony might take on, for example, either
hog farming or dairy. Colony members are given a chance to voice
concerns about which group a family is assigned to, but at some point,
a final decision is made. This process can be very difficult and
stressful for a colony, as many political and family dynamics become
topics of discussion, and not everyone will be happy about the process
or its results.
Once all decisions have been made, the two groups might be identified
as "Group A" and "Group B". The last evening before a new group of
people is to leave the "mother" colony for the "daughter" colony, two
pieces of paper, labeled "Group A" and "Group B", are placed into a
hat. The minister will pray, asking for God's choice of the paper
drawn from the hat, and will draw one piece of paper. The name drawn
will indicate which group is leaving for the daughter colony. Within
hours, the daughter colony begins the process of settling a brand new
This very structured procedure differs dramatically from the one that
might be used at some Darius and
Schmiedeleut colonies, where the
split can sometimes be staggered over time, with only small groups of
people moving to the new location at a time.
Agriculture and manufacturing
Hutterite colony in Martinsdale,
Montana with an array of
reconditioned Nordtank wind turbines
Hutterite colonies often own large tracts of land and, since they
function as a collective unit, can make or afford higher quality
equipment than if they were working alone. Some also
run industrial hog, dairy, turkey, chicken, and egg production
operations. An increasing number of
Hutterite colonies are again
venturing into the manufacturing sector, a change that is reminiscent
of an early period of
Hutterite life in Europe. Before the Hutterites
emigrated to North America, they relied on manufacturing to sustain
their communities. It was only in Russia that the
to farm from the Mennonites. Because of the increasing automation of
farming (large equipment, GPS-controlled seeding, spraying, etc.),
farming operations have become much more efficient. Many colonies that
have gone into manufacturing believe they need to provide their
members with a higher level of education.
A major driving force for
Hutterite leadership today is the
recognition that land prices have risen dramatically in
Saskatchewan because of the oil and gas industry, thus creating the
need for a greater amount of cash to buy land when it comes time for a
colony to split. The splitting process requires the purchase of land
and the construction of buildings. This can require funds in the range
of $20 million CDN in 2008 terms, upwards of $10M for land and another
$10M for buildings and construction. This massive cash requirement has
forced leadership to re-evaluate how a colony can produce the
necessary funds. New projects have included plastics manufacturing,
metal fabrication, cabinetry, and stone or granite forming, to name a
few. One unique project came together in South Dakota. A group of 44
colonies joined to create a turkey processing center where their
poultry can be processed. The plant hired non-
Hutterite staff to
process the poultry for market. This plant helped to secure demand for
the colonies' poultry.
Use of technology
Hutterites do not shun modern technology, but may limit some uses of
it. They attempt to remove themselves from the outside world
(televisions – and in some cases the internet – are banned), and
up until recently, many of the
colonies still only had one central phone. The
Schmiedeleut had made
this transition earlier, where each household had a telephone along
with a central phone for the colony business operation. Phones are
used for both business and social purposes. Cell phones are also very
common among all three groups today. Text messaging has made cell
phones particularly useful for Hutterian young people wishing to keep
in touch with their peers. Most
Hutterite homes have computers and
radios; a minority of communities (mostly, liberal Schmiedeleut
colonies) have Internet access. Farming equipment technology generally
matches or exceeds that of non-
have recently struggled with the proliferation of computers and have
clamped down so that computers are no longer allowed in households and
their use is limited to only business and farming operations including
animal, feed and crop management. But as the world evolves more and
technology is used more and more for work and communication, many
Hutterite young people use computers, photos, and the internet for
keeping in contact with their friends, relatives and meeting new
people outside the colony.
Hutterites at school in Crystal Springs Colony, Manitoba,
Rather than send their children to an outside school,
a schoolhouse at the colony to fulfill the educational agreement with
the province or state. The school is typically run by a hired
"outside" teacher who teaches the basics including English. In some
Schmiedeleut schools, teachers are chosen from the colony. The
"German" education of colony children is the responsibility of the
"Assistant Minister" at some colonies, but most colonies elect a
"German Teacher", who in most cases also takes care of the colony
garden. His job entails training in German language
studies, Bible teaching, and scripture memorization. The German
Teacher will cooperate with the outside teacher with regard to
scheduling and planning. Some
Hutterite colonies are allowed to send
their children to public school as the parents see fit, but in some
cases it is customary to remove them from school entirely in 8th grade
or at the age of 15; however, many colonies offer them a full grade 12
diploma and in some cases a university degree. Public school in these
instances is seen as a luxury and children are sometimes made to miss
days of school in favor of duties at the colony. In a few rare cases,
allowing a child to continue attending school past this limit can
result in punishment of the parents, including shunning and removal
from the church.
Three different branches of
Hutterites live in the prairies of North
America: the Schmiedeleut, the
Dariusleut and the Lehrerleut. Though
all three "leut" are Hutterites, there are some distinctive
differences, including style of dress and organizational
structure.[clarification needed] However, the original doctrine of all
three groups is identical. The differences are mostly traditional and
There are two other related groups. The Arnoldleut—also referred to
Bruderhof Communities or currently, Church Communities
International—is a group of more recent origin which, prior to
1990, were accepted by the
Lehrerleut groups as a part
Hutterite community. The
Schmiedeleut were divided over the
issue. One group is called the 'oilers', because of an issue over an
oil well. The other is the
Hutterites that lived in
separate households rather than in colonies after settling on the
American prairies. At the time of immigration the
to around 2/3 of the
Hutterite immigrants. Most of the Prairieleut
eventually united with the Mennonites.
Since 1992, the Schmiedeleut, until that point the largest of the
three "leut," have been divided into "Group One" and "Group Two"
factions over controversies including the Arnoldleut/
and the leadership of the
Schmiedeleut elder. This highly acrimonious
division has cut across family lines and remains a serious matter
almost two decades later. Group One colonies generally have relatively
more liberal positions on issues including higher education,
ecumenical and missions work, musical instruments, media, and
Hutterites initially won the right not to have their
photographs taken for their drivers' licenses. In May 2007, the
Alberta Court of Appeal ruled that the photograph requirement violates
their religious rights and that driving was essential to their way of
life. The Wilson Colony based its position on the belief that
images are prohibited by the Second Commandment. About eighty of
the photo-less licenses were in use at the time of the decision.
Hutterite groups (Darius and Lehrerleut), a
handful of colonies in
Manitoba (Schmiedeleut) do not wish their
members to be photographed for licenses or other identity
However, in July 2009, the
Supreme Court of Canada
Supreme Court of Canada ruled 4–3 (in
Alberta v. Hutterian Brethren of Wilson Colony) that a Hutterite
community must abide by provincial rules that make a digital photo
mandatory for all new driver's licences as a way to prevent identity
Despite this animosity towards photography, there are photographs of
Hutterites which were evidently done with their consent and
co-operation. In particular, from 1972–1980, Chicago photographer
Mary Koga went to rural
Alberta to work on her series The Hutterites.
Her images show the members of the community with great openness,
sympathy and a touch of humor.
Hutterite women return from working in the fields at sunset.
In contrast to the plain look of the
Amish and Old Order Mennonites,
Hutterite clothing can be vividly coloured, especially on children.
Most of the clothing is homemade within the colony. Shoes were
homemade in the past but are now mostly store-bought.
Men's jackets and pants are usually black. Generally the men's shirts
are button-up shirts with long sleeves and collars, and they may wear
undershirts. Men's pants are not held in place by belts, but rather by
black suspenders. These pants are also distinctive by their lack of
Women and girls wear a dress with a blouse underneath. Most Lehrerleut
Dariusleut also wear a kerchief-style head covering which is
usually black with white polka dots. The Schmiedleut also wear a
kerchief-style head cover, but without the dots. The polka dots tells
which branch the women belong to. Young girls wear a bright, colorful
cap that fastens under the chin.
Church garb is generally dark for both men and women. The clothing
worn for church consists of a plain jacket for both genders and a
black apron for women. Men's church hats are always dark and usually
Just as the
Amish and Old Order
Mennonites often use Pennsylvania
Hutterites have preserved and use among themselves a
distinct dialect of German known as
Hutterite German, or Hutterisch.
Originally based on a Tyrolean dialect from the south-central
Europe from which they sprang in the 16th century,
Hutterisch has taken on a Carinthian base because of their history: In
the years 1760–1763, a small group of surviving
Transylvania were joined by a larger group of Lutheran forced migrants
from Carinthia, the so-called Transylvanian Landler. Eventually, this
led to the replacement of the Hutterites' Tyrolean dialect with the
Carinthian dialect. The
Hutterite German dialects are not
generally mutually intelligible because the dialects originate from
regions that are several hundred kilometers apart. In their religious
Hutterites use a classic Lutheran German.
The very high birth rate among the
Hutterites has decreased since
Hutterite fertility rates remain high, though they have
dropped from around ten children per family in 1954 to under five
Birth rate (per 1000)
In the courts
As part of their
Anabaptist teachings of nonresistance, Hutterites
have historically avoided getting involved in litigation within the
secular justice system. One of the early founders of the Hutterites,
Peter Riedemann, wrote about the Hutterite's stand on going to court
in Peter Riedemann's
Hutterite Confession of Faith: "Christ shows that
Christians may not go to court when he says, 'If anyone will sue you
and take away your coat, let him have your cloak also.' In effect
Jesus is saying, 'It is better to let people take everything than to
quarrel with them and find yourself in a strange court.' Christ wants
us to show that we seek what is heavenly and belongs to us, and not
what is temporal or alien to us. Thus, it is evident that a Christian
can neither go to court nor be a judge."
Consistent with their beliefs, records do not indicate any litigation
initiated by the
Hutterites up to the twentieth century. However, in
their more recent history in
North America some
have emerged in court litigations. Several cases involved the
Hutterite Colony defending their religious lifestyle against the
government. This includes the recent conflict over photographs on
driver's licenses in
Alberta v Hutterian Brethren of Wilson Colony.
Another recent case in the United States, Big Sky Colony Inc. v.
Montana Department of Labor and Industry, forced the
participate in the state's workers compensation system despite the
Hutterites religious objections.
The willingness of the colonies to take matters to secular courts has
also resulted in internal religious disputes being brought before the
court. Two of these cases have come by appeal before the Supreme Court
of Canada: Hofer v. Hofer (1970) and Lakeside Colony of Hutterian
Brethren v. Hofer (1992). Hofer v. Hofer involved several expelled
members of the Interlake Colony in
Manitoba who sought a share of the
communal property. The
Supreme Court of Canada
Supreme Court of Canada ruled that according to
the religious tenets of the
Hutterites have no
individual property and therefore the former members cannot be
entitled to a share of the
Hutterite colony goods. In the case of
Lakeside Colony of Hutterian Brethren v. Hofer, Daniel Hofer Sr. of
Lakeside Colony challenged the right of the Hutterian Brethren Church
to expel him and other members. The igniting issue focused on who
owned the rights to a patented hog feeder. The Board of Managers of
the Colony had ruled that Hofer did not own the patent of the hog
feeder in question and should stop producing the item. Hofer refused
to submit to what he considered an injustice and also refused to obey
the colony's order of expulsion. In response Jacob Kleinsasser of
Crystal Spring Colony, elder of the Schmiedleut group of Hutterites,
tried to use the state to enforce the expulsion order. Daniel Hofer
Sr. initially lost the case. Hofer also lost his first appeal but
finally won on an appeal to the
Supreme Court of Canada
Supreme Court of Canada who overturned
the expulsion. The outcome of these two cases has strongly
influenced the outcome of similar cases in Canada. When some members
of The Nine sued their former colony in
Manitoba in 2008 over lost
wages and injuries the case was never even heard in court.
In the United States judges have repeatedly dismissed cases that were
brought against the colony by colony members or former members. Such
cases include Wollma, et al. v. Poinsett Hutterian Brethren, Inc.
(1994) in South Dakota, and Eli Wollman, Sr., et all. v. Ayers Ranch
Colony (2001) in Montana. More recently in North Dakota, a case was
brought by some of
The Nine (authors) against Forest River Colony and
was again dismissed by a judge in March 2010, ruling that the courts
did not have subject matter jurisdiction over the case.
In the last 150 years several subgroups of
Hutterites emerged. When
Hutterites migrated to the United States in 1874 and the following
years there was a division between those who settled on colonies and
lived with community of goods and those who settled on private farms
according to the conditions of the Homestead Act of 1862. The
homesteaders were called Prairieleut, while the ones who settled on
the three communal colonies developed into three branches:
Dariusleut and Lehrerleut. In the 1990s the Schmiedeleut
spilt into two subgroups.
During the 20th centuries three groups joined the Hutterites, two of
them only temporarily:
Hutterite Colony, a Japanese
Hutterite community founded in
1972, does not consist of
Hutterites of European descent, but ethnic
Japanese who have adopted the same way of life and are recognized as
Dariusleut colony. The inhabitants of this colony speak
neither English nor German.
In similar fashion, a "neo-"
Hutterite group, called the Bruderhof, was
founded in Germany in 1920 by Eberhard Arnold. Arnold forged links
with the North American
Hutterites in the 1930s, continuing until 1990
Bruderhof were excommunicated because of a number of
religious and social differences.
The Community Farm of the Brethren, also called Juliusleut, is a
Christian community with communal living at Bright, Ontario, created
under the leadership of Julius Kubassek (1893–1961). It was in
fellowship with the
Hutterites from its beginnings in 1939 until 1950.
Starting in 1999 three
Hutterite colonies separated from their
original "Leut" affiliation and became independent. For these three
colonies spiritual renewal became a major concern. One of them,
Elmendorf branched out two times, so that there are now five colonies
of that kind, that cooperate closely, thus forming a new affiliation
Hutterite Christian Communities.
Fort Pitt Farms Christian Community is a Christian Community of
Dariusleut origin and of many
Hutterite traditions, but that
is fully autonomous since 1999. When it was excommunicated from the
Hutterite church in 1999, about one-third of the people of the colony
decided to stay with the
Elmendorf Christian Community, founded in 1998, is a Christian
Hutterite tradition, that is much more open to outsiders,
so-called seekers, than other
Hutterite communities.
Altona Christian Community, originally a
Schmiedeleut colony, which
was founded 2001 as a division from the Fordham
Hutterite Colony in
See also: Category:
The mid-2004 location and number of the world's 483 Hutterite
Saskatchewan (31); British Columbia
United States (134)
South Dakota (53);
North Dakota (7)
Montana (15); Washington (5);
Depiction in media
49th Parallel (1941) has a segment that takes place at a Hutterite
community in Manitoba, Canada.
In the Kung Fu episode "The Hoots" (December 13, 1973), the
sheepherder members of a
Hutterite religious sect offer no resistance
to persecution by bigoted cattlemen, until they learn from Kwai Chang
Caine that, like the chameleon, they can change and yet remain the
same in the American Southwest.
The Hutterites was a 27:56 min documentary filmed by Colin Law in
1964 with the following synopsis: "The followers of religious leader
Jacob Hutter live in farm communities, devoutly holding to the rules
their founder laid down four centuries ago. Through the kindness of a
Hutterite colony in Alberta, this film, in black and white, was made
inside the community and shows all aspects of the Hutterites' daily
On May 29, 2012, the first episode of American Colony: Meet the
Hutterites aired on the National Geographic Channel. Filmed primarily
at King Ranch Colony near Lewistown, Montana, with Jeff Collins as
executive producer, the colony was paid $100,000 for permission to
produce a documentary of
Hutterite life. Immediately after the first
Hutterites began to complain that the show did not
represent a true picture of typical colony life and ended up being a
reality show or "soap opera" rather than a documentary. Some
Hutterite cast later said that some of the scenes were scripted
and that they were not aware of how the final version would portray
the Hutterites. Jeff Collins stated that he believes King Colony
members were coerced to write retractions, under threat of
Hutterite leaders. Colony leaders from King
Ranch Colony wrote a letter to the National Geographic Society asking
for an apology and that the show be discontinued, citing a false
Hutterites and a "breach of contract and defamation of
our life and our character" as the reason. In 2013, How to Get to
Heaven with the
Hutterites was broadcast on BBC2 and looked at the
lives of the people within the community.
Another film about the
Hutterites is The Valley of All Utopias (2012),
a documentary about a
Hutterite colony in
Saskatchewan directed by
Thomas Risch.
Hutterites were featured in the CBC TV series Heartland in Season 8
Episode 7 "Walk a Mile".
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hutterites.
Anabaptist Museum, Austria
Walter v. Attorney General of Alberta
Mennonite Heritage Center
Bruderhof - GAMEO". gameo.org. Retrieved September 28, 2017.
^ Sources in this time don't separate between
^  Archived July 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
^  Archived March 25, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Smith, C. Henry (1981). Smith's Story of the
Mennonites (Revised and
expanded by Cornelius Krahn ed.). Newton, Kansas: Faith and Life
Press. p. 545. ISBN 0-87303-069-9.
^ Esau, Alvin (2004). The Courts and the Colonies. Vancouver, BC: UBC
Press. p. 10. ISBN 0-7748-1116-1.
^ Peter, K (1987). The Dynamics of
Hutterite Society: An Analytical
Approach. Edmonton, AB: University of
Alberta Press. p. 345.
Alberta Venture - ARTICLES Archived April 10, 2008, at the Wayback
^ "How SD became a top place for foreign money Prairie Business
Magazine Grand Forks, ND". Prairiebizmag.com. Archived from the
original on April 3, 2014. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
^ "Turkey Plant Celebrates Grand Opening". Keloland.Com. Retrieved
April 3, 2014.
^ "Learning from the Bruderhof: An Intentional Christian Community".
ChristLife. Retrieved May 23, 2017.
^ Hutterian Brethren of Wilson Colony v. Alberta, 2007 ABCA 160.
Hutterites exempt from driver's licence photos: Appeal Court, CBC
News, www.cbc.ca, May 17, 2007
Hutterites win right to driver’s license without pic,
Edmonton Sun, May 17, 2007
Alberta v. Hutterian Brethren of Wilson Colony Archived December 21,
2009, at the Wayback Machine., 2009 SCC 37 (July 24, 2009)
Hutterites need driver's licence photos: top court, CBC News,
www.cbc.ca, July 24, 2009
^ Examples of these photos are held by the Museum of Contemporary
Photography, Chicago, the Art Institute of Chicago and other
^ a b Kraybill, Donald B.; Bowman, Carl Desportes (September 3, 2002).
On the Backroad to Heaven: Old Order Hutterites, Mennonites, Amish,
and Brethren. JHU Press.
^ "Review of The
Hutterites in North America".
Cascadiapublishinghouse.com. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
^ a b Esau, Alvin J. (2006). Courts And the Colonies The Litigation of
Hutterite Church Disputes. Vancouver: Univ of
British Columbia Pr.
Hutterite colony asks Supreme Court to hear religious
liberty case". Deseret News. April 10, 2013.
^ Buckingham, Janet Epp (2014). Fighting over God : a legal and
political history of religious freedom in Canada.
^ Hitchen, Ian (September 7, 2013). "'The Nine' share their
struggles". Brandon Sun.
Hutterite colony sued over unpaid labour". The Canadian
Press. June 5, 2008.
^ "Motion to Dismiss Maendel et al. v. Forest River Colony of
Hutterian Bretheran". State of
North Dakota County of Grand
Forks. Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires
^ "Judgement of Dismissal Maendel et al. v. Forest River Colony of
Hutterian Bretheran". State of
North Dakota County of Grand
Forks. Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires
^ "About Us". Plough. Retrieved May 23, 2017.
Bruderhof Communities - GAMEO". gameo.org. Retrieved November 8,
^ "Fort Pitt
Hutterite Colony (Frenchman Butte, Saskatchewan, Canada)
- GAMEO". www.gameo.org. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
^ "Fort Pitt Farms Christian Community". Fort Pitt Farms Christian
Community. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
^ The 2004
Hutterite Phone Book, Canadian Edition, James Valley Colony
of Hutterian Brethren: Elie, Manitoba.
^ Complete Second Season DVD Kung Fu, 2005
^ Colin Low. "The
Hutterites by Colin Low - NFB". Nfb.ca. Retrieved
September 16, 2013.
^ "Another View of "American Colony"". Hutterites. June 1, 2012.
Retrieved September 16, 2013.
^ kwollmann (June 21, 2012). "Reflection: American Colony Ask a
Hutterite". Askahutterite.wordpress.com. Retrieved September 16,
^ "The Making of "Meet the Hutterites": Resources". Society Matters.
Retrieved September 16, 2013.
Hutterites want apology for NatGeo television show". Fox News.
August 8, 2012. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
^ "Letter to John Fahey". Scribd.com. Retrieved September 16,
Hostetler, John A.:
Hutterite Society, Baltimore 1974.
John Hofer: The History of the Hutterites, Altona,
Karl Peter: The Dynamics of
Hutterite Society, Edmonton,
Rod Janzen and Max Stanton: The
Hutterites in North America, Baltimore
John Lehr and Yosef Kats: Inside the Ark: The
Hutterites in Canada and
the United States, Regina 2012.
Donald B. Kraybill: On the Backroad to Heaven: Old Order Hutterites,
Mennonites, Amish, and Brethren, (co-author: Carl Bowman), Baltimore
Rod A. Janzen: The Prairie People: Forgotten Anabaptists, Hanover, NH,
Michael Holzach: The Forgotten People: A Year Among the Hutterites,
Sioux Falls 1993 (German: Das vergessene Volk: Ein Jahr bei den
deutschen Hutterern in Kanada, Munich 1982).
Lisa Marie Stahl: My
Hutterite Life, Helena, MT 2003.
Mary-Ann Kirkby: I Am Hutterite, Altona,
Kristin Capp: Hutterite: A World of Grace, Zurich and New York 1998.
Samuel Hofer: The Hutterites: Lives and Images of a Communal People
Sioux Falls 1998. Written by an Ex-Hutterite.
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