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Veliky Novgorod ( rus, links=yes, Великий Новгород, p=vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj ˈnovɡərət), also known as just Novgorod (russian: Новгород, lit=newtown, links=yes), is the largest city and
administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Township, commune is located. In countries with French as one of their administrative languages ( ...
of
Novgorod Oblast Novgorod Oblast (russian: Новгоро́дская о́бласть, ''Novgorodskaya oblast'') is a federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Р ...
,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
. It is one of the oldest cities in Russia, being first mentioned in the 9th century. The city lies along the
Volkhov River The Volkhov (russian: Во́лхов) is a river in Novgorodsky District, Novgorodsky and Chudovsky Districts of Novgorod Oblast and Kirishsky District, Kirishsky and Volkhovsky Districts of Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia. It connects L ...
just downstream from its outflow from
Lake Ilmen Lake Ilmen ( rus, И́льмень, p=ˈilʲmʲɪnʲ) is a large lake in the Novgorod Oblast of Russia. A historically important lake, it formed a vital part of the medieval trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks. The city of Veliky Novgor ...
and is situated on the M10 federal highway connecting
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
and
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

Saint Petersburg
.
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
recognized Novgorod as a
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
in 1992. The city has a population of At its peak during the 14th century, the city was the capital of the
Novgorod Republic The Novgorod Republic (russian: Новгородская республика, Novgorodskaya respublika, ; orv, Новгородскаѧ землѧ, Novgorodskaę zemlę, lit=Novgorodian Land; la, Novogardia or russian: Новгородская ...
and was one of Europe's largest cities.


History


Early developments

The
Sofia First Chronicle The Sofia First Chronicle (Софийская первая летопись) is a Russian chronicle A chronicle ( la, chronica, from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ε ...
makes initial mention of it in 859, while the
Novgorod First Chronicle The Novgorod First Chronicle (russian: Новгородская первая летопись) or The Chronicle of Novgorod, 1016–1471 is the most ancient extant Old East Slavic, Old Russian chronicle of the Novgorod Republic, Novgorodian Rus'. I ...
first mentions it in 862, when it was purportedly already a major
Baltics The Baltic states ( et, Balti riigid, Baltimaad; lv, Baltijas valstis; lt, Baltijos valstybės), also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations, or simply the Baltics, is a geopolitical term, typically used to group the ...

Baltics
-to-
Byzantium Byzantium () or Byzantion ( grc-gre, Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark A ...

Byzantium
station on the
trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks The trade route from the Varangians to the Romans was a medieval trade route A trade route is a Logistics, logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo. The term can also be us ...
. The Charter of Veliky Novgorod recognizes 859 as the year when the city was first mentioned.Charter of Veliky Novgorod, Article 1 Novgorod is traditionally considered to be a cradle of Russian statehood. The oldest archaeological excavations in the middle to late 20th century, however, have found cultural layers dating back to the late 10th century, the time of the
Christianization of Rus' The Christianization of Kievan Rus' took place in several stages. In early 867, Patriarch Photius of Constantinople announced to other Christian patriarchs that the Rus', baptized by his bishop, took to Christianity with particular enthusiasm. Ph ...
and a century after it was allegedly founded. Archaeological dating is fairly easy and accurate to within 15–25 years, as the streets were paved with wood, and most of the houses made of wood, allowing tree ring dating. The
Varangian The Varangians (; non, Væringjar; gkm, Βάραγγοι, ''Várangoi'';Varangian
" Online Etymo ...
name of the city or ( or ) is mentioned in
Norse Saga Sagas are prose stories and histories, composed in Iceland and to a lesser extent elsewhere in Scandinavia. The most famous saga-genre is the ''Íslendingasögur'' (sagas concerning Icelanders), which feature Viking voyages, migration to Iceland, ...
s as existing at a yet earlier stage, but the correlation of this reference with the actual city is uncertain. Originally, referred to the stronghold, now only to the south of the center of the present-day city,
Rurikovo Gorodische Rurikovo Gorodische ( rus, Рюриково Городище, p=ˈrʲʉrʲɪkəvə ɡərɐˈdʲiɕːə, t=Rurik's Hillfort), the primary settlement in the area known in Scandinavian sources as Holmgård, was the 9th century predecessor of Veliky Nov ...
(named in comparatively modern times after the Varangian chieftain
Rurik Rurik of Ladoga (also Ryurik or Rorik; orv, Рюрикъ ''Rjurikŭ'', from Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic la ...

Rurik
, who supposedly made it his "capital" around 860). Archaeological data suggests that the Gorodishche, the residence of the
Knyaz or () is a historical Slavic title, used both as a royal and noble title in different times of history and different ancient Slavic lands. It is usually translated into English English usually refers to: * English language English i ...
(prince), dates from the mid-9th century, whereas the town itself dates only from the end of the 10th century; hence the name Novgorod, "new city", from
Old East Slavic Old East Slavic (traditionally also: Old Russian, be, старажытнаруская мова; russian: древнерусский язык; uk, давньоруська мова) was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East ...
and ( and ), although German and Scandinavian historiography suggests the Old Norse term , or the
Old High German Old High German (OHG, german: Althochdeutsch, German abbr. ) is the earliest stage of the German language German ( Standard High German: , ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Euro ...
term . First mention of this Nordic or Germanic etymology to the name of the city of Novgorod (and that of other cities within the territory of the then
Kievan Rus' Kievan Rus' ( orv, , Rusĭ, or , , "Rus' land") or Kyivan Rus', was a loose federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a ...
) occurs in the 10th-century policy manual by
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survi ...

Byzantine
emperor
Constantine VII Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus Traditionally, born in the purple (sometimes "born to the purple") was a category of members of royal family, royal families born during the reign of their parent. This notion was later loosely expanded to include ...
. Slightly predating the chronology of the legend of Rurik (which dates the first Norse arrival in the region around 858–860), an earlier record for the Scandinavian settlement of the region is found in the (written up until 882) where a Rus' delegation is mentioned as having visited
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
in 838 and, intending to return to the Rus' Khaganate via the Baltic Sea, were questioned by list of Frankish kings, Frankish Emperor Louis the Pious at , where they said that although their origin was Swedish, they had settled in Northern Rus' under a leader whom they designated as (the Latin form of ''Khagan'', a title they had likely borrowed from contact with the Pannonian Avars, Avars).


Princely state within Kievan Rus'

In 882, Rurik's successor, Oleg of Novgorod, conquered Kiev and founded the state of
Kievan Rus' Kievan Rus' ( orv, , Rusĭ, or , , "Rus' land") or Kyivan Rus', was a loose federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a ...
. Novgorod's size as well as its political, economic, and cultural influence made it the second most important city in Kievan Rus'. According to a custom, the elder son and heir of the ruling Kievan monarch was sent to rule Novgorod even as a minor. When the ruling monarch had no such son, Novgorod was governed by posadniks, such as the legendary Gostomysl, Dobrynya, Konstantin Dobrynich, Konstantin, and Ostromir. Of all their princes, Novgorodians most cherished the memory of Yaroslav I the Wise, Yaroslav the Wise, who sat as Prince of Novgorod from 1010 to 1019, while his father, Vladimir the Great, was a prince in Kiev. Yaroslav promulgated the first written code of laws (later incorporated into Russkaya Pravda) among the Eastern Slavs and is said to have granted the city a number of freedoms or privileges, which they often referred to in later centuries as precedents in their relations with other princes. His son, Vladimir of Novgorod, Vladimir, sponsored construction of the great Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod, St. Sophia Cathedral, more accurately translated as the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom, which stands to this day.


Early foreign ties

In Norse sagas the city is mentioned as the capital of Gardariki. Many Viking kings and yarls came to Novgorod seeking refuge or employment, including Olaf I of Norway, Olaf II of Norway, Magnus I of Norway, and Harald III of Norway, Harald Hardrada. No more than a few decades after the 1030 death and subsequent canonization of Olaf II of Norway, the city's community had erected in his memory Saint Olaf's Church in Novgorod. The Gotland town of Visby functioned as the leading trading center in the Baltic before the Hansa League. At Novgorod in 1080, Visby merchants established a trading post which they named Gutagard (also known as Gotenhof). Later, in the first half of the 13th century, merchants from northern Germany also established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof. At about the same time, in 1229, German merchants at Novgorod were granted certain privileges, which made their position more secure.


Novgorod Republic

In 1136, the Novgorodians dismissed their prince Vsevolod Mstislavich of Novgorod and Pskov, Vsevolod Mstislavich. The year is seen as the traditional beginning of the
Novgorod Republic The Novgorod Republic (russian: Новгородская республика, Novgorodskaya respublika, ; orv, Новгородскаѧ землѧ, Novgorodskaę zemlę, lit=Novgorodian Land; la, Novogardia or russian: Новгородская ...
. The city was able to invite and dismiss a number of princes over the next two centuries, but the princely office was never abolished and powerful princes, such as Alexander Nevsky, could assert their will in the city regardless of what Novgorodians said. The city state controlled most of Europe's northeast, from lands east of today's Estonia to the Ural Mountains, making it one of the largest states in medieval Europe, although much of the territory north and east of Lakes Lake Ladoga, Ladoga and Lake Onega, Onega was sparsely populated and never organized politically. One of the most important local figures in Novgorod was the ''posadnik'', or mayor, an official elected by the public assembly (called the Novgorod veche, Veche) from among the city's boyars, or aristocracy. The tysyatsky, or "thousandman", originally the head of the town militia but later a commercial and judicial official, was also elected by the Veche. Another important local official was the Archbishop of Novgorod who shared power with the boyars. Archbishops were elected by the Veche or by the drawing of lots, and after their election, were sent to the Metropolitan bishop, metropolitan for consecration. While a basic outline of the various officials and the Veche can be drawn up, the city-state's exact political constitution remains unknown. The boyars and the archbishop ruled the city together, although where one official's power ended and another's began is uncertain. The prince, although his power was reduced from around the middle of the 12th century, was represented by his ''namestnik'', or lieutenant, and still played important roles as a military commander, legislator and jurist. The exact composition of the Veche, too, is uncertain, with some historians, such as Vasily Klyuchevsky, claiming it was democratic in nature, while later scholars, such as Marxist historiography, Marxists Valentin Ianin and Aleksandr Khoroshev, see it as a "sham democracy" controlled by the ruling elite. In the 13th century, Novgorod, while not a member of the Hanseatic League, was the easternmost kontor, or entrepôt, of the league, being the source of enormous quantities of luxury (sable, Stoat, ermine, fox, marmot) and non-luxury furs (squirrel pelts). Throughout the Middle Ages, the city thrived culturally. A large number of birch bark document, birch bark letters have been unearthed in excavations, perhaps suggesting widespread literacy. It was in Novgorod that the Novgorod Codex, the oldest Slavic book written north of Bulgaria, and the oldest inscription in a Finnic language (Birch bark letter no. 292) were unearthed. Some of the most ancient Russian chronicles (
Novgorod First Chronicle The Novgorod First Chronicle (russian: Новгородская первая летопись) or The Chronicle of Novgorod, 1016–1471 is the most ancient extant Old East Slavic, Old Russian chronicle of the Novgorod Republic, Novgorodian Rus'. I ...
) were written in the scriptorium of the archbishops who also promoted iconography and patronized church construction. The Novgorod merchant Sadko became a popular hero of Russian folklore. Novgorod was never conquered by the Mongols during the Mongol invasion of Rus. The Mongol army turned back about from the city, not because of the city's strength, but probably because the Mongol commanders did not want to get bogged down in the marshlands surrounding the city. However, the grand princes of Moscow, who acted as tax collectors for the khans of the Golden Horde, did collect tribute in Novgorod, most notably Yury of Moscow, Yury Danilovich and his brother, Ivan Kalita. In 1259, Golden Horde, Mongol tax-collectors and census-takers arrived in the city, leading to political disturbances and forcing Alexander Nevsky to punish a number of town officials (he cut off their noses) for defying him as Vladimir-Suzdal, Grand Prince of Vladimir (soon to be the khan's tax-collector in Russia) and his Mongol overlords. In the 14th century, raids by Novgorod pirates, or ushkuiniki, sowed fear as far as Kazan and Astrakhan, assisting Novgorod in wars with the Grand Duchy of Moscow. During the era of Kievan Rus', Old Rus' State, Novgorod was a trade hub at the northern end of both the Volga trade route and the "Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, route from the Varangians to the Greeks" along the Dnieper river system. A vast array of goods were transported along these routes and exchanged with local Novgorod merchants and other traders. The farmers of Gotland retained the Saint Olof trading house well into the 12th century. Later German merchantmen also established tradinghouses in Novgorod. Scandinavian royalty would intermarry with Russian princes and princesses. After the East–West Schism, great schism, Novgorod struggled from the beginning of the 13th century against Sweden, Swedish, Denmark, Danish, and German crusaders. During the Swedish-Novgorodian Wars, the Swedes invaded lands where some of the population had earlier Novgorodian raids into Finland, paid tribute to Novgorod. The Germans had been trying to conquer the Baltic region since the late 12th century. Novgorod went to war 26 times with Sweden and 11 times with the Livonian Brothers of the Sword. The German knights, along with Danish and Swedish feudal lords, launched a series of uncoordinated attacks in 1240–1242. Novgorodian sources mention that a Swedish army was defeated in the Battle of the Neva in 1240. The Baltic German campaigns ended in failure after the Battle on Lake Peipus, Battle on the Ice in 1242. After the foundation of the castle of Vyborg, Viborg in 1293 the Swedes gained a foothold in Karelia. On August 12, 1323, Sweden and Novgorod signed the Treaty of Nöteborg, regulating their border for the first time. The city's downfall occurred partially as a result of its inability to feed its large population, making it dependent on the Vladimir-Suzdal region for grain. The main cities in the area,
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
and Tver, used this dependence to gain control over Novgorod. Eventually Ivan III of Russia, Ivan III forcibly annexed the city to the Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1478. The Veche was dissolved and a significant part of Novgorod's aristocracy, merchants and smaller landholding families was deported to central Russia. The Hanseatic League kontor was closed in 1494 and the goods stored there were seized by Muscovite forces.


Tsardom of Russia

At the time of annexation, Novgorod became the third largest city under Grand Duchy of Moscow, Muscovy and then the Tsardom of Russia (with 5,300 homesteads and 25–30 thousand inhabitants in the 1550s) and remained so until the famine of the 1560s and the Massacre of Novgorod in 1570. In the Massacre, Ivan the Terrible sacked the city, slaughtered thousands of its inhabitants, and deported the city's merchant elite and nobility to Moscow, Yaroslavl and elsewhere. The last decade of the 16th century was a comparatively favorable period for the city as Boris Godunov restored trade privileges and raised the status of Novgorod bishop. The German trading post was reestablished in 1603. Even after the incorporation into the Russian state Novgorod land retained its distinct identity and institutions, including the customs policy and administrative division. Certain elective offices were quickly restored after having been abolished by Ivan III. During the Time of Troubles, Novgorodians submitted to Sweden, Swedish troops led by Jacob De la Gardie in the summer of 1611. The city was restituted to Muscovy six years later by the Treaty of Stolbovo. The conflict led to further depopulation: the number of homesteads in the city decreased from 1158 in 1607 to only 493 in 1617, with the Sofia side described as 'deserted'. Novgorod only regained a measure of its former prosperity towards the end of the century, when such ambitious buildings as the Cathedral of the Sign and the Vyazhishchsky Monastery, Vyazhischi Monastery were constructed. The most famous of Muscovite patriarchs, Patriarch Nikon, Nikon, was active in Novgorod between 1648 and 1652. The Novgorod Land became one of the Old Believers' strongholds after the Great Russian Schism, Schism. The city remained an important trade centre even though it was now eclipsed by Archangelsk, Novgorodian merchants were trading in the Baltic cities and Stockholm while Swedish merchants came to Novgorod where they had their own trading post since 1627. Novgorod continued to be a major centre of crafts which employed the majority of its population. There were more than 200 distinct professions in 16th century. Bells, cannons and other arms were produced in Novgorod; its silversmiths were famous for the skan' technique used for religious items and jewellery. Novgorod chests were in widespread use all across Russia, including the Tsar's household and the northern monasteries.


Russian Empire

In 1727, Novgorod was made the administrative center of Novgorod Governorate of the Russian Empire, which was detached from Saint Petersburg Governorate (see Administrative divisions of Russia in 1727–1728). This administrative division existed until 1927. Between 1927 and 1944, the city was a part of Leningrad Oblast, and then became the administrative center of the newly formed
Novgorod Oblast Novgorod Oblast (russian: Новгоро́дская о́бласть, ''Novgorodskaya oblast'') is a federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Р ...
.


Modern era

On August 15, 1941, during World War II, the city was occupied by the German Army (Wehrmacht), German Army. Its historic monuments were systematically obliterated. The Red Army Leningrad–Novgorod Offensive#Novgorod–Luga Offensive : 14 January – 15 February 1944, liberated the city on January 19, 1944. Out of 2,536 stone buildings, fewer than forty remained standing. After the war, thanks to plans laid down by Alexey Shchusev, the central part was gradually restored. In 1992, the chief monuments of the city and the surrounding area were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage Sites, World Heritage Site list as the Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings. In 1999, the city was officially renamed Veliky Novgorod (literally, Great Novgorod), thus partly reverting to its medieval title "Lord Novgorod the Great". This reduced the temptation to confuse Veliky Novgorod with Nizhny Novgorod, a larger city the other side of Moscow which, between 1932 and 1990, had been renamed Gorky, in honor of Maxim Gorky.


Administrative and municipal status

Veliky Novgorod is the
administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Township, commune is located. In countries with French as one of their administrative languages ( ...
of the oblast and, within the subdivisions of Russia#Administrative divisions, framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Novgorodsky District, even though it is not a part of it.Law #559-OZ As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of federal subject significance, city of oblast significance of Veliky Novgorod—an administrative unit with status equal to that of the administrative divisions of Novgorod Oblast, districts. As a subdivisions of Russia#Municipal divisions, municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Veliky Novgorod is incorporated as Veliky Novgorod Urban Okrug.Oblast Law #284-OZ


Sights

The city is known for the variety and age of its medieval monuments. The foremost among these is the Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod, St. Sophia Cathedral, built between 1045 and 1050 under the patronage of Vladimir Yaroslavich, the son of Yaroslav the Wise; Vladimir and his mother, Anna Porphyrogenita, are buried in the cathedral. It is one of the best preserved churches from the 11th century. It is also probably the oldest structure still in use in Russia and the first one to represent original features of Russian architecture (austere stone walls, five helmet-like domes). Its frescoes were painted in the 12th century originally on the orders of Bishop Nikita (died 1108) (the "porches" or side chapels were painted in 1144 under Nifont of Novgorod, Archbishop Nifont) and renovated several times over the centuries, most recently in the nineteenth century. The cathedral features famous bronze gates, which now hang in the west entrance, allegedly made in Magdeburg in 1156 (other sources see them originating from Płock in Poland) and reportedly snatched by Novgorodians from the Swedish town of Sigtuna in 1187. More recent scholarship has determined that the gates were most likely purchased in the mid-15th century, apparently at the behest of Archbishop Euthymius II of Novgorod, Euthymius II (1429–1458), a lover of Western art and architectural styles. The Novgorod Kremlin, traditionally known as the ''Detinets'', also contains the oldest palace in Russia (the so-called Chamber of the Facets, 1433), which served as the main meeting hall of the archbishops; the oldest Russian bell tower (mid-15th century), and the oldest Russian clock tower (1673). The Palace of Facets, the bell tower, and the clock tower were originally built on the orders of Archbishop Euphimius II, although the clock tower collapsed in the 17th century and had to be rebuilt and much of the palace of Euphimius II is no longer standing. Among later structures, the most remarkable are a royal palace (1771) and a bronze monument to the Millennium of Russia, representing the most important figures from the country's history (unveiled in 1862). Outside the Kremlin walls, there are three large churches constructed during the reign of Mstislav I of Kiev, Mstislav the Great. Saint Nicholas Cathedral, Novgorod, St. Nicholas Cathedral (1113–1123), containing frescoes of Mstislav's family, graces Yaroslav's Court (formerly the chief square of Novgorod). The Yuriev Monastery (one of the oldest in Russia, 1030) contains a tall, three-domed cathedral from 1119 (built by Mstislav's son, Vsevolod of Pskov, Vsevolod, and Kyurik, the head of the monastery). A similar three-domed cathedral (1117), probably designed by the same masters, stands in the Antoniev Monastery, built on the orders of Anthony of Rome, Antony, the founder of that monastery. There are now some fifty medieval and early modern churches scattered throughout the city and its surrounding areas. Some of them were blown up by the Nazis and subsequently restored. The most ancient pattern is represented by those dedicated to Feast of Saints Peter and Paul, Saints Pyotr and Pavel (on the Swallow's Hill, 1185–1192), to Annunciation (in Myachino, 1179), to Assumption (on Volotovo Church, Volotovo Field, 1180s) and to St. Paraskeva-Piatnitsa (at Yaroslav's Court, 1207). The greatest masterpiece of early Novgorod architecture is the Nereditsa Church, Savior church at Nereditsa (1198). In the 13th century, tiny churches of the three-paddled design were in vogue. These are represented by a small chapel at the Peryn Chapel, Peryn Monastery (1230s) and St. Nicholas' on the Lipnya Islet (1292, also notable for its 14th-century frescoes). The next century saw the development of two original church designs, one of them culminating in :ru:Церковь Фёдора Стратилата на Ручью, St Theodor's church (1360–1361, fine frescoes from 1380s), and another one leading to the Church of the Transfiguration on Ilyina Street, Savior church on Ilyina street (1374, painted in 1378 by Feofan Grek). The Transfiguration Church in Kovalyovo, Savior' church in Kovalevo (1345) was originally frescoed by Serbian masters, but the church was destroyed during the war. While the church has since been rebuilt, the frescoes have not been restored. During the last century of the republican government, some new churches were consecrated to Saints Peter and Paul (on Slavna, 1367; in Kozhevniki, 1406), to Christ's Nativity (at the Cemetery, 1387), to John the Apostle, St. John the Apostle's (1384), to the Twelve Apostles (1455), to St Demetrius (1467), to St. Simeon (1462), and other saints. Generally, they are not thought to be as innovative as the churches from the previous period. Several shrines from the 12th century (i.e., in Opoki) were demolished brick by brick and then reconstructed exactly as they used to be, several of them in the mid-fifteenth century, again under Archbishop Yevfimy II (Euthymius II), perhaps one of the greatest patrons of architecture in medieval Novgorod. Novgorod's conquest by Ivan III of Russia, Ivan III in 1478 decisively changed the character of local architecture. Large commissions were thenceforth executed by Muscovite masters and patterned after cathedrals of Moscow Kremlin: e.g., the Savior Cathedral of Khutyn Monastery (1515), the Cathedral of the Mother of God of the Sign (1688), the St. Nicholas Cathedral of Vyaschizhy Monastery (1685). Nevertheless, the styles of some parochial churches were still in keeping with local traditions: e.g., the churches of Myrrh-bearing Women (1510) and of Saints Boris and Gleb (1586). In Vitoslavlitsy, along the
Volkhov River The Volkhov (russian: Во́лхов) is a river in Novgorodsky District, Novgorodsky and Chudovsky Districts of Novgorod Oblast and Kirishsky District, Kirishsky and Volkhovsky Districts of Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia. It connects L ...
and the Myachino Lake, close to the Yuriev Monastery, a museum of wooden architecture was established in 1964. Over twenty wooden buildings (churches, houses and mills) dating from the 14th to the 19th century were transported there from all around the Novgorod region. 11400 graves of the German 1st Luftwaffe Field Division are found at the war cemetery in Novgorod. Also 1900 soldiers of the Spanish Blue Division are buried there. File:Nowgorod 2005 Millenium Monument.jpg, Bronze monument to the Millennium of Russia (1862) File:Nowgorod 2005 w.jpg, Walls of the Novgorod Kremlin File:VNovgorod WWIIMemoral 4211.JPG, War Memorial File:Yaroslavovo Dvorische 01.jpg, View of the Yaroslav's Court File:Novgorod - Oblast Duma and Administration.jpg, Government Building


Transportation


Intercity transport

Novgorod has connections to
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
(531 km) and Saint Petersburg, St. Petersburg (189 km) by the Russian Route M10, federal highway M10. There are public buses to
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

Saint Petersburg
and other destinations. The city has direct railway passenger connections with
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
(Leningradsky Rail Terminal, by night trains), St. Petersburg (Moskovsky Rail Terminal (Saint Petersburg), Moscow Rail Terminal and Vitebsk Rail Terminal, by suburban trains), Minsk (Belarus) (Minsk Passazhirsky railway station, by night trains) and Murmansk. The city's former commercial airport Yurievo Airport, Yurievo was decommissioned in 2006, and the area has now been redeveloped into a residential neighbourhood. The still existing Krechevitsy Airport does not serve any regular flights since mid-1990s although there is a plan to turn Krechevitsy Airport, Krechevitsy into a new operational airport by 2025. The nearest international airport is St. Petersburg's Pulkovo Airport, Pulkovo, some north of the city.


Local transportation

Local transportation consists of a network of buses and trolleybuses. The trolleybus network, which currently consists of five routes, started operating in 1995 and is the first trolley system opened in Russia after the fall of the Soviet Union. File:15 050528a.JPG, trolleybus VMZ (Vologodskiy mechanical plant), Skoda-VMZ-14Tr File:Novgorod - Trolleys and a bus at main station.jpg, Trolleybuses ZiU-9 File:Novgorod - Bus at main station 02.jpg, Bus LiAZ-5256


Honors

A minor planet, 3799 Novgorod, discovered by the Soviet astronomer Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh in 1979, is named after the city.


Twin towns – sister cities

Veliky Novgorod is Sister city, twinned with: *Bielefeld, Germany *Kohtla-Järve, Estonia *Moss, Norway, Moss, Norway *Nanterre, France *Örebro Municipality, Örebro, Sweden *Rochester, New York, US *Seinäjoki, Finland *Uusikaupunki, Finland *Watford, UK *Zibo, China


See also

*Old Novgorod dialect *Novgorod uprising of 1650


References


Notes


Sources

* * * * *William Craft Brumfield. A History of Russian Architecture (Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press, 2004) *Peter Bogucki. Novgorod (in Lost Cities; 50 Discoveries in World Archaeology, edited by Paul G. Bahn: Barnes & Noble, Inc., 1997)


External links

*
Official website of Veliky Novgorod

Veliky Novgorod City PortalVeliky Novgorod for touristsThe Faceted Palace of the Kremlin in Novgorod the Great site
* * * * {{Authority control Veliky Novgorod, Archaeological sites in Russia Rus' settlements Capitals of former nations Trading posts of the Hanseatic League Novgorodsky Uyezd World Heritage Sites in Russia