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According to Catholic teaching, the history of the Catholic Church begins with Jesus
Jesus
Christ and His teachings (c. 4 BC – c. AD 30). Jesus
Jesus
was born in Bethlehem, Judah, about 4 BC[citation needed]. His family fled to Egypt and subsequently returned to Nazareth, Galilee, approximately a year later. Galilee and the surrounding area were conquered by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 6 CE, becoming part of the province of Judea. The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
is the continuation of the early Christian community established by Jesus
Jesus
Christ, as the Catholic Church teaches[1] that its bishops are the successors to Jesus's apostles, and the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome, also known as the Pope, is the sole successor to Saint
Saint
Peter[2] who was appointed by Jesus
Jesus
in the New Testament as head of the church and ministered in Rome.[3][4] By the end of the 2nd century, bishops began congregating in regional synods to resolve doctrinal and policy issues.[5] By the 3rd century, the bishop of Rome began to act as a court of appeals for problems that other bishops could not resolve.[6] Christianity
Christianity
spread throughout the early Roman Empire, despite persecutions due to conflicts with the pagan state religion. In 313, the struggles of the Early Church
Early Church
were lessened by the legalisation of Christianity
Christianity
by the Emperor Constantine I. In 380, under Emperor Theodosius I, Catholicism became the state religion of the Roman Empire by the decree of the Emperor, which would persist until the fall of the Western Empire, and later, with the Eastern Roman Empire, until the Fall of Constantinople. During this time, the period of the Seven Ecumenical Councils, there were considered five primary sees (jurisdictions within the Catholic Church) according to Eusebius: Rome, Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem and Alexandria, known as the Pentarchy. The battles of Toulouse preserved the Catholic west, even though Rome itself was ravaged in 850, and Constantinople besieged. In the 11th century, already strained relations between the primarily Greek church in the East, and the Latin
Latin
church in the West, developed into the East-West Schism, partially due to conflicts over Papal Authority. The fourth crusade, and the sacking of Constantinople by renegade crusaders proved the final breach. Prior
Prior
to and during the 16th century, the Church engaged in a process of reform and renewal. Reform during the 16th century
16th century
is known as the Counter-Reformation.[7] In subsequent centuries, Catholicism spread widely across the world despite experiencing a reduction in its hold on European populations due to the growth of Protestantism
Protestantism
and also because of religious skepticism during and after the Enlightenment. The Second Vatican Council in the 1960s introduced the most significant changes to Catholic practices since the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
four centuries before.

Contents

1 Church beginnings

1.1 Origins 1.2 Early organization 1.3 Persecutions

2 Late antiquity 3 Middle Ages

3.1 Early Middle Ages 3.2 High Middle Ages

4 Renaissance
Renaissance
and reforms

4.1 Discoveries and missionaries 4.2 Renaissance
Renaissance
Church 4.3 Reformation
Reformation
era wars 4.4 England 4.5 Council of Trent

5 Baroque, Enlightenment and revolutions

5.1 Marian devotions 5.2 Enlightenment secularism 5.3 Church in North America 5.4 Church in South America 5.5 Jesuits

5.5.1 Jesuits
Jesuits
in India

5.6 French Revolution

5.6.1 19th century France 5.6.2 Third Republic 1870-1940

5.7 Africa

6 Industrial age

6.1 First Vatican Council 6.2 Social teachings

6.2.1 Role of women's institutes

6.3 Mariology 6.4 Anti-clericalism 6.5 Dictatorships

6.5.1 Italy 6.5.2 Austria
Austria
and Nazi Germany

6.6 World War II

7 Post-Industrial age

7.1 Second Vatican Council

7.1.1 Reforms

7.2 Theology

7.2.1 Modernism 7.2.2 Liberation theology

7.3 Sexuality and gender issues

8 Catholicism today

8.1 Catholic-Orthodox dialogue 8.2 Sex abuse cases 8.3 Benedict XVI 8.4 Francis

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Bibliography

Church beginnings[edit] See also: Early history of Christianity
Early history of Christianity
and Historiography of early Christianity Origins[edit]

Western depiction of the Pentecost, painted by Jean II Restout, 1732

According to Catholic teaching, the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
was founded by Jesus
Jesus
Christ. The New Testament
New Testament
records Jesus' activities and teaching, his appointment of the twelve Apostles, and his instructions to them to continue his work.[8][9] The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
teaches that the coming of the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
upon the apostles, in an event known as Pentecost, signaled the beginning of the public ministry of the Church.[10] Catholics hold that Saint
Saint
Peter was Rome's first bishop and the consecrator of Linus as its next bishop, thus starting the unbroken line which includes the current pontiff, Pope
Pope
Francis. That is, the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
maintains the apostolic succession of the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome, the Pope
Pope
- the successor to Saint
Saint
Peter.[11] In the account of the Confession of Peter
Confession of Peter
found in the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew, Christ designates Peter as the "rock" upon which Christ's church will be built.[12][13] While some scholars do state Peter was the first Bishop
Bishop
of Rome,[14][a] others say that the institution of the papacy is not dependent on the idea that Peter was Bishop
Bishop
of Rome or even on his ever having been in Rome.[15] Many scholars hold that a church structure of plural presbyters/bishops persisted in Rome until the mid-2nd century, when the structure of a single bishop and plural presbyters was adopted,[16][b] and that later writers retrospectively applied the term "bishop of Rome" to the most prominent members of the clergy in the earlier period and also to Peter himself.[16] On this basis, Oscar Cullmann[18] and Henry Chadwick[19] question whether there was a formal link between Peter and the modern papacy, and Raymond E. Brown says that, while it is anachronistic to speak of Peter in terms of local bishop of Rome, Christians of that period would have looked on Peter as having "roles that would contribute in an essential way to the development of the role of the papacy in the subsequent church". These roles, Brown says, "contributed enormously to seeing the bishop of Rome, the bishop of the city where Peter died, and where Paul witnessed to the truth of Christ, as the successor of Peter in care for the church universal".[16] Early organization[edit] Conditions in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
facilitated the spread of new ideas. The empire's well-defined network of roads and waterways allowed easier travel, while the Pax Romana
Pax Romana
made it safe to travel from one region to another. The government had encouraged inhabitants, especially those in urban areas, to learn Greek, and the common language allowed ideas to be more easily expressed and understood.[20] Jesus's apostles gained converts in Jewish communities around the Mediterranean Sea,[21] and over 40 Christian communities had been established by 100.[22] Although most of these were in the Roman Empire, notable Christian communities were also established in Armenia, Iran and along the Indian Malabar Coast.[23][24] The new religion was most successful in urban areas, spreading first among slaves and people of low social standing, and then among aristocratic women.[25] At first, Christians continued to worship alongside Jewish believers, which historians refer to as Jewish Christianity, but within twenty years of Jesus's death, Sunday was being regarded as the primary day of worship.[26] As preachers such as Paul of Tarsus
Paul of Tarsus
began converting Gentiles, Christianity
Christianity
began growing away from Jewish practices[21] to establish itself as a separate religion,[27] though the issue of Paul of Tarsus and Judaism
Judaism
is still debated today. To resolve doctrinal differences among the competing factions within the Church, in or around the year 50, the apostles convened the first Church council, the Council of Jerusalem. This council affirmed that Gentiles could become Christians without adopting all of the Mosaic Law.[5] Growing tensions soon led to a starker separation that was virtually complete by the time Christians refused to join in the Bar Kokhba Jewish revolt of 132,[28] however some groups of Christians retained elements of Jewish practice.[29] According to some historians and scholars The early Christian Church was very loosely organized, resulting in diverse interpretations of Christian beliefs.[30] In part to ensure a greater consistency in their teachings, by the end of the 2nd century Christian communities had evolved a more structured hierarchy, with a central bishop having authority over the clergy in his city,[31] leading to the development of the Metropolitan bishop. The organization of the Church began to mimic that of the Empire; bishops in politically important cities exerted greater authority over bishops in nearby cities.[32] The churches in Antioch, Alexandria, and Rome held the highest positions.[33] Beginning in the 2nd century, bishops often congregated in regional synods to resolve doctrinal and policy issues.[5] Duffy claims that by the 3rd century, the bishop of Rome began to act as a court of appeals for problems that other bishops could not resolve.[6] Doctrine was further refined by a series of influential theologians and teachers, known collectively as the Church Fathers.[34] From the year 100 onward, proto-orthodox teachers like Ignatius of Antioch
Ignatius of Antioch
and Irenaeus
Irenaeus
defined Catholic teaching in stark opposition to other things, such as Gnosticism.[35] In the first few centuries of its existence, the Church formed its teachings and traditions into a systematic whole under the influence of theological apologists such as Pope
Pope
Clement I, Justin Martyr
Justin Martyr
and Augustine of Hippo.[36] Persecutions[edit] Unlike most religions in the Roman Empire, Christianity
Christianity
required its adherents to renounce all other gods, a practice adopted from Judaism, see Idolatry. Christians' refusal to join pagan celebrations meant they were unable to participate in much of public life, which caused non-Christians–including government authorities–to fear that the Christians were angering the gods and thereby threatening the peace and prosperity of the Empire. In addition, the peculiar intimacy of Christian society and its secrecy about its religious practices spawned rumors that Christians were guilty of incest and cannibalism; the resulting persecutions, although usually local and sporadic, were a defining feature of Christian self-understanding until Christianity was legalized in the 4th century.[37][38] A series of more centrally organized persecutions of Christians emerged in the late 3rd century, when emperors decreed that the Empire's military, political, and economic crises were caused by angry gods. All residents were ordered to give sacrifices or be punished.[39] Jews were exempted as long as they paid the Jewish Tax. Estimates of the number of Christians who were executed ranges from a few hundred to 50,000.[40] Many fled[41] or renounced their beliefs. Disagreements over what role, if any, these apostates should have in the Church led to the Donatist
Donatist
and Novatianist
Novatianist
schisms.[42] Relations between the Church and the Empire were not consistent: " Tiberius
Tiberius
wanted to have Christ placed in the Pantheon and refused first of all to persecute the Christians. Later on his attitude changed. [-] How are we to explain the fact that men like Trajan
Trajan
and above all Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
should have so relentlessly persecuted the Christians? On the other hand Commodus
Commodus
and other villainous emperors rather favoured them."[43] In spite of these persecutions, evangelization efforts persisted, leading to the Edict of Milan which legalized Christianity
Christianity
in 313.[44] By 380, Christianity had become the state religion of the Roman Empire.[45] Religious philosopher Simone Weil
Simone Weil
wrote: "By the time of Constantine, the state of apocalyptic expectation must have worn rather thin. [The imminent coming of Christ, expectation of the Last Day - constituted 'a very great social danger.'] Besides, the spirit of the old law, so widely separated from all mysticism, was not so very different from the Roman spirit itself. Rome could come to terms with the God of Hosts."[46] Late antiquity[edit] Main article: History of late ancient Christianity See also: First seven Ecumenical Councils, Rise of Christianity
Christianity
during the Fall of Rome, Constantine I
Constantine I
and Christianity, and State church of the Roman Empire

Emperor Constantine I
Constantine I
established the rights of the Church in the year 315.

When Constantine became emperor of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 312, he attributed his victory to the Christian God. Many soldiers in his army were Christians, and his army was his base of power. With Licinius, (Eastern Roman emperor), he issued the Edict of Milan
Edict of Milan
which mandated toleration of all religions in the empire. The edict had little effect on the attitudes of the people.[47] New laws were crafted to codify some Christian beliefs and practices.[c][48] Constantine's biggest effect on Christianity
Christianity
was his patronage. He gave large gifts of land and money to the Church and offered tax exemptions and other special legal status to Church property and personnel.[49] These gifts and later ones combined to make the Church the largest landowner in the West by the 6th century.[50] Many of these gifts were funded through severe taxation of pagan cults.[49] Some pagan cults were forced to disband for lack of funds; when this happened the Church took over the cult's previous role of caring for the poor.[51] In a reflection of their increased standing in the Empire, clergy began to adopt the dress of the royal household, including the cope.[52] During Constantine's reign, approximately half of those who identified themselves as Christian did not subscribe to the mainstream version of the faith.[53] Constantine feared that disunity would displease God and lead to trouble for the Empire, so he took military and judicial measures to eliminate some sects.[54] To resolve other disputes, Constantine began the practice of calling ecumenical councils to determine binding interpretations of Church doctrine.[55] Decisions made at the Council of Nicea (325) about the divinity of Christ led to a schism; the new religion, Arianism
Arianism
flourished outside the Roman Empire.[56] Partially to distinguish themselves from Arians, Catholic devotion to Mary became more prominent. This led to further schisms.[57][58] In 380, mainstream Christianity–as opposed to Arianism–became the official religion of the Roman Empire.[59] Christianity
Christianity
became more associated with the Empire, resulting in persecution for Christians living outside of the empire, as their rulers feared Christians would revolt in favor of the Emperor.[60] In 385, this new legal authority of the Church resulted in the first use of capital punishment being pronounced as a sentence upon a Christian 'heretic', namely Priscillian.[61] During this period, the Bible as it has come down to the 21st century was first officially laid out in Church Councils or Synods through the process of official 'canonization'. Prior
Prior
to these Councils or Synods, the Bible had already reached a form that was nearly identical to the form in which it is now found. According to some accounts, in 382 the Council of Rome first officially recognized the Biblical canon, listing the accepted books of the Old and New Testament, and in 391 the Vulgate
Vulgate
Latin
Latin
translation of the Bible was made.[62] Other accounts list the Council of Carthage of 397 as the Council that finalized the Biblical canon
Biblical canon
as it is known today.[63] The Council of Ephesus in 431 clarified the nature of Jesus' incarnation, declaring that he was both fully man and fully God.[64] Two decades later, the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
solidified Roman papal primacy which added to continuing breakdown in relations between Rome and Constantinople, the seat of the Eastern Church.[65] Also sparked were the Monophysite disagreements over the precise nature of the incarnation of Jesus which led to the first of the various Oriental Orthodox Churches breaking away from the Catholic Church.[66] Middle Ages[edit] See also: Medieval history of Christianity, Byzantine
Byzantine
Papacy, and Christian monasticism Early Middle Ages[edit] After the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 476, the Catholic faith competed with Arianism
Arianism
for the conversion of the barbarian tribes.[67] The 496 conversion of Clovis I, pagan king of the Franks, saw the beginning of a steady rise of the faith in the West.[68]

Saint
Saint
Benedict, father of Western monasticism and author of Rule of St Benedict. Detail from fresco by Fra Angelico, c. 1437–46.

In 530, Saint
Saint
Benedict wrote his Rule of St Benedict
Rule of St Benedict
as a practical guide for monastic community life. Its message spread to monasteries throughout Europe.[69] Monasteries became major conduits of civilization, preserving craft and artistic skills while maintaining intellectual culture within their schools, scriptoria and libraries. They functioned as agricultural, economic and production centers as well as a focus for spiritual life.[70] During this period the Visigoths and Lombards moved away from Arianism
Arianism
for Catholicism.[68] Pope
Pope
Gregory the Great played a notable role in these conversions and dramatically reformed the ecclesiastical structures and administration which then launched renewed missionary efforts.[71] Missionaries such as Augustine of Canterbury, who was sent from Rome to begin the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons, and, coming the other way in the Hiberno-Scottish mission, Saints Colombanus, Boniface, Willibrord, Ansgar
Ansgar
and many others took Christianity
Christianity
into northern Europe and spread Catholicism among the Germanic, and Slavic peoples, and reached the Vikings and other Scandinavians in later centuries.[72] The Synod of Whitby of 664, though not as decisive as sometimes claimed, was an important moment in the reintegration of the Celtic Church
Celtic Church
of the British Isles
British Isles
into the Roman hierarchy, after having been effectively cut off from contact with Rome by the pagan invaders. In the early 8th century, Byzantine iconoclasm
Byzantine iconoclasm
became a major source of conflict between the Eastern and Western parts of the Church. Byzantine
Byzantine
emperors forbade the creation and veneration of religious images, as violations of the Ten Commandments. Other major religions in the East such as Judaism
Judaism
and Islam
Islam
had similar prohibitions. Pope Gregory III vehemently disagreed.[73] A new Empress Irene
Empress Irene
siding with the pope, called for an Ecumenical Council. In 787, the fathers of the Second Council of Nicaea
Second Council of Nicaea
"warmly received the papal delegates and his message".[74] At the conclusion, 300 bishops, who were led by the representatives of Pope
Pope
Hadrian I[75] "adopted the Pope's teaching",[74] in favor of icons. With the coronation of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
by Pope
Pope
Leo III in 800, his new title as Patricius Romanorum, and the handing over of the keys to the Tomb of Saint
Saint
Peter, the papacy had acquired a new protector in the West. This freed the pontiffs to some degree from the power of the emperor in Constantinople but also led to a schism, because the emperors and patriarchs of Constantinople interpreted themselves as the true descendants of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
dating back to the beginnings of the Church.[76] Pope
Pope
Nicholas I had refused to recognize Patriarch Photios I of Constantinople, who in turn had attacked the pope as a heretic, because he kept the filioque in the creed, which referred to the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
emanating from God the Father and the Son. The papacy was strengthened through this new alliance, which in the long term created a new problem for the Popes, when in the Investiture Controversy succeeding emperors sought to appoint bishops and even future popes.[77][78] After the disintegration of the Carolingian Empire and repeated incursions of Islamic forces into Italy, the papacy, without any protection, entered a phase of major weakness.[79] High Middle Ages[edit]

Saint
Saint
Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
carrying the whole Church with his theology

See also: Medieval history of Christianity
Medieval history of Christianity
§ High Middle Ages (800–1499) The Cluniac reform of monasteries that began in 910 placed abbots under the direct control of the pope rather than the secular control of feudal lords, thus eliminating a major source of corruption. This sparked a great monastic renewal.[80] Monasteries, convents and cathedrals still operated virtually all schools and libraries, and often functioned as credit establishments promoting economic growth.[81][82] After 1100, some older cathedral schools split into lower grammar schools and higher schools for advanced learning. First in Bologna, then at Paris
Paris
and Oxford, many of these higher schools developed into universities and became the direct ancestors of modern Western institutions of learning.[83] It was here where notable theologians worked to explain the connection between human experience and faith.[84] The most notable of these theologians, Thomas Aquinas, produced Summa Theologica, a key intellectual achievement in its synthesis of Aristotelian thought and the Gospel.[84] Monastic contributions to western society included the teaching of metallurgy, the introduction of new crops, the invention of musical notation and the creation and preservation of literature.[83] During the 11th century, the East–West schism permanently divided Christianity.[85] It arose over a dispute on whether Constantinople or Rome held jurisdiction over the church in Sicily and led to mutual excommunications in 1054.[85] The Western (Latin) branch of Christianity
Christianity
has since become known as the Catholic Church, while the Eastern (Greek) branch became known as the Orthodox Church.[86][87] The Second Council of Lyon
Second Council of Lyon
(1274) and the Council of Florence
Council of Florence
(1439) both failed to heal the schism.[88] Some Eastern churches have since reunited with the Catholic Church, and others claim never to have been out of communion with the pope.[87][89] Officially, the two churches remain in schism, although excommunications were mutually lifted in 1965.[90] The 11th century saw the Investiture Controversy
Investiture Controversy
between Emperor and Pope
Pope
over the right to make church appointments, the first major phase of the struggle between Church and state in medieval Europe. The Papacy
Papacy
were the initial victors, but as Italians divided between Guelphs and Ghibellines
Guelphs and Ghibellines
in factions that were often passed down through families or states until the end of the Middle Ages, the dispute gradually weakened the Papacy, not least by drawing it into politics. The Church also attempted to control, or exact a price for, most marriages among the great by prohibiting, in 1059, marriages involving consanguinity (blood kin) and affinity (kin by marriage) to the seventh degree of relationship. Under these rules, almost all great marriages required a dispensation. The rules were relaxed to the fourth degree in 1215 (now only the first degree is prohibited by the Church - a man cannot marry his stepdaughter, for example).

Pope
Pope
Urban II at the Council of Clermont
Council of Clermont
(1095), where he preached the First Crusade; later manuscript illumination of c. 1490

Pope
Pope
Urban II launched the First Crusade
First Crusade
in 1095 when he received an appeal from Byzantine
Byzantine
emperor Alexius I to help ward off a Turkish invasion.[91] Urban further believed that a Crusade might help bring about reconciliation with Eastern Christianity.[92][93] Fueled by reports of Muslim atrocities against Christians,[94] the series of military campaigns known as the Crusades
Crusades
began in 1096. They were intended to return the Holy Land
Holy Land
to Christian control. The goal was not permanently realized, and episodes of brutality committed by the armies of both sides left a legacy of mutual distrust between Muslims and Western and Eastern Christians.[95] The sack of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
left Eastern Christians embittered, despite the fact that Pope
Pope
Innocent III had expressly forbidden any such attack.[96] In 2001, Pope
Pope
John Paul II
John Paul II
apologized to the Orthodox Christians for the sins of Catholics including the sacking of Constantinople in 1204.[97] Two new orders of architecture emerged from the Church of this era. The earlier Romanesque style combined massive walls, rounded arches and ceilings of masonry. To compensate for the absence of large windows, interiors were brightly painted with scenes from the Bible and the lives of the saints. Later, the Basilique Saint-Denis
Basilique Saint-Denis
marked a new trend in cathedral building when it utilized Gothic architecture.[98] This style, with its large windows and high, pointed arches, improved lighting and geometric harmony in a manner that was intended to direct the worshiper's mind to God who "orders all things".[98] In other developments, the 12th century saw the founding of eight new monastic orders, many of them functioning as Military Knights of the Crusades.[99] Cistercian
Cistercian
monk Bernard of Clairvaux exerted great influence over the new orders and produced reforms to ensure purity of purpose.[99] His influence led Pope
Pope
Alexander III to begin reforms that would lead to the establishment of canon law.[100] In the following century, new mendicant orders were founded by Francis of Assisi and Dominic de Guzmán which brought consecrated religious life into urban settings.[101] 12th century France
France
witnessed the growth of Catharism
Catharism
in Languedoc. It was in connection with the struggle against this heresy that the Inquisition
Inquisition
originated. After the Cathars were accused of murdering a papal legate in 1208, Pope
Pope
Innocent III declared the Albigensian Crusade.[102] Abuses committed during the crusade caused Innocent III to informally institute the first papal inquisition to prevent future massacres and root out the remaining Cathars.[103][104] Formalized under Gregory IX, this Medieval inquisition
Medieval inquisition
executed an average of three people per year for heresy at its height.[104][105] Over time, other inquisitions were launched by the Church or secular rulers to prosecute heretics, to respond to the threat of Moorish invasion or for political purposes.[106] The accused were encouraged to recant their heresy and those who did not could be punished by penance, fines, imprisonment or execution by burning.[106][107]

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Ecumenical councils of the Catholic Church

Renaissance
Renaissance
depiction of the Council of Trent

Antiquity (c. 50 – 451)

Jerusalem Nicaea I Constantinople I Ephesus Chalcedon

Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(553–870)

Constantinople II Constantinople III Nicaea II Constantinople IV

High and Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(1122–1517)

Lateran I Lateran II Lateran III Lateran IV Lyon I Lyon II Vienne Constance Florence Lateran V

Modernity (1545–1965)

Trent Vatican I Vatican II

Catholicism portal

v t e

A growing sense of church-state conflicts marked the 14th century. To escape instability in Rome, Clement V in 1309 became the first of seven popes to reside in the fortified city of Avignon
Avignon
in southern France[108] during a period known as the Avignon
Avignon
Papacy. The papacy returned to Rome in 1378 at the urging of Catherine of Siena
Catherine of Siena
and others who felt the See of Peter should be in the Roman church.[109][110] With the death of Pope
Pope
Gregory XI later that year, the papal election was disputed between supporters of Italian and French-backed candidates leading to the Western schism. For 38 years, separate claimants to the papal throne sat in Rome and Avignon. Efforts at resolution further complicated the issue when a third compromise pope was elected in 1409.[111] The matter was finally resolved in 1417 at the Council of Constance
Council of Constance
where the cardinals called upon all three claimants to the papal throne to resign, and held a new election naming Martin V pope.[111] Renaissance
Renaissance
and reforms[edit] Discoveries and missionaries[edit] Main articles: Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
and Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and the Age of Discovery See also: Protestant Reformation, Christianity
Christianity
in the 16th century, and Catholicism and the wars of religion Through the late 15th and early 16th centuries, European missionaries and explorers spread Catholicism to the Americas, Asia, Africa
Africa
and Oceania. Pope
Pope
Alexander VI, in the papal bull Inter caetera, awarded colonial rights over most of the newly discovered lands to Spain
Spain
and Portugal.[112] Under the patronato system, state authorities controlled clerical appointments and no direct contact was allowed with the Vatican.[113] On December 1511, the Dominican friar Antonio de Montesinos openly rebuked the Spanish authorities governing Hispaniola
Hispaniola
for their mistreatment of the American natives, telling them "... you are in mortal sin ... for the cruelty and tyranny you use in dealing with these innocent people".[114][115][116] King Ferdinand enacted the Laws of Burgos and Valladolid in response. Enforcement was lax, and while some blame the Church for not doing enough to liberate the Indians, others point to the Church as the only voice raised on behalf of indigenous peoples.[117] The issue resulted in a crisis of conscience in 16th-century Spain.[118][116] An outpouring of self-criticism and philosophical reflection among Catholic theologians, most notably Francisco de Vitoria, led to debate on the nature of human rights[116] and the birth of modern international law.[119][120] In 1521, through the leadership and preaching of the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, the first Catholics were baptized in what became the first Christian nation in Southeast Asia, the Philippines.[121] The following year, Franciscan
Franciscan
missionaries arrived in what is now Mexico, and sought to convert the Indians and to provide for their well-being by establishing schools and hospitals. They taught the Indians better farming methods, and easier ways of weaving and making pottery. Because some people questioned whether the Indians were truly human and deserved baptism, Pope
Pope
Paul III in the papal bull Veritas Ipsa or Sublimis Deus (1537) confirmed that the Indians were deserving people.[122][123] Afterward, the conversion effort gained momentum.[124] Over the next 150 years, the missions expanded into southwestern North America.[125] The native people were legally defined as children, and priests took on a paternalistic role, often enforced with corporal punishment.[126] Elsewhere, in India, Portuguese missionaries and the Spanish Jesuit Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier
evangelized among non-Christians and a Christian community which claimed to have been established by Thomas the Apostle.[127]

Whitby Abbey, England, one of hundreds of European monasteries destroyed during the Reformation

Renaissance
Renaissance
Church[edit] In Europe, the Renaissance
Renaissance
marked a period of renewed interest in ancient and classical learning. It also brought a re-examination of accepted beliefs. Cathedrals and churches had long served as picture books and art galleries for millions of the uneducated. The stained glass windows, frescoes, statues, paintings and panels retold the stories of the saints and of biblical characters. The Church sponsored great Renaissance
Renaissance
artists like Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and Leonardo da Vinci, who created some of the world's most famous artworks.[128] The acceptance of humanism had its effects on the Church, which embraced it as well. In 1509, a well known scholar of the age, Erasmus, wrote The Praise of Folly, a work which captured a widely held unease about corruption in the Church.[129] The Papacy
Papacy
itself was questioned by conciliarism expressed in the councils of Constance and the Basel. Real reforms during these ecumenical councils and the Fifth Lateran Council
Fifth Lateran Council
were attempted several times but thwarted. They were seen as necessary but did not succeed in large measure because of internal feuds within the Church,[130] ongoing conflicts with the Ottoman Empire and Saracenes[130] and the simony and nepotism practiced in the Renaissance
Renaissance
Church of the 15th and early 16th centuries.[131] As a result, rich, powerful and worldly men like Roderigo Borgia (Pope Alexander VI) were able to win election to the papacy.[131][132] Reformation
Reformation
era wars[edit] The Fifth Lateran Council
Fifth Lateran Council
issued some but only minor reforms in March 1517. A few months later, on October 31, 1517, Martin Luther
Martin Luther
posted his Ninety-Five Theses in public, hoping to spark debate.[133][134] His theses protested key points of Catholic doctrine as well as the sale of indulgences.[133][134] Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin, and others also criticized Catholic teachings. These challenges, supported by powerful political forces in the region, developed into the Protestant Reformation.[135][136] In Germany, the Reformation
Reformation
led to war between the Protestant Schmalkaldic League
Schmalkaldic League
and the Catholic Emperor Charles V. The first nine-year war ended in 1555 but continued tensions produced a far graver conflict, the Thirty Years' War, which broke out in 1618.[137] In France, a series of conflicts termed the French Wars of Religion
French Wars of Religion
was fought from 1562 to 1598 between the Huguenots and the forces of the French Catholic League. A series of popes sided with and became financial supporters of the Catholic League.[138] This ended under Pope
Pope
Clement VIII, who hesitantly accepted King Henry IV's 1598 Edict of Nantes, which granted civil and religious toleration to Protestants.[137][138] England[edit] The English Reformation
English Reformation
was ostensibly based on Henry VIII's desire for annulment of his marriage with Catherine of Aragon, and was initially more of a political, and later a theological dispute.[139] The Acts of Supremacy made the English monarch head of the English church thereby establishing the Church of England. Then, beginning in 1536, some 825 monasteries throughout England, Wales
Wales
and Ireland were dissolved and Catholic churches were confiscated.[140][141] When he died in 1547 all monasteries, friaries, convents of nuns and shrines were destroyed or dissolved.[141][142] Mary I of England reunited the Church of England
Church of England
with Rome and, against the advice of the Spanish ambassador, persecuted Protestants during the Marian Persecutions.[143][144] After some provocation, the following monarch, Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
enforced the Act of Supremacy. This prevented Catholics from becoming members of professions, holding public office, voting or educating their children.[143][145] Executions of Catholics under Elizabeth I, who reigned much longer, then surpassed the Marian persecutions[143] and persisted under subsequent English monarchs.[146] Penal laws were also enacted in Ireland[147] but were less effective than in England.[143][148] In part because the Irish people associated Catholicism with nationhood and national identity, they resisted persistent English efforts to eliminate the Catholic Church.[143][148]

Melk Abbey—adjoining Wachau Valley, Lower Austria—exemplifies the Baroque
Baroque
style.

Council of Trent[edit] Historian Diarmaid MacCulloch, in his book The Reformation, A History noted that through all the slaughter of the Reformation
Reformation
era emerged the valuable concept of religious toleration and an improved Catholic Church[149] which responded to doctrinal challenges and abuses highlighted by the Reformation
Reformation
at the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
(1545–1563). The council became the driving-force of the Counter-Reformation, and reaffirmed central Catholic doctrines such as transubstantiation, and the requirement for love and hope as well as faith to attain salvation.[150] It also reformed many other areas of importance to the Church, most importantly by improving the education of the clergy and consolidating the central jurisdiction of the Roman Curia.[7][150][151] The criticisms of the Reformation
Reformation
were among factors that sparked new religious orders including the Theatines, Barnabites
Barnabites
and Jesuits, some of which became the great missionary orders of later years.[152] Spiritual renewal and reform were inspired by many new saints like Teresa of Avila, Francis de Sales
Francis de Sales
and Philip Neri whose writings spawned distinct schools of spirituality within the Church (Oratorians, Carmelites, Salesian), etc.[153] Improvement to the education of the laity was another positive effect of the era, with a proliferation of secondary schools reinvigorating higher studies such as history, philosophy and theology.[154] To popularize Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
teachings, the Church encouraged the Baroque
Baroque
style in art, music and architecture. Baroque
Baroque
religious expression was stirring and emotional, created to stimulate religious fervor.[155] Elsewhere, Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier
introduced the Catholic Church in Japan, and by the end of the 16th century
16th century
tens of thousands of Japanese adhered. Church growth came to a halt in 1597 under the Shogun Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
who, in an effort to isolate the country from foreign influences, launched a severe persecution of Christians.[156] Japanese were forbidden to leave the country and Europeans were forbidden to enter. Despite this, a minority Christian population survived into the 19th century.[156][157] Baroque, Enlightenment and revolutions[edit] See also: Christianity in the 17th century
Christianity in the 17th century
and Modern history of Christianity
Christianity
§  Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
(1640–1740) Marian devotions[edit] The Council of Trent
Council of Trent
generated a revival of religious life and Marian devotions in the Catholic Church. During the Reformation, the Church had defended its Marian beliefs against Protestant views. At the same time, the Catholic world was engaged in ongoing Ottoman Wars in Europe against Turkey which were fought and won under the auspices of the Virgin Mary. The victory at the Battle of Lepanto
Battle of Lepanto
(1571) was accredited to her "and signified the beginning of a strong resurgence of Marian devotions, focusing especially on Mary, the Queen of Heaven and Earth and her powerful role as mediatrix of many graces".[158] The Colloquium Marianum, an elite group, and the Sodality of Our Lady based their activities on a virtuous life, free of cardinal sins. Pope
Pope
Paul V and Gregory XV
Gregory XV
ruled in 1617 and 1622 to be inadmissible to state, that the virgin was conceived non-immaculate. Supporting the belief that she was born without original sin, through the intended protection of God's grace (aka Immaculate Conception).[clarification needed] Alexander VII
Alexander VII
declared in 1661, that the soul of Mary was free from original sin. Pope
Pope
Clement XI ordered the feast of the Immaculata for the whole Church in 1708. The feast of the Rosary
Rosary
was introduced in 1716, the feast of the Seven Sorrows in 1727. The Angelus
Angelus
prayer was strongly supported by Pope
Pope
Benedict XIII in 1724 and by Pope Benedict XIV
Benedict XIV
in 1742.[159] Popular Marian piety was even more colourful and varied than ever before: Numerous Marian pilgrimages, Marian Salve devotions, new Marian litanies, Marian theatre plays, Marian hymns, Marian processions. Marian fraternities, today mostly defunct, had millions of members.[160]

After centuries of French opposition, Pope
Pope
Innocent XI was beatified by Pius XII
Pius XII
in 1956

Enlightenment secularism[edit] The Enlightenment constituted a new challenge of the Church. Unlike the Protestant Reformation, which questioned certain Christian doctrines, the enlightenment questioned Christianity
Christianity
as a whole. Generally, it elevated human reason above divine revelation and down-graded religious authorities such as the papacy based on it.[161] Parallel the Church attempted to fend off Gallicanism
Gallicanism
and Councilarism, ideologies which threatened the papacy and structure of the Church.[162] Toward the latter part of the 17th century, Pope
Pope
Innocent XI viewed the increasing Turkish attacks against Europe, which were supported by France, as the major threat for the Church. He built a Polish-Austrian coalition for the Turkish defeat at Vienna in 1683. Scholars have called him a saintly pope because he reformed abuses by the Church, including simony, nepotism and the lavish papal expenditures that had caused him to inherit a papal debt of 50,000,000 scudi. By eliminating certain honorary posts and introducing new fiscal policies, Innocent XI was able to regain control of the church's finances.[163] In France, the Church battled Jansenism
Jansenism
and Gallicanism, which supported Conciliarism, and rejected papal primacy, demanding special concessions for the Church in France. This weakened the Church's ability to respond to gallicanist thinkers such as Denis Diderot, who challenged fundamental doctrines of the Church.[164] In 1685 gallicanist King Louis XIV
Louis XIV
of France
France
issued the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, ending a century of religious toleration. France forced Catholic theologians to support conciliarism and deny Papal infallibility. The king threatened Pope
Pope
Innocent XI with a general council and a military take-over of the Papal state.[165] The absolute French State used Gallicanism
Gallicanism
to gain control of virtually all major Church appointments as well as many of the Church's properties.[163][166] State authority over the Church became popular in other countries as well. In Belgium and Germany, Gallicanism appeared in the form of Febronianism, which rejected papal prerogatives in an equal fashion.[167] Emperor Joseph II of Austria (1780–1790) practiced Josephinism
Josephinism
by regulating Church life, appointments, and massive confiscation of Church properties.[167] Church in North America[edit] In what is now the Western United States, the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
expanded its missionary activity but, until the 19th century, had to work in conjunction with the Spanish crown and military.[168] Junípero Serra, the Franciscan
Franciscan
priest in charge of this effort, founded a series of missions and presidios in California which became important economic, political, and religious institutions.[169] These missions brought grain, cattle and a new political and religious order to the Indian tribes of California. Coastal and overland routes were established from Mexico
Mexico
City and mission outposts in Texas and New Mexico
Mexico
that resulted 13 major California missions by 1781. European visitors brought new diseases that killed off a third of the native population.[170] Mexico
Mexico
shut down the missions in the 1820s and sold off the lands. Only in the 19th century, after the breakdown of most Spanish and Portuguese colonies, was the Vatican able to take charge of Catholic missionary activities through its Propaganda Fide organization.[171] Church in South America[edit] During this period the Church faced colonial abuses from the Portuguese and Spanish governments. In South America, the Jesuits protected native peoples from enslavement by establishing semi-independent settlements called reductions. Pope
Pope
Gregory XVI, challenging Spanish and Portuguese sovereignty, appointed his own candidates as bishops in the colonies, condemned slavery and the slave trade in 1839 (papal bull In supremo apostolatus), and approved the ordination of native clergy in spite of government racism.[172] Jesuits[edit] Jesuits
Jesuits
in India[edit] Christianity in India
Christianity in India
has a tradition of Thomas establishing the faith in Kerala. The community was very small until the Jesuit Francis Xavier (1502–1552) began missionary work. Roberto de Nobili (1577–1656), a Tuscan Jesuit missionary to Southern India followed in his path. He pioneered inculturation, adopting many Brahmin
Brahmin
customs which were not, in his opinion, contrary to Christianity. He lived like a Brahmin, learned Sanskrit, and presented Christianity
Christianity
as a part of Indian beliefs, not identical with the Portuguese culture of the colonialists. He permitted the use of all customs, which in his view did not directly contradict Christian teachings. By 1640 there were 40 000 Christians in Madurai
Madurai
alone. In 1632, Pope
Pope
Gregory XV
Gregory XV
gave permission for this approach. But strong anti-Jesuit sentiments in Portugal, France, and even in Rome, resulted in a reversal. This ended the successful Catholic missions in India.[173] On September 12, 1744, Benedict XIV
Benedict XIV
forbade the so-called Malabar rites in India, with the result, that leading Indian castes who wanted to adhere to their traditional cultures, turned away from the Catholic Church.[174][175] French Revolution[edit] See also: Christianity
Christianity
in the 18th century and Modern history of Christianity
Christianity
§  Revivalism
Revivalism
(1720–1906) The anti-clericalism of the French Revolution
French Revolution
saw the wholesale nationalisation of church property and attempts to establish a state-run church. Large numbers of priests refused to take an oath of compliance to the National Assembly, leading to the Church being outlawed and replaced by a new religion of the worship of "Reason" but it never gained popularity. In this period, all monasteries were destroyed, 30,000 priests were exiled and hundreds more were killed.[176][177] When Pope
Pope
Pius VI sided against the revolution in the First Coalition, Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Italy. The 82-year-old pope was taken as a prisoner to France
France
in February 1799 and soon died. To win popular support for his rule, Napoleon re-established the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in France
France
through the Concordat of 1801. The church lands were never returned, however the priests and other religious were given salaries by the government, which maintained church properties through tax revenues. Catholics were allowed to continue some of their schools. The end of the Napoleonic wars, signaled by the Congress of Vienna, brought Catholic revival and the return of the Papal States
Papal States
to the pope; the Jesuits
Jesuits
were restored.[178][179] 19th century France[edit] France
France
remained basically Catholic. The census of 1872 counted 36 million people, of whom 35.4 million were listed as Catholics, 600,000 as Protestants, 50,000 as Jews and 80,000 as freethinkers The Revolution failed to destroy the Catholic Church, and Napoleon's concordat of 1801 restored its status. The return of the Bourbons in 1814 brought back many rich nobles and landowners who supported the Church, seeing it as a bastion of conservatism and monarchism. However the monasteries with their vast land holdings and political power were gone; much of the land had been sold to urban entrepreneurs who lacked historic connections to the land and the peasants. Few new priests were trained in the 1790-1814 period, and many left the church. The result was that the number of parish clergy plunged from 60,000 in 1790 to 25,000 in 1815, many of them elderly. Entire regions, especially around Paris, were left with few priests. On the other hand, some traditional regions held fast to the faith, led by local nobles and historic families.[180] The comeback was slow—very slow in the larger cities and industrial areas. With systematic missionary work and a new emphasis on liturgy and devotions to the Virgin Mary, plus support from Napoleon III, there was a comeback. In 1870 there were 56,500 priests, representing a much younger and more dynamic force in the villages and towns, with a thick network of schools, charities and lay organizations.[181] Conservative Catholics held control of the national government, 1820-1830, but most often played secondary political roles or had to fight the assault from republicans, liberals, socialists and seculars.[182][183] Third Republic 1870-1940[edit] Throughout the lifetime of the Third Republic there were battles over the status of the Catholic Church. The French clergy and bishops were closely associated with the Monarchists and many of its hierarchy were from noble families. Republicans were based in the anticlerical middle class who saw the Church's alliance with the monarchists as a political threat to republicanism, and a threat to the modern spirit of progress. The Republicans detested the church for its political and class affiliations; for them, the church represented outmoded traditions, superstition and monarchism. The Republicans were strengthened by Protestant and Jewish support. Numerous laws were passed to weaken the Catholic Church. In 1879, priests were excluded from the administrative committees of hospitals and of boards of charity; in 1880, new measures were directed against the religious congregations; from 1880 to 1890 came the substitution of lay women for nuns in many hospitals. Napoleon's 1801 Concordat continued in operation but in 1881, the government cut off salaries to priests it disliked.[184] The 1882 school laws of Republican Jules Ferry
Jules Ferry
set up a national system of public schools that taught strict puritanical morality but no religion.[185] For a while privately funded Catholic schools were tolerated. Civil marriage became compulsory, divorce was introduced and chaplains were removed from the army.[186] When Leo XIII
Leo XIII
became pope in 1878 he tried to calm Church-State relations. In 1884 he told French bishops not to act in a hostile manner to the State. In 1892 he issued an encyclical advising French Catholics to rally to the Republic and defend the Church by participating in Republican politics. This attempt at improving the relationship failed. Deep-rooted suspicions remained on both sides and were inflamed by the Dreyfus Affair. Catholics were for the most part anti-dreyfusard. The Assumptionists published anti-Semitic and anti-republican articles in their journal La Croix. This infuriated Republican politicians, who were eager to take revenge. Often they worked in alliance with Masonic lodges. The Waldeck-Rousseau Ministry (1899–1902) and the Combes Ministry (1902–05) fought with the Vatican over the appointment of bishops. Chaplains were removed from naval and military hospitals (1903–04), and soldiers were ordered not to frequent Catholic clubs (1904). Combes as Prime Minister in 1902, was determined to thoroughly defeat Catholicism. He closed down all parochial schools in France. Then he had parliament reject authorisation of all religious orders. This meant that all fifty four orders were dissolved and about 20,000 members immediately left France, many for Spain.[187] In 1905 the 1801 Concordat was abrogated; Church and State were finally separated. All Church property was confiscated. Public worship was given over to associations of Catholic laymen who controlled access to churches. In practise, Masses and rituals continued. The Church was badly hurt and lost half its priests. In the long run, however, it gained autonomy—for the State no longer had a voice in choosing bishops and Gallicanism
Gallicanism
was dead.[188]

Church from the Indian settlement of San Ignacio Miní

Africa[edit] At the end of the 19th century, Catholic missionaries followed colonial governments into Africa
Africa
and built schools, hospitals, monasteries and churches.[189] Industrial age[edit] See also: Modern history of Christianity
Christianity
§ Late modern history (1848–present), and Christianity
Christianity
in the 19th century First Vatican Council[edit] Before the council, in 1854 Pope
Pope
Pius IX
Pius IX
with the support of the overwhelming majority of Catholic Bishops, whom he had consulted between 1851–1853, proclaimed the dogma of the Immaculate Conception.[190] Eight years earlier, in 1846, the Pope
Pope
had granted the unanimous wish of the bishops from the United States, and declared the Immaculata
Immaculata
the patron of the USA.[191] During First Vatican Council, some 108 council fathers requested to add the words "Immaculate Virgin" to the Hail Mary.[192] Some fathers requested, the dogma of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
to be included in the Creed
Creed
of the Church, which was opposed by Pius IX[193] Many French Catholics wished the dogmatization of Papal infallibility
Papal infallibility
and the assumption of Mary by the ecumenical council.[194] During Vatican One, nine mariological petitions favoured a possible assumption dogma, which however was strongly opposed by some council fathers, especially from Germany. In 1870, the First Vatican Council
First Vatican Council
affirmed the doctrine of papal infallibility when exercised in specifically defined pronouncements.[195][196] Controversy over this and other issues resulted in a very small breakaway movement called the Old Catholic Church.[197] Social teachings[edit] Main article: Catholic social teaching

The Church was slow to react to the growing industrialization and impoverishment of workers, trying first to remediate the situation with increased charity. In 1891 Pope
Pope
Leo XIII
Leo XIII
issued Rerum novarum
Rerum novarum
in which the Church defined the dignity and rights of industrial workers.

The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
brought many concerns about the deteriorating working and living conditions of urban workers. Influenced by the German Bishop
Bishop
Wilhelm Emmanuel Freiherr von Ketteler, in 1891 Pope
Pope
Leo XIII
Leo XIII
published the encyclical Rerum novarum, which set in context Catholic social teaching
Catholic social teaching
in terms that rejected socialism but advocated the regulation of working conditions. Rerum novarum
Rerum novarum
argued for the establishment of a living wage and the right of workers to form trade unions.[198] Quadragesimo anno was issued by Pope
Pope
Pius XI, on 15 May 1931, 40 years after Rerum novarum. Unlike Leo, who addressed mainly the condition of workers, Pius XI
Pius XI
concentrated on the ethical implications of the social and economic order. He called for the reconstruction of the social order based on the principle of solidarity and subsidiarity.[199] He noted major dangers for human freedom and dignity, arising from unrestrained capitalism and totalitarian communism. The social teachings of Pope
Pope
Pius XII
Pius XII
repeat these teachings, and apply them in greater detail not only to workers and owners of capital, but also to other professions such as politicians, educators, house-wives, farmers, bookkeepers, international organizations, and all aspects of life including the military. Going beyond Pius XI, he also defined social teachings in the areas of medicine, psychology, sport, television, science, law and education. There is virtually no social issue, which Pius XII
Pius XII
did not address and relate to the Christian faith.[200] He was called "the Pope
Pope
of Technology, for his willingness and ability to examine the social implications of technological advances. The dominant concern was the continued rights and dignity of the individual. With the beginning of the space age at the end of his pontificate, Pius XII
Pius XII
explored the social implications of space exploration and satellites on the social fabric of humanity asking for a new sense of community and solidarity in light of existing papal teachings on subsidiarity.[201] Role of women's institutes[edit]

Catholic Sisters and the leper children of Hawaii in 1886. Catholic women like St Marianne Cope
Cope
played a central role in developing and running of many the modern world's education and health care systems.

Catholic women have played a prominent role in providing education and health services in keeping with Catholic social teaching. Ancient orders like the Carmelites
Carmelites
had engaged in social work for centuries.[202] The 19th century saw a new flowering of institutes for women, dedicated to the provision of health and education services - of these the Salesian
Salesian
Sisters of Don Bosco, Claretian Sisters and Franciscan
Franciscan
Missionaries of Mary became among the largest Catholic women's religious institutes of all.[203] The Sisters of Mercy
Sisters of Mercy
was founded by Catherine McAuley
Catherine McAuley
in Ireland
Ireland
in 1831, and her nuns went on to establish hospitals and schools across the world.[204] The Little Sisters of the Poor
Little Sisters of the Poor
was founded in the mid-19th century by Saint
Saint
Jeanne Jugan
Jeanne Jugan
near Rennes, France, to care for the many impoverished elderly who lined the streets of French towns and cities.[205][206] In Britain's Australian colonies, Australia's first canonized Saint, Mary MacKillop, co-founded the Sisters of St. Joseph of the Sacred Heart
Sisters of St. Joseph of the Sacred Heart
as an educative religious institute for the poor in 1866, going on to establish schools, orphanages and refuges for the needy.[207] In 1872, the Salesian Sisters of Don Bosco (also called Daughters of Mary Help of Christians) was founded by Maria Domenica Mazzarello. The teaching order was to become the modern world's largest institute for women, with around 14,000 members in 2012.[203] Saint
Saint
Marianne Cope
Cope
opened and operated some of the first general hospitals in the United States, instituting cleanliness standards which influenced the development of America's modern hospital system.[208] Also in the United States, Saint
Saint
Katharine Drexel
Katharine Drexel
founded Xavier University of Louisiana
Xavier University of Louisiana
to assist African and Native Americans.[209] Mariology[edit]

Madonna and Child, by Filippo Lippi

Popes have always highlighted the inner link between the Virgin Mary as Mother of God
Mother of God
and the full acceptance of Jesus
Jesus
Christ as Son of God.[210][211] Since the 19th century, they were highly important for the development of mariology to explain the veneration of Mary through their decisions not only in the area of Marian beliefs (Mariology) but also Marian practices and devotions. Before the 19th century, Popes promulgated Marian veneration by authorizing new Marian feast days, prayers, initiatives, the acceptance and support of Marian congregations.[212][213] Since the 19th century, Popes begin to use encyclicals more frequently. Thus Leo XIII, the Rosary
Rosary
Pope
Pope
issued eleven Marian encyclicals. Recent Popes promulgated the veneration of the Blessed Virgin with two dogmas, Pius IX
Pius IX
the Immaculate Conception in 1854 and the Assumption of Mary
Assumption of Mary
in 1950 by Pope
Pope
Pius XII. Pius XII also promulgated the new feast Queenship of Mary
Queenship of Mary
celebrating Mary as Queen of Heaven
Queen of Heaven
and he introduced the first ever Marian year
Marian year
in 1954, a second one was proclaimed by John Paul II. Pius IX, Pius XI
Pius XI
and Pius XII facilitated the veneration of Marian apparitions such as in Lourdes
Lourdes
and Fátima. Later Popes such from John XXIII
John XXIII
to Benedict XVI promoted the visit to Marian shrines ( Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
in 2007 and 2008). The Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council
highlighted the importance of Marian veneration in Lumen gentium. During the Council, Paul VI
Paul VI
proclaimed Mary to be the Mother of the Church. Anti-clericalism[edit] See also: Christianity
Christianity
in the 20th century The 20th century saw the rise of various politically radical and anti-clerical governments. The 1926 Calles Law
Law
separating church and state in Mexico
Mexico
led to the Cristero War[214] in which over 3,000 priests were exiled or assassinated,[215] churches desecrated, services mocked, nuns raped and captured priests shot.[214] In the Soviet Union following the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, persecution of the Church and Catholics continued well into the 1930s.[216] In addition to the execution and exiling of clerics, monks and laymen, the confiscation of religious implements and closure of churches was common.[217] During the 1936–39 Spanish Civil War, the Catholic hierarchy supported Francisco Franco's rebel Nationalist forces against the Popular Front government,[218] citing Republican violence directed against the Church.[219] The Church had been an active element in the polarising politics of the years preceding the Civil War.[220] Pope
Pope
Pius XI
Pius XI
referred to these three countries as a "terrible triangle" and the failure to protest in Europe and the United States as a "conspiracy of silence".[citation needed] Dictatorships[edit] Italy[edit] Pope
Pope
Pius XI
Pius XI
aimed to end the long breach between the papacy and the Italian government and to gain recognition once more of the sovereign independence of the Holy See. Most of the Papal States
Papal States
had been seized by the armies of King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
(1861–1878) in 1860 seeking Italian unification. Rome itself was seized by force in 1870 and the pope became the "prisoner in the Vatican." The Italian government's policies had always been anti-clerical until the First World War, when some compromises were reached.[221]

Boundary map of Vatican City

To bolster his own dictatorial Fascist regime, Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
was also eager for an agreement. Agreement was reached in 1929 with the Lateran Treaties, which helped both sides.[222] According to the terms of the first treaty, Vatican City
Vatican City
was given sovereignty as an independent nation in return for the Vatican relinquishing its claim to the former territories of the Papal States. Pius XI
Pius XI
thus became a head of a tiny state with its own territory, army. radio station, and diplomatic representation. The Concordat of 1929 made Catholicism the sole religion of Italy (although other religions were tolerated), paid salaries to priests and bishops, recognized church marriages (previously couples had to have a civil ceremony), and brought religious instruction into the public schools. In turn the bishops swore allegiance to the Italian state, which had a veto power over their selection.[223] The Church was not officially obligated to support the Fascist regime; the strong differences remained but the seething hostility ended. The Church especially endorsed foreign policies such as support for the anti-Communist side in the Spanish Civil War, and support for the conquest of Ethiopia. Friction continued over the Catholic Action youth network, which Mussolini wanted to merge into his Fascist youth group. A compromise was reached with only the Fascists allowed to sponsor sports teams.[224] Italy paid the Vatican 1750 million lira (about $100 million) for the seizures of church property since 1860. Pius XI
Pius XI
invested the money in the stock markets and real estate. To manage these investments, the Pope
Pope
appointed the lay-person Bernardino Nogara, who through shrewd investing in stocks, gold, and futures markets, significantly increased the Catholic Church's financial holdings. The income largely paid for the upkeep of the expensive-to-maintain stock of historic buildings in the Vatican which previously had been maintained through funds raised from the Papal States
Papal States
up until 1870. The Vatican's relationship with Mussolini's government deteriorated drastically after 1930 as Mussolini's totalitarian ambitions began to impinge more and more on the autonomy of the Church. For example, the Fascists tried to absorb the Church's youth groups. In response Pius XI issued the encyclical Non abbiamo bisogno ("We Have No Need)") in 1931. It denounced the regime's persecution of the church in Italy and condemned "pagan worship of the State."[225] Austria
Austria
and Nazi Germany[edit] Main article: Pope
Pope
Pius XI
Pius XI
and Germany

Signing of the Reichskonkordat
Reichskonkordat
on 20 July 1933. From left to right: German prelate Ludwig Kaas, German Vice-Chancellor Franz von Papen, representing Germany, Monsignor Giuseppe Pizzardo, Cardinal Pacelli, Monsignor Alfredo Ottaviani, German ambassador Rudolf Buttmann.

The Vatican supported the Christian Socialists in Austria, a country with a majority Catholic population but a powerful secular element. Pope
Pope
Pius XI
Pius XI
favored the regime of Engelbert Dollfuss
Engelbert Dollfuss
(1932–34), who wanted to remold society based on papal encyclicals. Dollfuss suppressed the anti-clerical elements and the socialists, but was assassinated by the Austrian Nazis in 1934. His successor Kurt von Schuschnigg (1934–38) was also pro-Catholic and received Vatican support. Germany
Germany
annexed Austria
Austria
in 1938 and imposed its own policies.[226] Pius XI
Pius XI
was prepared to negotiate concordats with any country that was willing to do so, thinking that written treaties were the best way to protect the Church's rights against governments increasingly inclined to interfere in such matters. Twelve concordats were signed during his reign with various types of governments, including some German state governments. When Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
became Chancellor of Germany
Germany
on 30 January 1933 and asked for a concordat, Pius XI
Pius XI
accepted. The Concordat of 1933 included guarantees of liberty for the Church in Nazi Germany, independence for Catholic organisations and youth groups, and religious teaching in schools.[227] Nazi ideology was spearheaded by Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
and the SS. In the struggle for total control over German minds and bodies, the SS developed an anti-religious agenda.[228] No Catholic or Protestant chaplains were allowed in its units (although they were allowed in the regular army). Himmler established a special unit to identify and eliminate Catholic influences. The SS decided the German Catholic Church was a serious threat to its hegemony and while it was too strong to be abolished it was partly stripped of its influence, for example by closing its youth clubs and publications.[229] After repeated violations of the Concordat, Pope
Pope
Pius XI
Pius XI
issued the 1937 encyclical Mit brennender Sorge
Mit brennender Sorge
which publicly condemned the Nazis' persecution of the Church and their ideology of neopaganism and racial superiority.[230] World War II[edit] After the Second World War began in September 1939, the Church condemned the invasion of Poland
Poland
and subsequent 1940 Nazi invasions.[231] In the Holocaust, Pope
Pope
Pius XII
Pius XII
directed the Church hierarchy to help protect Jews and Gypsies from the Nazis.[232] While Pius XII
Pius XII
has been credited with helping to save hundreds of thousands of Jews.[233] the Church has also been falsely accused of encouraging antisemitism[234] Albert Einstein, addressing the Catholic Church's role during the Holocaust, said the following: "Being a lover of freedom, when the revolution came in Germany, I looked to the universities to defend it, knowing that they had always boasted of their devotion to the cause of truth; but, no, the universities immediately were silenced. Then I looked to the great editors of the newspapers whose flaming editorials in days gone by had proclaimed their love of freedom; but they, like the universities, were silenced in a few short weeks... "Only the Church stood squarely across the path of Hitler's campaign for suppressing truth. I never had any special interest in the Church before, but now I feel a great affection and admiration because the Church alone has had the courage and persistence to stand for intellectual truth and moral freedom. I am forced thus to confess that what I once despised I now praise unreservedly." This quote appeared in the December 23, 1940 issue of Time magazine on page 38.[235] Other biased commentators accused Pius of not doing enough to stop Nazi atrocities.[236] Debate over the validity of these criticisms continues to this day.[233] Post-Industrial age[edit] Second Vatican Council[edit] Main article: History of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
since 1962 The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
engaged in a comprehensive process of reform following the Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council
(1962–65).[237] Intended as a continuation of Vatican I, under Pope
Pope
John XXIII
John XXIII
the council developed into an engine of modernisation.[237][238] It was tasked with making the historical teachings of the Church clear to a modern world, and made pronouncements on topics including the nature of the church, the mission of the laity and religious freedom.[237] The council approved a revision of the liturgy and permitted the Latin liturgical rites
Latin liturgical rites
to use vernacular languages as well as Latin
Latin
during mass and other sacraments.[239] Efforts by the Church to improve Christian unity became a priority.[240] In addition to finding common ground on certain issues with Protestant churches, the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
has discussed the possibility of unity with the Eastern Orthodox Church.[241] Reforms[edit] Changes to old rites and ceremonies following Vatican II produced a variety of responses. Some stopped going to church, while others tried to preserve the old liturgy with the help of sympathetic priests.[242] These formed the basis of today's Traditionalist Catholic
Traditionalist Catholic
groups, which believe that the reforms of Vatican II have gone too far. Liberal Catholics form another dissenting group who feel that the Vatican II reforms did not go far enough. The liberal views of theologians such as Hans Küng
Hans Küng
and Charles Curran, led to Church withdrawal of their authorization to teach as Catholics.[243] According to Professor Thomas Bokenkotter, most Catholics "accepted the changes more or less gracefully."[242] In 2007, Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
eased permission for the optional old Mass to be celebrated upon request by the faithful.[244] A new Codex Iuris Canonici, called for by John XXIII, was promulgated by Pope
Pope
John Paul II
John Paul II
on January 25, 1983. The 1983 Code of Canon Law, includes numerous reforms and alterations in Church law and Church discipline for the Latin
Latin
Church. It replaced the 1917 Code of Canon Law
Law
issued by Benedict XV. Theology[edit] Modernism[edit] Main article: Modernism in the Catholic Church

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2009)

Liberation theology[edit] In the 1960s, growing social awareness and politicization in the Latin American Church gave birth to liberation theology. The Peruvian priest, Gustavo Gutiérrez, became its primary proponent[245] and, in 1979, the bishops' conference in Mexico
Mexico
officially declared the Latin American Church's "preferential option for the poor".[246] Archbishop Óscar Romero, a supporter of the movement, became the region's most famous contemporary martyr in 1980, when he was murdered while celebrating Mass by forces allied with the government.[247] Both Pope John Paul II
John Paul II
and Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
(as Cardinal Ratzinger) denounced the movement.[248] The Brazilian theologian Leonardo Boff
Leonardo Boff
was twice ordered to cease publishing and teaching.[249] While Pope
Pope
John Paul II was criticized for his severity in dealing with proponents of the movement, he maintained that the Church, in its efforts to champion the poor, should not do so by resorting to violence or partisan politics.[245] The movement is still alive in Latin
Latin
America today, though the Church now faces the challenge of Pentecostal revival in much of the region.[250] Sexuality and gender issues[edit] The sexual revolution of the 1960s brought challenging issues for the Church. Pope
Pope
Paul VI's 1968 encyclical Humanae Vitae
Humanae Vitae
reaffirmed the Catholic Church's traditional view of marriage and marital relations and asserted a continued proscription of artificial birth control. In addition, the encyclical reaffirmed the sanctity of life from conception to natural death and asserted a continued condemnation of both abortion and euthanasia as grave sins which were equivalent to murder.[251][252] The efforts to lead the Church to consider the ordination of women led Pope
Pope
John Paul II
John Paul II
to issue two documents to explain Church teaching. Mulieris Dignitatem was issued in 1988 to clarify women's equally important and complementary role in the work of the Church.[253][254] Then in 1994, Ordinatio Sacerdotalis explained that the Church extends ordination only to men in order to follow the example of Jesus, who chose only men for this specific duty.[255][256][257] Catholicism today[edit] See also: Christianity
Christianity
in the 21st century Catholic-Orthodox dialogue[edit] In June 2004, the Ecumenical Patriarch
Ecumenical Patriarch
Bartholomew I's visited Rome on the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul
Feast of Saints Peter and Paul
(29 June) for another personal meeting with Pope
Pope
John Paul II, for conversations with the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity and for taking part in the celebration for the feast day in St. Peter's Basilica. The Patriarch's partial participation in the Eucharistic liturgy at which the Pope
Pope
presided followed the program of the past visits of Patriarch
Patriarch
Dimitrios (1987) and Patriarch Bartholomew I
Patriarch Bartholomew I
himself: full participation in the Liturgy of the Word, joint proclamation by the Pope
Pope
and by the Patriarch
Patriarch
of the profession of faith according to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed
Creed
in Greek and as the conclusion, the final Blessing imparted by both the Pope
Pope
and the Patriarch
Patriarch
at the Altar of the Confessio.[258] The Patriarch
Patriarch
did not fully participate in the Liturgy of the Eucharist
Eucharist
involving the consecration and distribution of the Eucharist
Eucharist
itself.[259][260] In accordance with the Catholic Church's practice of including the clause when reciting the Creed
Creed
in Latin,[261] but not when reciting the Creed
Creed
in Greek,[262] Popes John Paul II
John Paul II
and Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
have recited the Nicene Creed
Creed
jointly with Patriarchs Demetrius I and Bartholomew I
Bartholomew I
in Greek without the Filioque
Filioque
clause.[263][264] The action of these Patriarchs in reciting the Creed
Creed
together with the Popes has been strongly criticized by some elements of Eastern Orthodoxy, such as the Metropolitan of Kalavryta, Greece, in November 2008[265] The declaration of Ravenna in 2007 re-asserted these beliefs, and re-stated the notion that the bishop of Rome is indeed the protos, although future discussions are to be held on the concrete ecclesiological exercise of papal primacy. Sex abuse cases[edit] Further information: Catholic sex abuse cases Major lawsuits emerged in 2001 claiming that priests had sexually abused minors.[266] In response to the ensuing scandal, the Church has established formal procedures to prevent abuse, encourage reporting of any abuse that occurs and to handle such reports promptly, although groups representing victims have disputed their effectiveness.[267] Some priests resigned, others were defrocked and jailed,[268] and there were financial settlements with many victims.[266] The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops commissioned a comprehensive study that found that four percent of all priests who served in the US from 1950 to 2002 had faced some sort of accusation of sexual misconduct. Benedict XVI[edit] With the election of Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
in 2005, the Church has so far seen largely a continuation of the policies of his predecessor, Pope John Paul II, with some notable exceptions: Benedict decentralized beatifications and reverted the decision of his predecessor regarding papal elections.[269] In 2007, he set a Church record by approving the beatification of 498 Spanish Martyrs. His first encyclical Deus caritas est discussed love and sex in continued opposition to several other views on sexuality. Catholic attempts to improve ecumenical relations with the Eastern Orthodox Church have been complicated by disputes over both doctrine and the recent history of the Orthodox Eastern Catholic Churches, involving the return of expropriated properties of the Eastern Catholic Churches, which the Orthodox Church took over after World War II at the request of Joseph Stalin.[citation needed] Francis[edit] With the election of Pope
Pope
Francis in 2013, following the resignation of Benedict, Francis is the current and first Jesuit pope, the first pope from the Americas, and the first from the Southern Hemisphere.[270] Since his election to the papacy, he has displayed a simpler and less formal approach to the office, choosing to reside in the Vatican guesthouse rather than the papal residence.[271] He has signalled numerous dramatic changes in policy as well—for example removing conservatives from high Vatican positions, calling on bishops to lead a simpler life, and taking a more pastoral attitude towards homosexuality.[272][273] See also[edit]

Catholicism portal Judaism
Judaism
portal Christianity
Christianity
portal Religion portal

Anti-Catholicism Criticism of the Catholic Church Great Church History of Christianity History of the Papacy History of the Orthodox Church History of Western civilization Political Catholicism Role of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in civilization Vatican Splendors Timeline of the Catholic Church Legal history of the Catholic Church

Notes[edit]

^  Joyce, George (1913). "The Pope". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  Regarding Peter as the first Bishop
Bishop
of Rome, "It is not, however, difficult to show that the fact of his [Peter's] bishopric is so well attested as to be historically certain. In considering this point, it will be well to begin with the third century, when references to it become frequent, and work backwards from this point. In the middle of the third century St. Cyprian
Cyprian
expressly terms the Roman See the Chair of St. Peter, saying that Cornelius has succeeded to "the place of Fabian which is the place of Peter" (Ep 55:8; cf. 59:14). Firmilian of Caesarea notices that Stephen claimed to decide the controversy regarding rebaptism on the ground that he held the succession from Peter (Cyprian, Ep. 75:17). He does not deny the claim: yet certainly, had he been able, he would have done so. Thus in 250 the Roman episcopate of Peter was admitted by those best able to know the truth, not merely at Rome but in the churches of Africa
Africa
and of Asia
Asia
Minor. In the first quarter of the century (about 220) Tertullian
Tertullian
(De Pud. 21) mentions Callistus's claim that Peter's power to forgive sins had descended in a special manner to him. Had the Roman Church been merely founded by Peter and not reckoned him as its first bishop, there could have been no ground for such a contention. Tertullian, like Firmilian, had every motive to deny the claim. Moreover, he had himself resided at Rome, and would have been well aware if the idea of a Roman episcopate of Peter had been, as is contended by its opponents, a novelty dating from the first years of the third century, supplanting the older tradition according to which Peter and Paul were co-founders, and Linus first bishop. About the same period, Hippolytus (for Lightfoot is surely right in holding him to be the author of the first part of the "Liberian Catalogue" — "Clement of Rome", 1:259) reckons Peter in the list of Roman bishops...."[14] ^ According to several historians, including Bart D. Ehrman, "Peter, in short, could not have been the first bishop of Rome, because the Roman church did not have anyone as its bishop until about a hundred years after Peter's death."[17] ^ As examples, Bokenkotter cites that Sunday became a state day of rest, that harsher punishments were given for prostitution and adultery, and that some protections were given to slaves. (Bokenkotter, pp. 41–42.)

References[edit]

^ "Vatican congregation reaffirms truth, oneness of Catholic Church". Catholic News Service. Archived from the original on 10 July 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2012.  ^ "Paragraph 862". Catechism of the Catholic Church, Second Edition. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2014.  ^ Hitchcock, Geography of Religion (2004), p. 281, quote: "Some (Christian communities) had been evangelized by Peter, the disciple Jesus
Jesus
designated as the founder of his church. Once the position was institutionalized, historians looked back and recognized Peter as the first pope of the Christian church in Rome" ^ Norman, The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
an Illustrated History (2007), pp. 11, 14, quote: "The Church was founded by Jesus
Jesus
himself in his earthly lifetime.", "The apostolate was established in Rome, the world's capital when the church was inaugurated; it was there that the universality of the Christian teaching most obviously took its central directive–it was the bishops of Rome who very early on began to receive requests for adjudication on disputed points from other bishops." ^ a b c Chadwick, Henry, p. 37. ^ a b Duffy, p. 18. ^ a b Norman, The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
an Illustrated History (2007), p. 81 ^ Kreeft, p. 980. ^ Bokenkotter, p. 30. ^ Barry, p. 46. ^ "CCC, 880–881". Vatican.va. Retrieved 1 November 2014.  ^ Christian Bible, Matthew 16:13-20 ^ " Saint
Saint
Peter the Apostle: Incidents important in interpretations of Peter". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 November 2014.  ^ a b  Joyce, George (1913). "The Pope". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ "Was Peter in Rome?". Catholic Answers. August 10, 2004. Retrieved 9 November 2014. if Peter never made it to the capital, he still could have been the first pope, since one of his successors could have been the first holder of that office to settle in Rome. After all, if the papacy exists, it was established by Christ during his lifetime, long before Peter is said to have reached Rome. There must have been a period of some years in which the papacy did not yet have its connection to Rome.  ^ a b c Raymond E. Brown, 101 Questions and Answers on the Bible (Paulist Press 2003 ISBN 978-0-80914251-4), pp. 132–134 ^ Bart D. Ehrman. "Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus
Jesus
in History and Legend." Oxford University Press, USA. 2006. ISBN 0-19-530013-0. p. 84 ^ Oscar Cullmann (1962), Peter: Disciple, Apostle, Martyr (2 ed.), Westminster Press p. 234 ^ Henry Chadwick (1993), The Early Church, Penguin Books p. 18 ^ Bokenkotter, p. 24. ^ a b Chadwick, Henry, pp. 23–24. ^ Hitchcock, Geography of Religion (2004), p. 281, quote: "By the year 100, more than 40 Christian communities existed in cities around the Mediterranean, including two in North Africa, at Alexandria and Cyrene, and several in Italy." ^ A.E. Medlycott, India and The Apostle Thomas, pp.1-71, 213-97; M.R. James, Apocryphal New Testament, pp.364-436; Eusebius, History, chapter 4:30; J.N. Farquhar, The Apostle Thomas in North India, chapter 4:30; V.A. Smith, Early History of India, p.235; L.W. Brown, The Indian Christians of St. Thomas, pp.49–59 ^ stthoma.com, stthoma.com, archived from the original on 8 February 2011, retrieved 8 August 2013  ^ McMullen, pp. 37, 83. ^ Davidson, The Birth of the Church (2005), p. 115 ^ MacCulloch, Christianity, p. 109. ^ Davidson, The Birth of the Church (2005), p. 146 ^ Davidson, The Birth of the Church (2005), p. 149 ^ MacCulloch, Christianity, pp.127–131. ^ Duffy, pp. 9–10. ^ Markus, p. 75. ^ MacCulloch, Christianity, p. 134. ^ MacCulloch, Christianity, p. 141. ^ Davidson, The Birth of the Church (2005), pp. 169, 181 ^ Norman, The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
an Illustrated History (2007), pp. 27–8, quote: "A distinguished succession of theological apologists added intellectual authority to the resources at the disposal of the papacy, at just that point in its early development when the absence of a centralized teaching office could have fractured the universal witness to a single body of ideas. At the end of the first century there was St. Clement of Rome, third successor to St. Peter in the see; in the second century there was St. Ignatius of Antioch, St. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons and St. Justin Martyr; in the fourth century St. Augustine of Hippo. ^ MacCulloch, Christianity, pp. 155–159, 164. ^ Chadwick, Henry, p. 41. ^ Chadwick, Henry, pp. 41–42, 55. ^ Heikki Räisänen (2010). The Rise of Christian Beliefs: The Thought World of Early Christians. Fortress Press. p. 292. ISBN 9781451409536.  ^ MacCulloch, Christianity, p. 174. ^ Duffy, p. 20. ^ Simone Weil, Letter to a Priest, Excerpt 35 ^ Collins, The Story of Christianity
Christianity
(1999), pp. 58–9 ^ Collins, The Story of Christianity
Christianity
(1999), p. 59 ^ Weil, Letter to a Priest, excerpt 35 ^ McMullen, p. 44. ^ Bokenkotter, p. 41. ^ a b McMullen, pp. 49–50. ^ Duffy, p. 64. ^ McMullen, p. 54. ^ MacCulloch, Christianity, p. 199. ^ McMullen, p. 93. ^ Duffy, p. 27. Chadwick, Henry, p. 56. ^ Duffy, p. 29. MacCulloch Christianity, p. 212. ^ MacCulloch, Christianity, p. 221. ^ MacCulloch, Christianity, p. 225. ^ Chadwick, Henry, pp. 56–57. ^ Duffy, p. 34. ^ MacCulloch, Christianity, pp. 185, 212. ^ "Lecture 27: Heretics, Heresies and the Church". 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-24.  Review of Church policies towards heresy, including capital punishment (see Synod
Synod
at Saragossa). ^ Collins, The Story of Christianity
Christianity
(1999), pp. 61–2 ^ Denzinger 186 in the new numbering, 92 Archived 2010-04-18 at the Wayback Machine. in the old ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 35 ^ Bokenkotter, A Concise History of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(2004), pp. 84–93 ^ McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity
Christianity
(2002), p. 142, Chapter 4 Eastern Christendom by Kallistos Ware ^ Le Goff, Medieval Civilization (1964), pp. 5–20 ^ a b Le Goff, Medieval Civilization (1964), p. 21 ^ Woods, How the Church Built Western Civilization (2005), p. 27 ^ Le Goff, Medieval Civilization (1964), p. 120 ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), pp. 50–2 ^ Collins, The Story of Christianity
Christianity
(1999), pp. 84–6 ^ Vidmar, Jedin 34 ^ a b Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), pp. 63, 74 ^ Franzen 35 ^ Jedin 36 ^ Vidmar, The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
Through the Ages (2005), pp. 107–11 ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 78, quote: "By contrast, Paschal's successor Eugenius II (824–7), elected with imperial influence, gave away most of these papal gains. He acknowledged the Emperor's sovereignty in the papal state, and he accepted a constitution imposed by Lothair which established imperial supervision of the administration of Rome, imposed an oath to the Emperor on all citizens, and required the Pope–elect to swear fealty before he could be consecrated. Under Sergius II (844–7) it was even agreed that the Pope
Pope
could not be consecrated without an imperial mandate, and that the ceremony must be in the presence of his representative, a revival of some of the more galling restrictions of Byzantine
Byzantine
rule." ^ Franzen. 36-42 ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), pp. 88–9 ^ Woods, How the Church Built Western Civilization (2005), p. 40 ^ Le Goff, Medieval Civilization (1964), pp. 80–2 ^ a b Woods, How the Church Built Western Civilization (2005), pp. 44–8 ^ a b Bokenkotter, A Concise History of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(2004), pp. 158–9 ^ a b Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 91 ^ Collins, The Story of Christianity
Christianity
(1999), p. 103 ^ a b Vidmar, The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
Through the Ages (2005), p. 104 ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), pp. 119, 131 ^ "Eastern Catholic". Catholic World News. Trinity
Trinity
Communications. 2008. Archived from the original on April 9, 2005. Retrieved 2008-05-30.  ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 278 ^ Riley-Smith, The First Crusaders (1997), p. 8 ^ Vidmar, The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
Through the Ages (2005), pp. 130–1 ^ Bokenkotter, A Concise History of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(2004), p. 140 quote: "And so when Urban called for a crusade at Clermont in 1095, one of his motives was to bring help to the beleaguered Eastern Christians." ^ Bokenkotter, A Concise History of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(2004), p. 155 quote: "Stories were also circulating about the harsh treatment of Christian pilgrims to Jerusalem at the hands of the infidel, inflaming Western opinion." ^ Le Goff, Medieval Civilization (1964), pp. 65–7 ^ Tyerman, God's War: A New History of the Crusades
Crusades
(2006), pp. 525–60 ^ " Pope
Pope
sorrow over Constantinople". BBC
BBC
News. 2004-06-29. Retrieved 2008-04-06.  ^ a b Woods, How the Church Built Western Civilization (2005), pp. 119–22 ^ a b Norman, The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(2007), p. 62 ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 101 ^ Le Goff, Medieval Civilization (1964), p. 87 ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 112 ^ Vidmar, The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
Through the Ages (2005), pp. 144–7, quote: "The Albigensian Crusade, as it became known, lasted until 1219. The pope, Innocent III, was a lawyer and saw both how easily the crusade had gotten out of hand and how it could be mitigated. He encouraged local rulers to adopt anti-heretic legislation and bring people to trial. By 1231 a papal inquisition began, and the friars were given charge of investigating tribunals." ^ a b Bokenkotter, A Concise History of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(2004), p. 132, quote: "A crusade was proclaimed against these Albigenses, as they were sometimes called ... It was in connection with this crusade that the papal system of Inquisition
Inquisition
originated-a special tribunal appointed by the Popes and charged with ferreting out heretics. Until then the responsibility devolved on the local bishops. However, Innocent found it necessary in coping with the Albigensian threat to send out delegates who were entrusted with special powers that made them independent of the episcopal authority. In 1233 Gregory IX organized this ad hoc body into a system of permanent inquisitors, who were usually chosen from among the mendicant friars, Dominicans and Franciscans, men who were often marked by a high degree of courage, integrity, prudence, and zeal." ^ Norman, The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
an Illustrated History (2007), p. 93 ^ a b Black, Early Modern Italy (2001), pp. 200–2 ^ Casey, Early Modern Spain: A Social History (2002), pp. 229–30 ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 122 ^ McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity
Christianity
(1990), p. 232, Chapter 6 Christian Civilization by Colin Morris (University of Southampton) ^ Vidmar, The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
Through the Ages (2005), p. 155 ^ a b McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity
Christianity
(1990), p. 240, Chapter 7 The Late Medieval Church and its Reformation
Reformation
by Patrick Collinson (University of Cambridge) ^ Koschorke, K. A History of Christianity
Christianity
in Asia, Africa, and Latin America (2007), pp. 13, 283 ^ Dussel, Enrique, A History of the Church in Latin
Latin
America, Wm B Eerdmans Publishing, 1981, pp. 39, 59 ^ Woods, How the Church Built Western Civilization (2005), p. 135 ^ Bruce E. Johansen, The Native Peoples of North America, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, 2006, pp. 109, 110, quote: "In the Americas, the Catholic priest Bartolome de las Casas avidly encouraged enquiries into the Spanish conquest's many cruelties. Las Casas chronicled Spanish brutality against the Native peoples in excruciating detail." ^ a b c Koschorke, A History of Christianity
Christianity
in Asia, Africa, and Latin
Latin
America (2007), p. 287 ^ Dussel, Enrique, A History of the Church in Latin
Latin
America, Wm B Eerdmans Publishing, 1981, pp. 45, 52, 53 quote: "The missionary Church opposed this state of affairs from the beginning, and nearly everything positive that was done for the benefit of the indigenous peoples resulted from the call and clamor of the missionaries. The fact remained, however, that widespread injustice was extremely difficult to uproot ... Even more important than Bartolome de Las Casas was the Bishop
Bishop
of Nicaragua, Antonio de Valdeviso, who ultimately suffered martyrdom for his defense of the Indian." ^ Bruce E. Johansen, The Native Peoples of North America, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, 2006, pp. 109, 110, quote: In large part because of Las Casas's work, a movement arose in Spain
Spain
for more humane treatment of indigenous peoples. ^ Woods, How the Church Built Western Civilization (2005), p. 137 ^ Chadwick, Owen, The Reformation, Penguin, 1990, p. 327 ^ Koschorke, A History of Christianity
Christianity
in Asia, Africa, and Latin America (2007), p. 21 ^ Bruce E. Johansen, The Native Peoples of North America, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, 2006, p. 110, quote: "In the Papal bull Sublimis deus (1537), Pope
Pope
Paul III declared that Indians were to be regarded as fully human, and that their souls were as immortal as those of Europeans. This edict also outlawed slavery of Indians in any form ..." ^ Koschorke, A History of Christianity
Christianity
in Asia, Africa, and Latin America (2007), p. 290 ^ Samora et al., A History of the Mexican-American People (1993), p. 20 ^ Jackson, From Savages to Subjects: Missions in the History of the American Southwest (2000), p. 14 ^ Jackson, From Savages to Subjects: Missions in the History of the American Southwest (2000), p. 13 ^ Koschorke, A History of Christianity
Christianity
in Asia, Africa, and Latin America (2007), pp. 3, 17 ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 133 ^ Norman, The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
an Illustrated History (2007), p. 86 ^ a b Franzen 65-78 ^ a b Bokenkotter, A Concise History of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(2004), pp. 201–5 ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 149 ^ a b Vidmar, The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
Through the Ages (2005), p. 184 ^ a b Bokenkotter, A Concise History of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(2004), p. 215 ^ Bokenkotter, A Concise History of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(2004), pp. 223–4 ^ Vidmar, The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
Through the Ages (2005), pp. 196–200 ^ a b Vidmar, The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
Through the Ages (2005), p. 233 ^ a b Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), pp. 177–8 ^ Scruton, A Dictionary of Political Thought (1996), p. 470, quote: "The (English) Reformation
Reformation
must not be confused with the changes introduced into the Church of England
Church of England
during the 'Reformation Parliament' of 1529–36, which were of a political rather than a religious nature, designed to unite the secular and religious sources of authority within a single sovereign power: the Anglican Church did not until later make any substantial change in doctrine." ^ Schama, A History of Britain 1: At the Edge of the World? (2003), pp. 309–11 ^ a b Vidmar, The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
Through the Ages (2005), p. 220, quote: "Henry, seeing how far Cranmer had tried to take him in making the land Lutheran or Calvinist, pulled the plug in September 1538 and passed the Six Articles, which tried to restore the ancient faith, including the practice of celibacy for the clergy. By 1543 most of the Reformation
Reformation
legislation was reversed. One man, John Lambert, was made an example in November 1538. He was burned by being dragged in and out of the fire for holding the very same beliefs about the Eucharist
Eucharist
that Cranmer held. Cranmer was made to watch the whole brutal event. He also had to send his wife back to Germany." ^ Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, Volume 2 (1985), p. 75, quote: "In England, he took steps to make the church conform as much as possible to Roman Catholicism, except in the matter of obedience to the pope. He also refused to restore monasteries, which he had suppressed and confiscated under the pretense of reformation, and whose properties he had no intention of returning." ^ a b c d e Vidmar, The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
Through the Ages (2005), pp. 225–6 ^ Haigh, The English Reformation
English Reformation
Revised (1987), p. 159, quote: "Mary wanted to make England a Catholic country as quickly as possible: to reintroduce the pope's authority, to repeal those parliamentary statutes which had so radically altered the relationship of Church and State and to restore to the Church its Catholic doctrine and services. Nothing was to be allowed to stand in her way. No murmurings among the people, no riots or rebellions or intrigues, not even the advice of the Spanish ambassador to make haste slowly could deflect the Queen from her purpose. ... Death by burning at the hands of the sheriffs became the penalty for those who, convicted of heresy in the church courts, refused to recant." ^ Solt, Church and State in Early Modern England, 1509-1640, (1990), p. 149 ^ Schama, A History of Britain 1: At the Edge of the World? (2003), pp. 272–3. ^ Jackson, Ireland
Ireland
Her Own (1991), p. 514 ^ a b Norman, The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
an Illustrated History (2007), pp. 131–2 ^ Potemra, Michael (2004-07-13). "Crucible of Freedom". National Review. Archived from the original on 2007-04-26. Retrieved 2008-06-21.  ^ a b Bokenkotter, A Concise History of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(2004), pp. 242–4 ^ Vidmar, The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
Through the Ages (2005), p. 237 ^ Norman, The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
an Illustrated History (2007), pp. 91–2 ^ Bokenkotter, A Concise History of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(2004), p. 251 ^ Vidmar, The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
Through the Ages (2005), p. 241 ^ Murray, Dictionary of the Arts (1994), p. 45 ^ a b Koschorke, A History of Christianity
Christianity
in Asia, Africa, and Latin America (2007), pp. 31–2 ^ McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity
Christianity
(1990), p. 318, Chapter 9 The Expansion of Christianity
Christianity
by John McManners ^ Otto Stegmüller, Barock, in Marienkunde, 1967 566 ^ F Zöpfl, Barocke Frömmigkeit, in Marienkunde, 577 ^ Zöpfl 579 ^ Lortz, IV, 7-11 ^ Duffy 188-189 ^ a b Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), pp. 188–91 ^ Bokenkotter, A Concise History of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(2004), pp. 267–9 ^ Franzen 326 ^ Norman, The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
an Illustrated History (2007), p. 137 ^ a b Franzen 328 ^ Franzen, 362 ^ Norman, The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
an Illustrated History (2007), pp. 111–2 ^ King, Mission to Paradise(1975), p. 169 ^ Franzen 362 ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 221 ^ Franzen, 323 ^ Robert Eric Frykenberg, Christianity
Christianity
in India: From Beginnings to the Present (Oxford University Press, 2008) ^ Stephen Neill, A History of Christianity in India
Christianity in India
(Cambridge University Press, 1984) ^ Bokenkotter, A Concise History of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(2004), pp. 283–5 ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette, Christianity
Christianity
in a Revolutionary Age. Vol. I: The 19th Century in Europe; Background and the Roman Catholic Phase (1958) pp 120-27 ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), pp. 214–6 ^ Latourette, Vol. I: The 19th Century in Europe; Background and the Roman Catholic Phase (1958) pp 127-29, 399-462 ^ Robert Gildea, Children of the Revolution: The French, 1799-1914(2008) p 120 ^ Roger Price, A Social History of Nineteenth-Century France
France
(1987) ch 7 ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette, Christianity
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in a Revolutionary Age. Vol. I: The 19th Century in Europe; Background and the Roman Catholic Phase (1958) pp 400-412 ^ Theodore Zeldin, France, 1848-1945 (1977) vol 2 pp 983-1040 ^ Philippe Rigoulot, "Protestants and the French nation under the Third Republic: Between recognition and assimilation," National Identities, March 2009, Vol. 11 Issue 1, pp 45–57 ^ Barnett B. Singer, "Minoritarian Religion and the Creation of a Secular School System in France," Third Republic (1976) #2 pp 228-259 ^ Patrick J. Harrigan, "Church, State, and Education
Education
in France
France
From the Falloux to the Ferry Laws: A Reassessment," Canadian Journal of History, April 2001, 36#1 pp 51–83 ^ Frank Tallett and Nicholas Atkin, Religion, society, and politics in France
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since 1789 (1991) p. 152 ^ Robert Gildea, Children of the Revolution: The French, 1799–1914 (2010) ch 12 ^ Hastings, pp. 397–410 ^ John Paul II, General Audience, Vatican.va, March 24, 1993, archived from the original on 10 August 2011, retrieved 8 August 2013  ^ Pius IX
Pius IX
in Bäumer, 245 ^ and to add the Immaculata
Immaculata
to the Litany
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of Loreto. ^ Bauer 566 ^ Civilta Catolica February 6, 1869. ^ Leith, Creeds of the Churches (1963), p. 143 ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 232 ^ Fahlbusch, The Encyclopedia of Christianity
Christianity
(2001), p. 729 ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 240 ^ Duffy 260 ^ Franzen, 368 ^ Felicity O'Brien, Pius XII, London 2000, p.13 ^ Geoffrey Blainey; A Short History of Christianity; Penguin Viking; 2011 ^ a b 140th anniversary of largest women’s religious institute : News Headlines, Catholic Culture, May 3, 2012, retrieved 8 August 2013  ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Sisters of Mercy". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Little Sisters of the Poor". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 8 August 2013.  ^ Actualités, Vatican: cinq bienheureux, dont une Française et un Belge, canonisés ce dimanche - Actualités : Toute l'actualité et l'info en France
France
et dans le Monde-MSN&M6, News.fr.msn.com, retrieved 8 August 2013  ^ " Mary MacKillop
Mary MacKillop
to become Australia's first saint on October 17". news.com.au. 19 February 2010.  ^ Mother Marianne becomes an American saint - CNN.com, Edition.cnn.com, retrieved 8 August 2013  ^ Xavier University of Louisiana, Xula.edu, retrieved 8 August 2013  ^ Mystici corporis, Lumen gentium
Lumen gentium
and Redemptoris Mater
Redemptoris Mater
provide a modern Catholic understanding of this link. ^ see Pius XII, Mystici corporis, also John Paul II
John Paul II
in Redemptoris Mater: The Second Vatican Council, by presenting Mary in the mystery of Christ, also finds the path to a deeper understanding of the mystery of the Church. Mary, as the Mother of Christ, is in a particular way united with the Church, "which the Lord established as his own body." ^ Baumann in Marienkunde 1163 ^ ^ Baumann in Marienkunde, 672 ^ a b Chadwick, Owen, pp. 264–265. ^ Scheina, p. 33. ^ Riasanovsky 617 ^ Riasanovsky 634 ^ Payne, Stanley G (2008). Franco and Hitler: Spain, Germany
Germany
and World War II. Yale University Press. p. 13. ISBN 0-300-12282-9.  ^ Fernandez-Alonso, J (2002). The New Catholic Encyclopedia. 13. Catholic University Press/Thomas Gale. pp. 395–396. ISBN 0-7876-4017-4.  ^ Mary Vincent, Catholicism in the Second Spanish Republic ISBN 0-19-820613-5 p.218 ^ Emma Fattorini, Hitler, Mussolini and the Vatican: Pope
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Pius XI
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Blamires (2006). World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 120. ISBN 9781576079409.  ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette, Christianity
Christianity
In a Revolutionary Age A History of Christianity
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in the 19th and 20th Century: Vol 4 The 20th Century In Europe (1961) pp 32-35, 153, 156, 371 ^ Eamon Duffy (2002). Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes; Second Edition. Yale University Press. p. 340. ISBN 0300091656.  ^ Latourette, Christianity
Christianity
in a Revolutionary Age A History of Christianity
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in the 19th and 20th Century: Vol 4 The 20th Century in Europe (1961) pp 188-91 ^ Latourette, Christianity
Christianity
in a Revolutionary Age: A History of Christianity
Christianity
in the 19th and 20th Century: Vol 4 The 20th Century in Europe (1961) pp 176-88 ^ Mark Edward Russ, "The Nazis' Religionspolitik: An Assessment of Recent Literature," Catholic Historical Review (2006) 92#3 pp 252-267 ^ Wolfgang Dierker, "Himmlers Glaubenskrieger. Der Sicherheitsdienst der SS, Seine Religionspolitik und die 'Politische Religion' des Nationalsozialismus," Historisches Jahrbuch (2002), Vol. 122, pp 321-344. ^ Martyn Housden (1997). Resistance and Conformity in the Third Reich. Psychology
Psychology
Press. p. 52. ISBN 9780415121347.  ^ Cook, p. 983 ^ Bokenkotter p. 192 ^ a b Deák, p. 182. ^ Eakin, Emily. "New Accusations Of a Vatican Role In Anti-Semitism".  ^ "Battle Lines Were Drawn After Beatification of Pope
Pope
Pius IX". The New York Times. 1 September 2001. Retrieved 9 March 2008.  ^ Phayer, pp. 50–57 ^ a b c Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), pp. 270–6 ^ J. Derek Holmes; Bernard Bickers (5 August 2002). Short History of the Catholic Church. A&C Black. ISBN 978-0-86012-308-8.  ^ Paul VI, Pope
Pope
(1963-12-04). "Sacrosanctum Concilium". Vatican. Archived from the original on 2008-02-21. Retrieved 2008-02-09.  ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 274 ^ "Roman Catholic-Eastern Orthodox Dialogue". Public Broadcasting Service. 2000-07-14. Retrieved 2008-02-16.  ^ a b Bokenkotter, A Concise History of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(2004), p. 410 ^ Bauckham, Richard, in New Dictionary of Theology, Ed. Ferguson, (1988), p. 373 ^ Apostolic Letter "Motu Proprio data" Summorum Pontificum on the use of the Roman Liturgy prior to the reform of 1970 (July 7, 2007) ^ a b "Liberation Theology". BBC. 2005. Retrieved 2008-06-02.  ^ Aguilar, Mario (2007). The History and Politics of Latin
Latin
American Theology, Volume 1. London: SCM Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-334-04023-1.  ^ For more on Romero, by a former colleague, see Sobrino, Jon (1990). Archbishop
Archbishop
Romero: Memories and Reflections. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis. ISBN 978-0-88344-667-6.  ^ Rohter, Larry (2007-05-07). "As Pope
Pope
Heads to Brazil, a Rival Theology Persists". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-21.  Benedict's main involvement in dealing with liberation theology was while he was still Cardinal Ratzinger. ^ Aguilar, Mario (2007). The History and Politics of Latin
Latin
American Theology, Volume 1. London: SCM Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-334-04023-1.  ^ For liberation theology's persistence, see Rohter, Larry (2007-05-07). "As Pope
Pope
Heads to Brazil, a Rival Theology Persists". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-06-02.  For the threat from Pentecostalism, see Stoll, David (1990). Is Latin
Latin
America turning Protestant?: The Politics of Evangelical Growth. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-06499-7.  ^ Paul VI, Pope
Pope
(1968). "Humanae Vitae". Vatican. Archived from the original on 2011-03-19. Retrieved 2008-02-02.  ^ Norman, The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
an Illustrated History (2007), p. 184 ^ John Paul II, Pope
Pope
(1988). "Mulieris Dignitatem". Vatican. Archived from the original on 2007-01-07. Retrieved 2008-02-21.  ^ Bokenkotter, A Concise History of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(2004), p. 467 ^ Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI, Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth (2008), pp. 180–1, quote: "The difference between the discipleship of the Twelve and the discipleship of the women is obvious; the tasks assigned to each group are quite different. Yet Luke makes clear—and the other Gospels also show this in all sorts of ways—that 'many' women belonged to the more intimate community of believers and that their faith—filled following of Jesus
Jesus
was an essential element of that community, as would be vividly illustrated at the foot of the Cross and the Resurrection." ^ John Paul II, Pope
Pope
(1994-05-22). "Apostolic Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
on Reserving Priestly Ordination to Men Alone". Vatican. Retrieved 2008-02-02.  ^ Cowell, Alan (1994-05-31). " Pope
Pope
Rules Out Debate On Making Women Priests". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-12.  ^ Report on Catholic-Orthodox Relations ^ Presentation of the Celebration Archived 2004-08-06 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Common Declaration ^ Missale Romanum 2002 (Roman Missal in Latin), p. 513 ^ Ρωμαϊκό Λειτουργικό 2006 (Roman Missal in Greek), vol. 1, p. 347 ^ programme of the celebration Archived 2004-08-06 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Video recording of joint recitation ^ The Metropolitan's own blog, reported also by this Religious News Agency and the Russian Orthodox Archived 2009-09-21 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Bruni, A Gospel
Gospel
of Shame (2002), p. 336 ^ David Willey (15 July 2010). "Vatican 'speeds up' abuse cases". BBC News. Retrieved 11 August 2013.  ^ Newman, Andy (2006-08-31). "A Choice for New York Priests in Abuse Cases". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-03-13.  ^ Moto Proprio, De Aliquibus Mutationibus, June 11, 2007 ^ Cardinal Walter Kasper
Walter Kasper
Says Pope
Pope
Francis Will Bring New Life To Vatican II ^ Vallely, Paul (14 March 2013). " Pope
Pope
Francis profile: Jorge Mario Bergoglio, a humble man who moved out of a palace into an apartment, cooks his own meals and travels by bus". The Independent. Retrieved 4 June 2013.  ^ Elizabeth Dias, " Pope
Pope
Francis Willing To 'Evaluate' Civil Unions, But No Embrace of Gay Marriage" TIME March 5, 2014 ^ Mariano Castillo, " Pope
Pope
Francis reassigns conservative American cardinal," CNN Nov. 10, 2014

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History of the Catholic Church

General

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By country or region

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Catholic Church

Index Outline

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Mary Joseph

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index outline

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Pope
(List)

Pope
Pope
Francis (2013–present)

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(2005–2013)

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Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

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Church Eastern Catholic Churches: Albanian Armenian Belarusian Bulgarian Chaldean Coptic Croatian and Serbian Eritrean Ethiopian Georgian Greek Hungarian Italo-Albanian Macedonian Maronite Melkite Romanian Russian Ruthenian Slovak Syriac Syro-Malabar Syro-Malankara Ukrainian

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v t e

History of Catholic theology

General history

History of the Catholic Church Early Christianity History of the papacy Ecumenical Councils Timeline of the Catholic Church History of Christianity History of Christian theology

Church beginnings

Paul Clement of Rome First Epistle of Clement Didache Ignatius of Antioch Polycarp Epistle of Barnabas The Shepherd of Hermas Aristides of Athens Justin Martyr Epistle to Diognetus Irenaeus Montanism Tertullian Origen Antipope
Antipope
Novatian Cyprian

Constantine to Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Eusebius Athanasius of Alexandria Arianism Pelagianism Nestorianism Monophysitism Ephrem the Syrian Hilary of Poitiers Cyril of Jerusalem Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Ambrose John Chrysostom Jerome Augustine of Hippo John Cassian Orosius Cyril of Alexandria Peter Chrysologus Pope
Pope
Leo I Boethius Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Early Middle Ages

Isidore of Seville John Climacus Maximus the Confessor Monothelitism Ecthesis Bede John of Damascus Iconoclasm Transubstantiation
Transubstantiation
dispute Predestination
Predestination
disputes Paulinus II of Aquileia Alcuin Benedict of Aniane Rabanus Maurus Paschasius Radbertus John Scotus Eriugena

High Middle Ages

Roscellinus Gregory of Narek Berengar of Tours Peter Damian Anselm of Canterbury Joachim of Fiore Peter Abelard Decretum Gratiani Bernard of Clairvaux Peter Lombard Anselm of Laon Hildegard of Bingen Hugh of Saint
Saint
Victor Dominic de Guzmán Robert Grosseteste Francis of Assisi Anthony of Padua Beatrice of Nazareth Bonaventure Albertus Magnus Boetius of Dacia Henry of Ghent Thomas Aquinas Siger of Brabant Thomism Roger Bacon

Mysticism
Mysticism
and reforms

Ramon Llull Duns Scotus Dante Alighieri William of Ockham Richard Rolle John of Ruusbroec Catherine of Siena Brigit of Sweden Meister Eckhart Johannes Tauler Walter Hilton The Cloud of Unknowing Heinrich Seuse Geert Groote Devotio Moderna Julian of Norwich Thomas à Kempis Nicholas of Cusa Marsilio Ficino Girolamo Savonarola Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Erasmus Thomas Cajetan Thomas More John Fisher Johann Eck Francisco de Vitoria Thomas of Villanova Ignatius of Loyola Francisco de Osuna John of Ávila Francis Xavier Teresa of Ávila Luis de León John of the Cross Peter Canisius Luis de Molina
Luis de Molina
(Molinism) Robert Bellarmine Francisco Suárez Lawrence of Brindisi Francis de Sales

Baroque
Baroque
period to French Revolution

Tommaso Campanella Pierre de Bérulle Pierre Gassendi René Descartes Mary of Jesus
Jesus
of Ágreda António Vieira Jean-Jacques Olier Louis Thomassin Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet François Fénelon Cornelius Jansen
Cornelius Jansen
(Jansenism) Blaise Pascal Nicolas Malebranche Giambattista Vico Alphonsus Liguori Louis de Montfort Maria Gaetana Agnesi Alfonso Muzzarelli Johann Michael Sailer Clement Mary Hofbauer Bruno Lanteri

19th century

Joseph Görres Felicité de Lamennais Luigi Taparelli Antonio Rosmini Ignaz von Döllinger John Henry Newman Henri Lacordaire Jaime Balmes Gaetano Sanseverino Giovanni Maria Cornoldi Wilhelm Emmanuel Freiherr von Ketteler Giuseppe Pecci Joseph Hergenröther Tommaso Maria Zigliara Matthias Joseph Scheeben Émile Boutroux Modernism Léon Bloy Désiré-Joseph Mercier Friedrich von Hügel Vladimir Solovyov Marie-Joseph Lagrange George Tyrrell Maurice Blondel Thérèse of Lisieux

20th century

G. K. Chesterton Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange Joseph Maréchal Pierre Teilhard de Chardin Jacques Maritain Étienne Gilson Ronald Knox Dietrich von Hildebrand Gabriel Marcel Marie-Dominique Chenu Romano Guardini Edith Stein Fulton Sheen Henri de Lubac Jean Guitton Josemaría Escrivá Adrienne von Speyr Karl Rahner Yves Congar Bernard Lonergan Emmanuel Mounier Jean Daniélou Hans Urs von Balthasar Alfred Delp Edward Schillebeeckx Thomas Merton René Girard Johann Baptist Metz Jean Vanier Henri Nouwen

21st century

Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI Walter Kasper Raniero Cantalamessa Michał Heller Peter Kreeft Jean-Luc Marion Tomáš Halík Scott Hahn Robert Barron

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1st–4th centuries During the Roman Empire
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Peter Linus Anacletus Clement I Evaristus Alexander I Sixtus I Telesphorus Hyginus Pius I Anicetus Soter Eleutherius Victor I Zephyrinus Callixtus I Urban I Pontian Anterus Fabian Cornelius Lucius I Stephen I Sixtus II Dionysius Felix I Eutychian Caius Marcellinus Marcellus I Eusebius Miltiades Sylvester I Mark Julius I Liberius Damasus I Siricius Anastasius I

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Innocent I Zosimus Boniface
Boniface
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IV Adeodatus I Boniface
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Stephen IV Paschal I Eugene II Valentine Gregory IV Sergius II Leo IV Benedict III Nicholas I Adrian II John VIII Marinus I Adrian III Stephen V Formosus Boniface
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Honorius III Gregory IX Celestine IV Innocent IV Alexander IV Urban IV Clement IV Gregory X Innocent V Adrian V John XXI Nicholas III Martin IV Honorius IV Nicholas IV Celestine V Boniface
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21st century

Benedict XVI Francis

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