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HIROSHIMA (広島市, _Hiroshima-shi_, Japanese: ) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture
Hiroshima Prefecture
and the largest city in the Chūgoku region
Chūgoku region
of western Honshu - the largest island of Japan
Japan
. The city's name, 広島, means "Broad Island" in Japanese. Hiroshima
Hiroshima
gained city status on April 1, 1889. On April 1, 1980, Hiroshima
Hiroshima
became a designated city . As of August 2016 , the city had an estimated population of 1,196,274. The GDP
GDP
in Greater Hiroshima, Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Metropolitan Employment Area , is US$61.3 billion as of 2010. Kazumi Matsui has been the city's mayor since April 2011.

Hiroshima
Hiroshima
is best known as the first city in history to be targeted by a nuclear weapon when the United States Army Air Forces
United States Army Air Forces
(USAAF) dropped an atomic bomb on the city at 8:15 a.m. on August 6, 1945, near the end of World War II
World War II
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Sengoku period (1589–1871) * 1.2 Imperial period (1871–1939) * 1.3 World War II
World War II
and the atomic bombing (1939–1945) * 1.4 Postwar period (1945–present) * 1.5 Climate * 1.6 Wards

* 2 Demographics

* 3 Transportation

* 3.1 Air * 3.2 Trains * 3.3 Streetcars * 3.4 Automobiles

* 4 Events

* 5 Culture

* 5.1 Cuisine * 5.2 Media * 5.3 Education * 5.4 Sport

* 6 Tourism

* 6.1 Main tourist spots in Hiroshima
Hiroshima

* 7 Hospitals

* 8 International relations

* 8.1 Twin towns and sister cities

* 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Hiroshima

SENGOKU PERIOD (1589–1871)

Hiroshima Castle
Hiroshima Castle

Hiroshima
Hiroshima
was established on the delta coastline of the Seto Inland Sea in 1589 by powerful warlord Mōri Terumoto , who made it his capital after leaving Kōriyama Castle in Aki Province . Hiroshima Castle was quickly built, and in 1593 Terumoto moved in. Terumoto was on the losing side at the Battle of Sekigahara . The winner of the battle, Tokugawa Ieyasu , deprived Mōri Terumoto of most of his fiefs, including Hiroshima
Hiroshima
and gave Aki Province to Masanori Fukushima , a _daimyō _ who had supported Tokugawa. From 1619 until 1871, Hiroshima
Hiroshima
was ruled by the Asano clan .

IMPERIAL PERIOD (1871–1939)

Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Commercial Museum
Museum
1915 Map of Hiroshima
Hiroshima
City in the 1930s (Japanese edition)

After the han was abolished in 1871, the city became the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture
Hiroshima Prefecture
. Hiroshima
Hiroshima
became a major urban center during the imperial period , as the Japanese economy shifted from primarily rural to urban industries. During the 1870s, one of the seven government-sponsored English language schools was established in Hiroshima. Ujina Harbor was constructed through the efforts of Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Governor Sadaaki Senda in the 1880s, allowing Hiroshima
Hiroshima
to become an important port city.

The San\'yō Railway was extended to Hiroshima
Hiroshima
in 1894, and a rail line from the main station to the harbor was constructed for military transportation during the First Sino-Japanese War . During that war, the Japanese government moved temporarily to Hiroshima, and Emperor Meiji maintained his headquarters at Hiroshima Castle
Hiroshima Castle
from September 15, 1894, to April 27, 1895. The significance of Hiroshima
Hiroshima
for the Japanese government can be discerned from the fact that the first round of talks between Chinese and Japanese representatives to end the Sino-Japanese War was held in Hiroshima, from February 1 to February 4, 1895. New industrial plants, including cotton mills , were established in Hiroshima
Hiroshima
in the late 19th century. Further industrialization in Hiroshima
Hiroshima
was stimulated during the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, which required development and production of military supplies. The Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Prefectural Commercial Exhibition Hall was constructed in 1915 as a center for trade and exhibition of new products. Later, its name was changed to Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Prefectural Product Exhibition Hall, and again to Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall.

During World War I
World War I
, Hiroshima
Hiroshima
became a focal point of military activity, as the Japanese government entered the war on the Allied side. About 500 German prisoners of war were held in Ninoshima Island in Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Bay. The growth of Hiroshima
Hiroshima
as a city continued after the First World War, as the city now attracted the attention of the Catholic Church, and on May 4, 1923, an Apostolic Vicar was appointed for that city.

WORLD WAR II AND THE ATOMIC BOMBING (1939–1945)

Main article: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
§ Hiroshima
Hiroshima

During World War II
World War II
, the 2nd General Army and Chugoku Regional Army were headquartered in Hiroshima, and the Army Marine Headquarters was located at Ujina port. The city also had large depots of military supplies, and was a key center for shipping.

The bombing of Tokyo
Tokyo
and other cities in Japan
Japan
during World War II caused widespread destruction and hundreds of thousands of civilian deaths. There were no such air raids on Hiroshima. However, a real threat existed and was recognized. In order to protect against potential firebombings in Hiroshima, school children aged 11–14 years were mobilized to demolish houses and create firebreaks .

On Monday, August 6, 1945, at 8:15 a.m., the nuclear weapon "Little Boy " was dropped on Hiroshima
Hiroshima
by an American B-29 bomber , the _Enola Gay _, flown by Colonel Paul Tibbets , directly killing an estimated 70,000 people, including 20,000 Japanese combatants and 2,000 Korean slave laborers. By the end of the year, injury and radiation brought the total number of deaths to 90,000–166,000. The population before the bombing was around 340,000 to 350,000. About 70% of the city's buildings were destroyed, and another 7% severely damaged.

The public release of film footage of the city following the attack, and some of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission research about the human effects of the attack, was restricted during the occupation of Japan
Japan
, and much of this information was censored until the signing of the San Francisco Peace Treaty in 1951, restoring control to the Japanese.

As Ian Buruma observed, "News of the terrible consequences of the atom bomb attacks on Japan
Japan
was deliberately withheld from the Japanese public by US military censors during the Allied occupation—even as they sought to teach the natives the virtues of a free press. Casualty statistics were suppressed. Film shot by Japanese cameramen in Hiroshima
Hiroshima
and Nagasaki
Nagasaki
after the bombings was confiscated. "Hiroshima", the account written by John Hersey for _The New Yorker_, had a huge impact in the US, but was banned in Japan. As Dower says: 'In the localities themselves, suffering was compounded not merely by the unprecedented nature of the catastrophe ... but also by the fact that public struggle with this traumatic experience was not permitted.'" The US occupation authorities maintained a monopoly on scientific and medical information about the effects of the atomic bomb through the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, which treated the data gathered in studies of hibakusha as privileged information rather than making the results available for the treatment of victims or providing financial or medical support to aid victims. The US also stood by official denial of the ravages associated with radiation. Finally, not only was the press tightly censored on atomic issues, but literature and the arts were also subject to rigorous control prior.

The book _ Hiroshima
Hiroshima
_ by John Hersey was originally featured in article form and published in the magazine _ The New Yorker _, on 31 August 1946. It is reported to have reached Tokyo, in English, at least by January 1947 and the translated version was released in Japan in 1949. Despite the fact that the article was planned to be published over four issues, "Hiroshima" made up the entire contents of one issue of the magazine. _Hiroshima_ narrates the stories of six bomb survivors immediately prior to and for months after the dropping of the Little Boy
Little Boy
bomb.

The oleander is the official flower of the city of Hiroshima
Hiroshima
because it was the first to bloom again after the explosion of the atomic bomb in 1945.

*

Hiroshima
Hiroshima
after the bombing *

Hiroshima
Hiroshima
after the bombing

POSTWAR PERIOD (1945–PRESENT)

Folded paper cranes representing prayers for peace and Sadako Sasaki

On September 17, 1945, Hiroshima
Hiroshima
was struck by the Makurazaki Typhoon (Typhoon Ida ). Hiroshima Prefecture
Hiroshima Prefecture
suffered more than 3,000 deaths and injuries, about half the national total. More than half the bridges in the city were destroyed, along with heavy damage to roads and railroads, further devastating the city.

Hiroshima
Hiroshima
was rebuilt after the war, with help from the national government through the Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Hiroshima Peace Memorial
City Construction Law passed in 1949. It provided financial assistance for reconstruction, along with land donated that was previously owned by the national government and used for military purposes. Atomic Bomb Dome by Jan Letzel and modern Hiroshima
Hiroshima

In 1949, a design was selected for the Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Park . Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall, the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation, was designated the Genbaku Dome (原爆ドーム) or "Atomic Dome" , a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Park . The Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Peace Memorial Museum
Museum
was opened in 1955 in the Peace Park.

Hiroshima
Hiroshima
also contains a Peace Pagoda , built in 1966 by Nipponzan-Myōhōji . Uniquely, the pagoda is made of steel , rather than the usual stone.

Hiroshima
Hiroshima
was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament in 1949, at the initiative of its mayor, Shinzo Hamai (1905–1968). As a result, the city of Hiroshima
Hiroshima
received more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate interpretation for conferences, and the Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University . The city government continues to advocate the abolition of all nuclear weapons and the Mayor of Hiroshima
Hiroshima
is the president of Mayors for Peace , an international mayoral organization mobilizing cities and citizens worldwide to abolish and eliminate nuclear weapons by the year 2020 .

On May 27, 2016, Barack Obama
Barack Obama
visited Hiroshima, being the first sitting president of the United States
United States
to visit since the drop of the atomic bomb.

Schedule Hiroshima
Hiroshima
is situated on the Ōta River delta, on Hiroshima Bay , facing the Seto Inland Sea
Seto Inland Sea
on its south side. The river's six channels divide Hiroshima
Hiroshima
into several islets.

CLIMATE

Hiroshima
Hiroshima
has a humid subtropical climate characterized by cool to mild winters and hot humid summers. Like much of the rest of Japan, Hiroshima
Hiroshima
experiences a seasonal temperature lag in summer, with August rather than July being the warmest month of the year. Precipitation
Precipitation
occurs year-round, although winter is the driest season. Rainfall peaks in June and July, with August experiencing sunnier and drier conditions.

CLIMATE DATA FOR HIROSHIMA, HIROSHIMA (1981-2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 18.8 (65.8) 21.5 (70.7) 23.7 (74.7) 29.0 (84.2) 31.5 (88.7) 34.4 (93.9) 38.7 (101.7) 37.9 (100.2) 36.9 (98.4) 31.2 (88.2) 26.3 (79.3) 22.3 (72.1) 38.7 (101.7)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 9.7 (49.5) 10.6 (51.1) 14.0 (57.2) 19.7 (67.5) 24.1 (75.4) 27.2 (81) 30.8 (87.4) 32.5 (90.5) 29.0 (84.2) 23.4 (74.1) 17.4 (63.3) 12.3 (54.1) 20.9 (69.6)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 5.2 (41.4) 6.0 (42.8) 9.1 (48.4) 14.7 (58.5) 19.3 (66.7) 23.0 (73.4) 27.1 (80.8) 28.2 (82.8) 24.4 (75.9) 18.3 (64.9) 12.5 (54.5) 7.5 (45.5) 16.3 (61.3)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 1.7 (35.1) 2.1 (35.8) 4.8 (40.6) 9.9 (49.8) 14.7 (58.5) 19.4 (66.9) 23.8 (74.8) 24.8 (76.6) 20.8 (69.4) 14.2 (57.6) 8.5 (47.3) 3.7 (38.7) 12.4 (54.3)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −8.5 (16.7) −8.3 (17.1) −7.2 (19) −1.4 (29.5) 1.8 (35.2) 6.6 (43.9) 14.1 (57.4) 13.7 (56.7) 8.6 (47.5) 1.5 (34.7) −2.6 (27.3) −8.6 (16.5) −8.6 (16.5)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 44.6 (1.756) 66.6 (2.622) 123.9 (4.878) 141.7 (5.579) 177.6 (6.992) 247.0 (9.724) 258.6 (10.181) 110.8 (4.362) 169.5 (6.673) 87.9 (3.461) 68.2 (2.685) 41.2 (1.622) 1,537.6 (60.535)

AVERAGE SNOWFALL CM (INCHES) 5 (2) 4 (1.6) 1 (0.4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (1.2) 12 (4.7)

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS 8.7 7.1 2.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 4.5 23.1

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 68 67 64 63 66 72 74 71 70 68 69 69 68

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 137.2 139.7 169.0 190.1 206.2 161.4 179.5 211.2 165.3 181.8 151.6 149.4 2,042.3

Source:

WARDS

Hiroshima
Hiroshima
has eight wards (_ku_):

WARD JAPANESE POPULATION AREA (KM²) Density (per km²) MAP

Aki-ku (Aki ward) 安芸区 80,702 94.08 857

Asakita-ku (Asa-North ward) 安佐北区 148,426 353.33 420

Asaminami-ku (Asa-south ward) 安佐南区 241,007 117.24 2,055

Higashi-ku (East ward) 東区 121,012 39.42 3,069

Minami-ku (South ward) 南区 141,219 26.30 5,369

Naka-ku (Central ward) *administrative center 中区 130,879 15.32 8,543

Nishi-ku (West ward) 西区 189,794 35.61 5,329

Saeki-ku (Saeki ward) 佐伯区 137,838 225.22 612

Population
Population
as of March 31, 2016

DEMOGRAPHICS

Hondōri shopping arcade in Hiroshima
Hiroshima

As of 2006 , the city has an estimated population of 1,154,391, while the total population for the metropolitan area was estimated as 2,043,788 in 2000. The total area of the city is 905.08 square kilometres (349.45 sq mi), with a population density of 1275.4 persons per km².

The population around 1910 was 143,000. Before World War II
World War II
, Hiroshima's population had grown to 360,000, and peaked at 419,182 in 1942. Following the atomic bombing in 1945, the population dropped to 137,197. By 1955, the city's population had returned to pre-war levels.

TRANSPORTATION

AIR

Hiroshima
Hiroshima
is served by Hiroshima Airport (IATA : HIJ, ICAO : RJOA), located 50 kilometres (31 mi) east of the city, with regular flights to Tokyo
Tokyo
, Sapporo
Sapporo
, Sendai
Sendai
, Okinawa
Okinawa
, and also to China
China
, Taiwan
Taiwan
and South Korea
South Korea
.

TRAINS

* JR West

* Sanyō Shinkansen , San\'yō Main Line , Kure Line , Geibi Line , Kabe Line

* Hiroshima
Hiroshima
New Transit Line 1 * Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Short Distance Transit Seno Line

STREETCARS

A modern tram in Hiroshima, May 2008

Hiroshima
Hiroshima
is notable, in Japan, for its light rail system, nicknamed _Hiroden ,_ and the "Moving Streetcar Museum." Streetcar service started in 1912, was interrupted by the atomic bomb, and was restored as soon as was practical. (Service between Koi/Nishi Hiroshima
Hiroshima
and Tenma-cho was started up three days after the bombing. )

Streetcars and light rail vehicles are still rolling down Hiroshima's streets, including nuked streetcars 651 and 652, which are among the older streetcars in the system. When Kyoto
Kyoto
and Fukuoka
Fukuoka
discontinued their trolley systems, Hiroshima
Hiroshima
bought them up at discounted prices, and, by 2011, the city had 298 streetcars, more than any other city in Japan.

* Hiroden

* Main Line , Ujina Line , Eba Line , Hakushima Line , Hijiyama Line , Yokogawa Line , Miyajima Line

AUTOMOBILES

Hiroshima
Hiroshima
is served by Japan
Japan
National Route 54 , Hiroshima Prefectural Route 37 (Hiroshima-Miyoshi Route), Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Prefectural Route 70 (Hiroshima-Nakashima Route), Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Prefectural Route 84 (Higashi Kaita Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Route), Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Prefectural Route 164 (Hiroshima-Kaita Route), and Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Prefectural Route 264 (Nakayama-Onaga Route).

EVENTS

Hiroshima Flower Festival 2011

* Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Flower Festival, May 3–5, Heiwa Odori , Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park * Toukasan, first Friday to Sunday in June, Mikawa-cho, Chuo Dori * Ebisu Festival, November 18–20, Ebisucho, Hacchobori , Chuo Dori * Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Ceremony , August 6, Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Peace Memorial Park

CULTURE

Shukkei-en

Hiroshima
Hiroshima
has a professional symphony orchestra , which has performed at Wel City Hiroshima
Hiroshima
since 1963. There are also many museums in Hiroshima, including the Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Museum
Museum
, along with several art museums. The Hiroshima Museum of Art , which has a large collection of French renaissance art, opened in 1978. The Hiroshima Prefectural Art Museum
Museum
opened in 1968, and is located near Shukkei-en gardens. The Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art , which opened in 1989, is located near Hijiyama Park. Festivals include Hiroshima Flower Festival and Hiroshima International Animation Festival .

Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Park , which includes the Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Peace Memorial , draws many visitors from around the world, especially for the Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Ceremony , an annual commemoration held on the date of the atomic bombing. The park also contains a large collection of monuments, including the Children\'s Peace Monument , the Hiroshima
Hiroshima
National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims and many others.

Hiroshima\'s rebuilt castle (nicknamed _Rijō_, meaning _ Koi
Koi
Castle_) houses a museum of life in the Edo period . Hiroshima Gokoku Shrine is within the walls of the castle. Other attractions in Hiroshima
Hiroshima
include Shukkei-en , Fudōin, Mitaki-dera , and Hijiyama Park .

CUISINE

The man making a okonomiyaki at a restaurant in Hiroshima
Hiroshima

Hiroshima
Hiroshima
is known for okonomiyaki , a savory (umami ) pancake cooked on an Iron-plate, usually in front of the customer. It is cooked with various ingredients, which are layered rather than mixed together as done with the Osaka
Osaka
version of okonomiyaki. The layers are typically egg, cabbage, bean sprouts (moyashi), sliced pork/bacon with optional items (mayonnaise, fried squid, octopus, cheese, mochi , kimchi , etc.), and noodles (soba , udon ) topped with another layer of egg and a generous dollop of okonomiyaki sauce (Carp and Otafuku are two popular brands). The amount of cabbage used is usually 3 to 4 times the amount used in the Osaka
Osaka
style. It starts out piled very high and is generally pushed down as the cabbage cooks. The order of the layers may vary slightly depending on the chef's style and preference, and ingredients will vary depending on the preference of the customer.

MEDIA

The Chugoku Shimbun is the local newspaper serving Hiroshima. It publishes both morning paper and evening editions. Television stations include Hiroshima Home Television , Hiroshima TV , TV Shinhiroshima , and the RCC Broadcasting Company . Radio stations include Hiroshima
Hiroshima
FM , Chugoku Communication Network , FM Fukuyama , FM Nanami , and Onomichi FM . Hiroshima
Hiroshima
is also served by NHK , Japan's public broadcaster, with television and radio broadcasting.

EDUCATION

Satake Memorial Hall at Hiroshima University (in Higashihiroshima City)

Hiroshima University was established in 1949, as part of a national restructuring of the education system. One national university was set up in each prefecture , including Hiroshima
Hiroshima
University, which combined eight existing institutions ( Hiroshima University of Literature and Science, Hiroshima
Hiroshima
School of Secondary Education, Hiroshima
Hiroshima
School of Education, Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Women's School of Secondary Education, Hiroshima School of Education for Youth, Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Higher School, Hiroshima Higher Technical School, and Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Municipal Higher Technical School), with the Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Prefectural Medical College added in 1953. But, in 1972 the relocation of Hiroshima University was decided from urban areas of Hiroshima
Hiroshima
City to wider campus in Higashihiroshima City. By 1995 almost all campuses were relocated to Higashihiroshima . But, School of Medicine, School of Dentistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Graduate School in these fields in Kasumi Campus and Law School and Center for Research on Regional Economic System in Higashi-Senda Campus are still in Hiroshima
Hiroshima
City.

SPORT

Hiroshima
Hiroshima
has several professional sports clubs. The city's main football club are Sanfrecce Hiroshima
Sanfrecce Hiroshima
, who play at the Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Big Arch . As Toyo Kogyo Soccer Club, they won the Japan
Japan
Soccer League five times between 1965 and 1970 and the Emperor\'s Cup in 1965 , 1967 and 1969 . After adopting their current name in 1992, the club won the J. League in 2012 and 2013 . The city's main women's football club is Angeviolet Hiroshima . Defunct clubs include Rijo Shukyu , who won the Emperor's Cup in 1924 and 1925, and Ẽfini Hiroshima
Hiroshima
.

Hiroshima Toyo Carp are the city's major baseball club, and play at the Mazda Stadium . Members of the Central League , the club won the Japan
Japan
Series in 1979, 1980 and 1984. Other sports clubs include Hiroshima Dragonflies (basketball ), Hiroshima Maple Reds (handball ) and JT Thunders (volleyball ).

The Woodone Open Hiroshima was part of the Japan
Japan
Golf Tour between 1973 and 2007. The city also hosted the 1994 Asian Games , using the Big Arch stadium, which is now used for the annual Mikio Oda Memorial International Amateur Athletic Game . The now-called Hiroshima Prefectural Sports Center was one of the host arenas of the 2006 FIBA World Championship (basketball).

TOURISM

The Japanese city of Hiroshima
Hiroshima
may have been devastated by the atomic bomb almost 70 years ago, but today, this site of the destruction is one of the top tourist destinations in the entire country. Statistics released by the nation's tourist agency revealed that around 363,000 visitors went to the metropolis during 2012, with US citizens making up the vast majority of that figure, followed by Australians and the Chinese.

MAIN TOURIST SPOTS IN HIROSHIMA

Hiroshima
Hiroshima
has many interesting places to visit. A popular destination is going to the Utsukushima Island, also known as Miyajima , which is a sacrad island with many temples and shrines. But inside Hiroshima there are many popular destinations as well, and according to online guidebooks, these are the most popular tourist destinations in Hiroshima
Hiroshima
:

* Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Museum
Museum
* The Atomic Bomb Dome * Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Park * Mazda Zoom-Zoom Stadium Hiroshima * Hiroshima Castle
Hiroshima Castle
* Shukkei-en * Mitaki-dera Temple * Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Gogoku Shrine * Kamiyacho and Hatchobori (_A major center in Hiroshima
Hiroshima
which is a shopping area. It is direcly connected to the Hiroshima Bus Center )_ * Senko-ji Temple (Senko-ji Park)

HOSPITALS

* Hiroshima
Hiroshima
City Hospital * Hiroshima
Hiroshima
City Asa Hospital * Hiroshima
Hiroshima
City Funairi Hospital * Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Prefectural Hospital * Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Red Cross Hospital border:solid #aaa 1px">

* _ Japan
Japan
portal

* Barefoot Gen _ * Cultural treatments of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima
Hiroshima
and Nagasaki
Nagasaki
* Kokura
Kokura
* Masaharu Morimoto * Nagasaki
Nagasaki
* Perfume , a pop group from Hiroshima * Sadako Kurihara * Sadako Sasaki (1943–1955) * Town of Evening Calm, Country of Cherry Blossoms * Yōko Ōta , author of several works of Atomic bomb literature * Yoshito Matsushige

NOTES

* ^ Yoshitsugu Kanemoto. "Metropolitan Employment Area (MEA) Data". Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo
Tokyo
. * ^ Conversion rates - Exchange rates - OECD Data * ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). _A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz_. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509514-6 . * ^ "The Origin of Hiroshima". Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Peace Culture Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-01-30. Retrieved 2007-08-17. * ^ Scott O'Bryan (2009). "Hiroshima: History, City, Event". About Japan: A Teacher's Resource. Retrieved 2010-03-14. * ^ Kosaikai, Yoshiteru (2007). "History of Hiroshima". _Hiroshima Peace Reader_. Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Peace Culture Foundation. * ^ Bingham (US Legation in Tokyo) to Fish (US Department of State), September 20, 1876, in _Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States, transmitted to congress, with the annual message of the president, December 4, 1876_, p. 384 * ^ _A_ _B_ Kosakai, _ Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Peace Reader_ * ^ Dun (US Legation in Tokyo) to Gresham, February 4, 1895, in _Foreign relations of United States, 1894_, Appendix I, p. 97 * ^ Jacobs, Norman (1958). _The Origin of Modern Capitalism and Eastern Asia_. Hong Kong University. p. 51. * ^ Sanko (1998). _ Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Hiroshima Peace Memorial
(Genbaku Dome)_. The City of Hiroshima
Hiroshima
and the Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Peace Culture Foundation. * ^ * ^ "Diocese of Hiroshima". _ Catholic-Hierarchy.org _. David M. Cheney. Retrieved 21 January 2015. * ^ United States
United States
Strategic Bombing Survey (June 1946). "U. S. Strategic Bombing Survey: The Effects of the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima
Hiroshima
and Nagasaki". nuclearfiles.org. Archived from the original on 2004-10-11. Retrieved 2009-07-26. * ^ Pape, Robert (1996). _Bombing to Win: Airpower and Coercion in War_. Cornell University Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-8014-8311-0 . * ^ " Japan
Japan
in the Modern Age and Hiroshima
Hiroshima
as a Military City". The Chugoku Shimbun. Retrieved 2007-08-19. * ^ The Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of History and Heritage Resources. * ^ "Frequently Asked Questions - Radiation Effects Research Foundation". Rerf.or.jp. Retrieved 2011-07-29. * ^ Ishikawa and Swain (1981), p. 5 * ^ Selden, Mark. "Bombs Bursting in Air: The US Firebombing and Atomic Bombing of Japan". Asia Pacific Journal. Retrieved March 27, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ Roger Angell, From the Archives, "HERSEY AND HISTORY", _The New Yorker_, July 31, 1995, p. 66. * ^ http://www.japantimes.co.jp/culture/2009/08/16/books/the-pure-horror-of-hiroshima/#.UdhVsfnVDTc The pure horror of Hiroshima, published in _The Japan
Japan
Times _ by Donald Richie. * ^ Sharp, "From Yellow Peril to Japanese Wasteland: John Hersey's 'Hiroshima'", Twentieth Century Literature 46 (2000): 434–452, accessed March 15, 2012. * ^ Jon Michaub, "EIGHTY-FIVE FROM THE ARCHIVE: JOHN HERSEY" _The New Yorker_, June 8, 2010, np. * ^ John Hersey, Hiroshima
Hiroshima
(New York: Random House, 1989). * ^ "広島市 市の木・市の花". Retrieved 2012-07-15. * ^ "Excite エキサイト". * ^ Ishikawa and also Swain (1981), p. 6 * ^ "Peace Memorial City, Hiroshima". Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Peace Culture Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-02-06. Retrieved 2007-08-14. * ^ "Fifty Years for the Peace Memorial Museum". Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Peace Memorial Museum. Retrieved 2007-08-17. * ^ " Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Park". Japan
Japan
Deluxe Tours. Retrieved 2017-05-23. * ^ "Surviving the Atomic Attack on Hiroshima, 1944". Eyewitnesstohistory.com. 1945-08-06. Retrieved 2009-07-17. * ^ "Library: Media Gallery: Video Files: Rare film documents devastation at Hiroshima". Nuclear Files. Retrieved 2009-07-17. * ^ "President Obama Visits Hiroshima". The NewYork Times. Archived from the original on 2016-05-29. Retrieved 2016-05-31. * ^ "気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値)". Japan Meteorological Agency . * ^ " Population
Population
of Japan, Table 92". Statistics Bureau. Retrieved 2007-08-14. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "2006 Statistical Profile". The City of Hiroshima. Archived from the original on 2008-02-06. Retrieved 2007-08-14. * ^ Terry, Thomas Philip (1914). _Terry's Japanese Empire_. Houghton Mifflin Co. p. 640. * ^ de Rham-Azimi, Nassrine, Matt Fuller, and Hiroko Nakayama (2003). _Post-conflict Reconstruction in Japan, Republic of Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, East Timor_. United Nations Publications. p. 69. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ "広島市交通科学館/ Hiroshima
Hiroshima
City Transportation Museum". * ^ _A_ _B_ "Peace Newspaper produced by Japanese teenagers: Peace Seeds:feature story". * ^ "Wel City Hiroshima". Wel-hknk.com. Retrieved 2011-06-13. * ^ "History of Hiroshima
Hiroshima
University". Hiroshima
Hiroshima
University. Retrieved 2007-06-25. * ^ " Hiroshima
Hiroshima
increasingly popular with tourists Inside Japan Tours". _www.insidejapantours.com_. Retrieved 2017-07-27. * ^ " Hiroshima
Hiroshima
- Most famous Sights Planetyze". _Planetyze_. Retrieved 2017-07-27. * ^ "Introduction to our Sister and Friendship Cities". City.hiroshima.jp. Archived from the original on 2011-05-03. Retrieved 2010-05-10. * ^ "Friendly relationship at Official website of Volgograd". Volgadmin.ru. 1994-12-01. Archived from the original on 2008-12-20. Retrieved 2011-06-13. * ^ "Twinnings of the City of Hannover". _Hanover.de - Offizielles Portal
Portal
der Landeshauptstadt und der Region Hannover_ (in German). Presse- und Öffentlichkeitsarbeit der Landeshauptstadt Hannover. Retrieved 2014-10-13. External link in website= (help )

REFERENCES

* Ishikawa, Eisei, David L. Swain (1981). _ Hiroshima
Hiroshima
and Nagasaki: The Physical, Medical, and Social Effects of the Atomic Bombings_. Basic Books. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * Kowner, Rotem (2002). "Hiroshima". In M. Ember; C. Ember. _Encyclopedia of Urban Cultures (Vol. II)_. Grolier. pp. 341–348. ISBN 0-7172-5698-7 .

FURTHER READING

* Pacific War Research Society, _Japan's Longest Day_ (Kodansha, 2002, ISBN 4-7700-2887-3 ), the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor. * Richard B. Frank , _Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire_ (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0-14-100146-1 ) * Robert Jungk , _Children of the Ashes_, 1st Eng. ed. 1961 * Gar Alperovitz
Gar Alperovitz
, _The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb_, ISBN 0-679-76285-X * John Hersey , _Hiroshima_ , ISBN 0-679-72103-7 * Michihiko Hachiya , _ Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Diary: The Journal of a Japanese Physician_, August 6 - September 30, 1945 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press , 1955), since reprinted. * Masuji Ibuse , _Black Rain_, ISBN 0-87011-364-X * Tamiki Hara , _Summer Flowers_ ISBN 0-691-00837-X * Robert Jay Lifton
Robert Jay Lifton
_Death in life: The survivors of Hiroshima_, Weidenfeld ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Hiroshima Prefecture
Hiroshima Prefecture

Hiroshima
Hiroshima
(capital )

WARDS OF HIROSHIMA

* Aki * Asakita * Asaminami * Higashi * Minami * Naka * Nishi * Saeki

CORE CITIES

* Fukuyama * Kure

CITIES

* Akitakata * Etajima * Fuchū * Hatsukaichi * Higashihiroshima * Mihara * Miyoshi * Onomichi * Ōtake * Shōbara * Takehara

AKI DISTRICT

* Fuchū * Kaita * Kumano * Saka

JINSEKI DISTRICT

* Jinsekikōgen

SERA DISTRICT

* Sera

TOYOTA DISTRICT

* Ōsakikamijima

YAMAGATA DISTRICT

* Akiōta * Kitahiroshima

List of mergers in Hiroshima Prefecture
Hiroshima Prefecture

* v * t * e

Metropolitan cities of Japan
Japan

TOKYO METROPOLIS

* Special
Special
wards of Tokyo
Tokyo
※ (Adachi * Arakawa * Bunkyo * Chiyoda * Chūō * Edogawa * Itabashi * Katsushika * Kita * Koto * Meguro * Minato * Nakano * Nerima * Ōta * Setagaya * Shibuya
Shibuya
* Shinagawa * Shinjuku
Shinjuku
* Suginami * Sumida * Toshima * Taitō )

DESIGNATED CITIES

* Chiba ※ * Fukuoka
Fukuoka
※ * Hamamatsu * Hiroshima※ * Kawasaki * Kitakyushu * Kobe
Kobe
※ * Kumamoto
Kumamoto
※ * Kyoto
Kyoto
※ * Nagoya
Nagoya
※ * Niigata ※ * Okayama
Okayama
※ * Osaka
Osaka
※ * Sagamihara * Saitama ※ * Sakai * Sapporo
Sapporo
※ * Sendai
Sendai
※ * Shizuoka ※ * Yokohama
Yokohama

CORE CITIES

* Akita ※ * Amagasaki * Aomori ※ * Asahikawa * Fukuyama * Funabashi * Gifu
Gifu
※ * Hachinohe * Hachiōji * Hakodate * Higashiōsaka * Himeji * Hirakata * Iwaki * Kagoshima ※ * Kanazawa ※ * Kashiwa * Kawagoe * Kōchi ※ * Kōriyama * Koshigaya * Kurashiki * Kure * Kurume * Maebashi
Maebashi
※ * Matsuyama ※ * Miyazaki ※ * Morioka ※ * Naha * Nagano ※ * Nagasaki
Nagasaki
※ * Nara ※ * Nishinomiya * Ōita ※ * Okazaki * Ōtsu ※ * Sasebo * Shimonoseki * Takamatsu ※ * Takasaki * Takatsuki * Toyama ※ * Toyohashi * Toyonaka * Toyota * Utsunomiya
Utsunomiya
※ * Wakayama ※ * Yokosuka

SPECIAL CITIES

* Akashi * Atsugi * Chigasaki * Fuji * Fukui ※ * Hiratsuka * Ibaraki * Ichinomiya * Isesaki * Jōetsu * Kakogawa * Kasugai * Kasukabe * Kawaguchi * Kishiwada * Kōfu ※ * Kumagaya * Matsue ※ * Matsumoto * Mito ※ * Nagaoka * Neyagawa * Numazu * Odawara
Odawara
* Ōta * Saga ※ * Sōka * Suita * Takarazuka * Tokorozawa * Tottori ※ * Tsukuba * Yamagata ※ * Yamato * Yao * Yokkaichi

PREFECTURAL CAPITALS

* Fukushima * Tsu * Tokushima * Yamaguchi

_NOTE:_ ※ also a prefectural capital

* v * t * e

Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents

Main accident lists

* List of attacks on nuclear plants * List of Chernobyl-related articles * List of crimes involving radioactive substances * List of criticality accidents and incidents * List of nuclear meltdown accidents * List of Milestone nuclear explosions * List of military nuclear accidents * List of nuclear and radiation accidents * List of nuclear and radiation accidents by death toll * List of nuclear weapons tests * List of sunken nuclear submarines

Lists by country

* List of canceled nuclear plants in the United States
United States
* List of inquiries into uranium mining in Australia * List of nuclear and radiation fatalities by country * List of nuclear power accidents by country * List of nuclear reactors by country * List of nuclear test sites * List of nuclear weapon test locations * List of nuclear weapons tests of the Soviet Union * List of nuclear weapons tests of the United States
United States

Individual accidents and sites

* 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster * 2001 Instituto Oncologico Nacional#Accident * 1996 San Juan de Dios radiotherapy accident * 1990 Clinic of Zaragoza radiotherapy accident * 1987 Goiânia accident * 1986 Chernobyl disaster and Chernobyl disaster effects * 1979 Three Mile Island accident and Three Mile Island accident health effects * 1969 Lucens reactor * 1962 Thor missile launch failures at Johnston Atoll under Operation Fishbowl * 1962 Cuban missile crisis * 1961 K-19 nuclear accident * 1961 SL-1 nuclear meltdown * 1957 Kyshtym disaster * 1957 Windscale fire * 1957 Operation Plumbbob * 1954 Totskoye nuclear exercise * Bikini Atoll * Hanford Site * Rocky Flats Plant * 1945 Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Related topics

* Books about nuclear issues * Films about nuclear issues * Anti-war movement * Bikini Atoll * _ Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists _ * France and weapons of mass destruction * History of the anti-nuclear movement * International Day against Nuclear Tests * Nuclear close calls * Nuclear-Free Future Award * Nuclear-free zone * Nuclear power debate * Nuclear power phase-out * Nuclear weapons debate * Peace activists * Peace movement * Peace camp * Russell–Einstein Manifesto * Smiling Sun

* v * t * e

Host cities of Asian Games
Asian Games

_

SUMMER

* 1951 : Delhi
Delhi
* 1954 : Manila
Manila
* 1958 : Tokyo
Tokyo
* 1962 : Jakarta
Jakarta
* 1966 : Bangkok
Bangkok
* 1970 : Bangkok
Bangkok
* 1974 : Tehran
Tehran
* 1978 : Bangkok
Bangkok
* 1982 : Delhi
Delhi
* 1986 : Seoul
Seoul
* 1990 : Beijing
Beijing
* 1994 : Hiroshima * 1998 : Bangkok
Bangkok
* 2002 : Busan
Busan
* 2006 : Doha
Doha
* 2010 : Guangzhou
Guangzhou
* 2014 : Incheon
Incheon
* 2018 : Jakarta
Jakarta
_/_ Palembang _ * 2022 : _ Hangzhou
Hangzhou
_

WINTER

* 1986 : Sapporo
Sapporo
* 1990 : Sapporo
Sapporo
* 1996 : Harbin
Harbin
* 1999 : Kangwon * 2003 : Aomori * 2007 : Changchun
Changchun
* 2011 : Astana
Astana
- Almaty * 2017 : _ Sapporo
Sapporo
_

* v * t * e

Metropolitan areas in Japan
Japan
with a population of over a million

HOKKAIDO REGION

* Sapporo
Sapporo
(ja)

* Ishikari * Shiribeshi * Sorachi

TōHOKU REGION

* Sendai
Sendai
(ja)

* Miyagi

KANTō REGION

* Utsunomiya
Utsunomiya
(ja)

* Tochigi

* Maebashi
Maebashi
(ja)

* Gunma

* Tokyo
Tokyo
(ja)

* Saitama * Chiba * Tokyo
Tokyo
* Kanangawa * Ibaraki * Yamanashi

CHūBU REGION

* Niigata (ja)

* Niigata

* Shizuoka (ja)

* Shizuoka

* Hamamatsu (ja)

* Shizuoka

* Nagoya
Nagoya
(ja)

* Gifu
Gifu
* Aichi * Mie

KINKI REGION

* Kyoto
Kyoto
(ja)

* Shiga * Kyoto
Kyoto

* Osaka