Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern
Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST:
Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and sanskritised register of the
Hindustani language. Modern
Hindi and its literary tradition evolved
towards the end of the 18th century.
Along with the English language,
Hindi written in the Devanagari
script is the official language of the Government of India. On 14
September 1949, the Constituent Assembly of
India adopted Hindi
Devanagari script as the official language of the Republic
of India. To this end, several stalwarts rallied and lobbied pan-India
in favor of Hindi, most notably Beohar Rajendra Simha along with
Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Kaka Kalelkar,
Maithili Sharan Gupt and Seth
Govind Das who even debated in Parliament on this issue. As such, on
the 50th birthday of Beohar Rajendra Simha on 14 September 1949, the
efforts came to fruition following adoption of
Hindi as the official
language. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic
of India. However, it is not the national language of
no language was given such a status in the Indian
Hindi is the lingua franca of the
Hindi belt, and to a lesser extent
the whole of
India (usually in a simplified or pidginized variety such
as Bazaar Hindustani or Haflong Hindi). Outside India, several other
languages are recognized officially as "Hindi" but do not refer to the
Standard Hindi language described here and instead descend from other
dialects of Hindustani, such as
Awadhi and Bhojpuri. Such languages
Fiji Hindi, which is official in Fiji, and Caribbean
Hindustani, which is a recognized language in Trinidad and Tobago,
Guyana, and Suriname. Apart from specialized
Hindi is mutually intelligible with Standard Urdu, another
recognized register of Hindustani.
Individually, as a linguistic variety,
Hindi is the fourth most-spoken
first language in the world, after Mandarin, Spanish and English.
Urdu as Hindustani, it is the third most-spoken language in
the world, after Mandarin and English.
2.1 Use outside the
3.1 Outside India
4 Comparison with Modern Standard Urdu
8 Sample text
9 See also
11 External links
The term Hindī originally was used to refer to inhabitants of the
region east of the Indus. It was borrowed from Classical Persian
Hindī (Iranian Persian Hendi), meaning "Indian", from the proper noun
The name Hindavī was used by
Amir Khusrow in his poetry.
Further information: History of Hindustani
Like other Indo-Aryan languages,
Hindi is a direct descendant of an
early form of Vedic Sanskrit, through
Sauraseni Prakrit and Śauraseni
Sanskrit apabhraṃśa "corrupted"), which emerged
in the 7th century A.D.
Standard Hindi is based on the Khariboli dialect, the
Delhi and the surrounding region, which came to replace
earlier prestige dialects such as Awadhi, Maithili (sometimes regarded
as separate from the
Hindi dialect continuum) and Braj.
another form of Hindustani – acquired linguistic prestige in the
later Mughal period (1800s), and underwent significant Persian
influence. In the late 19th century, a movement to develop
Hindi as a
standardised form of Hindustani separate from
Urdu took form. In 1881,
Hindi as its sole official language, replacing Urdu,
and thus became the first state of
India to adopt Hindi. Modern
Standard Hindi is one of the youngest Indian languages in this regard.
After independence, the government of
India instituted the following
standardisation of grammar: In 1954, the Government of
India set up a
committee to prepare a grammar of Hindi; The committee's report was
released in 1958 as A Basic Grammar of Modern Hindi.
standardisation of the orthography, using the
Devanagari script, by
Central Hindi Directorate
Central Hindi Directorate of the Ministry of Education and Culture
to bring about uniformity in writing, to improve the shape of some
Devanagari characters, and introducing diacritics to express sounds
from other languages.
The Constituent Assembly adopted
Hindi as an official language of
India on 14 September 1949. Now, it is celebrated as
Use outside the
India a pidgin known as
Haflong Hindi has developed as a
lingua franca for various tribes in
Assam that speak other languages
natively. In Arunachal Pradesh,
Hindi emerged as a lingua franca
among locals who speak over 50 dialects natively.
Part XVII of the Indian Constitution deals with the official language
of the Indian Commonwealth. Under Article 343, the official languages
of the Union has been prescribed, which includes
Hindi in Devanagari
script and English:
(1) The official language of the Union shall be
Hindi in Devanagari
script. The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of
the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals.
(2) Notwithstanding anything in clause (1), for a period of fifteen
years from the commencement of this Constitution, the English language
shall continue to be used for all the official purposes of the Union
for which it was being used immediately before such commencement:
Provided that the President may, during the said period, by order
authorize the use of the
Hindi language in addition to the English
language and of the
Devanagari form of numerals in addition to the
international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes
of the Union
Article 351 of the
Indian constitution states
It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi
language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression
for all the elements of the composite culture of
India and to secure
its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius,
the forms, style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other
India specified in the Eighth Schedule, and by drawing,
wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary, primarily on
Sanskrit and secondarily on other languages.
It was envisioned that
Hindi would become the sole working language of
the Union Government by 1965 (per directives in Article 344 (2) and
Article 351), with state governments being free to function in the
language of their own choice. However, widespread resistance to the
Hindi on non-native speakers, especially in South India
(such as the those in Tamil Nadu) led to the passage of the Official
Languages Act of 1963, which provided for the continued use of English
indefinitely for all official purposes, although the constitutional
directive for the Union Government to encourage the spread of Hindi
was retained and has strongly influenced its policies.
Article 344 (2b) stipulates that official language commission shall be
constituted every ten years to recommend steps for progressive use of
Hindi language and imposing restrictions on the use of the English
language by the union government. In practice, the official language
commissions are constantly endeavouring to promote
Hindi but not
imposing restrictions on English in official use by the union
At the state level,
Hindi is the official language of the following
Indian states: Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh,
Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Mizoram, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh,
Uttarakhand and West Bengal. Each may also designate a
"co-official language"; in Uttar Pradesh, for instance, depending on
the political formation in power, this language is generally Urdu.
Hindi is accorded the status of official language in the
following Union Territories: Andaman & Nicobar Islands,
Chandigarh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, National
National language status for
Hindi is a long-debated theme. In 2010,
Gujarat High Court
Gujarat High Court clarified that
Hindi is not the national
India because the constitution does not mention it as
Outside Asia, the
Awadhi language (A
Hindi dialect) is an official
Fiji as per the 1997 Constitution of Fiji, where it
referred to it as "Hindustani", however in the 2013 Constitution of
Fiji, it is simply called "
Fiji Hindi". It is spoken by 380,000
people in Fiji.
Hindi is also spoken by a large population of Madheshis (people having
roots in north-
India but have migrated to
Nepal over hundreds of
years) of Nepal. Apart from specialized vocabulary,
Hindi is mutually
intelligible with Standard Urdu, another recognized register of
Hindi is quite easy to understand for some Pakistanis, who
speak Urdu, which, like Hindi, is part of Hindustani. Apart from this,
Hindi is spoken by the large
Indian diaspora which hails from, or has
its origin from the "
Hindi Belt" of India. A substantially large North
Indian diaspora lives in countries like The
United States of America,
the United Kingdom, the United Arab Emirates, Trinidad and Tobago,
Guyana, Suriname, South Africa,
Fiji and Mauritius, where it is
natively spoken at home and among their own Hindustani-speaking
communities. Outside India,
Hindi speakers are 8 million in Nepal;
United States of America; 450,170 in Mauritius; 380,000
in Fiji; 250,292 in South Africa; 150,000 in Suriname; 100,000
in Uganda; 45,800 in United Kingdom; 20,000 in New Zealand; 20,000
in Germany; 16,000 in Trinidad and Tobago; 3,000 in Singapore.
Comparison with Modern Standard Urdu
Main articles: Hindi–
Urdu controversy, Hindustani phonology, and
Urdu are two registers of the same language
and are mutually intelligble.
Hindi is written in the Devanagari
script and uses more
Sanskrit words, whereas
Urdu is written in the
Perso-Arabic script and uses more
Arabic and Persian words.
the most commonly used official language in India.
Urdu is the
national language and lingua franca of
Pakistan and is one of 22
official languages of India.
The splitting of
Urdu into separate languages is largely
motivated by politics, namely the Indo-Pakistani rivalry.
Hindi is written in the
Devanagari script, an abugida. Devanagari
consists of 11 vowels and 33 consonants and is written from left to
right. Unlike for Sanskrit,
Devanagari is not entirely phonetic for
Hindi, especially failing to mark schwa dropping in spoken Standard
The Government of
Hunterian transliteration as its official
system of writing
Hindi in the Latin script. Various other systems
also exist, such as IAST,
ITRANS and ISO 15919.
Hindustani etymology and List of
Persian roots in Hindi
Hindi words are divided into five principal categories
according to their etymology:
Tatsam (तत्सम "same as that") words: These are words which
are spelled the same in
Hindi as in
Sanskrit (except for the absence
of final case inflections). They include words inherited from
Prakrit which have survived without modification (e.g.
Hindi नाम nām /
Sanskrit नाम nāma, "name"; Hindi
कर्म karm /
Sanskrit कर्म karma, "deed, action;
karma"), as well as forms borrowed directly from
Sanskrit in more
modern times (e.g. प्रार्थना prārthanā,
"prayer"). Pronunciation, however, conforms to
Hindi norms and may
differ from that of classical Sanskrit. Amongst nouns, the tatsam word
could be the
Sanskrit non-inflected word-stem, or it could be the
nominative singular form in the
Sanskrit nominal declension.
Ardhatatsam (अर्धतत्सम "semi-tatsama") words: Such
words are typically earlier loanwords from
Sanskrit which have
undergone sound changes subsequent to being borrowed. (e.g. Hindi
सूरज sūraj from
Sanskrit सूर्य surya)
Tadbhav (तद्भव "born of that") words: These are native Hindi
words derived from
Sanskrit after undergoing phonological rules (e.g.
Sanskrit कर्म karma, "deed" becomes Sauraseni Prakrit
कम्म kamma, and eventually
Hindi काम kām, "work") and
are spelled differently from Sanskrit.
Deshaj (देशज) words: These are words that were not borrowings
but do not derive from attested Indo-Aryan words either. Belonging to
this category are onomatopoetic words or ones borrowed from local
Videshī (विदेशी "foreign") words: These include all
loanwords from non-indigenous languages. The most frequent source
languages in this category are Persian, Arabic, English and
Portuguese. Examples are कमेटी kameṭī from English
committee and साबुन sābun "soap" from Arabic.
Hindi also makes extensive use of loan translation (calqueing) and
occasionally phono-semantic matching of English.
Hindi has naturally inherited a large portion of its vocabulary from
Śaurasenī Prākṛt, in the form of tadbhava words. This process
usually involves compensatory lengthening of vowels preceding
consonant clusters in Prakrit, e.g.
Sanskrit tīkṣṇa > Prakrit
Much of Modern Standard Hindi's vocabulary is borrowed from Sanskrit
as tatsam borrowings, especially in technical and academic fields. The
Hindi standard, from which much of the Persian,
English vocabulary has been replaced by neologisms compounding tatsam
words, is called Śuddh
Hindi (pure Hindi), and is viewed as a more
prestigious dialect over other more colloquial forms of Hindi.
Excessive use of tatsam words sometimes creates problems for native
speakers. They may have
Sanskrit consonant clusters which do not exist
in native Hindi, causing difficulties in pronunciation.
As a part of the process of Sanskritization, new words are coined
Sanskrit components to be used as replacements for supposedly
foreign vocabulary. Usually these neologisms are calques of English
words already adopted into spoken Hindi. Some terms such as
dūrbhāṣ "telephone", literally "far-speech" and dūrdarśan
"television", literally "far-sight" have even gained some currency in
Hindi in the place of the English borrowings (ṭeli)fon and
Hindi literature is broadly divided into four prominent forms or
Bhakti (devotional – Kabir, Raskhan); Śṛṇgār
(beauty – Keshav, Bihari); Vīgāthā (epic); and Ādhunik (modern).
Hindi literature is marked by the influence of Bhakti
movement and the composition of long, epic poems. It was primarily
written in other varieties of Hindi, particularly
Avadhi and Braj
Bhasha, but to a degree also in Khariboli, the basis for Modern
Standard Hindi. During the British Raj, Hindustani became the prestige
Chandrakanta, written by
Devaki Nandan Khatri
Devaki Nandan Khatri in 1888, is considered
the first authentic work of prose in modern Hindi. The person who
brought realism in the
Hindi prose literature was Munshi Premchand,
who is considered as the most revered figure in the world of Hindi
fiction and progressive movement. Literary, or Sāhityik,
popularised by the writings of Swami Dayananda Saraswati, Bhartendu
Harishchandra and others. The rising numbers of newspapers and
magazines made Hindustani popular with the educated people.[citation
The Dvivedī Yug ("Age of Dwivedi") in
Hindi literature lasted from
1900 to 1918. It is named after Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, who played a
major role in establishing Modern
Standard Hindi in poetry and
broadening the acceptable subjects of
Hindi poetry from the
traditional ones of religion and romantic love.
In the 20th century,
Hindi literature saw a romantic upsurge. This is
known as Chāyāvād (shadow-ism) and the literary figures belonging
to this school are known as Chāyāvādī. Jaishankar Prasad,
Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala',
Mahadevi Varma and Sumitranandan Pant,
are the four major Chāyāvādī poets.
Uttar Ādhunik is the post-modernist period of
marked by a questioning of early trends that copied the West as well
as the excessive ornamentation of the Chāyāvādī movement, and by a
return to simple language and natural themes.
Hindi was the first Indic-language wiki to reach 100,000
Hindi literature, music, and film have all been disseminated
via the internet. In 2015, Google reported a 94% increase in
Hindi-content consumption year-on-year, adding that 21% of users in
India prefer content in Hindi.
Hindi newspapers also offer digital editions.
Urdu § Sample text
The following is a sample text in High Hindi, of the Article 1 of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (by the United Nations):
अनुच्छेद 1 (एक) – सभी
मनुष्यों को गौरव और
अधिकारों के विषय में
जन्मजात स्वतन्त्रता और
समानता प्राप्त हैं।
उन्हें बुद्धि और
अन्तरात्मा की देन प्राप्त
है और परस्पर उन्हें
भाईचारे के भाव से बर्ताव
Anucched 1 (ek) – Sabhī manuṣyõ ko gaurav aur adhikārõ ke
viṣay mẽ janmajāt svatantratā aur samāntā prāpt hai. Unhẽ
buddhi aur antarātmā kī den prāpt hai aur paraspar unhẽ
bhāīcāre ke bhāv se bartāv karnā cāhie.
[ənʊtʃʰːeːd̪ eːk səbʱiː mənʊʃjõː koː ɡɔːɾəʋ
ɔːr əd̪ʱɪkaːɾõ keː maːmleː mẽː dʒənmədʒaːt̪
sʋət̪ənt̪ɾət̪aː ɔːr səmaːntaː pɾaːpt̪ hɛː ‖
ʊnʱẽ bʊd̪ʱːɪ ɔːɾ ənt̪əɾaːt̪maː kiː d̪eːn
pɾaːpt̪ hɛː ɔːɾ pəɾəspəɾ ʊnʱẽː bʱaːiːtʃaːɾeː
keː bʱaːʋ seː bəɾt̪aːʋ kəɾnə tʃaːhɪeː ‖]
Article 1 (one) – All human-beings to dignity and rights' matter in
from-birth freedom and equality acquired is. Them to reason and
conscience's endowment acquired is and always them to brotherhood's
spirit with behaviour to do should.
Article 1 – All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and
rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act
towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu
Bengali Language Movement (Manbhum)
Hindi Divas – the official day to celebrate
Hindi as a language.
India and Languages with official status in India
List of English words of
List of Hindi television channels broadcast in Europe (by country)
List of Hindi channels in Europe (by type)
Hindi words at Wiktionary, the free dictionary
List of languages by number of native speakers
List of languages by number of native speakers in India
Sanskrit and Persian roots in Hindi
Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
^ a b Hindustani (2005). Keith Brown, ed. Encyclopedia of Language and
Linguistics (2 ed.). Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-044299-4.
Hindi Directorate: Introduction". Archived from the
original on 4 May 2012.
^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds.
Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute
for the Science of Human History.
^ "Constitution of India". Archived from the original on 2 April 2012.
Retrieved 21 March 2012.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 August 2006.
Retrieved 9 October 2006.
^ "Constitutional Provisions: Official Language Related Part-17 of The
Constitution Of India". Department of Official Language, Government of
India. Archived from the original on 13 January 2017. Retrieved 15
^ "हिन्दी दिवस विशेष: इनके
प्रयास से मिला था हिन्दी
को राजभाषा का दर्जा". Archived from
the original on 11 September 2017.
^ "PART A Languages specified in the Eighth Schedule (Scheduled
Languages)". Archived from the original on 2013-10-29.
^ a b Khan, Saeed (25 January 2010). "There's no national language in
India: Gujarat High Court". The Times of India. Ahmedabad: The Times
Group. Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 5 May
^ a b "Hindi, not a national language: Court". The Hindu. Ahmedabad:
Press Trust of India. 25 January 2010. Archived from the original on 4
July 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
^ a b "Sequence of events with reference to official language of the
Union". Archived from the original on 2 August 2011.
^ रिपब्लिक ऑफ फीजी का
संविधान (Constitution of the Republic of Fiji, the Hindi
version) Archived 1 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Caribbean Languages and Caribbean Linguistics" (PDF). University of
the West Indies Press. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 December
2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
^ Richard K. Barz (8 May 2007). "The cultural significance of
Mauritius". Taylor&Francis Online. 3: 1–13.
doi:10.1080/00856408008722995. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's
100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin. Asterisks
mark the 2010 estimates Archived 11 November 2012 at the Wayback
Machine. for the top dozen languages.
^ "Hindustani". Columbia University press. encyclopedia.com. Archived
from the original on 29 July 2017.
^ Steingass, Francis Joseph (1892). A comprehensive Persian-English
dictionary. London: Routledge & K. Paul. p. 1514. Retrieved
13 February 2018.
^ Khan, Rajak. "Indo-Persian Literature and Amir Khusro". University
of Delhi. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
^ a b "Brief History of Hindi". Central
Hindi Directorate. Archived
from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
^ Parthasarathy, Kumar, p.120
Hindi Diwas celebration: How it all began". The Indian Express. 14
September 2016. Archived from the original on 8 February 2017.
Retrieved 7 February 2017.
^ Kothari, Ria, ed. (2011). Chutnefying English: The Phenomenon of
Hinglish. Penguin Books India. p. 128.
ISBN 9780143416395. access-date= requires url= (help)
Hindi became the language of choice in Arunachal Pradesh
^ "The Constitution of India" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF)
on 9 September 2014.
^ "Rajbhasha" (PDF) (in
Hindi and English). india.gov.in. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 31 January 2012.
^ "THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGES ACT, 1963 (AS AMENDED, 1967) (Act No. 19 of
1963)". Department of Official Language. Archived from the original on
16 December 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report
(July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic
Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 26 December
^ Roy, Anirban (28 February 2018). "Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi make it to
list of official languages in".
India Today. Retrieved 31 March
Gujarat High Court
Gujarat High Court order". Archived from the original on 4 July
Fiji Hindi alphabet, pronunciation and language". www.omniglot.com.
Archived from the original on 8 June 2017. Retrieved 22 June
^ "Section 4 of
Fiji Constitution". servat.unibe.ch. Archived from the
original on 9 June 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2009.
^ "Constitution of Fiji". Official site of the Fijian Government.
Archived from the original on 11 October 2016. Retrieved 14 October
^ a b "Hindi, Fiji". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 11
February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
^ "United States- Languages". Ethnologue. Archived from the original
on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
^ a b Frawley, p. 481
^ "United Kingdom- Languages". Ethnologue. Archived from the original
on 1 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
Urdu are classified as literary registers of the same
language". Archived from the original on 2 June 2016.
^ Sin, Sarah J. (2017). Bilingualism in Schools and Society: Language,
Identity, and Policy, Second Edition. Routledge. Retrieved 17 February
^ Bhatia, Tej K. (1987). A History of the
Hindi Grammatical Tradition:
Hindi-Hindustani Grammar, Grammarians, History and Problems. Brill.
ISBN 9789004079243. access-date= requires url= (help)
^ a b Masica, p. 65
^ Masica, p. 66
^ Masica, p. 67
^ Arnold, David; Robb, Peter (2013). Institutions and Ideologies: A
Asia Reader. Routledge. p. 79.
ISBN 9781136102349. Archived from the original on 9 February
^ Ohala, Manjari (1983). Aspects of
Hindi Phonology. Motilal
Banarsidass Publishers. p. 38. ISBN 9780895816702.
access-date= requires url= (help)
^ Arnold, David; Robb, Peter (2013). Institutions and Ideologies: A
Asia Reader. Routledge. p. 82.
ISBN 9781136102349. access-date= requires url= (help)
^ "Stop outraging over Marathi –
Hindi and English chauvinism is
much worse in India". Archived from the original on 19 September
Hindi content consumption on internet growing at 94%: Google". The
Economic Times. 18 August 2015. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
Bhatia, Tej K. (11 September 2002). Colloquial Hindi: The Complete
Course for Beginners. Taylor & Francis.
ISBN 978-1-134-83534-8. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
Grierson, G. A. Linguistic Survey of
India Vol I-XI, Calcutta, 1928,
ISBN 81-85395-27-6 (searchable database).
Koul, Omkar N. (2008). Modern
Hindi grammar (PDF). Springfield, VA:
Dunwoody Press. ISBN 978-1-931546-06-5. Retrieved 19 July
McGregor, R.S. (1995). Outline of
Hindi grammar: With exercises (3.
ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Pr. ISBN 0-19-870008-3. Retrieved 19 July
Frawley, William (2003). International Encyclopedia of Linguistics:
AAVE-Esparanto. Vol.1. Oxford University Press. p. 481.
Parthasarathy, R.; Kumar, Swargesh (2012).
Bihar Tourism: Retrospect
and Prospect. Concept Publishing Company. p. 120.
Masica, Colin (1991). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2.
Ohala, Manjari (1999). "Hindi". In International Phonetic Association.
Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: a Guide to the Use
of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge University Press.
pp. 100–103. ISBN 978-0-521-63751-0.
Sadana, Rashmi (2012). English Heart,
Hindi Heartland: the Political
Life of Literature in India. University of California Press.
ISBN 978-0-520-26957-6. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
Shapiro, Michael C. (2001). "Hindi". In Garry, Jane; Rubino, Carl. An
encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present. New
England Publishing Associates. pp. 305–309.
Shapiro, Michael C. (2003). "Hindi". In Cardona, George; Jain,
Dhanesh. The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. pp. 250–285.
Snell, Rupert; Weightman, Simon (1989).
ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-142012-9.
Taj, Afroz (2002) A door into Hindi. Retrieved 8 November 2005.
Tiwari, Bholanath ( 2004) हिन्दी भाषा
(Hindī Bhasha), Kitab Pustika, Allahabad, ISBN 81-225-0017-X.
McGregor, R.S. (1993), Oxford Hindi–English Dictionary (2004 ed.),
Oxford University Press, USA .
Hardev Bahri (1989), Learners' Hindi-English dictionary, Delhi:
Mahendra Caturvedi (1970), A practical Hindi-English dictionary,
Delhi: National Publishing House
Hindi Dictionary Mobile App developed in the Harvard
Innovation Lab (iOS, Android and Blackberry)
John Thompson Platts (1884), A dictionary of Urdū, classical Hindī,
and English (reprint ed.), LONDON: H. Milford, p. 1259, retrieved
6 July 2011
Bhatia, Tej K A History of the
Hindi Grammatical Tradition. Leiden,
Netherlands & New York, NY: E.J. Brill, 1987.
Tiwari, Deepa (April 2015). "The
Gyani, Pandit (September 2016). "
Hindi Biography & History".
Hindi edition of, the free encyclopedia
Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Hindi.
Hindi at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
The Union: Official Language
Official Unicode Chart for
Khari Boli (Registers:
Standard Urdu; Dialects:
Pidgins and Creoles
Andaman Creole Hindi
Hindi agitations of Karnataka
Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu
Punjabi Suba movement
Sahitya Akademi Award
Languages of India
8th schedule to the
Constitution of India
Over 1 million
100,000 – 1 million
Modern Indo-Aryan languages
list of languages
Andaman Creole Hindi
See also: Old and Middle Indo-Aryan; Indo-Iranian languages; Nuristani
languages; Iranian languages
Find out more on's