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Hanbok
Hanbok
(South Korea) or Joseon-ot (North Korea) is the representative example of traditional Korean dress. It is characterized by vibrant colors and simple lines without pockets. Although the term literally means "Korean clothing", hanbok usually refers specifically to clothing of the Joseon
Joseon
period and is worn as semi-formal or formal wear during traditional festivals and celebrations. Korea had a dual clothing tradition in which rulers and aristocrats adopted different kinds of mixed foreign-influenced indigenous styles while commoners preserved a distinct style of indigenous clothing, today known as hanbok.[1][2] In the East Asian context, Hanbok
Hanbok
is considered to be Hufu, which is contrary to the concept of Hanfu, a Chinese clothing.[3][4][5] Hufu means barbarian clothing in the Sinocentric
Sinocentric
order of the past. In 1996, the South Korean Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism established " Hanbok
Hanbok
Day" to encourage South Korean citizens to wear hanbok.[6]

Nepalese woman in a Hanbok

Contents

1 Composition and design

1.1 Jeogori 1.2 Chima 1.3 Baji 1.4 Po 1.5 Jokki and magoja 1.6 Children's hanbok

2 Occasions 3 History

3.1 Antiquity 3.2 Joseon
Joseon
dynasty

3.2.1 Everyday wear 3.2.2 Hanbok
Hanbok
for formal occasions 3.2.3 Material and Color 3.2.4 Head dresses

3.3 Foreign influence

4 Social status

4.1 Clothes

4.1.1 Hwal-Ot 4.1.2 Wonsam 4.1.3 Dangui 4.1.4 Myeonbok
Myeonbok
and Jeokui

4.1.4.1 Myeonbok 4.1.4.2 Nine Symbols 4.1.4.3 Jeokui

4.1.5 Cheolick 4.1.6 Hwangpo 4.1.7 Ayngsam

4.2 Accessories

4.2.1 Binyeo 4.2.2 Norigae 4.2.3 Danghye

4.2.3.1 Kunghye 4.2.3.2 Onhye

5 See also 6 Footnotes 7 References 8 External links

Composition and design[edit] Traditional women's hanbok consists of jeogori, a blouse shirt or a jacket, and chima, a wrap-around skirt, which is usually worn full. The ensemble is often called chima jeogori. Men's hanbok consists of jeogori and loose-fitting baji," ("pants"),[7] Jeogori[edit]

Jeogori
Jeogori
and chima

Jeogori
Jeogori
or Tseogori is the basic upper garment of the hanbok, worn by both men and women. It covers the arms and upper part of the wearer's body.[8][9] The basic form of a jeogori consists of gil, git, dongjeong, goreum and sleeves. Gil (길) is the large section of the garment on both front and back sides, and git (깃) is a band of fabric that trims the collar. Dongjeong (동정) is a removable white collar placed over the end of the git and is generally squared off. The gorem (고름) are coat-strings that tie the jeogori.[7] Women's jeogori may have kkeutdong (끝동), a different colored cuff placed at the end of the sleeves. Two jeogori may be the earliest surviving archaeological finds of their kind. One from a Yangcheon Heo clan tomb is dated 1400-1450,[10] while the other was discovered inside a statue of the Buddha at Sangwonsa Temple (presumably left as an offering) that has been dated to the 1460s.[11] The form of Jeogori
Jeogori
has changed over time.[12] While men's jeogori remained relatively unchanged, women's jeogori dramatically shortened during the Joseon
Joseon
dynasty, reaching its shortest length at the late 19th century. However, due to reformation efforts and practical reasons, modern jeogori for women is longer than its earlier counterpart. Nonetheless the length is still above the waist line. Traditionally, goreum were short and narrow, however modern goreum are rather long and wide. There are several types of jeogori varying in fabric, sewing technique, and shape.[12][10] Chima[edit] Chima refers to "skirt," which is also called sang (裳) or gun (裙) in hanja.[13][8][12] The underskirt, or petticoat layer, is called sokchima. According to ancient murals of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
and an earthen toy excavated from the neighborhood of Hwangnam-dong, Gyeongju, Goguryeo women wore a chima with jeogori over it, covering the belt.[14][15] Although striped, patchwork, and gored skirts are known from the Goguryeo[8] and Joseon
Joseon
periods, chima were typically made from rectangular cloth that was pleated or gathered into a skirt band.[16] This waistband extended past the skirt fabric itself and formed ties for fastening the skirt around the body.[17] Sokchima was largely made in a similar way to the overskirts until the early 20th century when straps were added,[18] later developing into a sleeveless bodice or 'reformed' petticoat.[19] By the mid-20th century, some outer chima had also gained a sleeveless bodice, which was then covered by the jeogori.[20][21] Baji[edit] Baji or Padzi refers to the bottom part of the men's hanbok. It is the formal term for 'pants' in Korean. Compared to western style pants, it does not fit tightly. The roomy design is aimed at making the clothing ideal for sitting on the floor.[22] It functions as modern trousers do, but nowadays the term baji is commonly used in Korea for any kinds of pants. There is a band around the waistline of a baji for tying in order to fasten. Baji can be unlined trousers, leather trousers, silk pants, or cotton pants, depending on style of dress, sewing method, embroidery and so on. Po[edit] Po or Pho is a generic term referring to an outer robe or overcoat, which was a common style from the Three Kingdoms of Korea
Three Kingdoms of Korea
period until the late Joseon
Joseon
period.[8][23] A belt was used until it was replaced by a ribbon during late Joseon
Joseon
dynasty. Durumagi
Durumagi
is a variety of po that was worn as protection against cold. It had been widely worn as an outer robe over jeogori and baji. It is also called jumagui, juchaui, or juui.[13][8][12] A different overcoat derived from Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
styles was adopted among the elites of Unified Silla
Unified Silla
and eventually evolved into Gwanbok.[23][need quotation to verify] Jokki and magoja[edit] Jokki or Tsokki (조끼) is a type of vest, while magoja is an outer jacket. Although jokki and magoja were created at the end of the Joseon
Joseon
dynasty in which Western culture began to affect Korea, the garments have been considered traditional clothing. Each is additionally worn over jeogori for warmth and style. Magoja
Magoja
clothing was originally styled after that of Manchu people, but was introduced to Korea after Heungseon Daewongun, father of King Gojong, returned from his political exile in Tianjin
Tianjin
in 1887.[12][24] Magoja
Magoja
derived from the magwae he wore in exile because of the cold climate there. It was good for warmth and easy to wear, so magoja became popular in Korea. It is also called "deot jeogori" (literally "an outer jeogori") or magwae.[12] Magoja
Magoja
does not have git, the band of fabric that trims the collar,[7] or goreum (tying strings) unlike jeogori and durumagi (overcoat). Magoja
Magoja
was originally a male garment but later became unisex. The magoja for men has seop (Hangul: 섶, overlapped column on the front) and is longer than women's magoja, so that both sides are open at the bottom. A magoja is made of a silk and is adorned with one or two buttons which are usually made from amber. In a men's magoja, buttons are attached to the right side, contrary to women's magoja.[12] At first, women wore the magoja for style rather than as a daily outfit, and especially Kaesong
Kaesong
wore it often. It is made of silk, and the color for women tends to be a neutral color to harmonize with other garments such as jeogori and chima, which are worn together. In spring and autumn, pastels tones used in women's magoja are matched with jeogori for color. Men's magoja during spring and summer were jade, green, gray, dark grey.[12] Children's hanbok[edit]

Children's hanbok

Traditionally, Kkachi durumagi
Kkachi durumagi
(literally "a magpie's overcoat") were worn as seolbim (설빔), new clothing and shoes worn on Korean New Year, while at present, it is worn as a ceremonial garment for dol, the celebration for a baby's first birthday.[25][26] It is a children's colorful overcoat.[27] It was worn mostly by young boys.[28] The clothes is also called obangjang durumagi which means "an overcoat of five directions".[25] It was worn over jeogori (a jacket) and jokki (a vest), while the wearer could put jeonbok (a long vest) over it. Kkachi durumagi
Kkachi durumagi
was also worn along with headgear such as bokgeon (a peaked cloth hat),[29][30] hogeon (peaked cloth hat with a tiger pattern) for young boys or gulle (decorative headgear) for young girls.[8][need quotation to verify], [31] Occasions[edit]

Hwarot, bride clothes.

Hanbok
Hanbok
is classified according to its purposes: everyday dress, ceremonial dress, and special dress. Ceremonial dresses are worn on formal occasions, including a child's first birthday, a wedding, or a funeral. Special
Special
dresses are made for shamans and officials.[22] Hanbok
Hanbok
(한복) is the traditional attire of the Korean people. It was worn daily up until just 100 years ago, it was originally designed to facilitate ease of movement. But now, it is only worn on festive occasions or special anniversaries. (Korea.net 2011, May Hanbok
Hanbok
Korean Traditional clothes) It is a formal dress and most Koreans keep a hanbok for special times in their life such as wedding, Chuseok (Korean Thanksgiving), and Seollal (Korean New Year’s), Children wear hanbok to celebrate their first birthday (돌잔치) etc. While the traditional hanbok was beautiful in its own right, the design has changed slowly over the generations. The core of hanbok is its graceful shape and vibrant colors, it is hard to think of hanbok as everyday wear but it is slowly being revolutionized through the changing of fabrics, colors and features, reflecting the desire of people. Women’s Traditional Hanbok
Hanbok
consist of jeogori, which is a shirt or a jacket, and chima dress, which is a wrap around skirt that is usually worn full. A man’s hanbok consists of jeorgori (jacket) and baggy pants that are called baji. Also there are additional clothing Po which is the outer coat, or robe, jokki which is a type of vest and magoja which is an outer jacket worn over jeogori for warmth and style.(Sarah H, Jeong (2006, February) Hanbok, Korean Traditional Dress) The Color of hanbok symbolized social position and marital status. Bright colors, for example, were generally worn by children and girls, and muted hues by middle aged men and women. Unmarried women often wore yellow jeogori and red chima while matrons wore green and red, and women with sons donned navy. The upper classes wore a variety of colors. Contrastingly, commoners were required to wear white, but dressed in shades of pale pink, light green, gray and charcoal on special occasions. Also, the status and position can be identified by the material of the hanbok. The upper classes dressed in hanbok of closely woven ramie cloth or other high grade lightweight materials in warmer months and of plain and patterned silks throughout the remainder of the year. Commoners, in contrast, were restricted to cotton. Patterns were embroidered on hanbok to represent the wishes of the wearer. Peonies on a wedding dress, represented a wish for honor and wealth. Lotus flowers, symbolized a hope for nobility, and bats and pomegranates shows the desire for children. Dragons, phoenixes, cranes and tigers were only for royalty and high-ranking officials. (Misie Lander (2017, January). Hanbok: An Introduction to South Korea’s National Dress) History[edit] Antiquity[edit] The hanbok can trace its origin to nomadic clothing of the Scytho-Siberian cultural sphere.[32] spanning across Siberia from western Asia to Northeast Asia[33][4][5] The earliest evidence of this common style of northern Asia can be found in the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
burial site of Noin Ula in northern Mongolia,[34] and earliest evidence of hanbok's basic design features is seen in ancient wall murals of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
before the 3rd century BCE.[35][36] Reflecting its nomadic origins in western and northern Asia, hanbok was designed to facilitate ease of movement and also incorporated many shamanistic motifs. From this time, the basic structure of hanbok, namely the jeogori jacket, baji pants, and the chima skirt, were established. Short, tight trousers and tight, waist-length jackets were worn by both men and women during the early years of the Three Kingdoms of Korea period. The basic structure and these basic design features of hanbok remain relatively unchanged to this day.[37] Toward the end of the Three Kingdoms period, noblewomen began to wear full-length skirts and hip-length jackets belted at the waist, and noblemen began to wear roomy trousers bound in at the ankles and a narrow, tunic-style jacket cuffed at the wrists and belted at the waist. During this period, the popularity of Iranian and or Persian designs in Korea can be seen in the widespread use of pearl-studded roundels and symmetrical, zoomorphic patterns.[5] Although most foreign influence on Hanbok
Hanbok
didn't last or was superficial, Mongolian clothing is an exception as the only foreign influence that made significant visible changes to Hanbok. After the Goryeo
Goryeo
Dynasty (918–1392) signed a peace treaty with the Mongol Empire in the 13th century, Mongolian princesses who married into the Korean royal house brought with them Mongolian fashion which began to prevail in both formal and private life.[4][38][39] As a result of this influence, the chima skirt was shortened, and jeogori was hiked up above the waist and tied at the chest with a long, wide ribbon, the goruem (instead of being belted) and the sleeves were curved slightly. Cultural exchange was not one way however. Goryeo
Goryeo
had significant cultural influence on the Mongols
Mongols
court of the Yuan dynasty, the most visible of which was adoption of women's hanbok by the aristocrats, queens, and concubines of the Mongol court.[40][41][42]

7th-century Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
painting of envoys from the Three Kingdoms of Korea: Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla

A Goguryeo
Goguryeo
man in a hunting attire from Goguryeo
Goguryeo
tombs.

Goguryeo
Goguryeo
king and queen's attire.

Silla
Silla
king and queen's attire.

Gold Waist Belt used by Royalty of Silla

A woman's attire during the Goryeo
Goryeo
dynasty.

Portrait of Lady Joban of the Goryeo
Goryeo
dynasty

Portrait of Yi Je-hyeon
Yi Je-hyeon
of the Goryeo
Goryeo
dynasty

Joseon
Joseon
dynasty[edit] Early Joseon
Joseon
continued the women's fashion for baggy, loose clothing, such as those seen on the mural from the tomb of Bak Ik (1332–1398).[43] However, by the 16th century, the jeogori had shortened to the waist and appears to have become closer fitting, although not to the extremes of the bell-shaped silhouette of the 18th and 19th centuries.[44][45][46] Today's hanbok is the direct descendant of hanbok worn in the Joseon period, specifically the late 19th century. Hanbok
Hanbok
had gone through various changes and fashion fads during the five hundred years under the reigns of Joseon
Joseon
kings and eventually evolved to what we now mostly consider typical hanbok. Everyday wear[edit] During the Joseon
Joseon
dynasty, the chima or skirt adopted fuller volume, while the jeogori or blouse took more tightened and shortened form, features quite distinct from the hanbok of previous centuries, when chima was rather slim and jeogori baggy and long, reaching well below waist level. After the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98)
Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98)
or Imjin War, economic hardship on the peninsula may have influenced the closer-fitting styles that use less fabric.[46] However, this explanation doesn't take into account the ever-expanding, voluminous size of the dress which must have increased the use of fabric despite the disastrous effects of the war. In the 18th century, the shortness of jeogori reached an extremity and scarcely cover the breasts. Therefore, women of respectable social backgrounds began to wear a piece of long cloth called heoritti around the breast. Heoritti was originally an undergarment beneath the jeogori but then became outwear. The common and lowborn classes often eschewed the heoritti altogether as a way of indicating that they had given birth to a son.[47] This also may have assisted in breastfeeding. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the fullness of the skirt was concentrated around the hips, thus forming a silhouette similar to Western bustles. The fullness of the skirt reached its extreme around 1800. During the 19th century fullness of the skirt was achieved around the knees and ankles thus giving chima a triangular or an A-shaped silhouette, which is still the preferred style to this day. Many undergarments such as darisokgot, soksokgot, dansokgot, and gojengi were worn underneath to achieve desired forms. A clothes reformation movement aimed at lengthening jeogori experienced wide success in the early 20th century and has continued to influence the shaping of modern hanbok. Modern jeogori are longer, although still halfway between the waistline and the breasts. Heoritti are sometimes exposed for aesthetic reasons. At the end of the 19th century, as mentioned above, Heungseon Daewongun
Heungseon Daewongun
introduced magoja, a Manchu-style jacket, which is often worn over jeogori to this day.

Women's hanbok consists of chima skirt and jeogori shirt.

Full skirt and tight jeogori were considered fashionable. 18th century.

A rare painting of yangban women. Yangban
Yangban
ladies were sensitive to "fashion fads" which worried Seonbi
Seonbi
scholars. 18th century.

Soksokgot, similar to petticoat is shown under the woman's skirt. 18th century.

Dancing together with two swords.

Male aristocrat dress; a gat (a horsehair hat) on the head and yellow dopo (an overcoat).

Men's hanbok saw little change compared to women's hanbok. The form and design of jeogori and baji hardly changed. In contrast, men's lengthy outwear, the equivalent of the modern overcoat, underwent a dramatic change. Before the late 19th century, yangban men almost always wore jungchimak when traveling. Jungchimak had very lengthy sleeves, and its lower part had splits on both sides and occasionally on the back so as to create a fluttering effect in motion. To some this was fashionable, but to others, namely stoic scholars, it was nothing but pure vanity. Daewon-gun successfully banned jungchimak as a part of his clothes reformation program and jungchimak eventually disappeared. Durumagi, which was previously worn underneath jungchimak and was basically a house dress, replaced jungchimak as the formal outwear for yangban men. Durumagi
Durumagi
differs from its predecessor in that it has tighter sleeves and does not have splits on either sides or back. It is also slightly shorter in length. Men's hanbok has remained relatively the same since the adoption of durumagi.

A man wearing jungchimak. 18th century.

The "fluttering" effect. 18th century.

Waryonggwan and hakchangui in 1863.

Photograph taken in 1863

Photograph taken in 1863

Bokgeon
Bokgeon
and simui in 1880.

Black bokgeon and blue dopo in 1880.

Jeongjagwan on the head.

A Korean in mourning clothes

Hanbok
Hanbok
for formal occasions[edit]

Dragon robe
Dragon robe
(or ikseongwanpo): business attire for king

Hongryongpo: everyday clothes for king

Hwangryongpo: everyday clothes for emperor. Gojong began to wear the clothes.

Tongcheongwan and Gangsapo

Heuk dallyeongpo in the late 18th century

Gwanbok
Gwanbok
is a Korean term which refers to all types of formal attire for government officials. It was worn from the Silla
Silla
period until Joseon, and later during Joseon
Joseon
period, the robe system was emulated from the Ming dynasty. During the Silla
Silla
period, the official robe system of Tang Dynasty was imported and put into practice.[14] There were several types of gwanbok that differed in color and design according to the wearer's status, rank, and occasion, for example, jobok, jebok, sangbok, gongbok, yungbok, and gunbok. Jobok was the gwanbok worn for special occasions like national festivals or the announcement of royal decrees. Jebok was the gwanbok worn for a ritual for veneration of the dead called jesa. Sangbok was worn as daily official clothing, while gongbok was worn when officers had an audience with the king at the palace. Yungbok was associated with military affairs. In narrow application to the gongbok and sangbok, however, the term means dallyeong, a robe with a round collar.[48][49] Material and Color[edit] The upper classes wore hanbok of closely woven ramie cloth or other high-grade lightweight materials in warm weather and of plain and patterned silks the rest of the year. Commoners were restricted by law as well as resources to cotton at best. The upper classes wore a variety of colors, though bright colors were generally worn by children and girls and subdued colors by middle-aged men and women. Commoners were restricted by law to everyday clothes of white, but for special occasions they wore dull shades of pale pink, light green, gray, and charcoal. The color of chima showed the wearer's social position and statement. For example, a navy color indicated that a woman had son(s). Only the royal family could wear clothing with geumbak-printed patterns (gold leaf) on the bottom of chima. Head dresses[edit]

A woman wearing a wig, or gache.

Both male and female wore their hair in a long braid until they were married, at which time the hair was knotted; man's hair was knotted in a topknot called sangtu (상투) on the top of the head, and the woman’s hair was rolled into a ball shaped form and was set just above the nape of the neck. A long pin, or binyeo (비녀), was worn in women's knotted hair as both a fastener and a decoration. The material and length of the binyeo varied according to the wearer’s class and status. Women wore a jokduri on their wedding day and wore an ayam for protection from the cold. Men wore a gat, which varied according to class and status. Before 19th century women of high social backgrounds and gisaeng wore wigs (gache). Like their Western counterparts, Koreans considered bigger and heavier wigs to be more desirable and aesthetic. Such was the women's frenzy for the gache that in 1788 King Jeongjo banned by royal decree the use of gache, as they were deemed contrary to the Korean Confucian values of reserve and restraint[50] In the 19th century yangban women began to wear jokduri, a small hat that replaced gache. However gache enjoyed vast popularity in kisaeng circles well into the end of the century. Foreign influence[edit] With increasing cultural ties between Korea and China after the latter half of the Three Kingdoms period, the aristocratic class incorporated some minor foreign influence.[2] Other foreign-styled clothing was adopted by the upper class, but its use was always separate from the tradition of hanbok and never replaced it. As Silla
Silla
unified the Three Kingdoms, various silks, linens, and fashions were imported from Tang China and Persia. In the process, the latest fashions trend of Luoyang, the capital of Tang, were also introduced to Korea, where it became a uniquely Korean silhouette similar to the Western Empire silhouette. After the Korean unification by the Silla, Korean women started wearing the new style, popular not only in China but in all countries influenced by the Silk Road. The style, however, faded during the Goryeo, the next ruling state of Korea.[14][15] Dallyeong, mentioned above, the nomadic style of Western Asian Iranian cultures, was introduced via the Silk Road
Silk Road
and adopted as the official robe system, Gwanbok, from the 4th century until the 17th century.[51][5] Beginning in the late 19th century, hanbok was largely replaced by new Western imports like the Western suit and dress. Today, formal and casual wear are usually based on Western styles. However, hanbok is still worn for traditional occasions and reserved for celebrations like weddings, the Lunar New Year, annual ancestral rites, the birth of a child, etc. Social status[edit] Especially from the Goryeo
Goryeo
Dynasty, Hanbok
Hanbok
started to determine differences in social status through the many types and components,[52] and their characteristics[53] - from people with the highest social status (kings), to those of the lowest social status (slaves).[52] Although the modern Hanbok
Hanbok
does not express a person's status or social position, Hanbok
Hanbok
was an important element of distinguishment especially in the Goryeo
Goryeo
and Joseon
Joseon
Dynasties.[53] Clothes[edit] Hwal-Ot[edit] Hwal-Ot (Hangul: 활옷) was the full dress for a princess and the daughter of a king by a concubine, formal dress for the upper class, and bridal wear for ordinary women during the Goryeo
Goryeo
and Joseon dynasties.[54] Popular embroidered patterns on Hwal-Ot were lotuses, phoenixes, butterflies, and the ten traditional symbols of longevity: the sun; mountains; water; clouds; rocks/stone; pine trees; the mushroom of immortality; turtles; white cranes, and deer.[55] Each pattern represented a different role within society, for example: a dragon represented an emperor a phoenix represented a queen; floral patterns represented a princess and a king’s daughter by a concubine, and clouds and cranes represented high ranking court officials.[54] All these patterns throughout Korean history had meanings of longevity, good luck, wealth and honor.[54] Hwal-Ot also had blue, red, and yellow colored stripes in each sleeve - a woman usually wore a scarlet-colored skirt and yellow or green-colored Jeogori, a traditional Korean jacket.[54] Hwal-Ot was worn over the Jeogori
Jeogori
and skirt.[54] A woman also wore her hair in a bun, with an ornamental hairpin and a ceremonial coronet.[54] A long ribbon was attached to the ornamental hairpin, the hairpin is known as Yongjam (용잠).[54] In more recent times, people wear Hwal-Ot on their wedding day, and so the Korean tradition survives in the present day.[54] Wonsam[edit] Wonsam
Wonsam
(Hangul: 원삼) was a ceremonial overcoat for a married woman in the Joseon
Joseon
dynasty.[56] It was mostly worn by royalty, high-ranking court ladies, and noblewomen and the colors and patterns represented the various elements of the Korean class system.[56] The empress wore yellow; the queen wore red; the crown princess wore a purple-red color; meanwhile a princess, a king’s daughter by a concubine, and a woman of a noble family or lower wore green.[56] All the upper social ranks usually had two colored stripes in each sleeve: yellow-colored Wonsam
Wonsam
usually had red and blue colored stripes, red-colored Wonsam had blue and yellow stripes, and green-colored Wonsam
Wonsam
had red and yellow stripes.[56] Lower class women wore many accompanying colored stripes and ribbons, but all women usually completed their outfit with Onhye or Danghye, traditional Korean shoes.[56] Dangui[edit] Dangui
Dangui
or Tangwi (Hangul: 당의) were minor ceremonial robes for the queen, a princess, or wife of a high ranking government official while it was worn during major ceremonies among the noble class in the Joseon
Joseon
dynasty.[55] The materials used to make “Dang-Ui” varied depending on the season, so upper class women wore thick Dang-Ui in winter while they wore thinner layers in summer.[57] Dang-Ui came in many colors, but yellow and/or green were most common. However the emperor wore purple Dang-Ui, and the queen wore red.[57] In the Joseon dynasty, ordinary women wore Dang-Ui as part of their wedding dress.[57] Myeonbok
Myeonbok
and Jeokui[edit] Myeonbok[edit] Myeonbok
Myeonbok
(Hangul: 면복) were the king’s religious and formal ceremonial robes while Jeokui were the queen’s equivalent during the Goryeo
Goryeo
and Joseon
Joseon
dynasties.[58] Myeonbok
Myeonbok
was composed of Myeonryu-Gwan (Hangul: 면류관) and Gujang-bok (Hangul: 구장복).[58] Myonryu-Gwan had beads, which hung loose; these would prevent the king from seeing wickedness.[58] There were also wads of cotton in the left and right sides of Myeonryu-Gwan, and these were supposed to make the king oblivious to the influence of corrupt officials. Gujang-bok was black, and it bore nine symbols, which all represented the king.[58] Nine Symbols[edit]

Dragon:A dragon’s appearance paralleled how the king governed and subsequently brought balance to the world.[58] Fire: The king was expected to be intelligent and wise to govern the people effectively, like a guiding light represented by the fire.[58] Pheasant: The image of a pheasant represented magnificence.[58] Mountain: As a mountain is high, the king was on a par in terms of status and was deserving of respect and worship.[58] Tiger: A tiger represented the king’s courage.[58] Monkey: A monkey symbolized wisdom.[58] Rice: As the people needed rice to live, the king was compared to this foodstuff as he had the responsibility of protecting their welfare.[58] Axe: This indicated that the king had the ability to save and take lives.[58] Water plant: Another depiction of the king's magnificence.[58]

Jeokui[edit] Jeokui or Tseogwi (Hangul: 적의) was arranged through the use of different colors as a status symbol within the royal family.[59] The empress wore purple-red colored Jeokui, the queen wore pink, and the crown princess wore deep blue.[59] “Jeok” means pheasant, and so Jeokui often had depictions of pheasants embroidered onto it.[59] Cheolick[edit] Cheolick (Hangul: 철릭) was a Korean adaptation of the Mongol tunic, imported in the late 1200s during the Goryeo
Goryeo
dynasty. Cheolique, unlike other forms of Korean clothing, is an amalgamation of a blouse with a kilt into a single item of clothing. The flexibility of the clothing allowed easy horsemanship and archery. During the Joseon dynasty, they continued to be worn by the king, and military officials for such activities.[60] It was usually worn as a military uniform, but by the end of the Joseon
Joseon
dynasty, it had begun to be worn in more casual situations.[61] A unique characteristic allowed the detachment of the Cheolique's sleeves which could be used as a bandage if the wearer was injured in combat.[61] Hwangpo[edit] Hwangpo (Hangul: 황포) were the daily clothes of the king during the Goryeo
Goryeo
and Joseon
Joseon
dynasties.[62] During the early Goryeo
Goryeo
dynasty, the king wore red Hwangpo.[62] However, it was more common for Hwangpo to be yellow in later periods.[62] The king usually wore Hwangpo to a morning assembly.[62] Ayngsam[edit] Ayngsam (Hangul: 앵삼) was the formal clothing for students during the national government exam and governmental ceremonies.[63] It was typically yellow, but for the student who scored the highest in the exam, they were rewarded with the ability to wear green Aengsam.[63] If the highest-scoring student was young, the king awarded him with red-colored Aengsam.[63] Accessories[edit] Binyeo[edit] Binyeo
Binyeo
or Pinyeo (Hangul: 비녀) was a traditional ornamental hairpin, and it had a different-shaped tip again depending on social status.[64] Women in the royal family had dragon or phoenix-shaped Binyeo
Binyeo
while ordinary women had trees or Japanese apricot
Japanese apricot
flowers.[65] Norigae[edit] Norigae
Norigae
(Hangul: 노리개) was a typical traditional accessory for women, and there were no differences determined by social status.[66][disputed – discuss] Danghye[edit] Danghye or Tanghye(Hangul: 당혜) were shoes for married women in the Joseon
Joseon
dynasty.[67] Danghye were decorated with trees bearing grapes, pomegranates, chrysanthemums, or peonies: these were symbols of longevity.[68] Kunghye[edit] Danghye for a woman in the royal family were known as Kunghye (Hangul: 궁혜), and they were usually patterned with flowers.[68] Onhye[edit] Danghye for an ordinary woman were known as Onhye (Hangul: 온혜).[68] See also[edit]

List of Korean clothing

Footnotes[edit]

^ McCallion, 2008, p. 221 - 228 ^ a b 옷의 역사 (in Korean). Daum / Global World Encyclopedia.  ^ Kim, Moon Ja, 2004, 7-15 ^ a b c Lee, Kyung-Ja, 2003 ^ a b c d "1,500 Years of Contact between Korea and the Middle East". Middle East Institute. Retrieved 2017-04-13.  ^ http://news.kukinews.com/article/view.asp?arcid=0008675250&code=41122025&cp=nv 한복데이, 전국 5개 도시서 펼쳐진다 ^ a b c "Traditional clothing". KBS Global. Archived from the original on 2008-03-17.  ^ a b c d e f 저고리 (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 2009-03-15. Retrieved 2008-09-29.  ^ 저고리 (in Korean). Empas / Britannica. Retrieved 2008-09-29.  ^ a b " Jeogori
Jeogori
Before 1910". Gwangju Design Biennale. Retrieved 2009-06-27. [permanent dead link] ^ "Sejodaeuihoejangjeogori". Cultural Heritage Administration, South Korea. Archived from the original on 2012-02-16. Retrieved 2009-06-27.  ^ a b c d e f g h 치마 (in Korean). Nate / Britannica.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Britannica" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). ^ a b 치마 (in Korean). Nate / EncyKorea.  ^ a b c Cho, Woo-hyun. "Characteristics of the Korean Costume and Its Development". 9 (3). Koreana. [permanent dead link] ^ a b 유행과 우리옷 [Fashion and Korean clothing] (in Korean). Korea the sense. Archived from the original on 2012-03-02.  ^ "Important Folklore Materials:117-23". Cultural Heritage Administration.  ^ "Important Folklore Materials: 229-1-4. Skirt belonging to a Jinju Ha clan woman, who died in 1646". Cultural Heritage Administration.  ^ "World Underwear History: Enlightenment Era". Good People Co. Ltd. Archived from the original on May 7, 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-07.  ^ "World Underwear History: Enlightenment Era". Good People Co. Ltd. Archived from the original on May 7, 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-07.  ^ "Recycle LACMA: Red Korean Skirt". Robert Fontenot. Retrieved 2010-01-07.  ^ "Recycle LACMA: Purple Korean Skirt". Robert Fontenot. Retrieved 2010-01-07.  ^ a b "Korea Information". Retrieved 8 October 2014.  ^ a b 포 (袍) (in Korean). Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. Retrieved 2015-04-23.  ^ "Men's Clothing". Life in Korea. Retrieved 2008-11-01.  ^ a b 까치두루마기 (in Korean). Nate / EncyKorea. Archived from the original on 2011-06-10. Retrieved 2008-09-30.  ^ "Geocities.com". Julia's Cook Korean site. Archived from the original on 2009-10-26. Retrieved 2007-11-29.  ^ 까치두루마기 (in Korean and English). Daum Korean-English Dictionary. [permanent dead link] ^ "Encyber.com". Retrieved 8 October 2014. [permanent dead link] ^ The Groom's Wedding Attire Archived 2009-04-23 at the Wayback Machine. Academia Koreana of Keimyung University ^ "What are the traditional national clothes of Korea?". Retrieved 8 October 2014.  ^ "Hanboks (Traditional Clothings)". Headgear
Headgear
and Accessories Worn Together with Hanbok. Korea Tourism Organization. Retrieved 2008-10-06.  ^ Jacobson, Esther (1993). The Dear Goddess of Ancient Siberia. New York: E.J. Brill.  ^ Kim, Moon Ja, 2004, 7-15 ^ You, Soon Lye, 2006, v. 6, 183-185 ^ Nelson, 1993, p.7 & p.213-214 ^ ""Korea for the World, the World for Korea." www.arirangtv.com". Retrieved 8 October 2014.  ^ Korea Tourism Organization
Korea Tourism Organization
(November 20, 2008). "The beauty of Korean tradition - Hanbok". Korea.net.  ^ "Hanbok". Korean Overseas Information Service.  ^ "UriCulture.com". Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2014.  ^ Kim, Ki Sun, 2005. v. 5, 81-97. ^ "News.Naver.com". Retrieved 8 October 2014.  ^ "ChinaCulture.org". Archived from the original on 24 November 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014.  ^ Miryang gobeomni bagik byeokhwamyo (Mural tomb of Bak Ik in Gobeop-ri, Miryang). Cultural Heritage Administration. Accessed 15 July 2009. ^ Keum, Ki-Suk "The Beauty of Korean Traditional Costume" (Seoul: Yeorhwadang, 1994) ISBN 89-301-1039-8 p.43 ^ "Contemporary Artwork of Korean Women". Retrieved 2009-06-27.  ^ a b "Five Centuries of Shrinking Korean Fashions". Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved 2009-06-27.  ^ Han, Hee-sook "Women’s Life during the Joseon
Joseon
dynasty" International Journal of Korean History 6 2004 p. 140 ^ "Veteran Korean Designer Enchants Smithsonian Museum". Chosun Ilbo (English Edition). 2007-05-18. Archived from the original on 2007-10-09. Retrieved 2007-11-29.  ^ 관복 (官服) (in Korean). empas/Encykorea. Retrieved 2007-11-29.  ^ The Traditional Art of Beauty and Perfume in Ancient Korea by Guest Contributor Pauline. MimiFrouFrou.com ^ Lee, Tae-ok. Cho, Woo-hyun. Study on Danryung structure. Proceedings of the Korea Society of Costume Conference. 2003. pp.49-49. ^ a b Chung, Hyun-sook, "Clothing, Traditional - Korea", Encyclopedia of Modern Asia, 2002 ^ a b Cho, Woo-hyun, "Characteristics of the Korean Costume and Its Development", "Koreana", 1995 ^ a b c d e f g h Cho, Eun-ah, "Cho Eun-ah's Hanbok
Hanbok
Story(26)", "C News041", 2012/10/23 ^ a b Life in Korea, "Official/Court Clothing", "Life in Korea" ^ a b c d e Cho, Eun-ah, "Cho Eun-ah's Hanbok
Hanbok
Story(25)", "C News041", 2012/11/12 ^ a b c Cho, Eun-ah, "Cho Eun-ah's Hanbok
Hanbok
Story(27)", "C News041", 2012/11/28 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Encyclopedia of Korean Culture
Encyclopedia of Korean Culture
and The Academy of Korean Studies, "Myeonbok", "Naver Knowledge Encyclopedia" ^ a b c Lee Eun-ju, "Jeokui", "Naver Cast", 2012/07/31 ^ Encyclopedia of Korean Culture
Encyclopedia of Korean Culture
and The Academy of Korean Studies, "Cheolique", "Naver Knowledge Encyclopedia" ^ a b Encyclopedia of Korean Culture
Encyclopedia of Korean Culture
and The Academy of Korean Studies, "Cheollik", "Naver Knowledge Encyclopedia" ^ a b c d Korean Classic Dictionary and King Sejong the Great Memorial Society, "Hwangpo", "Naver Knowledge Encyclopedia" ^ a b c Encyclopedia of Korean Culture
Encyclopedia of Korean Culture
and The Academy of Korean Studies, "Aengsam", "Naver Knowledge Encyclopedia" ^ Doopedia, "Binyeo", "Naver Knowledge Encyclopedia" ^ Cho, Eun-ah, "Cho Eun-ah's Hanbok
Hanbok
Story(21)", "C News041", 2012/04/17 ^ Doopedia, "Norigae", "Naver Knowledge Encyclopedia" ^ Encyclopedia of Korean Culture
Encyclopedia of Korean Culture
and The Academy of Korean Studies, "Danghye", "Naver Knowledge Encyclopedia" ^ a b c Cho, Eun-ah, "Cho Eun-ah's Hanbok
Hanbok
Story(11)", "C News041", 2012/11/27

References[edit]

An, Myung Sook (안명숙); Kim, Yong Ser (김용서) (in Korean) 1998. Hanʼguk poksiksa (한국복식사). Seoul. Yehaksa (예학사) ISBN 978-89-89668-11-4 Kim, Ki Sun (김기선). (in Korean) 2005. Information about Mongolian pigtail 몽골의 辮髮에 대하여. The Institute of Asian Ethno-Forms and Culture. v. 5, 81-97 Kim, Moon Ja (in Korean), 2004. A study on the Source of Hanbok
Hanbok
in ancient times and the position of Hanbok
Hanbok
on the Globalism (고대 한복의 원류 및 세계화 속의 한복의 위치), Society of Korean Traditional Costume, v. 7.1, 7-15 Lee, Kyung-Ja (이경자) (in Korean), 2003, Uri ot ŭi chŏntʻong yangsik (우리옷의 전통양식 The Traditional Style of Korean Clothes) Ewha Women's University
Ewha Women's University
Press. ISBN 89-7300-514-6 Levinson, David (2002). Encyclopedia of modern Asia, Volume 2. Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 120–121. ISBN 978-0-684-80617-4.  McCallion, Aleasha; Condra, Jill. 2008. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Clothing Through World History. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 221 - 228, ISBN 0-313-33664-4 Nelson, Sarah. 1993. The archaeology of Korea. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-40783-4 You, Soon Lye (유순례) (in Korean) 2006, Comparative Research on the Costume Aesthetic Korean & Mongolia (몽골과 한국의 전통복식 미의식 비교에 대한 연구), Society of Korean Traditional Costume, v. 6, 183-185

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hanbok.

History of Hanbok
Hanbok
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(in Korean) Traditional Korean Clothing - Life in Korea Official Korea Tourism Organization- Hanbok
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