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The Gulf of Finland
Finland
(Finnish: Suomenlahti; Estonian: Soome laht; Russian: Фи́нский зали́в, tr. Finskiy zaliv, IPA: [ˈfʲinskʲɪj zɐˈlʲif]; Swedish: Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It extends between Finland
Finland
(to the north) and Estonia
Estonia
(to the south) all the way to Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
in Russia, where the river Neva
Neva
drains into it. Other major cities around the gulf include Helsinki
Helsinki
and Tallinn. The eastern parts of the Gulf of Finland
Finland
belong to Russia, and some of Russia's most important oil harbours are located farthest in, near Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
(including Primorsk). As the seaway to Saint Petersburg, the Gulf of Finland
Finland
has been and continues to be of considerable strategic importance to Russia. Some of the environmental problems affecting the Baltic Sea are at their most pronounced in the shallow gulf.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Extent

2 Geological history 3 Flora and fauna 4 History

4.1 Before 1700 4.2 History since 1700

5 Economy 6 Archaeology 7 Pollution 8 Major cities 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Geography[edit]

Gulf of Finland

Satellite image showing the gulf entirely frozen over in January 2003.

The area of the gulf is 30,000 km2 (12,000 sq mi).[1] The length (from the Hanko Peninsula
Hanko Peninsula
to Saint Petersburg) is 400 km (250 mi) and the width varies from 70 km (43 mi) near the entrance to 130 km (81 mi) on the meridian of Moshchny Island; in the Neva
Neva
Bay, it decreases to 12 km (7.5 mi). The gulf is relatively shallow with the depth decreasing from the entrance to the gulf to the continent. The sharpest change occurs near Narva-Jõesuu, which is why this place is called Narva wall. The average depth is 38 m (125 ft) with the maximum of 100 m (330 ft). The depth of the Neva
Neva
Bay is less than 6 metres (20 ft); therefore, a channel was dug at the bottom for safe navigation. Because of the large influx of fresh water from rivers, especially from the Neva
Neva
River (two-thirds of the total runoff), the gulf water has very low salinity – between 0.2 and 5.8 ‰ at the surface and 0.3–8.5 ‰ near the bottom. The average water temperature is close to 0 °C in winter; in summer, it is 15–17 °C (59–63 °F) at the surface and 2–3 °C (36–37 °F) at the bottom. Parts of the gulf can be frozen from late November to late April; the freezing starts in the east and gradually proceeds to the west. Complete freezing is usually reached by late January, and it might not occur in mild winters.[2] There are frequent strong western winds causing waves, surges of water and floods.[3][4] The northern coast of the gulf is high and winding, with abundant small bays and skerries, but only a few large bays (Vyborg) and peninsulas ( Hanko
Hanko
and Porkkalanniemi). The coast is mostly sloping; there are abundant sandy dunes, with occasional pine trees.[3] The southern shores are smooth and shallow, but along the entire coast runs the Baltic Klint
Baltic Klint
with the height up to 55 m (180 ft).[5][6] In the east, the gulf ends with Neva
Neva
Bay and on the west merges with the Baltic Sea. The gulf contains numerous banks, skerries and islands. The largest include Kotlin Island
Kotlin Island
with the city of Kronstadt
Kronstadt
(population 42,800), Beryozovye Islands, Lisiy Island, Maly Vysotsky Island
Maly Vysotsky Island
with the nearby city of Vysotsk
Vysotsk
(population 1706), Hogland
Hogland
(Suursaari), Moshtchny (Lavansaari), Bolshoy Tyuters
Bolshoy Tyuters
(Tytärsaari), Sommers, Naissaar, Kimitoön, Kökar, Seskar
Seskar
(Seiskari), Pakri Islands
Pakri Islands
and others.[7] Starting from 1700, nineteen artificial islands with fortresses were built in the gulf by Russia. Their purpose was defense from attacks from water and their construction was urged by the Great Northern War of 1700–1721. Those include Fort Alexander, Krasnaya Gorka, Ino, Totleben, Kronshlot and others.[8] The largest rivers flowing into the gulf are Neva
Neva
(from the east), Narva (from the south), and Kymi (from the north). Keila, Pirita, Jägala, Kunda, Luga, Sista and Kovashi flow into the gulf from the south. From the north flow Sestra River, Porvoo, Vantaa and several other small rivers. Saimaa Canal
Saimaa Canal
connects the gulf with the Saimaa lake.[7] Extent[edit] The International Hydrographic Organization
International Hydrographic Organization
defines the western limit of the Gulf of Finland
Finland
as a line running from Spithami (59°13'N), in Estonia, through the island of Osmussaar
Osmussaar
from SE to NW and on to the SW extreme of Hanko Peninsula
Hanko Peninsula
(22°54'E) in Finland.[9] Geological history[edit] See also: Eridanos (geology) The modern depression can be traced to the incision of large rivers during the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
prior to the Quaternary glaciation.[10] These rivers eroded the sedimentary strata above the Fennoscandian Shield.[10] In particular the eroded material was made up of Ediacaran (Vendian) and Cambrian-aged claystone and sandtone.[10] As erosion processes the rivers encountered harder layers of Ordovician-aged limestone leading to the formation of the cliffs of Baltic Klint
Baltic Klint
in northern Estonia
Estonia
and Ingria.[10] Subsequently the depression was somewhat reshaped by glacier's activities. Its retreat formed the Littorina Sea, whose water level was some 7–9 metres higher than the present level of the Baltic Sea. Some 4,000 years ago the sea receded and shoals in the gulf have become its islands.[11][12] Later uplifting of the Baltic Shield
Baltic Shield
skewed the surface of the gulf; for this reason, its ancient northern shores are significantly higher than the southern ones.[3]

Gulf Coast near Komarovo Islands near Helsinki View on the bay from the St. Olaf's Church, Tallinn Fishermen on the Gulf of Finland

Kronstadt
Kronstadt
in winter Panorama of Neva
Neva
River from the Gulf View on the island of Hogland
Hogland
by Kotka

Flora and fauna[edit]

Malusi islands in Estonia
Estonia
are one of the main habitats of grey seals in the Gulf of Finland.

The climate in the area is humid continental climate, characterized by temperate to hot summers and cold, occasionally severe winters with regular precipitation. The vegetation is dominated by a mixture of coniferous and deciduous forests and treeless coastal meadows and cliffs. The major forest trees are pine, spruce, birch, willows, rowan, aspen, common and gray alder. In the far eastern part of the gulf vegetation of the marshy areas consists mainly of bulrush and reeds, as well as fully aquatic plants, such as white and yellow waterlilies and acute sedge. Aquatic plants in the shallow waters of the gulf include Ruppia
Ruppia
and spiny naiad.[13] Fish species of the gulf include Atlantic salmon, viviparous eelpout, gobies, belica, loach, European chub, common minnow, silver bream, common dace, ruffe, Crucian carp, stickleback, European smelt, common rudd, brown trout, tench, pipefish, burbot, perch, gudgeon, lumpsucker, roach, lamprey, vendace, garfish, common whitefish, common bream, zander, orfe, northern pike, spined loach, sprat, Baltic herring, sabre carp, common bleak, European eel
European eel
and Atlantic cod.[14] Commercial fishing is carried out in spring and autumn. Grey seal
Grey seal
and ringed seal are met in the gulf, but the latter is very rare.[13] History[edit] Before 1700[edit] See also: History of Finland
Finland
and History of Estonia Many ancient sites were discovered on the shores of the gulf dated to up to nine thousand years old. Humans began to inhabit these places soon after the ice age glaciers have retreated and the water level of the Littorina Sea
Littorina Sea
lowered to reveal the land. Remains of about 11 Neolithic
Neolithic
settlements were found since 1905 in the mouth of the river Sestra River (Leningrad Oblast). They contain arrow tips and scrapers made of quartz, numerous food utensils and traces of firecamps – all indicative of hunting rather than agricultural or animal husbandry activities.[6]

Overseas Guests by Nicholas Roerich, 1899

The gulf coast was later populated by Finno-Ugric peoples. Eesti (or Chud) inhabited the region of the modern Estonia, Votes
Votes
were living on the south of the gulf and Izhorians
Izhorians
to the south of Neva
Neva
River. Korela tribes settled to the west of Lake Ladoga.[15] In the 8th and 9th centuries, the banks of Neva
Neva
and of the Gulf of Finland
Finland
was populated by East Slavs, in particular by Ilmen Slavs and Krivichs. They were engaged in slash-and-burn agriculture, animal husbandry, hunting and fishing. From the 8th to the 13th century, the Gulf of Finland
Finland
and Neva
Neva
were parts of the waterway from Scandinavia, through Eastern Europe to the Byzantine Empire. From the 9th century, the eastern coast of the gulf belonged to Veliky Novgorod and were called Vodskaya Pyatina. As a result of the 1219 crusade and the Battle of Lyndanisse, the Northern Estonia
Estonia
became part of Denmark (Danish Estonia).[16] In the 12th century, the city Reval (Latin: Revalia, Russian: Колыва́нь) was established on the territory of modern Tallinn.[17] As a result of the Estonian uprising in 1343, the Northern Estonia
Estonia
was taken over by the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
and sold by Denmark in 1346. In 1559, during the Livonian War, the Bishop of Ösel-Wiek in Old Livonia
Old Livonia
sold his lands to King Frederick II of Denmark for 30,000 thalers. The Danish king gave the territory to his younger brother Magnus who landed on Saaremaa
Saaremaa
with an army in 1560.[18] The whole of Saaremaa
Saaremaa
became a Danish possession in 1573, and remained so until it was transferred to Sweden
Sweden
in 1645.[16][19] In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Finnish tribes on the north of the gulf were conquered by the Swedes who then proceeded to the Slavs. The first encounter is attributed to 1142 when 60 Swedish ships attacked 3 Russian merchant vessels. After a Swedish attack in 1256, the Russian army of Alexander Nevsky
Alexander Nevsky
crossed the frozen gulf and raided the Swedish territories in the modern Finland. In 1293, the Vyborg
Vyborg
Castle and city of Vyborg
Vyborg
was founded by the Swedish marshal Torkel Knutsson. The castle was fought over for decades between Sweden
Sweden
and the Novgorod Republic. By the Treaty of Nöteborg
Treaty of Nöteborg
in 1323, Vyborg
Vyborg
was finally recognized as a part of Sweden. It withstood a prolonged siege by Daniil Shchenya during the Russo–Swedish War of 1496–1499. The town's trade privileges were chartered by King Eric of Pomerania
Eric of Pomerania
in 1403. Vyborg
Vyborg
remained in Swedish hands until its capture by Peter the Great in the Great Northern War
Great Northern War
(1710).[20] In 1323, the Treaty of Nöteborg
Treaty of Nöteborg
set the border between Sweden
Sweden
and Russia
Russia
along the river Sestra. In the 15th century, the Izhorian lands of the Novgorod Republic
Novgorod Republic
were attached to the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In 1550, Gustav I of Sweden
Sweden
founded a city on the site of modern Helsinki.[17] As a result of the Russian defeat in the Ingrian War (1610–1617) and the Treaty of Stolbovo
Treaty of Stolbovo
(1617) the lands on the Gulf of Finland
Finland
and Neva
Neva
River became part of the Swedish Ingria. Its capital Nyen was located in the delta of Neva
Neva
River.[20] History since 1700[edit] See also: History of Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
and Siege of Leningrad Russia
Russia
reclaimed the eastern part of the gulf as a result of the victory in the Great Northern War
Great Northern War
(1700–1721). On 16 May 1703, Saint Petersburg was founded in the mouth of Neva
Neva
River, not far from Nyen, and in 1712 it became Russia's capital. To protect the city from the Swedish fleet, the Kronshlot fortress was built on an artificial island near the Kotlin Island
Kotlin Island
in May 1704. By 1705, five more such forts were built nearby composing the city Kronstadt. These fortifications, nicknamed by the contemporaries "the Russian Dardanelles", were designed to control the gulf waterway.[21] In 1710, the cities of Peterhof and Oranienbaum were founded on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland. On 27 July 1714, near the Hanko Peninsula, the Russian Navy won the Battle of Gangut
Battle of Gangut
– a decisive victory over the Imperial Swedish Navy.[15] The Russo-Swedish war ended in 1721 by the Treaty of Nystad, by which Russia
Russia
received all the lands along the Neva
Neva
and the Gulf of Finland, as well as Estland, Swedish Livonia and western part of the Karelian Isthmus, including Vyborg. However, Finland
Finland
was returned to Sweden.[22] The war resumed in (1788–1790), and the Battle of Hogland
Hogland
occurred on 6 July 1788 near the island Gogland. Both the battle and the war were relatively minor and indecisive, with the outcome of Russia
Russia
retaining its territories.[15] The next Russo-Swedish war was fought in (1808–1809). It ended with the Treaty of Fredrikshamn
Treaty of Fredrikshamn
giving the Russia
Russia
rights on the territory of Finland
Finland
and Åland Islands. The newly established in 1809 Grand Duchy of Finland
Finland
received broad autonomy within the Russian Empire and Western Karelia
Karelia
was returned to Finland.[23] On 6 December 1917, the Parliament of Finland
Finland
promulgated the Finnish Declaration of Independence. Western Karelia
Karelia
was annexed by the Soviet Union after the Winter War.[15] Estonia
Estonia
declared independence on 24 February 1918 and fought a war of independence. The republic existed until 1940 and then was annexed by the Soviet Union.[16] Estonia
Estonia
regained its independence after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Battle of Gangut Battle of Hogland Sea battle at Vyborg(1790) Ivan Aivazovsky, 1846

The Gulf of Finland
Finland
had several major naval operations during World War II. In August 1941, during the evacuation of the Baltic Fleet from Tallinn
Tallinn
to Kronstadt, German forces sank 15 Russian military vessels, (5 destroyers, 2 submarines, 3 guard ships, 2 minesweepers, 2 gunboats and 1 Motor Torpedo Boat) as well as 43 transport and support ships. Several ships still remain on the gulf bottom near Cape Juminda, and a monument was raised there in memory of those lost in the events.[24][25] In 1978, construction was started on the Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Dam aiming to protect Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
from the frequent floods. The work was halted at 60% completion in the late 1980s, due to the financial problems related to the breakup of the Soviet Union; it was resumed in 2001 and is — as of August 2011 — complete.[3][26] Economy[edit] The southern coast of the gulf contains the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant and a network of ports and unique natural and historical places. Navigation has long been the dominant activity in the gulf. The major port cities and their functions are, in Russia: Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
(all kinds of goods), Kronstadt
Kronstadt
(container shipping), Lomonosov (general cargo, containers, metals), Vyborg
Vyborg
(general cargo), Primorsk (oil and petroleum products), Vysotsk
Vysotsk
(oil and coal), Ust-Luga (oil, coal, timber, containers);[27] in Finland: Helsinki
Helsinki
(containers), Kotka (containers, timber, agricultural products; it is the main transhipment cargo port for Russia), Hanko
Hanko
(containers, vehicles), Turku
Turku
(containers, rail ferry),[28] Kilpilahti/Sköldvik harbour (oil refinery); in Estonia: Tallinn
Tallinn
(grains, refrigerators, oil), Paldiski, Sillamäe. Gulf of Finland
Finland
is also part of the Volga–Baltic Waterway and White Sea–Baltic Canal. Important goods include apatite from the Kola Peninsula, Karelian granite and greenstone, timber from Arkhangelsk Oblast
Arkhangelsk Oblast
and Vologda, ferrous metals from Cherepovets, coal from Donbass
Donbass
and the Kuznetsk Basin, pyrite from Ural, potassium chloride from Solikamsk, oil from Volga
Volga
region, and grains from many regions of Russia.[29] Passenger transport on the gulf includes a number of ferry lines which connect the following ports: Helsinki
Helsinki
and Hanko
Hanko
(Finland), Mariehamn (Åland Islands), Stockholm
Stockholm
and Kappelsher (Sweden), Tallinn
Tallinn
and Paldiski, Rostock
Rostock
(Germany), Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
and Kaliningrad (Russia), as well as many other cities.[30][31][32] Another major and historical activity in the gulf is fishing, especially on the northern coast near Vyborg, Primorsk and on the southern coast near Ust-Luga.[4] Commercial fish species are herring, sprats, European smelt, whitefishes, carp bream, roaches, perch, European eel, lamprey and others.[33] In 2005, the catchment was 2000 tons by the ships of Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
and Leningrad Oblast
Leningrad Oblast
alone.[34] In September 2005 the agreement was signed on the construction of the Nord Stream
Nord Stream
offshore gas pipeline on the Baltic Sea, from Vyborg
Vyborg
to the German city of Greifswald. The first line was expected become operational in 2011.[35] Afterwards, the first line of Nord Stream
Nord Stream
was laid by May 2011 and was inaugurated on 8 November 2011;[36][37] the second line was inaugurated on 8 October 2012.[38]

Main port of Saint Petersburg Near the harbor of Tallinn Aerial view of Helsinki Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Dam

Archaeology[edit]

Shipwreck of Kazanets near Osmussaar
Osmussaar
in Estonia.

The bottom of the gulf is one of the world's largest ship cemeteries. Because of the low salinity and cold waters, and no shipworms, the ships are relatively well preserved. Since the 6th century, major waterways were running through the gulf, and from the 8th to the 10th century about 3,000 tonnes of silver was transported there. Later, the gulf was actively used by Sweden
Sweden
and Russia
Russia
for transport of goods. Every year saw dozens of lost ships. In the fall of 1743, 17 Russian warships returning from Finland
Finland
sank in just 7 hours, and in the summer of 1747, 26 merchant vessels sank within 4 hours near Narva. A record was set in 1721 when during the evacuation of Russian troops from Finland, more than 100 vessels were lost within 3 months, including 64 in a single night.[39] By the end of 1996, about 5,000 submerged objects were identified in the Russian part of the gulf, including 2,500 ships, 1,500 airplanes, and small items such as boats, anchors, tanks, tractors, cars, cannons, and even naval mines, aerial bombs, torpedoes, and other ammunition. The ships belonged to Russia
Russia
(25%), Germany (19%), United Kingdom (17%), Sweden
Sweden
(15%), Netherlands (8%), and Finland
Finland
(7%). The remaining 9% are from Norway, Denmark, France, United States, Italy, Estonia, and Latvia.[40] These objects present potential hazards to navigation, fishery, coastal construction, laying of submarine pipelines and cables, and the environment. Mines were laid in the gulf during World War I (38,932 units), the Russian Civil War, and the Soviet- Finnish War
Finnish War
(1939–1940), with an estimated total number of 60,000; 85,000 more mines were set during World War II, and only a fraction of all those were eliminated after the wars.[41][42] Pollution[edit]

Ust-Luga Multimodal Complex on the Soikinsky Peninsula
Soikinsky Peninsula
in the Kingiseppsky District
Kingiseppsky District
of northwestern Russia

The ecological condition of the Gulf of Finland, Neva
Neva
Bay and Neva River is unsatisfactory. There is significant contamination by ions of mercury and copper, organochlorine pesticides, phenols, petroleum products and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cleaning of waste water in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
was started in 1979 and by 1997 about 74% of wastewater was purified. This number rose to 85% in 2005, to 91.7% by 2008, and as of 2009 was expected to reach 100% by 2011 with the completion of the expansion of the main sewerage plant.[43] Nevertheless, in 2008, the Federal Service of Saint Petersburg announced that no beach of Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
is fit for swimming.[44] Fish catchment decreased 10 times between 1989 and 2005. Apart from pollution, another reason for that is hydraulic and engineering works. For example, construction of new ports in Ust-Luga and Vysotsk
Vysotsk
and on Vasilyevsky Island
Vasilyevsky Island
adversely affected the spawning of fish. Extraction of sand and gravel in the Neva
Neva
Bay for the land reclamation destroy spawning sites of European smelt.[34] Construction of the Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Dam reduced water exchange of the Neva
Neva
Bay with the eastern part of the gulf by 10–20% that increased the contamination level of Neva
Neva
Bay. The largest changes occur within 5 km (3 mi) from the dam. Some shallow areas between Saint Petersburg and the dam are turning into swamps. Waterlogging and the associated rotting of plants may eventually lead to eutrophication of the area.[45] Also worrying is expansion of oil ports in the gulf[45] and the construction of a treatment center for spent fuel from the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant.[46] The port of Kronstadt
Kronstadt
is currently serving as a transit point for the import in Russia
Russia
of radioactive waste through the Baltic Sea. The waste, mostly depleted uranium hexafluoride, is further transported through Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
to Novouralsk, Angarsk
Angarsk
and other cities of eastern Russia. This transit point will be moved from Saint Petersburg to the port Ust-Luga, which is about 110 kilometres (68 mi) west of Saint Petersburg, and within the Border Security Zone of Russia, as decided by the Russian government in 2003 (Order No. 1491-r of 14 October 2003). It is expected that after this completes it should reduce the ecological risks for Saint Petersburg.[47] Ust-Luga is envisioned to be the largest transportation and logistics hub in northwestern Russia.[48][49][50] However, in 2015 it was reported that some construction plans in Ust-Luga were frozen, and the construction of Ust-Luga Multimodal Complex, supposed to be the transit point for radioactive waste, never started.[51] Major cities[edit]

Espoo Hamina Hanko Helsinki Kirkkonummi Kotka Kronstadt Kunda Loksa Lomonosov Loviisa Maardu Narva-Jõesuu Paldiski Peterhof Porvoo Primorsk Saint Petersburg Sestroretsk Sillamäe Sosnovy Bor Tallinn Vyborg Zelenogorsk

See also[edit]

Kven Sea Peter the Great's Naval Fortress

References[edit]

^ Gulf of Finland
Finland
Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Operational oceanography: the challenge for European co-operation : proceedings of the First International Conference on EuroGOOS, 7–11 October 1996, The Hague, The Netherlands, Volume 1996. Elsevier. p. 336. ISBN 0-444-82892-3.  ^ a b c d Saint Petersburg: Encyclopedia. – Moscow: Russian Political Encyclopedia. 2006 ISBN 5-8110-0107-X ^ a b Darinskii, A. V. Leningrad Oblast. Lenizdat, 1975 ^ "East Viru Klint". North Estonian Klint as a symbol of Estonian nature. Ministry of the Environment. Retrieved 2009-10-06.  ^ a b Khazanovich K. (1982). Geological Monuments of Leningrad Oblast. Lenizdat.  ^ a b Atlas of the USSR. – M.: GUGK, 1984 ^ Gulf of Finland
Finland
– Forts. Fingulf.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14. ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 6 February 2010.  ^ a b c d "The Gulf of Finland". Estonica. Eesti Instituut. September 28, 2012. Retrieved February 20, 2018. CS1 maint: Date and year (link) ^ Gerold Wefer (2002). Climate development and history of the North Atlantic realm. Springer. pp. 217–219. ISBN 3-540-43201-9.  ^ Darinskii, A.V. (1982). Geography of Leningrad. Lenizdat. pp. 12–18.  ^ a b Gulf of Finland
Finland
– Nature. Fingulf.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14. ^ Fishing page of Saint-Petersburg. Fishers.spb.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14. ^ a b c d Great Russian Encyclopedia. "Russia". 2004 ^ a b c Countries and Peoples: USSR. Baltic republics. Belarus. Ukraine. Moldova. – Moscow: Mysl, 1984. ^ a b A. F. Treshnikov Encyclopedic Dictionary of Geography: Geographical names – Moscow: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1983. ^ Frucht, Richard (2005). Eastern Europe. ABC-CLIO. p. 70. ISBN 1-57607-800-0.  ^ Williams, Nicola; Debra Herrmann; Cathryn Kemp (2003). Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania. University of Michigan. p. 190. ISBN 1-74059-132-1.  ^ a b V. A. Ezhov Leningrad Oblast: a historical sketch, Lenizdat, 1986 (in Russian) ^ Lisaevich, Irina Ignatyevna (1986). Domenico Trezzini. Lenizdat. pp. 20–26.  ^ Lurie, F.M. Russian and world history in the tables: Synchronic table. – SPb.: Caravelle, 1995. ^ David Kirby (2006) A concise history of Finland. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-53989-0 ^ Tallinn
Tallinn
transition 1941. War at Sea Archived 12 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. World-war.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14. ^ Platonov, A.V. Tragedies of the Gulf of Finland. Penguin Books, Saint Petersburg: Terra Fantastica, 2005 ^ Dam. A Complex of protection measures of Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
against Flood. Spb-projects.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14. ^ Ports of the Gulf of Finland. Portnews.ru (29 November 2004). Retrieved on 2011-08-14. ^ Ports. Changes in the Finnish ports. Logistics.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14. ^ Russian river fleet and tourism, INFOFLOT.RU. Map.infoflot.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14. ^ Из Петербурга в Хельсинки на пароме (From Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
to Helsinki
Helsinki
by ferry). prohotel.ru. 7 July 2008 ^ Ferry traffic between Finland
Finland
and Russia
Russia
starts in April 2010. Esline.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14. ^ News of the week-Expert Online 2.0, expert.ru ^ Darinskii, A.V. (1982). Geography of Leningrad. Lenizdat. pp. 30–34.  ^ a b Construction of ports in the Gulf of destroying fish. News.spbland.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14. ^ Nord Stream. Nord Stream. Retrieved on 2011-08-14. ^ "Controversial Project Launched: Merkel and Medvedev Open Baltic Gas Pipeline". Spiegel Online. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2011.  ^ Wiesmann, Gerrit (8 November 2011). "Russia-EU gas pipeline delivers first supplies". Financial Times. Retrieved 8 November 2011.  ^ " Nord Stream
Nord Stream
– Five Years of Successful Gas Supply to Europe". Nord Stream. 16 October 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2017.  ^ Underwater discoveries in the eastern Gulf of Finland. Baltic-sunken-ships.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14. ^ Catalog and atlas of objects on the bottom of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
and finds of the remains of ancient ships at the bottom of the Gulf of Finland. Baltic-sunken-ships.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14. ^ Hazardous Objects. Baltic-sunken-ships.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14. ^ "Atlas of ships sunken in the Baltic Sea" (in Russian). Izvestia.ru. 11 January 2004.  ^ "Within the next two years, Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
will be cleaned of almost 100% of wastewater" (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 20 November 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2017.  ^ "Clean Neva". Greenpeace. Archived from the original on 10 March 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2017.  ^ a b Databases of the gulf ecology and their structure Archived 21 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. None. Retrieved on 2011-08-14. ^ Stolyarova, Galina (27 July 2010). " Russia
Russia
Shamed by Ecology Record on Baltic Sea". The Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Times. Retrieved 27 July 2010.  ^ Radioactive draft from a window to Europe. Greenworld.org.ru. Retrieved on 2011-08-14. ^ "Territory Development Scheme of Kingiseppsky District
Kingiseppsky District
of Leningrad Region". Ust-Luga multimodal complex. 26 November 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2017.  ^ "The second day of the exhibition TransRussiaTransLogistica 19". Ust-Luga multimodal complex. 19 April 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.  ^ " Ust-Luga multimodal complex". Ust-Luga multimodal complex. Retrieved 16 August 2017.  ^ Chernov, Vitaly (10 February 2015). " Ust-Luga comes to finish". PortNews. Retrieved 9 November 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gulf of Finland.

ESA satellite photograph of the Gulf of Finland  "Finland, Gulf of". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.   "Finland, Gulf of". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. 

v t e

Landing stages of Russian coast in Gulf of Finland

North gulf coast (Leningrad Oblast)

Miller's pier
Miller's pier
(1875 - 19XX) Dubkovsky pier (1847 - before 1870) Tarkhovka pier Lisy Nos pier (1894 - 1928)

South gulf coast (Leningrad Oblast)

Peterhof landing stage
Peterhof landing stage
(1XXX)

See also Sea and river terminals Yacht-clubs

v t e

Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 234154

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