Bissau (/ˈɡɪni bɪˈsaʊ/ ( listen)), officially
Republic of Guinea-
Bissau (Portuguese: República da Guiné-Bissau
[ʁeˈpublikɐ dɐ ɡiˈnɛ biˈsaw]), is a sovereign state in West
Africa. It covers 36,125 square kilometres (13,948 sq mi)
with an estimated population of 1,815,698.
Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, as well as part of
Mali Empire. Parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th
century, while a few others were under some rule by the Portuguese
Empire since the 16th century. In the 19th century, it was colonized
as Portuguese Guinea. Upon independence, declared in 1973 and
recognised in 1974, the name of its capital, Bissau, was added to the
country's name to prevent confusion with
Guinea (formerly French
Bissau has a history of political instability since
independence, and no elected president has successfully served a full
Only 14% of the population speaks noncreolized Portuguese, established
as both the official and national language. Portuguese exists in
creole continuum with Crioulo, a Portuguese creole spoken by half the
population (44%) and an even larger number speaks it as second tongue,
the remainder speak a variety of native African languages. There are
diverse religions in Guinea-
Bissau with no one religion having a
majority. The CIA World Factbook (2018) states there are about 40%
Muslims, 22% Christians, 15% Animists and 18% unspecified or other.
The country's per-capita gross domestic product is one of the lowest
in the world.
Bissau is a member of the United Nations, African Union,
Economic Community of West African States, Organisation of Islamic
Cooperation, Community of Portuguese Language Countries, La
Francophonie and the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, and
was a member of the now-defunct Latin Union.
1.1 Independence (1973)
1.2 Vieira years
2.1 Foreign relations
2.3 Administrative divisions
3.2 Environmental problems
5.2 Ethnic groups
5.3 Major cities
7 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
Main articles: History of Guinea-
Bissau and Portuguese Guinea
Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, part of the Mali
Empire; parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century. Other
parts of the territory in the current country were considered by the
Portuguese as part of their empire. Portuguese
Guinea was known as
the Slave Coast, as it was a major area for the exportation of African
slaves by Europeans to the western hemisphere.
Early reports of Europeans reaching this area include those of the
Venetian Alvise Cadamosto's voyage of 1455, the 1479–1480 voyage
by Flemish-French trader Eustache de la Fosse, and Diogo Cão. In
the 1480s this Portuguese explorer reached the
Congo River and the
lands of Bakongo, setting up the foundations of modern Angola, some
4200 km down the African coast from Guinea-Bissau.
Flag of the Portuguese Company of Guinea.
Although the rivers and coast of this area were among the first places
colonized by the Portuguese, who set up trading posts in the 16th
century, they did not explore the interior until the 19th century. The
local African rulers in Guinea, some of whom prospered greatly from
the slave trade, controlled the inland trade and did not allow the
Europeans into the interior. They kept them in the fortified coastal
settlements where the trading took place. African communities that
fought back against slave traders also distrusted European adventurers
and would-be settlers. The Portuguese in
Guinea were largely
restricted to the ports of
Bissau and Cacheu. A small number of
European settlers established isolated farms along Bissau's inland
For a brief period in the 1790s, the British tried to establish a
rival foothold on an offshore island, at Bolama. But by the 19th
century the Portuguese were sufficiently secure in
Bissau to regard
the neighbouring coastline as their own special territory, also up
north in part of present South Senegal.
An armed rebellion, begun in 1956 by the African Party for the
Cape Verde (PAIGC) under the leadership of
Amílcar Cabral gradually consolidated its hold on the then Portuguese
Guinea. Unlike guerrilla movements in other Portuguese colonies,
PAIGC rapidly extended its military control over large portions of
the territory, aided by the jungle-like terrain, its easily reached
borderlines with neighbouring allies, and large quantities of arms
from Cuba, China, the Soviet Union, and left-leaning African
Cuba also agreed to supply artillery experts, doctors,
and technicians. The
PAIGC even managed to acquire a significant
anti-aircraft capability in order to defend itself against aerial
attack. By 1973, the
PAIGC was in control of many parts of Guinea,
although the movement suffered a setback in January 1973 when Cabral
PAIGC forces raise the flag of Guinea-
Bissau in 1974.
Independence was unilaterally declared on 24 September 1973.
Recognition became universal following 25 April 1974
socialist-inspired military coup in Portugal, which overthrew Lisbon's
Estado Novo regime.
Luís Cabral, brother of Amílcar and co-founder of PAIGC, was
appointed the first President of Guinea-Bissau. Following
PAIGC killed thousands of local Guinean soldiers who
had fought along with the
Portuguese Army against guerrillas. Some
escaped to settle in
Portugal or other African nations. One of the
massacres occurred in the town of Bissorã. In 1980 the PAIGC
acknowledged in its newspaper Nó Pintcha (dated 29 November 1980)
that many Guinean soldiers had been executed and buried in unmarked
collective graves in the woods of Cumerá, Portogole, and Mansabá.
The country was controlled by a revolutionary council until 1984. The
first multi-party elections were held in 1994. An army uprising in May
1998 led to the Guinea-
Bissau Civil War and the president's ousting in
June 1999. Elections were held again in 2000, and
Kumba Ialá was
In September 2003, a military coup was conducted. The military
arrested Ialá on the charge of being "unable to solve the
problems". After being delayed several times, legislative
elections were held in March 2004. A mutiny of military factions in
October 2004 resulted in the death of the head of the armed forces and
caused widespread unrest.
An abandoned tank from the 1998–1999 civil war in the capital
In June 2005, presidential elections were held for the first time
since the coup that deposed Ialá. Ialá returned as the candidate for
the PRS, claiming to be the legitimate president of the country, but
the election was won by former president João Bernardo Vieira,
deposed in the 1999 coup. Vieira beat
Malam Bacai Sanhá
Malam Bacai Sanhá in a runoff
election. Sanhá initially refused to concede, claiming that tampering
and electoral fraud occurred in two constituencies including the
Despite reports of arms entering the country prior to the election and
some "disturbances during campaigning," including attacks on
government offices by unidentified gunmen, foreign election monitors
described the 2005 election overall as "calm and organized".
Three years later,
PAIGC won a strong parliamentary majority, with 67
of 100 seats, in the parliamentary election held in November 2008.
In November 2008, President Vieira's official residence was attacked
by members of the armed forces, killing a guard but leaving the
On 2 March 2009, however, Vieira was assassinated by what preliminary
reports indicated to be a group of soldiers avenging the death of the
head of joint chiefs of staff, General Batista Tagme Na Wai, who had
been killed in an explosion the day before. Vieira's death did not
trigger widespread violence, but there were signs of turmoil in the
country, according to the advocacy group Swisspeace. Military
leaders in the country pledged to respect the constitutional order of
succession. National Assembly Speaker
Raimundo Pereira was appointed
as an interim president until a nationwide election on 28 June
2009. It was won by
Malam Bacai Sanhá
Malam Bacai Sanhá of the PAIGC, against Kumba
Ialá as the presidential candidate of the PRS.
On 9 January 2012, President Sanhá died of complications from
diabetes, and Pereira was again appointed as an interim president. On
the evening of 12 April 2012, members of the country's military staged
a coup d'état and arrested the interim president and a leading
presidential candidate. Former vice chief of staff, General Mamadu
Ture Kuruma, assumed control of the country in the transitional period
and started negotiations with opposition parties.
Main article: Politics of Guinea-Bissau
The National People's Assembly of Guinea-Bissau.
Public Order Police officer during a parade in Guinea-Bissau
Bissau is a republic. In the past, the government had been
highly centralized. Multi-party governance was not established until
mid-1991. The president is the head of state and the prime minister is
the head of government. Since 1974, no president has successfully
served a full five-year term.
At the legislative level, a unicameral Assembleia Nacional Popular
(National People's Assembly) is made up of 100 members. They are
popularly elected from multi-member constituencies to serve a
four-year term. The judicial system is headed by a Tribunal Supremo da
Justiça (Supreme Court), made up of nine justices appointed by the
president; they serve at the pleasure of the president.
The two main political parties are the
PAIGC (African Party for the
Guinea and Cape Verde) and the PRS (Party for Social
Renewal). There are more than 20 minor parties.
Further information: Foreign relations of Guinea-Bissau
Bissau follows a nonaligned foreign policy and seeks friendly
and cooperative relations with a wide variety of states and
Further information: Military of Guinea-Bissau
A 2008 estimate put the size of the Guinea-
Bissau Armed Forces at
around 4,000 personnel.
Main articles: Regions of Guinea-
Bissau and Sectors of Guinea-Bissau
Bissau is divided into eight regions (regiões) and one
autonomous sector (sector autónomo). These, in turn, are subdivided
into 37 Sectors. The regions are:
a Autonomous sector.
Main article: Geography of Guinea-Bissau
Rare salt water Hippopotamuses in
Caravela, Bissagos Islands.
Typical scenery in Guinea-Bissau.
Bissau is bordered by
Senegal to the north and
Guinea to the
south and east, with the
Atlantic Ocean to its west. It lies mostly
between latitudes 11° and 13°N (a small area is south of 11°), and
longitudes 13° and 17°W.
At 36,125 square kilometres (13,948 sq mi), the country is
larger in size than
Taiwan or Belgium. It lies at a low altitude; its
highest point is 300 metres (984 ft). The terrain of is mostly
low coastal plain with swamps of
Guinean mangroves rising to Guinean
forest-savanna mosaic in the east. Its monsoon-like rainy season
alternates with periods of hot, dry harmattan winds blowing from the
Bijagos Archipelago lies off of the mainland.
Main article: Climate of Guinea-Bissau
Bissau is warm all year around and there is little temperature
fluctuation; it averages 26.3 °C (79.3 °F). The average
Bissau is 2,024 millimetres (79.7 in) although this
is almost entirely accounted for during the rainy season which falls
between June and September/October. From December through April, the
country experiences drought.
Severe environmental problems include deforestation; soil erosion;
overgrazing and overfishing.
Main articles: Economy of Guinea-
Bissau and Mining industry of
Seat of the Central Bank of Guinea-Bissau.
Petrol station in São Domingos.
GDP per capita
GDP per capita is one of the lowest in the world, and
Human Development Index
Human Development Index is one of the lowest on earth. More than
two-thirds of the population lives below the poverty line. The
economy depends mainly on agriculture; fish, cashew nuts and ground
nuts are its major exports.
A long period of political instability has resulted in depressed
economic activity, deteriorating social conditions, and increased
macroeconomic imbalances. It takes longer on average to register a new
business in Guinea-
Bissau (233 days or about 33 weeks) than in any
other country in the world except Suriname.
Bissau has started to show some economic advances after a pact
of stability was signed by the main political parties of the country,
leading to an IMF-backed structural reform program. The key
challenges for the country in the period ahead are to achieve fiscal
discipline, rebuild public administration, improve the economic
climate for private investment, and promote economic diversification.
After the country became independent from
Portugal in 1974 due to the
Portuguese Colonial War
Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution, the rapid exodus
of the Portuguese civilian, military, and political authorities
resulted in considerable damage to the country's economic
infrastructure, social order, and standard of living.
After several years of economic downturn and political instability, in
Bissau entered the
CFA franc monetary system, bringing
about some internal monetary stability. The civil war that took
place in 1998 and 1999, and a military coup in September 2003 again
disrupted economic activity, leaving a substantial part of the
economic and social infrastructure in ruins and intensifying the
already widespread poverty. Following the parliamentary elections in
March 2004 and presidential elections in July 2005, the country is
trying to recover from the long period of instability, despite a
still-fragile political situation.
Beginning around 2005, drug traffickers based in Latin America began
to use Guinea-Bissau, along with several neighboring West African
nations, as a transshipment point to Europe for cocaine. The
nation was described by a
United Nations official as being at risk for
becoming a "narco-state". The government and the military have
done little to stop drug trafficking, which increased after the 2012
Bissau is a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of
Business Law in
Main article: Demographics of Guinea-Bissau
(Left) Guinea-Bissau's population between 1961 and 2003. (Right)
Guinea-Bissau's population pyramid, 2005. In 2010, 41.3% of
Guinea-Bissau's population were aged under 15.
According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects,
Guinea-Bissau's population was 1,815,698 in 2016, compared to 518,000
in 1950. The proportion of the population below the age of 15 in 2010
was 41.3%, 55.4% were aged between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3.3%
were aged 65 years or older.
Bissau present-day settlement pattern of the ethnic groups.
The population of Guinea-
Bissau is ethnically diverse and has many
distinct languages, customs, and social structures.
Bissau-Guineans can be divided into the following ethnic groups:
Fula and the Mandinka-speaking people, who comprise the largest
portion of the population and are concentrated in the north and
Balanta and Papel people, who live in the southern coastal regions;
Manjaco and Mancanha, who occupy the central and northern coastal
Most of the remainder are mestiços of mixed Portuguese and African
descent, including a Cape Verdean minority.
Portuguese natives comprise a very small percentage of
Bissau-Guineans. After Guinea-
Bissau gained independence, most of the
Portuguese nationals left the country. The country has a tiny Chinese
population. These include traders and merchants of mixed
Portuguese and Chinese ancestry from Macau, a former Asian Portuguese
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Guinea-Bissau's second largest city, Gabú
Port of Bissau
Bridge in São Vicente, Cacheu
Main cities in Guinea-
Main article: Languages of Guinea-Bissau
Voter education posters in the Kriol language for Guinea-Bissau
legislative election, 2008, Biombo Region.
Despite being a small country Guinea-
Bissau has several ethnic groups
which are very distinct from each other, with their own cultures and
languages. This is due that Guinea-
Bissau was a refugee territory due
to migrations within Africa. Colonization and miscegenation brought
Portuguese and the Portuguese creole, the Kriol or crioulo.
Although perceived as one of the national languages of Guinea-Bissau
since independence, Standard Portuguese is spoken mostly as a second
language, with few native speakers and often confined to the
intellectual and political elites. It is the language of government
and national communication as a legacy of colonial rule. Portuguese is
the only language with official status; schooling from primary to
university levels is conducted in Portuguese although only 67% of
children have access to any formal education. Data suggested the
number of Portuguese speakers ranges from 11 to 15%. The Portuguese
creole is spoken by 44% which is effectively the national language of
communication among distinct groups for most of the population. The
Creole is still expanding, and it is understood by the vast majority
of the population. However, decreolization processes are occurring,
due to undergoing interference from Standard Portuguese and the creole
forms a continuum of varieties with the standard language, the most
distant are basilects and the closer ones, acrolects. A Post-creole
continuum exists in Guinea-
Bissau and Crioulo 'leve' ('soft' Creole)
variety being closer to the Portuguese-language norm.
The remaining rural population speaks a variety of native African
languages unique to each ethnicity: Fula (16%),
Mandinga (7%), Manjaco (5%), Papel (3%), Felupe (1%), Beafada (0.7%),
Bijagó (0.3%) and Nalu (0.1%) English (35%) which form the ethnic
African languages spoken by the population. Most Portuguese
and Mestiços speakers also have one of the African languages and
Kriol as additional languages. Ethnic African languages are not
discouraged, in any situation, despite their lower prestige. These
languages are the link between individuals of the same ethnic
background and daily used in villages, between neighbors or friends,
traditional and religious ceremonies, and also used in contact between
the urban and rural populations. However, none of these languages are
dominant in Guinea-Bissau. French is taught as a foreign language
in schools because Guinea-
Bissau is surrounded by French-speaking
Bissau is a full member of the Francophonie.
Religion in Guinea-Bissau, 2010
Folk religion or Unaffiliated
Men in Islamic garb, Bafatá, Guinea-Bissau.
As of 2017, Islam is practiced by 45% of the country's population.
Most of Guinea-Bissau's Muslims are of the Sunni denomination with
approximately 2% belonging to the
Approximately 22% of the country's population belong to the Christian
community and 31% continue to hold Indigenous beliefs. However, many
residents practice syncretic forms of Islamic and Christian faiths,
combining their practices with traditional African beliefs.
Muslims dominate the north and east, while Christians dominate the
south and coastal regions. The
Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church claims most of
the Christian community.
The WHO estimates there are fewer than 5 physicians per 100,000
persons in the country, down from 12 per 100,000 in 2007.
The prevalence of HIV-infection among the adult population is
1.8%. Only 20% of infected pregnant women receive anti retroviral
coverage to prevent transmission to newborns.
Malaria kills more residents; 9% of the population have reported
infection, It causes three times as many deaths as AIDS. In
2008, fewer than half of children younger than five slept under
antimalaria nets or had access to antimalarial drugs.
The WHO's estimate of life expectancy for a female child born in 2008
was 49 years, and 47 years for a boy.
Despite lowering rates in surrounding countries, cholera rates were
reported in November 2012 to be on the rise, with 1,500 cases reported
and nine deaths. A 2008 cholera epidemic in Guinea-
14,222 people and killed 225.
The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for
was 1000. This compares with 804.3 in 2008 and 966 in 1990. The
under-5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births, was 195 and the neonatal
mortality as a percentage of under-5 mortality was 24. The number of
midwives per 1,000 live births was 3; one out of eighteen pregnant
women die as a result of pregnancy. According to a 2013 UNICEF
report, 50% of women in
Bissau had undergone female genital
mutilation. In 2010,
Bissau had the seventh-highest
maternal mortality rate in the world.
Main article: Education in Guinea-Bissau
Lusophone University, Bissau.
Education is compulsory from the age of 7 to 13. Pre-school education
for children between three and six years of age is optional and in its
early stages. There are five levels of education: pre-school,
elemental and complementary basic education, general and complementary
secondary education, general secondary education, technical and
professional teaching, and higher education (university and
non-universities). Basic education is under reform, and now forms a
single cycle, comprising 6 years of education. Secondary education is
widely available and there are two cycles (7th to 9th classe and 10th
to 11th classe). Professional education in public institutions is
nonoperational, however private school offerings opened, including the
Centro de Formação São João Bosco (since 2004) and the Centro de
Formação Luís Inácio Lula da Silva (since 2011).
Higher education is limited and most prefer to be educated abroad,
with students preferring to enroll in Portugal. A number of
universities, to which an institutionally autonomous Faculty of Law as
well as a Faculty of Medicine
Child labor is very common. The enrollment of boys is higher than
that of girls. In 1998, the gross primary enrollment rate was 53.5%,
with higher enrollment ratio for males (67.7%) compared to females
Non-formal education is centered on community schools and the teaching
of adults. In 2011 the literacy rate was estimated at 55.3% (68.9%
male, and 42.1% female).
Usually, the many different ethnic groups in Guinea-
peacefully, but when conflicts do erupt, they tend to revolve around
access to land.
Hotels at Bissagos Islands
Carnival in Bissau.
Bissau-Guinean women in the capital, Bissau
National singer Manecas Costa.
Main article: Media of Guinea-Bissau
Main article: Music of Guinea-Bissau
The music of Guinea-
Bissau is usually associated with the polyrhythmic
gumbe genre, the country's primary musical export. However, civil
unrest and other factors have combined over the years to keep gumbe,
and other genres, out of mainstream audiences, even in generally
syncretist African countries.
The calabash is the primary musical instrument of Guinea-Bissau,
and is used in extremely swift and rhythmically complex dance music.
Lyrics are almost always in Guinea-
Bissau Creole, a Portuguese-based
creole language, and are often humorous and topical, revolving around
current events and controversies.
The word gumbe is sometimes used generically, to refer to any music of
the country, although it most specifically refers to a unique style
that fuses about ten of the country's folk music traditions. Tina
and tinga are other popular genres, while extent folk traditions
include ceremonial music used in funerals, initiations and other
rituals, as well as
Balanta brosca and kussundé, Mandinga djambadon,
and the kundere sound of the Bissagos Islands.
Further information: Cuisine of Guinea-Bissau
Rice is a staple in the diet of residents near the coast and millet a
staple in the interior. Fruits and vegetables are commonly eaten along
with cereal grains. The Portuguese encouraged peanut production. Vigna
subterranea (Bambara groundnut) and
Macrotyloma geocarpum (Hausa
groundnut) are also grown. Black-eyed peas are also part of the diet.
Palm oil is harvested.
Common dishes include soups and stews. Common ingredients include
yams, sweet potato, cassava, onion, tomato and plantain. Spices,
peppers and chilis are used in cooking, including Aframomum melegueta
Flora Gomes is an internationally renowned film director; his most
famous film is
Nha Fala (English: My Voice). Gomes's Mortu Nega
(Death Denied) (1988) was the first fiction film and the second
feature film ever made in Guinea-Bissau. (The first feature film was
N’tturudu, by director Umban u’Kest in 1987.) At
Mortu Nega won the prestigious Oumarou Ganda Prize.
Mortu Nega is in
Creole with English subtitles. In 1992, Gomes directed Udju Azul di
Yonta, which was screened in the
Un Certain Regard section at the
1992 Cannes Film Festival. Gomes has also served on the boards of
many Africa-centric film festivals.
Football is the most popular sport in Guinea-Bissau. The Guinea-Bissau
national football team is the national team of Guinea-
Bissau and is
controlled by the Federação de Futebol da Guiné-Bissau. They are a
member of the
Confederation of African Football
Confederation of African Football (CAF) and FIFA. Other
football clubs include Desportivo Quelele, FC Catacumba, FC Catacumba
São Domingos, FC Cupelaoo Gabu, FC Djaraf,
FC Prabis and FC Babaque.
Outline of Guinea-Bissau
Index of Guinea-Bissau-related articles
Transport in Guinea-Bissau
Bissau military unrest
List of Bissau-Guineans
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^ Sullivan, Kevin (25 May 2008). "Route of Evil: How a tiny West
African nation became a key smuggling hub for Colombian cocaine, and
the price it is paying". The Washington Post.
Bissau drug trade 'rises since coup'". London: BBC News. 31
July 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
^ "OHADA.com • The business law portal in Africa". OHADA.com (in
French). Paul Bayzelon. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
^ a b "Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social
Affairs of the
United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects:
The 2010 Revision". Esa.un.org. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
Bissau ethnic classifications, Joshuaproject.net. Retrieved
22 June 2013.
^ China-Guinea-Bissau. China.org.cn. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
^ a b c d e f g Língua e Desenvolvimento: O caso da Guiné-Bissau
José Barbosa – Universidade de Lisboa.
^ Crioulo, Upper Guinea. Ethnologue.org. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
^ WELCOME TO THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION OF LA FRANCOPHONIE'S
OFFICIAL WEBSITE. Francophonie.org. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
Bissau – Pew-Templeton Global Religious Futures Project".
Globalreligiousfutures.org. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
^ "Religious Composition by Country, 2010–2050 Pew Research
Center". Pewforum.org. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
^ CIA World Factbook entry
^ "The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity" (PDF). Pew Forum on
Religious & Public life. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 2 June
^ "Guinea-Bissau", Encyclopædia Britannica
^ Guinea-Bissau: Society & Culture Complete Report an
All-Inclusive Profile Combining All of Our Society and Culture Reports
(2nd ed.). Petaluma: World Trade Press. 2010. p. 7.
^ The WHO identified only 78 physicians in the entire Guinea-Bissau
health workforce in 2009 data. ("Health workforce, infrastructure,
essential medicines" (PDF). 2010. p. 118. ) And the World
Bank estimates that Guinea-
Bissau had 1,575,446 residents in 2008. At
the current rate of growth, 2009 population was expected to reach
about 1.61 million people. Only 0.0048% are known to be medical
doctors involved in patient care. The WHO estimate an average of about
20 per 100,000 across Africa, but reports a density per 10,000
population of <0.5 in its Physicians data covering the period to
Bissau has an unusually high ratio of nursing staff to
doctors: including nurses and midwives; there are 64 medical
professionals per 100,000 Bissau-Guineans
^ The WHO estimates that there were 188 physicians working in the
entire country as of 2007[update] ("Health workforce, infrastructure,
essential medicines" (PDF). 2009. p. 98. ). And the World
Bank estimates that Guinea-
Bissau had 1,541,040 residents in 2007
("Midyear estimates of the resident population". 2010. ). So,
about 0.0122% of the permanent population were known to be medical
doctors involved in patient care, as of 2007[update].
^ The WHO estimates a 1.8% HIV-infection rate from 2007 data among 15-
to 49-year-old Bissau-Guineans – see statistics on page 65 of: "2.
Cause-specific mortality and morbidity" (PDF). WHO. 2010. . (The
section's introduction describes estimation methodology).
^ As of 2008[update], only 20% of HIV-infected mothers or sufferers
with advanced cases had anti-retroviral drug access, see: "Health
service coverage" (PDF). WHO. 2010. p. 91. . Coverage in the
general population is lower.
^ "Selected infectious diseases" (PDF). WHO. 2010. p. 76.
Retrieved 9 June 2010. – 148,542 reported cases in 2008.
^ According to the 2010 WHO report, the latest
Malaria mortality rate
per 100,000 Bissau-Guineans (180) is substantially greater than that
for AIDS (65). ("Cause-specific mortality and morbidity" (PDF). WHO.
2010. p. 64. Retrieved 9 June 2010. ) Among children younger
than 5, malaria is nine times more deadly (p. 65).
^ "Global Health Indicators: 4. Health service coverage" (PDF). WHO.
2010. p. 91.
^ "Global Health Indicators: Mortality and burden of disease" (PDF).
2010. p. 50. . Healthy life expectancy at birth was 42. The
probability of dying between a live-birth and age 5 was 19.5% (down
from 24% in 1990, p.51).
Cholera On the Rise". AllAfrica.com. 2012. Retrieved
15 November 2012.
^ "The State Of The World's Midwifery".
United Nations Population
^ UNICEF 2013, p. 27.
^ "Country Comparison ::
Maternal mortality rate". The World
Factbook. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
^ The latter is maintained by
Cuba and functions in different cities.
^ a b "Guinea-Bissau". 2001 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child
Labor. Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor
(2002). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in
the public domain.
^ "Field Listing :: Literacy". The World Factbook. Retrieved 15
^ Armando Mussa Sani and Jasmina Barckhausen (23 June 2017). "Theatre
sheds light on conflicts". D+C, development and cooperation. Retrieved
15 August 2017. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
^ Lobeck, Katharina (21 May 2003) Manecas Costa Paraiso di Gumbe
Review. BBC. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
^ The Kora. Freewebs.com. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
^ Radio Africa:
Bissau vinyl discography. Radioafrica.com.au.
Retrieved 22 June 2013.
^ http://gumbe.com Gumbe
^ Music of Guinea-Bissau. Ccas11bijagos.pbworks.com. Retrieved 22 June
^ Nha Fala/My Voice. spot.pcc.edu (2002)
^ Mortu Nega. California Newsreel. Newsreel.org. Retrieved 22 June
^ Udju Azul di Yonta. California Newsreel. Newsreel.org. Retrieved 22
^ "Festival de Cannes: Udju Azul di Yonta". Festival de Cannes.
Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 16 August
2009. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
Flora Gomes The Two Faces of War: National Liberation in
Guinea-Bissau. Watsoninstitute.org (25 October 2007). Retrieved 22
Abdel Malek, K.,"Le processus d'accès à l'indépendance de la
Guinée-Bissau", In : Bulletin de l'Association des Anciens
Elèves de l'Institut National de Langues et de Cultures Orientales,
N°1, Avril 1998. – pp. 53–60
Forrest, Joshua B., Lineages of State Fragility. Rural Civil Society
Bissau (Ohio University Press/James Currey Ltd., 2003)
Galli, Rosemary E,
Guinea Bissau: Politics, Economics and Society,
(Pinter Pub Ltd., 1987)
Lobban Jr., Richard Andrew and Mendy, Peter Karibe, Historical
Dictionary of the
Republic of Guinea-Bissau, third edition (Scarecrow
Vigh, Henrik, Navigating Terrains of War: Youth And Soldiering in
Guinea-Bissau, (Berghahn Books, 2006)
Find more aboutGuinea-Bissauat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Link collection related to Guinea-
Bissau on bolama.net
Country Profile from BBC News
"Guinea-Bissau". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence
Bissau from UCB Libraries GovPubs
Bissau at Encyclopædia Britannica
Bissau at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Wikimedia Atlas of Guinea-Bissau
Key Development Forecasts for Guinea-
Bissau from International Futures
Constitution of the
Republic of Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau: Prime Minister’s fate unknown after apparent military
coup – West
Africa – Portuguese American Journal
Bissau Holds First Post-Coup Election
Bissau 2005 Summary Trade Statistics
news headline links from AllAfrica.com
Bissau travel guide from Wikivoyage
The State of the World's Midwifery – Guinea-
Bissau Country Profile
Master Thesis about the developing Geographical Information for
Coordinates: 12°N 15°W / 12°N 15°W / 12; -15
African slave trade
War of Independence
2010 military unrest
2012 coup d'état
Coat of arms
Countries and territories of Africa
Central African Republic
Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire)
São Tomé and Príncipe
Plazas de soberanía
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Southern Provinces (Western Sahara)1
States with limited
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
1 Unclear sovereignty.
International membership and history
African Union (AU)
Organisation of African Unity
Permanent Representatives' Committee
Specialized Technical Committees
African Court of Justice
African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights
Peace and Security
Infrastructure and Energy
Social Affairs and Health
HR, Sciences and Technology
Trade and Industry
Rural Economy and Agriculture
Women and Gender
African Central Bank
African Monetary Fund
African Investment Bank
Peace and Security Council
African Standby Force
Panel of the Wise
African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights
African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights
African Economic Community
African Free Trade Zone
Tripartite Free Trade Area
United States of Africa
United States of Latin Africa
Community of Portuguese Language Countries
Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP)
São Tomé and Príncipe
Central African Republic
Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
St. Pierre and Miquelon
São Tomé and Príncipe
Bosnia and Herzegovina
United Arab Emirates
1 Associate member.
2 Provisionally referred to by the
Francophonie as the "former
Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.
Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique
Agence universitaire de la Francophonie
UN French Language Day
Jeux de la Francophonie
Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)
United Arab Emirates
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Central African Republic
Moro National Liberation Front
Economic Cooperation Organization
1 As the "Turkish Cypriot State".
Portuguese overseas empire
Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)
Mazagan (El Jadida)
Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)
Aguz (Souira Guedima)
Mazagan (El Jadida)
São João da Mamora (Mehdya)
Fernando Poo (Bioko)
Elmina (São Jorge da Mina)
Portuguese Gold Coast
São João Baptista de Ajudá
Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe
1 Part of
São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe from 1753.
2 Or 1600.
3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases.
4 Part of Portuguese
Guinea from 1879.
5 Part of Portuguese
Angola from the 1920s.
Middle East [Persian Gulf]
Gamru (Bandar Abbas)
Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)
Bahrain (Muharraq • Manama)
(Coulão / Kollam)
Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)
Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)
(Porto Grande De Bengala)
Daman and Diu
Portuguese Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
East Asia and Oceania
Portuguese Malacca [Malaysia]
Portuguese Timor (East Timor)1
Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)
1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and
subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence
was fully recognized.
North America & North Atlantic
15th century [Atlantic islands]
16th century [Canada]
Terra Nova (Newfoundland)
South America & Antilles
Captaincy Colonies of Brazil
Rio de Janeiro
Nova Colónia do Sacramento
Grão-Pará and Maranhão
Grão-Pará and Rio Negro
Maranhão and Piauí
Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)
Upper Peru (Bolivia)
Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies
Evolution of the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese colonial architecture
Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia
Portuguese colonization of the Americas
Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia
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