The Info List - Guinea-Bissau

Guinea- Bissau
(/ˈɡɪni bɪˈsaʊ/ ( listen)), officially the Republic
of Guinea- Bissau
(Portuguese: República da Guiné-Bissau [ʁeˈpublikɐ dɐ ɡiˈnɛ biˈsaw]), is a sovereign state in West Africa. It covers 36,125 square kilometres (13,948 sq mi) with an estimated population of 1,815,698.[2] Guinea- Bissau
was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, as well as part of the Mali
Empire. Parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century, while a few others were under some rule by the Portuguese Empire since the 16th century. In the 19th century, it was colonized as Portuguese Guinea. Upon independence, declared in 1973 and recognised in 1974, the name of its capital, Bissau, was added to the country's name to prevent confusion with Guinea
(formerly French Guinea). Guinea- Bissau
has a history of political instability since independence, and no elected president has successfully served a full five-year term. Only 14% of the population speaks noncreolized Portuguese, established as both the official and national language. Portuguese exists in creole continuum with Crioulo, a Portuguese creole spoken by half the population (44%) and an even larger number speaks it as second tongue, the remainder speak a variety of native African languages. There are diverse religions in Guinea- Bissau
with no one religion having a majority. The CIA World Factbook (2018) states there are about 40% Muslims, 22% Christians, 15% Animists and 18% unspecified or other. The country's per-capita gross domestic product is one of the lowest in the world. Guinea- Bissau
is a member of the United Nations, African Union, Economic Community of West African States, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Community of Portuguese Language Countries, La Francophonie
and the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, and was a member of the now-defunct Latin Union.


1 History

1.1 Independence (1973) 1.2 Vieira years

2 Politics

2.1 Foreign relations 2.2 Military 2.3 Administrative divisions

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Environmental problems

4 Economy 5 Society

5.1 Demographics 5.2 Ethnic groups 5.3 Major cities 5.4 Languages 5.5 Religion 5.6 Health 5.7 Education 5.8 Conflicts

6 Culture

6.1 Media 6.2 Music 6.3 Cuisine 6.4 Film 6.5 Sports

7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Guinea- Bissau
and Portuguese Guinea Guinea- Bissau
was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, part of the Mali Empire; parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century. Other parts of the territory in the current country were considered by the Portuguese as part of their empire.[5] Portuguese Guinea
was known as the Slave Coast, as it was a major area for the exportation of African slaves by Europeans to the western hemisphere. Early reports of Europeans reaching this area include those of the Venetian Alvise Cadamosto's voyage of 1455,[6] the 1479–1480 voyage by Flemish-French trader Eustache de la Fosse,[7] and Diogo Cão. In the 1480s this Portuguese explorer reached the Congo River
Congo River
and the lands of Bakongo, setting up the foundations of modern Angola, some 4200 km down the African coast from Guinea-Bissau.[8]

Flag of the Portuguese Company of Guinea.

Although the rivers and coast of this area were among the first places colonized by the Portuguese, who set up trading posts in the 16th century, they did not explore the interior until the 19th century. The local African rulers in Guinea, some of whom prospered greatly from the slave trade, controlled the inland trade and did not allow the Europeans into the interior. They kept them in the fortified coastal settlements where the trading took place.[9] African communities that fought back against slave traders also distrusted European adventurers and would-be settlers. The Portuguese in Guinea
were largely restricted to the ports of Bissau
and Cacheu. A small number of European settlers established isolated farms along Bissau's inland rivers.[9] For a brief period in the 1790s, the British tried to establish a rival foothold on an offshore island, at Bolama.[10] But by the 19th century the Portuguese were sufficiently secure in Bissau
to regard the neighbouring coastline as their own special territory, also up north in part of present South Senegal. An armed rebellion, begun in 1956 by the African Party for the Independence of Guinea
and Cape Verde
Cape Verde
(PAIGC) under the leadership of Amílcar Cabral
Amílcar Cabral
gradually consolidated its hold on the then Portuguese Guinea.[11] Unlike guerrilla movements in other Portuguese colonies, the PAIGC
rapidly extended its military control over large portions of the territory, aided by the jungle-like terrain, its easily reached borderlines with neighbouring allies, and large quantities of arms from Cuba, China, the Soviet Union, and left-leaning African countries.[12] Cuba
also agreed to supply artillery experts, doctors, and technicians.[13] The PAIGC
even managed to acquire a significant anti-aircraft capability in order to defend itself against aerial attack. By 1973, the PAIGC
was in control of many parts of Guinea, although the movement suffered a setback in January 1973 when Cabral was assassinated.[14] Independence (1973)[edit]

forces raise the flag of Guinea- Bissau
in 1974.

Independence was unilaterally declared on 24 September 1973. Recognition became universal following 25 April 1974 socialist-inspired military coup in Portugal, which overthrew Lisbon's Estado Novo regime.[15] Luís Cabral, brother of Amílcar and co-founder of PAIGC, was appointed the first President of Guinea-Bissau. Following independence, the PAIGC
killed thousands of local Guinean soldiers who had fought along with the Portuguese Army
Portuguese Army
against guerrillas. Some escaped to settle in Portugal
or other African nations.[16] One of the massacres occurred in the town of Bissorã. In 1980 the PAIGC acknowledged in its newspaper Nó Pintcha (dated 29 November 1980) that many Guinean soldiers had been executed and buried in unmarked collective graves in the woods of Cumerá, Portogole, and Mansabá. The country was controlled by a revolutionary council until 1984. The first multi-party elections were held in 1994. An army uprising in May 1998 led to the Guinea- Bissau
Civil War and the president's ousting in June 1999.[17] Elections were held again in 2000, and Kumba Ialá
Kumba Ialá
was elected president.[18] In September 2003, a military coup was conducted. The military arrested Ialá on the charge of being "unable to solve the problems".[19] After being delayed several times, legislative elections were held in March 2004. A mutiny of military factions in October 2004 resulted in the death of the head of the armed forces and caused widespread unrest. Vieira years[edit]

An abandoned tank from the 1998–1999 civil war in the capital Bissau, 2003.

In June 2005, presidential elections were held for the first time since the coup that deposed Ialá. Ialá returned as the candidate for the PRS, claiming to be the legitimate president of the country, but the election was won by former president João Bernardo Vieira, deposed in the 1999 coup. Vieira beat Malam Bacai Sanhá
Malam Bacai Sanhá
in a runoff election. Sanhá initially refused to concede, claiming that tampering and electoral fraud occurred in two constituencies including the capital, Bissau.[20] Despite reports of arms entering the country prior to the election and some "disturbances during campaigning," including attacks on government offices by unidentified gunmen, foreign election monitors described the 2005 election overall as "calm and organized".[21] Three years later, PAIGC
won a strong parliamentary majority, with 67 of 100 seats, in the parliamentary election held in November 2008.[22] In November 2008, President Vieira's official residence was attacked by members of the armed forces, killing a guard but leaving the president unharmed.[23] On 2 March 2009, however, Vieira was assassinated by what preliminary reports indicated to be a group of soldiers avenging the death of the head of joint chiefs of staff, General Batista Tagme Na Wai, who had been killed in an explosion the day before.[24] Vieira's death did not trigger widespread violence, but there were signs of turmoil in the country, according to the advocacy group Swisspeace.[25] Military leaders in the country pledged to respect the constitutional order of succession. National Assembly Speaker Raimundo Pereira
Raimundo Pereira
was appointed as an interim president until a nationwide election on 28 June 2009.[26] It was won by Malam Bacai Sanhá
Malam Bacai Sanhá
of the PAIGC, against Kumba Ialá as the presidential candidate of the PRS. On 9 January 2012, President Sanhá died of complications from diabetes, and Pereira was again appointed as an interim president. On the evening of 12 April 2012, members of the country's military staged a coup d'état and arrested the interim president and a leading presidential candidate.[27] Former vice chief of staff, General Mamadu Ture Kuruma, assumed control of the country in the transitional period and started negotiations with opposition parties.[28][29] Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Guinea-Bissau

The National People's Assembly of Guinea-Bissau.

Public Order Police officer during a parade in Guinea-Bissau

Guinea- Bissau
is a republic. In the past, the government had been highly centralized. Multi-party governance was not established until mid-1991. The president is the head of state and the prime minister is the head of government. Since 1974, no president has successfully served a full five-year term.[30] At the legislative level, a unicameral Assembleia Nacional Popular (National People's Assembly) is made up of 100 members. They are popularly elected from multi-member constituencies to serve a four-year term. The judicial system is headed by a Tribunal Supremo da Justiça (Supreme Court), made up of nine justices appointed by the president; they serve at the pleasure of the president.[31] The two main political parties are the PAIGC
(African Party for the Independence of Guinea
and Cape Verde) and the PRS (Party for Social Renewal). There are more than 20 minor parties.[32] Foreign relations[edit] Further information: Foreign relations of Guinea-Bissau Guinea- Bissau
follows a nonaligned foreign policy and seeks friendly and cooperative relations with a wide variety of states and organizations. Military[edit] Further information: Military of Guinea-Bissau A 2008 estimate put the size of the Guinea- Bissau
Armed Forces at around 4,000 personnel. Administrative divisions[edit] Main articles: Regions of Guinea- Bissau
and Sectors of Guinea-Bissau

Guinea- Bissau
is divided into eight regions (regiões) and one autonomous sector (sector autónomo). These, in turn, are subdivided into 37 Sectors. The regions are:

Bafatá Biombo Bissaua Bolama Cacheu Gabu Oio Quinara Tombali

a Autonomous sector.

Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Guinea-Bissau

Rare salt water Hippopotamuses in Orango

Caravela, Bissagos Islands.

Typical scenery in Guinea-Bissau.

Guinea- Bissau
is bordered by Senegal
to the north and Guinea
to the south and east, with the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to its west. It lies mostly between latitudes 11° and 13°N (a small area is south of 11°), and longitudes 13° and 17°W. At 36,125 square kilometres (13,948 sq mi), the country is larger in size than Taiwan
or Belgium. It lies at a low altitude; its highest point is 300 metres (984 ft). The terrain of is mostly low coastal plain with swamps of Guinean mangroves
Guinean mangroves
rising to Guinean forest-savanna mosaic in the east.[30] Its monsoon-like rainy season alternates with periods of hot, dry harmattan winds blowing from the Sahara. The Bijagos Archipelago
Bijagos Archipelago
lies off of the mainland.[33] Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Guinea-Bissau Guinea- Bissau
is warm all year around and there is little temperature fluctuation; it averages 26.3 °C (79.3 °F). The average rainfall for Bissau
is 2,024 millimetres (79.7 in) although this is almost entirely accounted for during the rainy season which falls between June and September/October. From December through April, the country experiences drought.[34]

Environmental problems[edit] Severe environmental problems include deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing and overfishing.[30] Economy[edit] Main articles: Economy of Guinea- Bissau
and Mining industry of Guinea-Bissau

Seat of the Central Bank of Guinea-Bissau.

Petrol station in São Domingos.

Guinea-Bissau's GDP per capita
GDP per capita
is one of the lowest in the world, and its Human Development Index
Human Development Index
is one of the lowest on earth. More than two-thirds of the population lives below the poverty line.[35] The economy depends mainly on agriculture; fish, cashew nuts and ground nuts are its major exports. A long period of political instability has resulted in depressed economic activity, deteriorating social conditions, and increased macroeconomic imbalances. It takes longer on average to register a new business in Guinea- Bissau
(233 days or about 33 weeks) than in any other country in the world except Suriname.[36] Guinea- Bissau
has started to show some economic advances after a pact of stability was signed by the main political parties of the country, leading to an IMF-backed structural reform program.[37] The key challenges for the country in the period ahead are to achieve fiscal discipline, rebuild public administration, improve the economic climate for private investment, and promote economic diversification. After the country became independent from Portugal
in 1974 due to the Portuguese Colonial War
Portuguese Colonial War
and the Carnation Revolution, the rapid exodus of the Portuguese civilian, military, and political authorities resulted in considerable damage to the country's economic infrastructure, social order, and standard of living. After several years of economic downturn and political instability, in 1997, Guinea- Bissau
entered the CFA franc
CFA franc
monetary system, bringing about some internal monetary stability.[38] The civil war that took place in 1998 and 1999, and a military coup in September 2003 again disrupted economic activity, leaving a substantial part of the economic and social infrastructure in ruins and intensifying the already widespread poverty. Following the parliamentary elections in March 2004 and presidential elections in July 2005, the country is trying to recover from the long period of instability, despite a still-fragile political situation. Beginning around 2005, drug traffickers based in Latin America began to use Guinea-Bissau, along with several neighboring West African nations, as a transshipment point to Europe for cocaine.[39] The nation was described by a United Nations
United Nations
official as being at risk for becoming a "narco-state".[40] The government and the military have done little to stop drug trafficking, which increased after the 2012 coup d'état.[41] Guinea- Bissau
is a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa
(OHADA).[42] Society[edit] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Guinea-Bissau

(Left) Guinea-Bissau's population between 1961 and 2003. (Right) Guinea-Bissau's population pyramid, 2005. In 2010, 41.3% of Guinea-Bissau's population were aged under 15.[43]

According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects[2], Guinea-Bissau's population was 1,815,698 in 2016, compared to 518,000 in 1950. The proportion of the population below the age of 15 in 2010 was 41.3%, 55.4% were aged between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3.3% were aged 65 years or older.[43] Ethnic groups[edit]

Guinea- Bissau
present-day settlement pattern of the ethnic groups.

The population of Guinea- Bissau
is ethnically diverse and has many distinct languages, customs, and social structures. Bissau-Guineans can be divided into the following ethnic groups:

Fula and the Mandinka-speaking people, who comprise the largest portion of the population and are concentrated in the north and northeast; Balanta
and Papel people, who live in the southern coastal regions; and Manjaco and Mancanha, who occupy the central and northern coastal areas.

Most of the remainder are mestiços of mixed Portuguese and African descent, including a Cape Verdean minority.[44] Portuguese natives comprise a very small percentage of Bissau-Guineans. After Guinea- Bissau
gained independence, most of the Portuguese nationals left the country. The country has a tiny Chinese population.[45] These include traders and merchants of mixed Portuguese and Chinese ancestry from Macau, a former Asian Portuguese colony. Major cities[edit]

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Guinea-Bissau's second largest city, Gabú

Port of Bissau

Bridge in São Vicente, Cacheu

Main cities in Guinea- Bissau

Rank City Population

2015 estimate

1 Bissau 489,050 Bissau

2 Gabú 48,670 Gabú

3 Bafatá 37,985 Bafatá

4 Bissorã 29,468 Oio

5 Bolama 16,216 Bolama

6 Cacheu 14,320 Cacheu

7 Bubaque 12,922 Bolama

8 Catió 11,498 Tombali

9 Mansôa 9,198 Oio

10 Buba 8,993 Quinara

Languages[edit] Main article: Languages of Guinea-Bissau

Voter education posters in the Kriol language for Guinea-Bissau legislative election, 2008, Biombo Region.

Despite being a small country Guinea- Bissau
has several ethnic groups which are very distinct from each other, with their own cultures and languages. This is due that Guinea- Bissau
was a refugee territory due to migrations within Africa. Colonization and miscegenation brought Portuguese and the Portuguese creole, the Kriol or crioulo.[47] Although perceived as one of the national languages of Guinea-Bissau since independence, Standard Portuguese is spoken mostly as a second language, with few native speakers and often confined to the intellectual and political elites. It is the language of government and national communication as a legacy of colonial rule. Portuguese is the only language with official status; schooling from primary to university levels is conducted in Portuguese although only 67% of children have access to any formal education. Data suggested the number of Portuguese speakers ranges from 11 to 15%. The Portuguese creole is spoken by 44% which is effectively the national language of communication among distinct groups for most of the population. The Creole is still expanding, and it is understood by the vast majority of the population. However, decreolization processes are occurring, due to undergoing interference from Standard Portuguese and the creole forms a continuum of varieties with the standard language, the most distant are basilects and the closer ones, acrolects. A Post-creole continuum exists in Guinea- Bissau
and Crioulo 'leve' ('soft' Creole) variety being closer to the Portuguese-language norm.[47] The remaining rural population speaks a variety of native African languages unique to each ethnicity: Fula (16%), Balanta
(14%), Mandinga (7%), Manjaco (5%), Papel (3%), Felupe (1%), Beafada (0.7%), Bijagó (0.3%) and Nalu (0.1%) English (35%) which form the ethnic African languages spoken by the population.[47][48] Most Portuguese and Mestiços speakers also have one of the African languages and Kriol as additional languages. Ethnic African languages are not discouraged, in any situation, despite their lower prestige. These languages are the link between individuals of the same ethnic background and daily used in villages, between neighbors or friends, traditional and religious ceremonies, and also used in contact between the urban and rural populations. However, none of these languages are dominant in Guinea-Bissau.[47] French is taught as a foreign language in schools because Guinea- Bissau
is surrounded by French-speaking nations. Guinea- Bissau
is a full member of the Francophonie.[49] Religion[edit]

Religion in Guinea-Bissau, 2010[50][51]





Folk religion
Folk religion
or Unaffiliated




Men in Islamic garb, Bafatá, Guinea-Bissau.

As of 2017, Islam is practiced by 45% of the country's population.[52] Most of Guinea-Bissau's Muslims are of the Sunni denomination with approximately 2% belonging to the Ahmadiyya
sect.[53] Approximately 22% of the country's population belong to the Christian community and 31% continue to hold Indigenous beliefs. However, many residents practice syncretic forms of Islamic and Christian faiths, combining their practices with traditional African beliefs.[30][54] Muslims dominate the north and east, while Christians dominate the south and coastal regions. The Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
claims most of the Christian community.[55] Health[edit] The WHO estimates there are fewer than 5 physicians per 100,000 persons in the country,[56] down from 12 per 100,000 in 2007.[57] The prevalence of HIV-infection among the adult population is 1.8%.[58] Only 20% of infected pregnant women receive anti retroviral coverage to prevent transmission to newborns.[59] Malaria
kills more residents; 9% of the population have reported infection,[60] It causes three times as many deaths as AIDS.[61] In 2008, fewer than half of children younger than five slept under antimalaria nets or had access to antimalarial drugs.[62] The WHO's estimate of life expectancy for a female child born in 2008 was 49 years, and 47 years for a boy.[63] Despite lowering rates in surrounding countries, cholera rates were reported in November 2012 to be on the rise, with 1,500 cases reported and nine deaths. A 2008 cholera epidemic in Guinea- Bissau
affected 14,222 people and killed 225.[64] The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Guinea
Bissau was 1000. This compares with 804.3 in 2008 and 966 in 1990. The under-5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births, was 195 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under-5 mortality was 24. The number of midwives per 1,000 live births was 3; one out of eighteen pregnant women die as a result of pregnancy.[65] According to a 2013 UNICEF report, 50% of women in Guinea
had undergone female genital mutilation.[66] In 2010, Guinea
had the seventh-highest maternal mortality rate in the world.[67] Education[edit] Main article: Education in Guinea-Bissau

Lusophone University, Bissau.

Education is compulsory from the age of 7 to 13. Pre-school education for children between three and six years of age is optional and in its early stages. There are five levels of education: pre-school, elemental and complementary basic education, general and complementary secondary education, general secondary education, technical and professional teaching, and higher education (university and non-universities). Basic education is under reform, and now forms a single cycle, comprising 6 years of education. Secondary education is widely available and there are two cycles (7th to 9th classe and 10th to 11th classe). Professional education in public institutions is nonoperational, however private school offerings opened, including the Centro de Formação São João Bosco (since 2004) and the Centro de Formação Luís Inácio Lula da Silva (since 2011).[47] Higher education is limited and most prefer to be educated abroad, with students preferring to enroll in Portugal.[47] A number of universities, to which an institutionally autonomous Faculty of Law as well as a Faculty of Medicine[68] Child labor
Child labor
is very common.[69] The enrollment of boys is higher than that of girls. In 1998, the gross primary enrollment rate was 53.5%, with higher enrollment ratio for males (67.7%) compared to females (40%).[69] Non-formal education is centered on community schools and the teaching of adults.[47] In 2011 the literacy rate was estimated at 55.3% (68.9% male, and 42.1% female).[70] Conflicts[edit] Usually, the many different ethnic groups in Guinea- Bissau
coexist peacefully, but when conflicts do erupt, they tend to revolve around access to land.[71] Culture[edit]

Hotels at Bissagos Islands

Carnival in Bissau.

Bissau-Guinean women in the capital, Bissau

National singer Manecas Costa.

Media[edit] Main article: Media of Guinea-Bissau Music[edit] Main article: Music of Guinea-Bissau The music of Guinea- Bissau
is usually associated with the polyrhythmic gumbe genre, the country's primary musical export. However, civil unrest and other factors have combined over the years to keep gumbe, and other genres, out of mainstream audiences, even in generally syncretist African countries.[72] The calabash is the primary musical instrument of Guinea-Bissau,[73] and is used in extremely swift and rhythmically complex dance music. Lyrics are almost always in Guinea- Bissau
Creole, a Portuguese-based creole language, and are often humorous and topical, revolving around current events and controversies.[74] The word gumbe is sometimes used generically, to refer to any music of the country, although it most specifically refers to a unique style that fuses about ten of the country's folk music traditions.[75] Tina and tinga are other popular genres, while extent folk traditions include ceremonial music used in funerals, initiations and other rituals, as well as Balanta
brosca and kussundé, Mandinga djambadon, and the kundere sound of the Bissagos Islands.[76] Cuisine[edit] Further information: Cuisine of Guinea-Bissau Rice is a staple in the diet of residents near the coast and millet a staple in the interior. Fruits and vegetables are commonly eaten along with cereal grains. The Portuguese encouraged peanut production. Vigna subterranea (Bambara groundnut) and Macrotyloma geocarpum (Hausa groundnut) are also grown. Black-eyed peas are also part of the diet. Palm oil
Palm oil
is harvested. Common dishes include soups and stews. Common ingredients include yams, sweet potato, cassava, onion, tomato and plantain. Spices, peppers and chilis are used in cooking, including Aframomum melegueta seeds ( Guinea
pepper). Film[edit] Flora Gomes is an internationally renowned film director; his most famous film is Nha Fala
Nha Fala
(English: My Voice).[77] Gomes's Mortu Nega (Death Denied) (1988)[78] was the first fiction film and the second feature film ever made in Guinea-Bissau. (The first feature film was N’tturudu, by director Umban u’Kest in 1987.) At FESPACO
1989, Mortu Nega won the prestigious Oumarou Ganda Prize. Mortu Nega is in Creole with English subtitles. In 1992, Gomes directed Udju Azul di Yonta,[79] which was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 1992 Cannes Film Festival.[80] Gomes has also served on the boards of many Africa-centric film festivals.[81] Sports[edit] Football is the most popular sport in Guinea-Bissau. The Guinea-Bissau national football team is the national team of Guinea- Bissau
and is controlled by the Federação de Futebol da Guiné-Bissau. They are a member of the Confederation of African Football
Confederation of African Football
(CAF) and FIFA. Other football clubs include Desportivo Quelele, FC Catacumba, FC Catacumba São Domingos, FC Cupelaoo Gabu, FC Djaraf, FC Prabis
FC Prabis
and FC Babaque. See also[edit]

Geography portal Africa
portal Guinea- Bissau

Outline of Guinea-Bissau Index of Guinea-Bissau-related articles Transport in Guinea-Bissau 2010 Guinea- Bissau
military unrest List of Bissau-Guineans

References[edit]  This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.

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World Bank
profile. World Bank.org (31 May 2013). Retrieved 22 June 2013. ^ The Economist. Pocket World in Figures (2008 ed.). London: Profile Books. ISBN 978-1861978448.  ^ Guinea- Bissau
and the IMF. Imf.org (13 May 2013). Retrieved 22 June 2013. ^ CFA Franc and Guinea-Bissau. Uemoa.int. Retrieved 22 June 2013. ^ Guinea-Bissau:A narco-state?. Time. (29 October 2009). Retrieved 22 June 2013. ^ Sullivan, Kevin (25 May 2008). "Route of Evil: How a tiny West African nation became a key smuggling hub for Colombian cocaine, and the price it is paying". The Washington Post.  ^ "Guinea- Bissau
drug trade 'rises since coup'". London: BBC News. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ "OHADA.com • The business law portal in Africa". OHADA.com (in French). Paul Bayzelon. Retrieved 10 January 2018.  ^ a b "Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations
United Nations
Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision". Esa.un.org. Retrieved 20 January 2017.  ^ Guinea- Bissau
ethnic classifications, Joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 22 June 2013. ^ China-Guinea-Bissau. China.org.cn. Retrieved 22 June 2013. ^ http://www.citypopulation.de/GuineaBissau.html ^ a b c d e f g Língua e Desenvolvimento: O caso da Guiné-Bissau José Barbosa – Universidade de Lisboa. ^ Crioulo, Upper Guinea. Ethnologue.org. Retrieved 22 June 2013. ^ WELCOME TO THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION OF LA FRANCOPHONIE'S OFFICIAL WEBSITE. Francophonie.org. Retrieved 22 June 2013. ^ "Guinea- Bissau
– Pew-Templeton Global Religious Futures Project". Globalreligiousfutures.org. Retrieved 20 January 2017.  ^ "Religious Composition by Country, 2010–2050 Pew Research Center". Pewforum.org. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2017.  ^ CIA World Factbook entry ^ "The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity" (PDF). Pew Forum on Religious & Public life. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2014.  ^ "Guinea-Bissau", Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Guinea-Bissau: Society & Culture Complete Report an All-Inclusive Profile Combining All of Our Society and Culture Reports (2nd ed.). Petaluma: World Trade Press. 2010. p. 7. ISBN 1607804662.  ^ The WHO identified only 78 physicians in the entire Guinea-Bissau health workforce in 2009 data. ("Health workforce, infrastructure, essential medicines" (PDF). 2010. p. 118. ) And the World Bank estimates that Guinea- Bissau
had 1,575,446 residents in 2008. At the current rate of growth, 2009 population was expected to reach about 1.61 million people. Only 0.0048% are known to be medical doctors involved in patient care. The WHO estimate an average of about 20 per 100,000 across Africa, but reports a density per 10,000 population of <0.5 in its Physicians data covering the period to 2009. Guinea- Bissau
has an unusually high ratio of nursing staff to doctors: including nurses and midwives; there are 64 medical professionals per 100,000 Bissau-Guineans ^ The WHO estimates that there were 188 physicians working in the entire country as of 2007[update] ("Health workforce, infrastructure, essential medicines" (PDF). 2009. p. 98. ). And the World Bank estimates that Guinea- Bissau
had 1,541,040 residents in 2007 ("Midyear estimates of the resident population". 2010. ). So, about 0.0122% of the permanent population were known to be medical doctors involved in patient care, as of 2007[update]. ^ The WHO estimates a 1.8% HIV-infection rate from 2007 data among 15- to 49-year-old Bissau-Guineans – see statistics on page 65 of: "2. Cause-specific mortality and morbidity" (PDF). WHO. 2010. . (The section's introduction describes estimation methodology). ^ As of 2008[update], only 20% of HIV-infected mothers or sufferers with advanced cases had anti-retroviral drug access, see: "Health service coverage" (PDF). WHO. 2010. p. 91. . Coverage in the general population is lower. ^ "Selected infectious diseases" (PDF). WHO. 2010. p. 76. Retrieved 9 June 2010.  – 148,542 reported cases in 2008. ^ According to the 2010 WHO report, the latest Malaria
mortality rate per 100,000 Bissau-Guineans (180) is substantially greater than that for AIDS (65). ("Cause-specific mortality and morbidity" (PDF). WHO. 2010. p. 64. Retrieved 9 June 2010. ) Among children younger than 5, malaria is nine times more deadly (p. 65). ^ "Global Health Indicators: 4. Health service coverage" (PDF). WHO. 2010. p. 91.  ^ "Global Health Indicators: Mortality and burden of disease" (PDF). 2010. p. 50. . Healthy life expectancy at birth was 42. The probability of dying between a live-birth and age 5 was 19.5% (down from 24% in 1990, p.51). ^ " Guinea
Bissau: Cholera
On the Rise". AllAfrica.com. 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.  ^ "The State Of The World's Midwifery". United Nations
United Nations
Population Fund.  ^ UNICEF 2013, p. 27. ^ "Country Comparison :: Maternal mortality
Maternal mortality
rate". The World Factbook. Retrieved 15 October 2014.  ^ The latter is maintained by Cuba
and functions in different cities. ^ a b "Guinea-Bissau". 2001 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor (2002). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. ^ "Field Listing :: Literacy". The World Factbook. Retrieved 15 October 2014.  ^ Armando Mussa Sani and Jasmina Barckhausen (23 June 2017). "Theatre sheds light on conflicts". D+C, development and cooperation. Retrieved 15 August 2017. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Lobeck, Katharina (21 May 2003) Manecas Costa Paraiso di Gumbe Review. BBC. Retrieved 22 June 2013. ^ The Kora. Freewebs.com. Retrieved 22 June 2013. ^ Radio Africa: Guinea
vinyl discography. Radioafrica.com.au. Retrieved 22 June 2013. ^ http://gumbe.com Gumbe ^ Music of Guinea-Bissau. Ccas11bijagos.pbworks.com. Retrieved 22 June 2013. ^ Nha Fala/My Voice. spot.pcc.edu (2002) ^ Mortu Nega. California Newsreel. Newsreel.org. Retrieved 22 June 2013. ^ Udju Azul di Yonta. California Newsreel. Newsreel.org. Retrieved 22 June 2013. ^ "Festival de Cannes: Udju Azul di Yonta". Festival de Cannes. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2009. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Flora Gomes The Two Faces of War: National Liberation in Guinea-Bissau. Watsoninstitute.org (25 October 2007). Retrieved 22 June 2013.

Further reading[edit]

Abdel Malek, K.,"Le processus d'accès à l'indépendance de la Guinée-Bissau", In : Bulletin de l'Association des Anciens Elèves de l'Institut National de Langues et de Cultures Orientales, N°1, Avril 1998. – pp. 53–60 Forrest, Joshua B., Lineages of State Fragility. Rural Civil Society in Guinea- Bissau
(Ohio University Press/James Currey Ltd., 2003) Galli, Rosemary E, Guinea
Bissau: Politics, Economics and Society, (Pinter Pub Ltd., 1987) Lobban Jr., Richard Andrew and Mendy, Peter Karibe, Historical Dictionary of the Republic
of Guinea-Bissau, third edition (Scarecrow Press, 1997) Vigh, Henrik, Navigating Terrains of War: Youth And Soldiering in Guinea-Bissau, (Berghahn Books, 2006)

External links[edit]

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1 Associate member. 2 Provisionally referred to by the Francophonie
as the "former Yugoslav Republic
of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.


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Organisation of Islamic Cooperation


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1 As the "Turkish Cypriot State".

v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century


Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 125341622 LCCN: n80061076 ISNI: 0000 0001 2151 704X GND: 4022522-7 SUDOC: 032671725 BNF: cb12365690v (data) HDS: 3445 N