HOME
The Info List - Guinea-Bissau



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

GUINEA-BISSAU (/ˈɡɪni bɪˈsaʊ/ (_ listen ), GI-nee-bi-SOW_ ), officially the REPUBLIC OF GUINEA-BISSAU (Portuguese : _República da Guiné-Bissau_, pronounced ), is a country in West Africa
Africa
. It covers 36,125 square kilometres (13,948 sq mi) with an estimated population of 1,704,000.

Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
was once part of the kingdom of Gabu , as well as part of the Mali Empire . Parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century, while a few others were under some rule by the Portuguese Empire since the 16th century. In the 19th century, it was colonized as Portuguese Guinea
Guinea
. Upon independence, declared in 1973 and recognised in 1974, the name of its capital, Bissau
Bissau
, was added to the country's name to prevent confusion with Guinea
Guinea
(formerly French Guinea
Guinea
). Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
has a history of political instability since independence, and no elected president has successfully served a full five-year term.

Only 14% of the population speaks noncreolized Portuguese , established as both the official and national language. Portuguese exists in creole continuum with Crioulo , a Portuguese creole spoken by half the population (44%) and an even larger number speaks it as second tongue, the remainder speak a variety of native African languages. There are diverse religions in Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
with no one religion having a majority. The CIA World Factbook (2018) states there are about 40% Muslims, 22% Christians, 15% Animists and 18% unspecified or other. The country's per-capita gross domestic product is one of the lowest in the world .

Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
is a member of the United Nations
United Nations
, African Union
African Union
, Economic Community of West African States , Organisation of Islamic Cooperation , Community of Portuguese Language Countries , La Francophonie and the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone , and was a member of the now–defunct Latin Union .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Independence (1973) * 1.2 Vieira years

* 2 Politics

* 2.1 Foreign relations * 2.2 Military * 2.3 Administrative divisions

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Climate * 3.2 Environmental issues

* 4 Economy

* 5 Society

* 5.1 Demographics * 5.2 Ethnic groups
Ethnic groups
* 5.3 Major cities * 5.4 Languages * 5.5 Religion * 5.6 Health * 5.7 Education

* 6 Culture

* 6.1 Media * 6.2 Music * 6.3 Cuisine * 6.4 Film * 6.5 Sports

* 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
and Portuguese Guinea
Guinea

Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
was once part of the kingdom of Gabu , part of the Mali Empire ; parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century. Other parts of the territory in the current country were considered by the Portuguese as part of their empire . Portuguese Guinea
Guinea
was known as the Slave Coast , as it was a major area for the exportation of African slaves by Europeans to the western hemisphere.

Early reports of Europeans reaching this area include those of the Venetian Alvise Cadamosto 's voyage of 1455, the 1479–1480 voyage by Flemish-French trader Eustache de la Fosse , and Diogo Cão
Diogo Cão
. In the 1480s this Portuguese explorer reached the Congo River and the lands of Bakongo , setting up the foundations of modern Angola
Angola
, some 4200 km down the African coast from Guinea-Bissau.

Although the rivers and coast of this area were among the first places colonized by the Portuguese, who set up trading posts in the 16th century, they did not explore the interior until the 19th century. The local African rulers in Guinea, some of whom prospered greatly from the slave trade , controlled the inland trade and did not allow the Europeans into the interior. They kept them in the fortified coastal settlements where the trading took place. African communities that fought back against slave traders also distrusted European adventurers and would-be settlers. The Portuguese in Guinea
Guinea
were largely restricted to the port of Bissau
Bissau
and Cacheu . A small number of European settlers established isolated farms along Bissau's inland rivers.

For a brief period in the 1790s, the British tried to establish a rival foothold on an offshore island, at Bolama
Bolama
. But by the 19th century the Portuguese were sufficiently secure in Bissau
Bissau
to regard the neighbouring coastline as their own special territory, also up north in part of present South Senegal.

An armed rebellion beginning in 1956 by the African Party for the Independence of Guinea
Guinea
and Cape Verde
Cape Verde
(PAIGC) under the leadership of Amílcar Cabral gradually consolidated its hold on then Portuguese Guinea
Guinea
. Unlike guerrilla movements in other Portuguese colonies , the PAIGC
PAIGC
rapidly extended its military control over large portions of the territory, aided by the jungle-like terrain, its easily reached borderlines with neighbouring allies, and large quantities of arms from Cuba
Cuba
, China
China
, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, and left-leaning African countries. Cuba
Cuba
also agreed to supply artillery experts, doctors, and technicians. The PAIGC
PAIGC
even managed to acquire a significant anti-aircraft capability in order to defend itself against aerial attack. By 1973, the PAIGC
PAIGC
was in control of many parts of Guinea, although the movement suffered a setback in January 1973 when Cabral was assassinated.

INDEPENDENCE (1973)

PAIGC
PAIGC
forces raise the flag of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
in 1974.

Independence was unilaterally declared on 24 September 1973. Recognition became universal following 25 April 1974 socialist-inspired military coup in Portugal, which overthrew Lisbon's Estado Novo regime .

Luís Cabral , brother of Amílcar and co-founder of PAIGC, was appointed the first President of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
. Following independence, the PAIGC
PAIGC
killed thousands of local Guinean soldiers who had fought along with the Portuguese Army against guerrillas. Some escaped to settle in Portugal
Portugal
or other African nations. One of the massacres occurred in the town of Bissorã . In 1980 the PAIGC acknowledged in its newspaper _Nó Pintcha_ (dated 29 November 1980) that many Guinean soldiers had been executed and buried in unmarked collective graves in the woods of Cumerá, Portogole, and Mansabá.

The country was controlled by a revolutionary council until 1984. The first multi-party elections were held in 1994. An army uprising in May 1998 led to the Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
Civil War and the president's ousting in June 1999. Elections were held again in 2000, and Kumba Ialá was elected president.

In September 2003, a military coup was conducted. The military arrested Ialá on the charge of being "unable to solve the problems". After being delayed several times, legislative elections were held in March 2004. A mutiny of military factions in October 2004 resulted in the death of the head of the armed forces and caused widespread unrest.

VIEIRA YEARS

An abandoned tank from the 1998–1999 civil war in the capital Bissau
Bissau
, 2003.

In June 2005, presidential elections were held for the first time since the coup that deposed Ialá. Ialá returned as the candidate for the PRS, claiming to be the legitimate president of the country, but the election was won by former president João Bernardo Vieira , deposed in the 1999 coup. Vieira beat Malam Bacai Sanhá in a runoff election. Sanhá initially refused to concede, claiming that tampering and electoral fraud occurred in two constituencies including the capital, Bissau.

Despite reports of arms entering the country prior to the election and some "disturbances during campaigning," including attacks on government offices by unidentified gunmen, foreign election monitors described the 2005 election overall as "calm and organized".

Three years later, PAIGC
PAIGC
won a strong parliamentary majority, with 67 of 100 seats, in the parliamentary election held in November 2008. In November 2008, President Vieira's official residence was attacked by members of the armed forces, killing a guard but leaving the president unharmed.

On 2 March 2009, however, Vieira was assassinated by what preliminary reports indicated to be a group of soldiers avenging the death of the head of joint chiefs of staff, General Batista Tagme Na Wai , who had been killed in an explosion the day before. Vieira's death did not trigger widespread violence, but there were signs of turmoil in the country, according to the advocacy group Swisspeace . Military leaders in the country pledged to respect the constitutional order of succession. National Assembly Speaker Raimundo Pereira was appointed as an interim president until a nationwide election on 28 June 2009. It was won by Malam Bacai Sanhá of the PAIGC, against Kumba Ialá as the presidential candidate of the PRS.

On 9 January 2012, President Sanhá died of complications from diabetes, and Pereira was again appointed as an interim president. On the evening of 12 April 2012, members of the country's military staged a coup d\'état and arrested the interim president and a leading presidential candidate. Former vice chief of staff, General Mamadu Ture Kuruma , assumed control of the country in the transitional period and started negotiations with opposition parties.

POLITICS

Main article: Politics of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
The National People\'s Assembly of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
.

Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
is a republic . In the past, the government had been highly centralized. Multi-party governance was not established until mid-1991. The president is the head of state and the prime minister is the head of government. Since 1974, no president has successfully served a full five-year term.

At the legislative level, a unicameral _Assembleia Nacional Popular_ (National People\'s Assembly ) is made up of 100 members. They are popularly elected from multi-member constituencies to serve a four-year term. The judicial system is headed by a _Tribunal Supremo da Justiça_ (Supreme Court), made up of nine justices appointed by the president; they serve at the pleasure of the president.

The two main political parties are the PAIGC
PAIGC
(African Party for the Independence of Guinea
Guinea
and Cape Verde
Cape Verde
) and the PRS (Party for Social Renewal ). There are more than 20 minor parties.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

Further information: Foreign relations of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau

Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
follows a nonaligned foreign policy and seeks friendly and cooperative relations with a wide variety of states and organizations.

MILITARY

Further information: Military of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau

A 2008 estimate put the size of the Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
Armed Forces at around 4,000 personnel.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Main articles: Regions of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
and Sectors of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau

Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
is divided into eight regions (_regiões_) and one autonomous sector (_sector autónomo_). These, in turn, are subdivided into 37 Sectors . The regions are:

* Bafatá * Biombo * Bissau
Bissau
a * Bolama
Bolama
* Cacheu * Gabu * Oio * Quinara * Tombali

a Autonomous sector.

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
A map of Guinea Bissau. Bissau-Guinean landscape. Typical scenery in Guinea-Bissau.

Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
is bordered by Senegal
Senegal
to the north and Guinea
Guinea
to the south and east, with the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to its west. It lies mostly between latitudes 11° and 13°N (a small area is south of 11°), and longitudes 13° and 17°W .

At 36,125 square kilometres (13,948 sq mi), the country is larger in size than Taiwan
Taiwan
or Belgium
Belgium
. It lies at a low altitude; its highest point is 300 metres (984 ft). The terrain of is mostly low coastal plain with swamps of Guinean mangroves rising to Guinean forest-savanna mosaic in the east. Its monsoon -like rainy season alternates with periods of hot, dry harmattan winds blowing from the Sahara
Sahara
. The Bijagos Archipelago lies off of the mainland.

CLIMATE

Main article: Climate of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau

Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
is warm all year around and there is little temperature fluctuation; it averages 26.3 °C (79.3 °F). The average rainfall for Bissau
Bissau
is 2,024 millimetres (79.7 in) although this is almost entirely accounted for during the rainy season which falls between June and September/October. From December through April, the country experiences drought.

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

Severe environmental issues include deforestation ; soil erosion; overgrazing and overfishing.

ECONOMY

Main articles: Economy of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
and Mining industry of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
A neighborhood in Bissau.

Guinea-Bissau's GDP per capita
GDP per capita
is one of the lowest in the world , and its Human Development Index
Human Development Index
is one of the lowest on earth . More than two-thirds of the population lives below the poverty line. The economy depends mainly on agriculture; fish, cashew nuts and ground nuts are its major exports.

A long period of political instability has resulted in depressed economic activity, deteriorating social conditions, and increased macroeconomic imbalances. It takes longer on average to register a new business in Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
(233 days or about 33 weeks) than in any other country in the world except Suriname
Suriname
.

Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
has started to show some economic advances after a pact of stability was signed by the main political parties of the country, leading to an IMF
IMF
-backed structural reform program. The key challenges for the country in the period ahead are to achieve fiscal discipline, rebuild public administration, improve the economic climate for private investment, and promote economic diversification. After the country became independent from Portugal
Portugal
in 1974 due to the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution , the rapid exodus of the Portuguese civilian, military, and political authorities resulted in considerable damage to the country's economic infrastructure, social order , and standard of living .

After several years of economic downturn and political instability, in 1997, Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
entered the CFA franc monetary system, bringing about some internal monetary stability. The civil war that took place in 1998 and 1999, and a military coup in September 2003 again disrupted economic activity, leaving a substantial part of the economic and social infrastructure in ruins and intensifying the already widespread poverty. Following the parliamentary elections in March 2004 and presidential elections in July 2005, the country is trying to recover from the long period of instability, despite a still-fragile political situation.

Beginning around 2005, drug traffickers based in Latin America began to use Guinea-Bissau, along with several neighboring West African nations, as a transshipment point to Europe for cocaine . The nation was described by a United Nations
United Nations
official as being at risk for becoming a "narco-state ". The government and the military have done little to stop drug trafficking, which increased after the 2012 coup d\'état .

Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
is a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa
Africa
( OHADA ).

SOCIETY

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Demographics of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
(Left) Guinea-Bissau's population between 1961 and 2003. (Right) Guinea-Bissau's population pyramid , 2005. In 2010, 41.3% of Guinea-Bissau's population were aged under 15.

According to the 2010 revision of the UN _World Population Prospects_, Guinea-Bissau's population was 1,515,000 in 2010, compared to 518,000 in 1950. The proportion of the population below the age of 15 in 2010 was 41.3%, 55.4% were aged between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3.3% were aged 65 years or older.

ETHNIC GROUPS

Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
present-day settlement pattern of the ethnic groups.

The population of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
is ethnically diverse and has many distinct languages, customs, and social structures.

Bissau-Guineans can be divided into the following ethnic groups:

* Fula and the Mandinka -speaking people, who comprise the largest portion of the population and are concentrated in the north and northeast; * Balanta and Papel people, who live in the southern coastal regions; and * Manjaco and Mancanha, who occupy the central and northern coastal areas.

Most of the remainder are _mestiços _ of mixed Portuguese and African descent, including a Cape Verdean minority.

Portuguese natives comprise a very small percentage of Bissau-Guineans. After Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
gained independence, most of the Portuguese nationals left the country. The country has a tiny Chinese population. These include traders and merchants of mixed Portuguese and Chinese ancestry from Macau
Macau
, a former Asian Portuguese colony.

MAJOR CITIES

Guinea-Bissau's third largest city, Gabú

Main cities in Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
include:

RANK CITY POPULATION REGION

1979 CENSUS 2005 ESTIMATE

1 Bissau
Bissau
109,214 388,028 Bissau
Bissau

2 Bafatá 13,429 22,521 Bafatá

3 Gabú 7,803 14,430 Gabú

4 Bissorã _N/A_ 12,688 Oio

5 Bolama
Bolama
9,100 10,769 Bolama
Bolama

6 Cacheu 7,600 10,490 Cacheu

7 Bubaque 8,400 9,941 Bolama
Bolama

8 Catió 5,170 9,898 Tombali

9 Mansôa 5,390 7,821 Oio

10 Buba _N/A_ 7,779 Quinara

11 Quebo _N/A_ 7,072 Quinara

12 Canchungo 4,965 6,853 Cacheu

13 Farim 4,468 6,792 Oio

14 Quinhámel _N/A_ 3,128 Biombo

15 Fulacunda _N/A_ 1,327 Quinara

LANGUAGES

Main article: Languages of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau

Despite being a small country Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
has several ethnic groups which are very distinct from each-other, with their own cultures and languages. This is due that Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
was a refugee territory due to migrations within Africa. Colonization and miscegenation brought Portuguese and the Portuguese creole, the Kriol or _crioulo_.

Although perceived as one of the national languages of Guinea-Bissau since independence, Standard Portuguese is spoken mostly as a second language, with few native speakers and often confined to the intellectual and political elites. It is the language of government and national communication as a legacy of colonial rule. Portuguese is the only language with official status; schooling from primary to university levels is conducted in Portugese although only 67% of children have access to any formal education. Data suggested the number of Portuguese speakers ranges from 11 to 15%. The Portuguese creole is spoken by 44% which is effectively the national language of communication among distinct groups for most of the population. The Creole is still expanding, and it is understood by the vast majority of the population. However, decreolization processes are occurring, due to undergoing interference from Standard Portuguese and the creole forms a continuum of varieties with the standard language, the most distant are basilects and the closer ones, acrolects . A Post-creole continuum exists in Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
and Crioulo 'leve' ('soft' Creole) variety being closer to the Portuguese-language norm.

The remaining rural population speaks a variety of native African languages unique to each ethnicity: Fula (16%), Balanta (14%), Mandinga (7%), Manjaco (5%), Papel (3%), Felupe (1%), Beafada (0.7%), Bijagó (0.3%), Nalu (0.1%) which form the ethnic African languages spoken by the population. Most Portuguese and Mestiços speakers also have one of the African languages and Kriol as additional languages. Ethnic African languages are not discouraged, in any situation, despite their lower prestige. These languages are the link between individuals of the same ethnic background and daily used in villages, between neighbors or friends, traditional and religious ceremonies, and also used in contact between the urban and rural populations. However, none of these languages are dominant in Guinea-Bissau. French is taught as a foreign language in schools because Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
is surrounded by French-speaking nations. Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
is a full member of the Francophonie .

RELIGION

RELIGION IN GUINEA-BISSAU, 2010

RELIGION

PERCENT

Islam   40%

Folk religion
Folk religion
or Unaffiliated   30.8%

Christianity   22.1%

Men in Islamic garb, Bafatá , Guinea-Bissau.

Throughout the 20th century, most Bissau-Guineans practiced some form of Animism . In the early 21st century, many have adopted Islam or Christianity.

As of 2017, Islam is practiced by 45% of the country's population. Most of Guinea-Bissau's Muslims are of the Sunni denomination with approximately 2% belonging to the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
sect.

Approximately 22% of the country's population belong to the Christian community and 31% continue to hold Indigenous beliefs. However, many residents practice syncretic forms of Islamic and Christian faiths, combining their practices with traditional African beliefs. But generally speaking there are diverse religions in Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
with no one religion having a clear majority. Muslims dominate the north and east, while Christians dominate the south and coastal regions. The Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
claims most of Christian community.

HEALTH

The WHO estimates there are fewer than 5 physicians per 100,000 persons in the country, down from 12 per 100,000 in 2007.

The prevalence of HIV-infection among the adult population is 1.8%. Only 20% of infected pregnant women receive anti retroviral coverage to prevent transmission to newborns.

Malaria kills more residents; 9% of the population have reported infection, It causes three times as many deaths as AIDS. In 2008, fewer than half of children younger than five slept under antimalaria nets or had access to antimalarial drugs .

The WHO 's estimate of life expectancy for a female child born in 2008 was 49 years, and 47 years for a boy.

Despite lowering rates in surrounding countries, cholera rates were reported in November 2012 to be on the rise, with 1,500 cases reported and nine deaths. A 2008 cholera epidemic in Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
affected 14,222 people and killed 225.

The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Guinea
Guinea
Bissau was 1000. This compares with 804.3 in 2008 and 966 in 1990. The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births, was 195 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality was 24. The number of midwives per 1,000 live births was 3; one out of eighteen pregnant women die as a result of pregnancy. According to a 2013 UNICEF report, 50% of women in Guinea
Guinea
Bissau
Bissau
had undergone female genital mutilation . In 2010, Guinea
Guinea
Bissau
Bissau
had the 7th highest maternal mortality rate in the world.

EDUCATION

Main article: Education in Guinea- Bissau
Bissau

Education is compulsory from the age of 7 to 13. Pre-school education for children between three and six years of age is optional and in its early stages. There are five levels of education: pre-school, elemental and complementary basic education, general and complementary secondary education, general secondary education, technical and professional teaching, and higher education (university and non-universities). Basic education is under reform, and now forms a single cycle, comprising 6 years of education. Secondary education is widely available and there are two cycles (7th to 9th _classe_ and 10th to 11th _classe_). Professional education in public institutions is nonoperational, however private school offerings opened, including the _Centro de Formação São João Bosco_ (since 2004) and the _Centro de Formação Luís Inácio Lula da Silva_ (since 2011).

Higher education is limited and most prefer to be educated abroad, with students preferring to enroll in Portugal. A number of universities , to which an institutionally autonomous Faculty of Law as well as a Faculty of Medicine

Child labor is very common. The enrollment of boys is higher than that of girls. In 1998, the gross primary enrollment rate was 53.5%, with higher enrollment ratio for males (67.7%) compared to females (40%).

Non-formal education is centered around community schools and the teaching of adults. In 2011 the literacy rate was estimated at 55.3% (68.9% male, and 42.1% female).

CULTURE

Carnival in Bissau.

MEDIA

Main article: Media of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau

MUSIC

Main article: Music of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau

The music of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
is usually associated with the polyrhythmic gumbe genre , the country's primary musical export. However, civil unrest and other factors have combined over the years to keep gumbe, and other genres, out of mainstream audiences, even in generally syncretist African countries.

The calabash is the primary musical instrument of Guinea-Bissau, and is used in extremely swift and rhythmically complex dance music . Lyrics are almost always in Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
Creole , a Portuguese -based creole language , and are often humorous and topical, revolving around current events and controversies.

The word _gumbe_ is sometimes used generically, to refer to any music of the country, although it most specifically refers to a unique style that fuses about ten of the country's folk music traditions. Tina and tinga are other popular genres, while extent folk traditions include ceremonial music used in funerals, initiations and other rituals, as well as Balanta brosca and kussundé, Mandinga djambadon, and the kundere sound of the Bissagos Islands .

CUISINE

Further information: Cuisine of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau

Rice is a staple in the diet of residents near the coast and millet a staple in the interior. Fruits and vegetables are commonly eaten along with cereal grains . The Portuguese encouraged peanut production. Vigna subterranea (Bambara groundnut) and Macrotyloma geocarpum (Hausa groundnut) are also grown. Black-eyed peas are also part of the diet. Palm oil
Palm oil
is harvested.

Common dishes include soups and stews . Common ingredients include yams , sweet potato , cassava , onion, tomato and plantain . Spices, peppers and chilis are used in cooking, including Aframomum melegueta seeds ( Guinea
Guinea
pepper).

FILM

Flora Gomes is an internationally renowned film director; his most famous film is _Nha Fala_ (English: My Voice). Gomes's _ Mortu Nega _ (_Death Denied_) (1988) was the first fiction film and the second feature film ever made in Guinea-Bissau. (The first feature film was _N’tturudu_, by director Umban u’Kest in 1987.) At FESPACO 1989, _Mortu Nega_ won the prestigious Oumarou Ganda Prize. _ Mortu Nega _ is in Creole with English subtitles. In 1992, Gomes directed _Udju Azul di Yonta_, which was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 1992 Cannes Film Festival . Gomes has also served on the boards of many Africa-centric film festivals.

SPORTS

Football is the most popular sport in Guinea-Bissau. The Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
national football team is the national team of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
and is controlled by the Football Federation of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
. They are a member of the Confederation of African Football (CAF).

SEE ALSO

* Geography portal * Africa
Africa
portal * Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
portal

* Outline of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
* Index of Guinea-Bissau-related articles * Transport in Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
* 2010 Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
military unrest * List of Bissau-Guineans

REFERENCES

_ This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.

* ^ "Guinea-Bissau" – Field Listing: Nationality. The World Factbook 2013–14._ Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2015. * ^ " The World Factbook
The World Factbook
– Field Listing – Population – CIA". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 7 March 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Guinea-Bissau". International Monetary Fund. * ^ "2016 Human Development Report Summary" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 21 March 2017. * ^ Empire of Kaabu, West Africa. Accessgambia.com. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ Alvise Cadamosto. Nndb.com. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ Eustache De La Fosse (1992). _Voyage d\'Eustache Delafosse sur la côte de Guinée, au Portugal
Portugal
et en Espagne: 1479–1481_. Editions Chandeigne. ISBN 978-2-906462-03-8 . Retrieved 19 December 2012. * ^ Diogo Cão
Diogo Cão
at the Wayback Machine (archived 8 February 2007). win.tue.nl * ^ _A_ _B_ "A Brief History of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
– Part 1". Africanhistory, US Department of State, at About.com. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ British Library – Endangered Archive Programme (EAP). Inep-bissau.org (18 March 1921). Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ Amilcar Cabral 1966 "The Weapon of Theory". Address delivered to the first Tricontinental Conference of the Peoples of Asia, Africa and Latin America held in Havana in January 1966. Marxists.org. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ The PAIC Programme Appendix. Marxists.org. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ El Tahri, Jihan (2007). _Cuba! Africa! Revolution!_. BBC Television. Event occurs at 50:00–60:00. Retrieved 2 May 2007. * ^ Brittain, Victoria (17 January 2011). "Africa: a continent drenched in the blood of revolutionary heroes". _The Guardian_. London. * ^ Embassy of The Republic
Republic
of Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
– Country Profile. Diplomaticandconsular.com (12 April 2012). Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ Guiné-Bissau: Morreu Luís Cabral, primeiro presidente do país. Expresso.sapo.pt (30 May 2009). Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ Uppsala Conflict Data Program
Uppsala Conflict Data Program
Conflict Encyclopedia, Guinea Bissau: government, in depth, Negotiations, Veira's surrender and the end of the conflict, viewed 12 July 2013, * ^ Guinea-Bissau\'s Kumba Yala: from crisis to crisis. Afrol.com. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ Smith, Brian (27 September 2003) "US and UN give tacit backing to Guinea
Guinea
Bissau
Bissau
coup", Wsws.org, September 2003. Retrieved 22 June 2013 * ^ GUINEA-BISSAU: Vieira officially declared president. irinnews.org (10 August 2005). * ^ "Army man wins G Bissau
Bissau
election". London: BBC News. 28 July 2005. Retrieved 5 January 2010. * ^ Guinea
Guinea
Bissau
Bissau
vote goes smooth amid hopes for stability. AFP via Google.com (16 November 2008). Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ Balde, Assimo (24 November 2008). "Coup attempt fails in Guinea-Bissau". London: The Independent UK independent.co.uk. Retrieved 28 June 2010. * ^ Soldiers kill fleeing President at the Wayback Machine (archived 8 March 2009). news.com.au (2 March 2009). * ^ Elections, Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
(27 May 2009). "On the Radio Waves in Guinea-Bissau". swisspeace. Archived from the original on 8 December 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2010. * ^ "Já foi escolhida a data para a realização das eleições presidenciais entecipadas". Bissaudigital.com. 1 April 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2010. * ^ "Tiny Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
becomes latest West African nation hit by coup". Bissau. 12 April 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2012. * ^ Embalo, Allen Yero (14 April 2012). "Fears grow for members of toppled G. Bissau
Bissau
government". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 2 May 2012. * ^ "Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
opposition vows to reach deal with junta Radio Netherlands Worldwide". Rnw.nl. 15 April 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ "Guinea-Bissau", _CIA the World Factbook_, Cia.gov. Retrieved 5 February 2012. * ^ Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
Supreme Court. Stj.pt. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
Political Parties. Nationsencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ Nossiter, Adam (4 November 2009) "Bijagós, a Tranquil Haven in a Troubled Land", _The New York Times_, 8 November 2009 * ^ Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
Climate. Nationsencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ World Bank
World Bank
profile. World Bank.org (31 May 2013). Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ The Economist. _Pocket World in Figures_ (2008 ed.). London: Profile Books. ISBN 978-1861978448 . * ^ Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
and the IMF. Imf.org (13 May 2013). Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ CFA Franc and Guinea-Bissau. Uemoa.int. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ Guinea-Bissau:A narco-state?. _Time_. (29 October 2009). Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ Sullivan, Kevin (25 May 2008). "Route of Evil: How a tiny West African nation became a key smuggling hub for Colombian cocaine, and the price it is paying". _The Washington Post_. * ^ "Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
drug trade \'rises since coup\'". London: BBC News. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012. * ^ "OHADA.com: The business law portal in Africa". Retrieved 22 March 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations
United Nations
Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision". Esa.un.org. Retrieved 20 January 2017. * ^ Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
ethnic classifications, Joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ China-Guinea-Bissau. China.org.cn. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Língua e Desenvolvimento: O caso da Guiné- Bissau
Bissau
José Barbosa – Universidade de Lisboa. * ^ Crioulo, Upper Guinea. Ethnologue.org. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ WELCOME TO THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION OF LA FRANCOPHONIE\'S OFFICIAL WEBSITE. Francophonie.org. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ "Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
– Pew-Templeton Global Religious Futures Project". Globalreligiousfutures.org. Retrieved 20 January 2017. * ^ "Religious Composition by Country, 2010–2050 Pew Research Center". Pewforum.org. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2017. * ^ CIA World Factbook entry * ^ "The World\'s Muslims: Unity and Diversity" (PDF). Pew Forum on Religious & Public life. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2014. * ^ "Guinea-Bissau", _Encyclopædia Britannica_ * ^ The WHO identified only 78 physicians in the entire Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
health workforce in 2009 data. ("Health workforce, infrastructure, essential medicines" (PDF). 2010. p. 118. ) And the World Bank
World Bank
estimates that Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
had 1,575,446 residents in 2008. At the current rate of growth, 2009 population was expected to reach about 1.61 million people. Only 0.0048% are known to be medical doctors involved in patient care. The WHO estimate an average of about 20 per 100,000 across Africa, but reports a density per 10,000 population of

15TH CENTURY

1420 _MADEIRA _

1432 _AZORES _

16TH CENTURY

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador
Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia

SOUTH AMERICA padding:0px;border-top:1px solid #aaa;padding-left:1.0em;text-align:left;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;">

16TH CENTURY

1500–1822 Brazil
Brazil

• 1534–1549 Captaincy Colonies of Brazil
Brazil

• 1549–1572 Brazil
Brazil

• 1572–1578 Bahia

• 1572–1578 Rio de Janeiro

• 1578–1607 Brazil
Brazil

• 1621–1815 Brazil
Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17TH CENTURY

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18TH CENTURY

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19TH CENTURY

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru (Bolivia)

* Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies * Evolution of the Portuguese Empire * Portuguese colonial architecture
Portuguese colonial architecture
* Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia
Indonesia
* Portuguese colonization of the Americas * Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia
Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 125341622 * LCCN : n80061076 * ISNI : 0000 0001 2151 704X * GND : 4022522-7 * SUDOC : 032671725 * BNF : cb12365690v (data) * NDL : 00562461

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Guinea- Bissau
Bissau
additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.

* Privacy policy * About * Disclaimers * Contact * Developers * Cookie statement * Mobile view

* *

Links: ------ /wiki/Help:IPA/English /wiki/File:En-us-Guinea-Bissau.ogg //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/En-us-Guinea-Bissau.ogg

.