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Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Chinese: 广州), formerly known as Canton,[6] is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong
Guangdong
in southern China.[7] Located on the Pearl River about 120 km (75 mi) north-northwest of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and 145 km (90 mi) north of Macau, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road[8] and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub today, as well as one of China's three largest cities.[9] Guangzhou
Guangzhou
is situated at the heart of the most-populous built-up metropolitan area in mainland China, an area that extends into the neighboring cities of Foshan, Dongguan, and Shenzhen, forming one of the largest urban agglomerations on the planet. Administratively, the city holds sub-provincial status;[10] and is one of China's five National Central Cities.[11] In 2015 the city's administrative area was estimated to have a population of 13,501,100.[12] Guangzhou
Guangzhou
is ranked as an Alpha- Global city.[13] In recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of foreign residents and immigrants from Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and especially from Africa.[14] This has led to it being dubbed the "Capital of the Third World".[15][16] The migrant population from other provinces of China in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
was 40 percent of the city's total population in 2008. Together with Shanghai, Beijing
Beijing
and Shenzhen, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
has one of the most expensive real estate markets in China.[17] Guangzhou
Guangzhou
has a comparatively recent history of two centuries related to its importance for foreign trade. Long the only Chinese port accessible to most foreign traders, the city fell to the British during the First Opium War. No longer enjoying a monopoly after the war, it lost trade to other ports such as Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(which is close by) and Shanghai, but continued to serve as a major entrepôt. In modern commerce, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
is best known for its annual Canton Fair, the oldest and largest trade fair in China. For the three consecutive years 2013–2015, Forbes ranked Guangzhou
Guangzhou
as the best commercial city on the Chinese mainland.[18]

Contents

1 Names 2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Nanyue 2.3 Imperial China 2.4 Modern China

2.4.1 Revolutions 2.4.2 Kuomintang
Kuomintang
rule 2.4.3 Communist takeover

3 Gallery 4 Geography

4.1 Natural resources 4.2 Climate

5 Administrative divisions 6 Economy

6.1 Local products 6.2 Industry 6.3 Science City 6.4 Malls and pedestrian streets

7 Demographics

7.1 Ethnicity 7.2 Metropolitan area

8 Transportation

8.1 Urban mass transit 8.2 Motor transport 8.3 Airports 8.4 Railways 8.5 Water transport

9 Culture

9.1 Religions

9.1.1 Daoism 9.1.2 Buddhism 9.1.3 Christianity 9.1.4 Islam

9.2 Sport

10 Destinations

10.1 Eight Views 10.2 Parks and gardens 10.3 Tourist attractions 10.4 Major buildings

11 Media 12 Education 13 International relations

13.1 Twin towns and sister cities

14 See also 15 Notes 16 References

16.1 Citations 16.2 Bibliography

17 Further reading 18 External links

Names[edit]

A Qing-era portrait of the Grotto of the Five Immortals, the Taoist temple around the five stones which gave Guangzhou
Guangzhou
its nickname "The City of Rams".

Guǎngzhōu is the pinyin romanisation of the Chinese name 廣州, which was simplified in mainland China
China
to 广州 in the 1950s. The name of the city is taken from the ancient Guang Province (Guang Zhou), after it had become the prefecture's seat of government, which is how some other Chinese cities, including Hangzhou, Suzhou
Suzhou
and Fuzhou
Fuzhou
got their names. The character 廣 or 广—which also appears in the names of the provinces Guangdong
Guangdong
and Guangxi, together called the Liangguang—means "broad" or "expansive" and refers to the intention to dispense imperial grace broadly in the region with the founding of county of Guangxin in Han Dynasty. Before acquiring its current name, the town was known as Panyu, a name still borne by one of Guangzhou's districts not far from the main city. The origin of the name is still uncertain, with 11 various explanations being offered,[19] including that it may have referred to two local mountains.[21][22] The city has also sometimes been known as Guangzhou Fu or Guangfu after its status as the capital of a prefecture. From this latter name, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
was known to medieval Persians such as Al-Masudi
Al-Masudi
and Ibn Khordadbeh[23] as Khanfu (خانفو).[24] Under the Southern Han, the city was renamed Xingwang.[25][26] The Chinese abbreviation
Chinese abbreviation
for Guangzhou
Guangzhou
is 穗 (although the abbreviation on car license plates is ‘粤’), after its nickname " Rice
Rice
City". The city has long borne the nickname City of Rams or City of the Five Rams from the five stones at the old Temple of the Five Immortals said to have been the sheep or goats ridden by the Taoist culture heroes credited with introducing rice cultivation to the area around the time of the city's foundation.[27] The former name "City of the Immortals" came from the same story. The more recent City of Flowers is usually taken as a simple reference to the area's greenery. The English name "Canton" derived from Portuguese Cantão[28] or Cidade de Cantão,[29] a muddling of dialectical pronunciations of "Guangdong"[30][31] (e.g., Hakka
Hakka
Kóng-tûng). Although it originally and chiefly applied to the walled city, it was also used in English in reference to Guangdong
Guangdong
generally.[32] It was adopted as the Postal Map Romanization of Guangzhou
Guangzhou
and remained in common use until the gradual adoption of pinyin. As an adjective, it is still used in describing the people, language, cuisine and culture of Guangzhou
Guangzhou
and the surrounding Liangguang
Liangguang
region. The 19th-century name "Kwang-chow foo"[33] derived from Nanjing
Nanjing
dialect of Mandarin and the town's status as a prefectural capital. History[edit] Main article: Timeline of Guangzhou Prehistory[edit] A settlement now known as Nanwucheng was present in the area by 1100 BC.[34][35] Some traditional Chinese histories placed Nanwucheng's founding during the reign of Ji Yan,[36][37] king of Zhou from 314–256 BC. It was said to have consisted of little more than a stockade of bamboo and mud.[36][37]

The jade burial suit of Zhao Mo
Zhao Mo
in Guangzhou's Nanyue
Nanyue
King Museum

Nanyue[edit] Panyu was established on the east bank of the Pearl River[33] in 214 BC to serve as a base for the Qin Empire's first failed invasion of the Baiyue
Baiyue
lands in southern China. Legendary accounts claimed the soldiers at Panyu were so vigilant that they did not remove their armor for three years.Gray (1875), p. 3 Upon the fall of the Qin, General Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
established his own kingdom of Nanyue
Nanyue
and made Panyu its capital in 204 BC. It remained independent through the Chu-Han Contention, although Zhao negotiated recognition of his independence in exchange for his nominal submission to the Han in 196 BC.[38] Archaeological evidence shows that Panyu was an expansive commercial centre: in addition to items from central China, archaeologists have found remains originating from Southeast Asia, India, and even Africa.[39] Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
was succeeded by Zhao Mo
Zhao Mo
and then Zhao Yingqi. Upon Zhao Yingqi's death in 115 BC, his younger son Zhao Xing was named as his successor in violation of Chinese primogeniture. By 113 BC, his Chinese mother, the Empress Dowager Jiu (樛) had prevailed upon him to submit Nanyue
Nanyue
as a formal part of the Han Empire. The native prime minister Lü Jia (呂嘉) launched a coup, killing Han ambassadors along with the king, his mother, and their supporters.[40] A successful ambush then annihilated a Han force which had been sent to arrest him. The enraged Emperor Wu launched a massive river- and sea-borne invasion: six armies under Lu Bode and Yang Pu[41] took Panyu and annexed Nanyue
Nanyue
by the end of 111 BC.[40] Imperial China[edit]

Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(as 廣) on the 1136 Map of the Tracks of Yu

Lai Afong's photograph of a commercial street in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
c. 1880

Guangzhou
Guangzhou
("Canton") and the surrounding islands of Henan
Henan
("Hanan"), Pazhou
Pazhou
("Whampoa"), Changzhou
Changzhou
("Dane's Island"), and Xiaoguwei ("French Island") during the First Opium War's Second Battle of Canton. The large East Indiamen
East Indiamen
of the Canton trade used the anchorage sheltered by these four islands, but the village and island of Huangpu for which it was named make up no part of present-day Guangzhou's Huangpu District.

Incorporated into the Han Empire, Panyu became a provincial capital. In AD 226, it became the seat of Guang Prefecture, which gave it its modern name. The Old Book of Tang
Old Book of Tang
described Guangzhou
Guangzhou
as important port in southern China.[42] Direct routes connected the Middle East and China, as shown in records of a Chinese prisoner returning home from Iraq twelve years after his capture at Talas.[43] Relations were not always peaceful: Muslims sacked the city on 30 October 758[n 1][44][45][46][47] and were massacred by the Chinese rebel Huang Chao in 878, along with the city's Jews, Christians,[48][49][50] and Parsis.[51][52] Amid the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
that followed the collapse of the Tang Dynasty, the Later Liang governor Liu Yan used his base at Panyu to establish a "Great Yue" or "Southern Han" empire, which lasted from 917 to 971. The region enjoyed considerable cultural and economic success in this period. From the 10th to 12th century, there are records that the large foreign communities were not exclusively male, but included "Persian women".[53][54][n 2] Guangzhou
Guangzhou
was visited by the Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
during his 14th-century journey around the world;[56] he detailed the process by which the Chinese constructed their large ships in the port's shipyards.[57] Shortly after the Hongwu Emperor's declaration of the Ming Dynasty, he reversed his earlier support of foreign trade and imposed the first of a series of sea bans (haijin).[58] These banned private foreign trade upon penalty of death for the merchant and exile for his family and neighbors.[59] The Yuan-era maritime intendancies of Guangzhou, Quanzhou, and Ningbo
Ningbo
were closed in 1384[60] and legal trade became limited to the tribute delegations sent to or by official representatives of foreign governments.[61] The policies exacerbated "Japanese" pirate (the nanbu) attacks in the area until their removal in 1567. Following the Portuguese conquest of Malacca, Rafael Perestrello travelled to Guangzhou
Guangzhou
as a passenger on a native junk in 1516.[62] His report induced Fernão Pires de Andrade
Fernão Pires de Andrade
to sail to the city with eight ships the next year,[62] but De Andrade's exploration[63] was understood as spying[64] and his brother Simão and others began attempting to monopolize trade,[65] enslaving Chinese women[66] and children,[n 3] engaging in piracy,[68] and fortifying the island of Tamão.[69][70] Rumors even circulated that Portuguese were eating the children.[71][67][n 4] The Guangzhou
Guangzhou
administration was charged with driving them off:[68] they bested the Portuguese at the Battle of Tunmen[73] and in Xicao Bay; held a diplomatic mission hostage in a failed attempt to pressure the restoration of the sultan of Malacca,[74] who had been accounted a Ming vassal;[75] and, after placing them in cangues and keeping them for most of a year, ultimately executed 23 by lingchi.[76][n 5] With the help of local pirates,[71] the "Folangji" then carried out smuggling at Macao, Lampacau, and St John's Island (now Shangchuan),[66] until Leonel de Sousa legalized their trade with bribes to Admiral Wang Bo (汪柏) and the 1554 Luso-Chinese Accord. The Portuguese undertook not to raise fortifications and to pay customs dues;[79] three years later, after providing the Chinese with assistance suppressing their former pirate allies,[80] the Portuguese were permitted to warehouse their goods at Macau
Macau
instead of Guangzhou
Guangzhou
itself.[81] After the fall of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
in October 1646, the Longwu Emperor's brother Zhu Yuyue fled by sea to Guangzhou. On 11 December, he declared himself the Shaowu
Shaowu
Emperor, borrowing his imperial regalia from local theatre troupes.[82] He led a successful offense against his cousin Zhu Youlang
Zhu Youlang
but was deposed and executed on 20 January 1647 when the Ming turncoat Li Chengdong (李成東) sacked the city on behalf of the Qing.[83][n 6] The Qing became somewhat more open to foreign trade after gaining control of Taiwan
Taiwan
in 1683.[84] The Portuguese from Macau
Macau
and Spaniards from Manila
Manila
returned, as did private Muslim, Armenian, and English traders.[85] From 1699 to 1714, the French and British East India Companies sent a ship or two each year;[85] the Austrian Ostend General India
India
Co. arrived in 1717,[86] the Dutch East India
India
Co. in 1729,[87] the Danish Asiatic Co. in 1731,[n 7] and the Swedish East India
India
Co. the next year.[85] These were joined by the occasional Prussian or Trieste Company vessel. The first independent American ship arrived in 1784 and the first colonial Australian one in 1788.[citation needed] By that time, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
was one of the world's great ports, organised under the Canton System.[89] The main exports were tea and porcelain.[85] As a meeting place of merchants from all over the world, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
became a major contributor to the rise of the modern global economy.[90] In the 19th century, most of the city's buildings were still only one or two storeys. The major structures were the Plain Minaret of the Huaisheng Mosque, the Flower Pagoda
Flower Pagoda
of the Temple of the Six Banyan Trees, and the guard tower known as the 5-Storey Pagoda. The northern hills, since urbanized, were bare and covered with traditional graves. The brick city walls were about 6 miles (10 km) in circumference, 25 feet (8 m) high, and 20 feet (6 m) wide. Its eight main gates and two water gates all held guards during the day and were closed at night. The wall rose to incorporate a hill on its northern side and was surrounded on the other three by a moat which, along with the canals, functioned as the city's sewer, emptied daily by the river's tides. A partition wall with four gates divided the northern "old town" from the southern "new town" closer to the river; the suburb of Xiguan
Xiguan
("West Gate") stretched beyond and the boats of fishers, traders, and Tanka ("boat people") almost entirely concealed the riverbank for about 4 miles (6 km). It was common for homes to have a storefront facing the street and to treat their courtyards as a kind of warehouse.[33] The city was part of a network of signal towers so effective that messages could be relayed to Beijing—about 1,200 miles (1,931 km) away—in less than 24 hours.[91] The Canton System
Canton System
was maintained until the outbreak of the First Opium War in 1839. Following a series of battles in the Pearl River Delta, the British captured Guangzhou
Guangzhou
itself on 18 March 1841.[92] The Second Battle of Canton was fought two months later.[93] Following the Qing Empire's 1842 treaty with Great Britain, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
lost its privileged trade status as more and more treaty ports were opened to more and more countries, usually including extraterritorial enclaves. Amid the decline of Qing prestige and the chaos of the Taiping Rebellion, the Punti
Punti
and Hakka
Hakka
waged a series of clan wars from 1855 to 1867 in which 1 million people died. The concession for the Canton–Hankow Railway
Canton–Hankow Railway
was awarded to the American China
China
Development Co. in 1898. It completed its branch line west to Foshan
Foshan
and Sanshui
Sanshui
before being engulfed in a diplomatic crisis after a Belgian consortium bought a controlling interest and the Qing cancelled its concession. J.P. Morgan
J.P. Morgan
was awarded millions in damages[94] and the line to Wuchang wasn't completed until 1936[95] and a unified Beijing–Guangzhou Railway
Beijing–Guangzhou Railway
waited until the completion of Wuhan's Yangtze River Bridge in 1957. Modern China[edit] Revolutions[edit]

Mausoleum of the 72 Martyrs

During the late Qing Dynasty, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
was the site of failed revolts such as the Uprisings of 1895 and 1911 to overthrow the Qing; the 72 rebels whose bodies were found after the latter uprising are remembered and honoured as the city's 72 Martyrs
72 Martyrs
in the Huanghuagang ("Yellow Flower Mound") Mausoleum. All these failed revolutionary attempts would eventually lead to the Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
which successfully overthrew the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
to establish a new Han Chinese
Han Chinese
republic. Kuomintang
Kuomintang
rule[edit] After the assassination of Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
and Yuan Shikai's attempts to remove Nationalists from power, the leader of Guangdong
Guangdong
Hu Hanmin joined the 1913 Second Revolution against him[96] but was forced to flee to Japan
Japan
with Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
after its failure. The city came under national spotlight again in 1917, when Prime Minister Duan Qirui's abrogation of the constitution triggered the Constitutional Protection Movement. Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
came to head the Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Military Government supported by the members of the dissolved parliament and the Southwestern warlords. The Guangzhou
Guangzhou
government fell apart as the warlords withdrew their support. Sun fled to Shanghai
Shanghai
in November 1918 until the Guangdong
Guangdong
warlord Chen Jiongming
Chen Jiongming
restored him in October 1920 during the Yuegui Wars.[97] On 16 June 1922, Sun was ousted in a coup and fled on the warship Yongfeng after Chen sided with the Zhili Clique's Beijing
Beijing
government. In the following months Sun mounted a counterattack into Guangdong
Guangdong
by rallying supporters from Yunnan
Yunnan
and Guangxi, and in January established a government in the city for the third time.

Flag of the ruling Kuomintang

From 1923 to 1926 Sun and the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
used the city as a base to prosecute a renewed revolution in China
China
by conquering the warlords in the north. Although Sun was previously dependent on opportunistic warlords who hosted him in the city, with the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek, the KMT
KMT
developed its own military power to serve its ambition. The Canton years saw the evolution of the KMT
KMT
into a revolutionary movement with a strong military focus and ideological commitment, setting the tone of the KMT
KMT
rule of China
China
beyond 1927. In 1924 the KMT
KMT
made the momentous decision to ally with the Communist Party and the USSR. With Soviet help, KMT
KMT
reorganized itself along the Leninist line and adopted a pro-labor and pro-peasant stance. The Kuomintang-CCP cooperation was confirmed in the First Congress of the KMT
KMT
and the communists were instructed to join the KMT. The allied government set up the Peasant Movement Training Institute
Peasant Movement Training Institute
in the city, of which Mao Zedong was a director for one term. Sun and his military commander Chiang used Soviet funds and weapons to build an armed force staffed by communist commissars, training its cadres in the Whampoa Military Academy.[97] In August, the fledgling army suppressed the Canton Merchants' Corps Uprising. The next year the anti-imperialist May Thirtieth Movement
May Thirtieth Movement
swept the country, and the KMT
KMT
government called for strikes in Canton and Hong Kong. The tensions of the massive strikes and protests led to the Shakee Massacre. After the death of Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
in 1925 the mood was changing in the party toward the communists. In August the left-wing KMT
KMT
leader Liao Zhongkai was assassinated and the right-wing leader Hu Hanmin, the suspected mastermind, was exiled to the Soviet Union, leaving the pro-communist Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
in charge. Opposing communist encroachment, the right-wing Western Hills Group
Western Hills Group
vowed to expel the communists from the KMT. The "Canton Coup" on 20 March 1926 saw Chiang solidify his control over the Nationalists and their army against Wang Jingwei, the party's left wing, its Communist allies, and its Soviet advisors.[98][99] By May, he had ended civilian control of the military[99] and begun his Northern Expedition against the warlords of the north. Its success led to the split of the KMT
KMT
between Wuhan
Wuhan
and Nanking and the purge of the communists in the Shanghai
Shanghai
Massacre. Immediately afterwards Canton joined the purge under the auspice of Li Jishen,resulting in the arrest of communists and the suspension of left wing KMT
KMT
apparatuses and labor groups. Later in 1927 when Zhang Fakui, a general supportive of the Wuhan
Wuhan
faction seized Canton and installed Wang Jingwei's faction in the city, the communists saw an opening and launched the Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Uprising. Prominent communist military leaders Ye Ting
Ye Ting
and Ye Jianying
Ye Jianying
led the failed defense of the city. Soon, control of the city reverted to Li Jishen. Li was deposed in the War between Chiang and Guangxi
Guangxi
Clique. By 1929, Chen Jitang
Chen Jitang
had established himself as the powerholder of Guangdong. In 1931 he threw his weight behind the anti-Chiang schism by hosting a separate Nationalist government in Guangzhou.[100] Opposing Chiang's alleged dictatorship, the separatists included KMT
KMT
leaders like Wang Jingwei, Sun Fo
Sun Fo
and others from diverse factions. The peace negotiations amidst the armed stand-off led to the 4th National Congress of Kuomintang
Kuomintang
being held separately by three factions in Nanjing, Shanghai
Shanghai
and Canton. Resigning all his posts, Chiang pulled off a political compromise that reunited all factions. While the intraparty division was resolved, Chen kept his power until he was defeated by Chiang in 1936. Communist takeover[edit] Amid the closing months of the Chinese Civil War, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
briefly served as the capital of the Republic of China
China
after the liberation of Nanjing
Nanjing
by the PLA in April 1949. The People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
entered the city on 14 October 1949. Amid a massive exodus to Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau, the Nationalists blew up the Haizhu Bridge
Haizhu Bridge
across the Pearl River in retreat. The Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
had a large effect on the city with much of its temples, churches and other monuments destroyed during this chaotic period. The People's Republic of China
China
initiated building projects including new housing on the banks of the Pearl River to adjust the city's boat people to life on land. Since the 1980s, the city's close proximity to Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Shenzhen
Shenzhen
and its ties to overseas Chinese have made it one of the first beneficiaries of China's opening up under Deng Xiaoping. Beneficial tax reforms in the 1990s have also helped the city's industrialisation and development. The municipality was expanded in the year 2000, with Huadu and Panyu joining the city as urban districts and Conghua
Conghua
and Zengcheng
Zengcheng
as more rural counties. The former districts of Dongshan and Fangcun were abolished in 2005, merged into Yuexiu and Liwan respectively. The city acquired Nansha and Luogang. The former was carved out of Panyu, the latter from parts of Baiyun, Tianhe, Zengcheng, and an exclave within Huangpu. The National People's Congress
National People's Congress
approved a development plan for the Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
in January 2009; on March 19 the same year, the Guangzhou
Guangzhou
and Foshan
Foshan
municipal governments agreed to establish a framework to merge the two cities.[101] In 2014, Luogang merged into Huangpu and both Conghua
Conghua
and Zengcheng
Zengcheng
counties were upgraded to districts. Guangzhou
Guangzhou
was then the most populous consolidated district-governed city in China
China
until Beijing
Beijing
overtook it the next year. Gallery[edit]

Nieuhof's imaginative 1665 map of "Kanton",[102] made from second-hand accounts while Europeans were still forbidden from entering the walled city

The Thirteen Factories
Thirteen Factories
c. 1805, displaying the flags of Denmark, Spain, the United States, Sweden, Britain, and the Netherlands

An 1855 painting of the gallery of Tingqua, one of the most successful suppliers of "export paintings" for Guangzhou's foreign traders. Common themes included the Thirteen Factories, the Whampoa Anchorage (now Pazhou), and the Sea-Banner Temple
Sea-Banner Temple
(now Hoi Tong Monastery)

Vrooman's 1860 map of the "City and Entire Suburbs of Canton", one of the first made after the treaties of Tianjin
Tianjin
and Beijing
Beijing
permitted foreigners full access to Guangzhou's walled city

The Flowery Pagoda
Flowery Pagoda
at the Temple of the Six Banyan Trees
Temple of the Six Banyan Trees
in 1863

The Five-storey Pagoda
Five-storey Pagoda
atop Yuexiu Hill
Yuexiu Hill
c. 1880

The Sacred Heart Cathedral towering over the one- and two-storey homes of old Guangzhou
Guangzhou
c. 1880

Street scene in Guangzhou, 1919

The US Navy's Dept of Navigation's 1920 map of "Canton"[103]

Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
and Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
at the opening of the Whampoa Military Academy on 16 June 1924

The Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Bund in 1930, with rows of Tanka boats.

Play media

A short film of Guangzhou
Guangzhou
in 1937

The People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
entering Guangzhou
Guangzhou
on 14 October 1949

Geography[edit]

Tiantang Peak, highest mountain in Guangzhou

The old town of Guangzhou
Guangzhou
was near Baiyun Mountain
Baiyun Mountain
on the east bank of the Pearl River (Zhujiang) about 80 miles (129 km) from its junction with the South China
China
Sea and about 300 miles (483 km) below its head of navigation.[33] It commanded the rich alluvial plain of the Pearl River Delta, with its connection to the sea protected at the Humen Strait.[33] The present city spans 7,434.4 square kilometres (2,870.4 sq mi) on both sides of the river from 112° 57′ to 114° 03′ E longitude and 22° 26′ to 23° 56′ N latitude in south-central Guangdong. The Pearl is the 3rd-largest river of China.[104] Baiyun Mountain
Baiyun Mountain
is now locally referred to as the city's "lung" (市肺).[9][105][why?] The elevation of the prefecture generally increases from southwest to northeast, with mountains forming the backbone of the city and the ocean comprising the front. Tiantang Peak
Tiantang Peak
(天堂顶, "Heavenly Peak") is the highest point of elevation at 1,210 metres (3,970 ft) above sea level.

Places adjacent to Guangzhou

Qingyuan

Zhaoqing

Foshan

Guangzhou

Huizhou

Foshan Zhongshan Dongguan

Natural resources[edit] There are 47 different types of minerals and also 820 ore fields in Guangzhou, including 18 large and medium-sized oil deposits. The major minerals are granite, cement limestone, ceramic clay, potassium, albite, salt mine, mirabilite, nepheline, syenite, fluorite, marble, mineral water, and geothermal mineral water. Since Guangzhou
Guangzhou
is located in the water-rich area of southern China, it has a wide water area with lots of rivers and water systems, accounting for 10% of the total land area. The rivers and streams improve the landscape and keep the ecological environment of the city stable.[106] Climate[edit] Despite being located just south of the Tropic of Cancer, Guangzhou has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) influenced by the East Asian monsoon. Summers are wet with high temperatures, high humidity, and a high heat index. Winters are mild and comparatively dry. Guangzhou
Guangzhou
has a lengthy monsoon season, spanning from April through September. Monthly averages range from 13.6 °C (56.5 °F) in January to 28.6 °C (83.5 °F) in July, while the annual mean is 22.6 °C (72.7 °F).[9] Autumn, from October to December, is very moderate, cool and windy, and is the best travel time.[107] The relative humidity is approximately 68 percent, whereas annual rainfall in the metropolitan area is over 1,700 mm (67 in).[9] With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 17 percent in March and April to 52 percent in November, the city receives 1,628 hours of bright sunshine annually, considerably less than nearby Shenzhen
Shenzhen
and Hong Kong. Extreme temperatures have ranged from 0 °C (32 °F) to 39.1 °C (102.4 °F).[108] The last recorded snowfall in the city was on 24 January 2016, 87 years after the second last recorded snowfall.[109]

Climate data for Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(normals 1971–2000, extremes 1961–2000)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 27.2 (81) 28.6 (83.5) 32.1 (89.8) 32.4 (90.3) 36.2 (97.2) 36.6 (97.9) 39.1 (102.4) 38.0 (100.4) 37.6 (99.7) 34.8 (94.6) 32.5 (90.5) 29.6 (85.3) 39.1 (102.4)

Average high °C (°F) 18.3 (64.9) 18.5 (65.3) 21.6 (70.9) 25.7 (78.3) 29.3 (84.7) 31.5 (88.7) 32.8 (91) 32.7 (90.9) 31.5 (88.7) 28.8 (83.8) 24.5 (76.1) 20.6 (69.1) 26.3 (79.4)

Daily mean °C (°F) 13.9 (57) 15.2 (59.4) 18.1 (64.6) 22.4 (72.3) 25.8 (78.4) 27.8 (82) 28.9 (84) 28.8 (83.8) 27.5 (81.5) 24.7 (76.5) 20.1 (68.2) 15.5 (59.9) 22.4 (72.3)

Average low °C (°F) 10.3 (50.5) 11.7 (53.1) 15.2 (59.4) 19.5 (67.1) 22.7 (72.9) 24.8 (76.6) 25.5 (77.9) 25.4 (77.7) 24.0 (75.2) 20.8 (69.4) 15.9 (60.6) 11.5 (52.7) 18.9 (66.1)

Record low °C (°F) 0.1 (32.2) 1.3 (34.3) 3.2 (37.8) 7.7 (45.9) 14.6 (58.3) 18.8 (65.8) 21.6 (70.9) 20.9 (69.6) 15.5 (59.9) 9.5 (49.1) 4.9 (40.8) 0.0 (32) 0.0 (32)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 40.9 (1.61) 69.4 (2.732) 84.7 (3.335) 201.2 (7.921) 283.7 (11.169) 276.2 (10.874) 232.5 (9.154) 227.0 (8.937) 166.2 (6.543) 87.3 (3.437) 35.4 (1.394) 31.6 (1.244) 1,736.1 (68.35)

Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 7.5 11.2 15.0 16.3 18.3 18.2 15.9 16.8 12.5 7.1 5.5 4.9 149.2

Average relative humidity (%) 72 78 82 84 84 84 82 82 78 72 66 66 77.5

Mean monthly sunshine hours 118.5 71.6 62.4 65.1 104.0 140.2 202.0 173.5 170.2 181.8 172.7 166.0 1,628

Percent possible sunshine 35 22 17 17 26 35 49 43 46 51 52 50 36.9

Source: China
China
Meteorological Administration,[110] all-time extreme temperature[108]

Administrative divisions[edit] Main article: List of administrative divisions of Guangzhou Guangzhou
Guangzhou
is a sub-provincial city. It has direct jurisdiction over eleven districts:

Liwan Yuexiu Haizhu Tianhe Baiyun Huangpu Panyu Huadu Nansha Conghua Zengcheng

Administrative divisions of Guangzhou

Division code[111] Division Area (km2)[112] Population (2010)[113] Seat Postal code Subdivisions[114]

Subdistricts Towns Residential communities Administrative villages

440100 Guangzhou 7,434.40 12,701,948 Yuexiu 510000 136 34 1533 1142

440103 Liwan 59.10 898,200 Shiweitang Subdistrict 510000 22   195  

440104 Yuexiu 33.80 1,157,666 Beijing
Beijing
Subdistrict 510000 18   267  

440105 Haizhu 90.40 1,558,663 Jianghai Subdistrict 510000 18   257  

440106 Tianhe 96.33 1,432,426 Tianyuan Subdistrict 510000 21   205  

440111 Baiyun 795.79 2,223,150 Jingtai Subdistrict 510000 18 4 253 118

440112 Huangpu 484.17 831,586 Luogang Subdistrict 510500 14 1 90 28

440113 Panyu 529.94 1,764,828 Shiqiao Subdistrict 511400 11 5 87 177

440114 Huadu 970.04 945,005 Huacheng Subdistrict 510800 4 6 50 188

440115 Nansha 783.86 259,900 Huangge
Huangge
Town 511400 3 6 28 128

440117 Conghua 1,974.50 593,415 Jiekou Subdistrict 510900 3 5 46 221

440118 Zengcheng 1,616.47 1,037,109 Licheng Subdistrict 511300 4 7 55 282

Administrative divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations

English Chinese Pinyin Guangdong Romanization Kejiahua Pinyin
Pinyin
Fang'an

Liwan District 荔湾区 Lìwān Qū lei6 wan1 kêu1 lai4 van1 ki1

Yuexiu District 越秀区 Yuèxiù Qū yud6 seo3 kêu1 yet6 siu4 ki1

Haizhu District 海珠区 Hǎizhū Qū hoi2 ju1 kêu1 hoi2 zu1 ki1

Tianhe District 天河区 Tiānhé Qū tin6 ho4 kêu1 tien1 ho2 ki1

Baiyun District 白云区 Báiyún Qū bak6 wan4 kêu1 pak6 yun2 ki1

Huangpu District 黄埔区 Huángpǔ Qū wong4 bou3 kêu1 vong2 bu4 ki1

Panyu District 番禺区 Pānyú Qū pun1 yu4 kêu1 pan1 ngi2 ki1

Huadu District 花都区 Huādū Qū fa1 dou1 kêu1 fa1 du1 ki1

Nansha District 南沙区 Nánshā Qū nam4 sa1 kêu1 nam2/lam2 sa1 ki1

Conghua
Conghua
District 从化区 Cónghuà Qū cung4 fa3 kêu1 vung2 fa3 ki1

Zengcheng
Zengcheng
District 增城区 Zēngchéng Qū zeng1 xing4 kêu1 zen1 sang2 ki1

Guangzhou
Guangzhou
City 广州市 Guǎngzhōu Shì guong2 zeo1 xi5 kong3 ziu1 si4

Economy[edit]

The first Canton Fair
Canton Fair
(1957) at the Sino-Soviet Friendship Building

Guangzhou
Guangzhou
is the main manufacturing hub of the Pearl River Delta, one of mainland China's leading commercial and manufacturing regions. In 2013, the GDP reached ¥1542 billion (US$248 billion), per capita was ¥120,515 (US $19,459).[115] Guangzhou
Guangzhou
is considered one of the most prosperous cities in China. But due to rapid industrialisation, it is also considered one of the most polluted cities. The Canton Fair, formally the " China
China
Import and Export Fair", is held every year in April and October by the Ministry of Trade. Inaugurated in the spring of 1957, the fair is a major event for the city. It is the trade fair with the longest history, highest level, largest scale in China.[116] From the 104th session onwards, the fair moved to the new Guangzhou
Guangzhou
International Convention and Exhibition Center (广州国际会展中心) in Pazhou, from the older complex in Liuhua. The GICEC is served by two stations on Metro Line 8. Since the 104th session, the Canton Fair
Canton Fair
has been arranged in three phases instead of two phases. Guangzhou
Guangzhou
is one the largest hubs of China's illegal drug trade.[117]

Guangzhou
Guangzhou
skyline

The former Canton Fair
Canton Fair
site at Yuexiu's Liuhua Complex

Interior of the current Canton Fair
Canton Fair
site in Pazhou

Local products[edit]

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Cantonese
Cantonese
is one of China's most famous and popular regional cuisines, with a saying stating simply to "Eat in Guangzhou" (食在广州)[n 8] Cantonese
Cantonese
sculpture includes work in jade, wood, and (now controversially) ivory. Canton porcelain
Canton porcelain
developed over the past three centuries as one of the major forms of exportware. It is now known within China
China
for its highly colorful style. Cantonese
Cantonese
embroidery is one of China's four main styles of the art and is represented in Guangzhou, although its principal centre is at Chaozhou. Zhujiang Beer, a pale lager, is one of China's most successful brands. It is made in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
from water piped directly to the brewery from a natural spring.

Industry[edit] Guangzhou Peugeot Automobile Company
Guangzhou Peugeot Automobile Company
produced the Peugeot 504
Peugeot 504
and Peugeot 505
Peugeot 505
automobiles from 1989 to 1997.

Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Economic and Technological Development Zone Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Nansha Export Processing Zone

The Export Processing Zone was founded in 2005. Its total planned area is 1.36 km2 (0.53 sq mi).[118] It is located in Nansha District and it belongs to the provincial capital, Guangzhou. The major industries encouraged in the zone include automobile assembly, biotechnology and heavy industry. It is situated 54 kilometres (34 miles) (70 minutes drive) south of Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Baiyun International Airport and close to Nansha Port. It also has the advantage of Guangzhou Metro
Guangzhou Metro
line 4 which is being extended to Nansha Ferry Terminal.

Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Free Trade Zone

The zone was founded in 1992. It is located in the east of Huangpu District and near to Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Economic and Technological Development Zone. It is also very close to Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Baiyun Airport.[119] The major industries encouraged in the zone include international trade, logistics, processing and computer software. Science City[edit]

Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Science City

Malls and pedestrian streets[edit]

Shangxiajiu
Shangxiajiu
Pedestrian Street

101 Dynamics Beijing
Beijing
Road China
China
Plaza Jiangnanxi Liwan Plaza Shangxiajiu Teem Plaza Victory Plaza Wanguo Plaza Zhengjia Square (Grandview Mall Aquarium) Wanda square Happy Valley (Guangzhou) TaiKoo Hui Parc Central OneLinkWalk Rock Square Aeon Mall GT Land Plaza

Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1950[120] 2,567,645 —    

1960[120] 3,683,104 +43.4%

1970[120] 4,185,363 +13.6%

1980[120] 5,018,638 +19.9%

1990[120] 5,942,534 +18.4%

2000[120] 9,943,000 +67.3%

2002[121] 10,106,229 +1.6%

2005[122] 9,496,800 −6.0%

2006[122] 9,966,600 +4.9%

2007[122] 10,530,100 +5.7%

2008[122] 11,153,400 +5.9%

2009[122] 11,869,700 +6.4%

2010[120] 12,701,948 +7.0%

2011[123] 12,751,400 +0.4%

2012[123] 12,832,900 +0.6%

2013[123] 12,926,800 +0.7%

2014[123] 13,080,500 +1.2%

Population size may be affected by changes to administrative divisions.

The 2010 census found Guangzhou's population to be 12.78 million. As of 2014[update], it was estimated at 13,080,500,[2][123] with 11,264,800 urban residents.[3] Its population density is thus around 1,800 people per km2. The built-up area of the Guangzhou
Guangzhou
proper connects directly to several other cities. The built-up area of the Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
Economic Zone covers around 17,573 square kilometres (6,785 sq mi) and has been estimated to house 22 million people, including Guangzhou's nine urban districts, Shenzhen
Shenzhen
(5.36m), Dongguan
Dongguan
(3.22m), Zhongshan
Zhongshan
(3.12m), most of Foshan
Foshan
(2.2m), Jiangmen (1.82m), Zhuhai
Zhuhai
(890k), and Huizhou's Huiyang District (760k).[citation needed] The total population of this agglomeration is over 28 million after including the population of the adjacent Hong Kong Special
Special
Administrative Region.[citation needed] The area's fast-growing economy and high demand for labour has produced a huge "floating population" of migrant workers. Up to 10 million migrants reside in the area least six months each year.[citation needed] In 2008, about 5 million of Guangzhou's permanent residents were hukouless migrants.[124] Ethnicity[edit] Most of Guangzhou's population is Han Chinese. Almost all of the local Cantonese
Cantonese
people speak Cantonese
Cantonese
as their first language,[126] while most migrants speak forms of Mandarin.[124] In 2010, each language was the native tongue of roughly half of the city's population,[127] although minor but substantial numbers speak other varieties as well. As with elsewhere in the People's Republic of China, the household registration system (hukou) limits migrants' access to residences, educational institutions and other public benefits. In May 2014, legally employed migrants in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
were permitted to receive a hukou card allowing them to marry and obtain permission for their pregnancies in the city, rather than having to return to their official hometowns as previously.[128] Historically, the Cantonese
Cantonese
people have made up a sizeable part of the 19th- and 20th-century Chinese diaspora
Chinese diaspora
and many overseas Chinese have ties to Guangzhou. This is particularly true in the United States,[129] Canada,[130] and Australia. Demographically, the only significant immigration into China
China
has been by overseas Chinese, but Guangzhou
Guangzhou
sees many foreign tourists, workers, and residents from the usual locations such as the United States. Notably, it is also home to thousands of African immigrants, including people from Nigeria, Angola
Angola
and the Democratic Republic of Congo.[14] Metropolitan area[edit] The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as of 2010[update], a population of 25 million.[131][4]

Transportation[edit]

Map of the Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Metro

Urban mass transit[edit] Main article: Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Metro When the first line of the Guangzhou Metro
Guangzhou Metro
opened in 1997, Guangzhou was the fourth city in Mainland China
China
to have an underground railway system, behind Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai. Currently the metro network is made up of thirteen lines, covering a total length of 390.7 km (242.8 mi).[132] A long-term plan is to make the city's metro system expand to over 500 km (310 mi) by 2020 with 15 lines in operation. In addition to the metro system there is also the Haizhu Tram
Haizhu Tram
line which opened on 31 December 2014.[133] The Guangzhou Bus Rapid Transit
Guangzhou Bus Rapid Transit
(GBRT) system which was introduced in 2010 along Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Road. It has several connections to the metro and is the world's 2nd-largest Bus Rapid Transit
Bus Rapid Transit
system with 1,000,000 passenger trips daily.[134] It handles 26,900 pphpd during the peak hour a capacity second only to the TransMilenio
TransMilenio
BRT system in Bogota.[135] The system averages 1 bus every 10 seconds or 350 per hour in a single direction and contains the world's longest BRT stations—around 260 m (850 ft) including bridges. Motor transport[edit] See also: List of Bus Routes in Guangzhou In the 19th century, city already boasted over 600 long, straight streets; these were mostly paved but still very narrow.[33] In June 1919, work began on demolishing the city wall to make way for wider streets and the development of tramways. The demolition took three years in total.[136] In 2009, it was reported that all 9,424 buses and 17,695 taxis in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
would be operating on LPG-fuel by 2010 to promote clean energy for transport and improve the environment ahead of the 2010 Asian Games
Asian Games
which were held in the city.[137] At present[when?], Guangzhou
Guangzhou
is the city that uses the most LPG-fueled vehicles in the world, and at the end of 2006, 6,500 buses and 16,000 taxis were using LPG, taking up 85 percent of all buses and taxis.[citation needed] Effective January 1, 2007, the municipal government banned motorcycles in Guangdong's urban areas. Motorcycles found violating the ban are confiscated.[138] The Guangzhou
Guangzhou
traffic bureau claimed to have reported reduced traffic problems and accidents in the downtown area since the ban.[139] Airports[edit] Guangzhou's main airport is the Baiyun International Airport in Baiyun District; it opened on August 5, 2004.[140] This airport is the second busiest airport in terms of traffic movements in China. It replaced the old Baiyun International Airport, which was very close to the city centre but failed to meet the city's fast-growing air traffic demand. The old Baiyun International Airport was in operation for 72 years. Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport
Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport
now has three runways, with two more planned.[141] The Terminal 2 is under construction and will open in 2018.[142] Railways[edit] Further information: Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Station, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
East Station, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
South Station, and Guangzhou
Guangzhou
North Station Guangzhou
Guangzhou
is the terminus of the Beijing–Guangzhou, Guangzhou–Shenzhen, Guangzhou– Maoming
Maoming
and Guangzhou–Meizhou– Shantou
Shantou
conventional speed railways. In late 2009, the Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway
Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway
started service, with multiple unit trains covering 980 km (608.94 mi) at a top speed of 320 km/h (199 mph). In December 2014, the Guiyang–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway
Guiyang–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway
and Nanning- Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Railway began service with trains running at top speeds of 250 km/h (155 mph) and 200 km/h (124 mph), respectively.[143] The Guangdong
Guangdong
Through Train departs from the Guangzhou
Guangzhou
East railway station and arrives at the Hung Hom KCR station in Kowloon, Hong Kong. The route is approximately 182 km (113 mi) in length and the ride takes less than two hours. Frequent coach services are also provided with coaches departing every day from different locations (mostly major hotels) around the city. A number of regional railways radiating from Guangzhou
Guangzhou
started operating such as the Guangzhou– Zhuhai
Zhuhai
Intercity Railway and the Guangzhou-Zhaoqing Intercity Railway. Water transport[edit] There are daily high-speed catamaran services between Nansha Ferry Terminal and Lianhua Shan Ferry Terminal in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
and the Hong Kong China
China
Ferry Terminal, as well as between Nansha Ferry Terminal and Macau
Macau
Ferry Pier in Hong Kong.

Gongyuanqian Station
Gongyuanqian Station
of the Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Metro

Tianhe Sports Centre Station (GBRT)

Baiyun International Airport in Huadu District

A CRH3 Train at Guangzhou
Guangzhou
South Railway Station

Culture[edit]

Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Opera House

Within China, the culture of the Cantonese
Cantonese
people is a subset of the larger "Southern" or "Lingnan" cultural areas. Notable aspects of Guangzhou's cultural heritage include:

Cantonese
Cantonese
language, the local and prestige variant of Yue Chinese Cantonese
Cantonese
cuisine, one of China's eight major culinary traditions[144][n 9] Cantonese
Cantonese
opera, usually divided into martial and literary performances Xiguan, the area west of the former walled city

The Guangzhou Opera House
Guangzhou Opera House
& Symphony Orchestra also perform classical Western music and Chinese compositions in their style. Cantonese
Cantonese
music is a traditional style of Chinese instrumental music, while Cantopop
Cantopop
is the local form of pop music and rock-and-roll which developed from neighbouring Hong Kong. Religions[edit] Qing-era Guangzhou
Guangzhou
had around 124 religious pavilions, halls, and temples.[33] Today, in addition to the Buddhist Association, Guangzhou also has a Taoist Association, a Jewish community,[146][147] and a history with Christianity and Islam.[clarification needed] Daoism[edit] Daoism
Daoism
and Chinese folk religion
Chinese folk religion
are still represented at a few of the city's temples. Among the most important is the Temple of the Five Immortals, honoring the five immortals credited with introducing rice cultivation at the foundation of the city. The five rams they rode were supposed to have turned into stones upon their departure and gave the city several of its nicknames.[148] Another place of worship is the City God Temple. Guangzhou, like most of southern China, is also notably observant concerning ancestral veneration during occasions like the Tomb Sweeping and Ghost Festivals. Buddhism[edit] Buddhism is the most prominent religion in Guangzhou.[149] The Zhizhi Temple was founded in AD 233 from the estate of a Wu official; it is said to comprise the residence of Zhao Jiande, the last of the Nanyue
Nanyue
kings, and has been known as the Guangxiao Temple ("Temple of Bright Filial Piety") since the Ming. The missionary Bodhidharma
Bodhidharma
is traditionally said to have visited Panyu during the Liu Song or Liang dynasties (5th or 6th century). Around AD 520, Emperor Wu of the Liang ordered the construction of the Baozhuangyan Temple and the Xilai Monastery to store the relics of Cambodian Buddhist saints which had been brought to the city and to house the monks beginning to assemble there. The Baozhuangyan is now known as the Temple of the Six Banyan Trees, after a famous poem composed by Su Shi
Su Shi
after a visit during the Northern Song.[150] The Xilai Monastery was renamed the Hualin Temple
Hualin Temple
("Flowery Forest Temple") after its reconstruction during the Qing. The temples were damaged by both the Republican campaign to "Promote Education with Temple Property" (廟產興學) and the Maoist Cultural Revolution but have been renovated since the opening up that began in the 1980s. The Ocean Banner Temple
Ocean Banner Temple
on Henan
Henan
Island, once famous in the west as the only tourist spot in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
accessible to foreigners, has been reopened as the Hoi Tong Monastery. Christianity[edit] Nestorian Christians first arrived in China
China
via the overland Silk Road, but suffered during Emperor Wuzong's 845 persecution and were essentially extinct by the year 1000.[151] The Qing-era ban on foreigners limited missionaries until it was abolished following the First Opium War, although the Protestant Robert Morrison was able to perform some work through his service with the British factory. The Catholic archdiocese is housed at Guangzhou's Sacred Heart Cathedral, known locally as the "Stone House". A Gothic Revival edifice which was built by hand from 1861 to 1888 under French direction, its original Latin and French stained-glass windows were destroyed during the wars and amid the Cultural Revolution; they have since been replaced by English ones. The Canton Christian College (1888) and Hackett Medical College for Women (1902) were both founded by missionaries and now form part of Guangzhou's Lingnan. Since the opening up of China
China
in the 1980s, there has been renewed interest in Christianity, but Guangzhou maintains pressure on underground churches which avoid registration with government officials.[152] The Catholic archbishop Dominic Tang was imprisoned without trial for 22 years, but his present successor is recognised by both the Vatican and China's Patriotic Church. Islam[edit] Guangzhou
Guangzhou
has had a Muslim community since very early in the history of Islam; the native or nativised adherents of the faith are known as the Hui. Huaisheng Mosque
Huaisheng Mosque
was probably built during the Tang Dynasty.[153] Muslims sacked the city in 758[44][45][46][47] and were massacred by the Chinese rebel Huang Chao
Huang Chao
in 878, along with the Jews, Christians,[48][49][50] and Parsis.[51][52] The modern city includes numerous halal restaurants.[154]

Guangzhou's Temple of the Five Immortals

The Hall of the 500 Arhats at the Flowery Forest Temple
Flowery Forest Temple
(Hualin) in the 1870s

The Temple of Bright Filial Piety (Guangxiao)

Guangzhou's City God Temple

The sacred pigs of the Ocean Banner Temple
Ocean Banner Temple
(Haichuan/Hoi Tong) in the 1830s

The Flower Pagoda
Flower Pagoda
at the Temple of the Six Banyan Trees
Temple of the Six Banyan Trees
(Liurong)

The Thousand Buddha Tower at the present-day Hoi Tong Monastery

Sacred Heart Cathedral

Huaisheng Mosque
Huaisheng Mosque
and its "Plain Pagoda" minaret in 1860

Sport[edit]

Guangdong
Guangdong
Olympic Stadium

Tianhe Stadium
Tianhe Stadium
is the home of Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Evergrande

The 18,000 seat Guangzhou International Sports Arena
Guangzhou International Sports Arena
will be one of the venues for the 2019 FIBA Basketball
Basketball
World Cup.[155] From 12–27 November 2010, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
hosted the 16th Asian Games. The same year, it hosted the first Asian Para Games from December 12 to 19. Combined, these were the largest sporting events the city ever hosted.[156] Guangzhou
Guangzhou
also hosted the following major sporting events:

1987 The 6th National Games of China 1991 The 1st FIFA Women's World Cup 2001 The 2001 National Games of China 2007 The 8th National Traditional Games of Ethnic Minorities of the People's Republic of China 2008 The 49th World Table Tennis Championships 2009 The 11th Sudirman Cup: the world badminton mixed team championships

Current professional sports clubs based in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
include:

Sport League Tier Club Stadium

Football Chinese Super League 1st Guangzhou Evergrande
Guangzhou Evergrande
Taobao Tianhe Stadium

Football Chinese Super League 1st Guangzhou
Guangzhou
R&F Yuexiushan Stadium

Football Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Premier League 1st R&F Yanzigang Stadium

Basketball Chinese Basketball
Basketball
Association 1st Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Long-Lions Tianhe Gymnasium

Baseball China
China
Baseball
Baseball
League 1st Guangdong
Guangdong
Leopards Tianhe Sports Center baseball field

Guangzhou Evergrande
Guangzhou Evergrande
Taobao F.C. has risen in recent years to be a powerhouse in association football in China, having won seven consecutive national titles between 2011 and 2017. The team also won the AFC Champions League
AFC Champions League
in 2013 and 2015. The club competed in the 2013 and 2015 FIFA Club World Cup, where it lost 3–0 in the semi-final stage to the 2012–13 UEFA Champions League
2012–13 UEFA Champions League
winners FC Bayern Munich and 2014–15 UEFA Champions League
2014–15 UEFA Champions League
winners FC Barcelona respectively.[157] Destinations[edit] Eight Views[edit] Main articles: Eight Views and Eight Views of Guangzhou

Canton Tower[158]

The Eight Views of Ram City are Guangzhou's eight most famous tourist attractions. They have varied over time since the Song dynasty, with some being named or demoted by emperors. The following modern list was chosen through public appraisal in 2011:[citation needed]

"Towers Shining through the New Town" "The Pearl River Flowing and Shining": The Pearl River from Bai'etan to Pazhou "Cloudy Mountain Green and Tidy": Baiyun Mountain
Baiyun Mountain
Scenic Area "Yuexiu's Grandeur": Yuexiu Hill
Yuexiu Hill
and Park "The Ancient Academy's Lingering Fame": The Chen Clan Ancestral Hall and its folk art museum "Liwan's Wonderful Scenery": Liwan Lake "Science City, Splendid as Brocade" "Wetlands Singing at Night": Nansha Wetlands Park

The Pearl River at Haiyin Bridge

Zhujiang New City
Zhujiang New City
from Pakwan or Baiyun Mountain

A brick carving at the Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Folk Art Museum, housed in the Chen Clan Ancestral Hall

Bombax ceiba, Guangzhou's official flower

Parks and gardens[edit]

Baiyun Mountain Nansha Wetland Park People's Park South China
China
Botanical Garden Yuexiu Park Dongshanhu Park (东山湖公园) Liuhuahu Park (流花湖公园) Liwanhu Park (荔湾湖公园) Luhu Park (麓湖公园) Martyrs' Park (广州起义烈士陵园) Pearl River Park (珠江公园) Yuntai Garden (云台花园)

Tourist attractions[edit] Guangzhou
Guangzhou
attracts more than 100 million visitors each year.[159] There are many tourist attractions, including:

Canton Tower Chen Clan Ancestral Hall, housing Guangzhou's folk art museum Chime-Long Paradise Chime-Long Waterpark (长隆水上乐园) Guangdong
Guangdong
Provincial Museum Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Zoo Huaisheng Mosque, site of the Plain Pagoda Museum of the Mausoleum of the Nanyue
Nanyue
King Peasant Movement Training Institute, an important Maoist site Sacred Heart Cathedral or Stone House Temple of Bright Filial Piety (Guangxiao) Temple of the Six Banyan Trees
Temple of the Six Banyan Trees
(Liurong), site of the Flowery Pagoda Shamian or Shameen Island, the old trading compound Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Memorial Hall, site of Guangzhou's former presidential palace Xiguan, the western suburbs of the old city

Modern Guangzhou
Guangzhou
by day

Modern Guangzhou
Guangzhou
at night

Major buildings[edit] Main article: List of tallest buildings in Guangzhou See also: List of historic buildings in Guangzhou

CITIC Plaza Canton Tower Guangzhou Circle
Guangzhou Circle
Mansion Guangdong
Guangdong
Olympic Stadium Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Opera House Guangzhou
Guangzhou
TV Tower Pearl River Tower The Twin Towers:

International Finance Centre (West) The CTF Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(East)

Canton Custom House (est. 1916), one of the oldest surviving in China

Aiqun Hotel, Guangzhou's tallest building from 1937 to 1967

Our Lady of Lourdes Chapel on Shamian

The Canton Cement Factory (est. 1907), which housed Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
from 1923 to 1925

The old provincial capitol, now the Museum of Revolutionary History

Guangzhou's CBD, including the IFC (right)

Media[edit] Guangzhou
Guangzhou
has two local radio stations: the provincial Radio Guangdong and the municipal Radio Guangzhou. Together they broadcast in more than a dozen channels. The primary language of both stations is Cantonese. Traditionally only one channel of Radio Guangdong
Guangdong
is dedicated to Mandarin Chinese. However, in recent years there has been an increase in Mandarin programmes on most Cantonese
Cantonese
channels. Radio stations from cities around Guangzhou
Guangzhou
mainly broadcast in Cantonese and can be received in different parts of the city, depending on the radio stations' locations and transmission power. The Beijing-based China
China
National Radio also broadcasts Mandarin programmes in the city. Radio Guangdong
Guangdong
has a 30-minute weekly English programme, Guangdong Today, which is broadcast globally through the World Radio Network. Daily English news programmes are also broadcast by Radio Guangdong. Guangzhou
Guangzhou
has some of the best Chinese-language newspapers and magazines in mainland China, most of which are published by three major newspaper groups in the city, the Guangzhou Daily
Guangzhou Daily
Press Group, Nanfang Press Corporation, and the Yangcheng Evening News Group. The two leading newspapers of the city are Guangzhou Daily
Guangzhou Daily
and Southern Metropolis Daily. The former, with a circulation of 1.8 million, has been China's most successful newspaper for 14 years in terms of advertising revenue, while Southern Metropolis Daily
Southern Metropolis Daily
is considered one of the most liberal newspapers in mainland China. In addition to Guangzhou's Chinese-language publications, there are a few English magazines and newspapers. The most successful is That's Guangzhou, which started more than a decade ago and has since blossomed into That's PRD, producing expatriate magazines in Beijing
Beijing
and Shanghai
Shanghai
as well. It also produces In the Red.

Education[edit]

Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
University main gate

The College of Medical Science at Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
University

Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Library

The Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Higher Education Mega Centre, also known as Guangzhou University Town (广州大学城), is a large tertiary education complex located in the southeast suburbs of Guangzhou. It occupies the entirety of Xiaoguwei
Xiaoguwei
Island in Panyu District, covering an area of about 18 square kilometres (7 sq mi). The complex accommodates campuses from ten higher education institutions and can eventually accommodate up to 200,000 students, 20,000 teachers, and 50,000 staff.[160] The Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Higher Education Mega Centre higher education campuses:

Guangdong
Guangdong
Pharmaceutical University Guangdong
Guangdong
University of Foreign Studies Guangdong
Guangdong
University of Technology Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Academy of Fine Arts Guangzhou
Guangzhou
University Guangzhou University
Guangzhou University
of Chinese Medicine South China
China
Normal University South China
China
University of Technology Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
University Xinghai Conservatory of Music

Guangzhou's other fully accredited and degree-granting universities and colleges include:

Guangdong
Guangdong
Institute of Science and Technology Guangdong
Guangdong
Polytechnic Normal University Guangdong
Guangdong
University of Finance & Economics Guangdong
Guangdong
University of Finance Guangzhou
Guangzhou
College of South China
China
University of Technology Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Medical University Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Sports University Jinan
Jinan
University South China
China
Agricultural University Southern Medical University Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering

The two main comprehensive libraries are Guangzhou Library
Guangzhou Library
and Sun Yat-sen Library of Guangdong
Guangdong
Province. Guangzhou Library
Guangzhou Library
is a public library in Guangzhou. The library has moved to a new building in Zhujiang New Town, which fully opened on 23 June 2013.[161] Sun Yat-sen Library of Guangdong
Guangdong
Province has the largest collection of ancient books in Southern China.[162] International relations[edit]

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See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in China Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Guangzhou
Guangzhou
currently maintains sister city agreements with the following foreign cities.[163][164]

Fukuoka, Japan
Japan
(since 1979) Los Angeles, United States
United States
(since 1981) Manila, Philippines
Philippines
(since 1982) Vancouver, Canada
Canada
(since 1985) Sydney, Australia
Australia
(since 1986) Bari, Italy
Italy
(since 1986) Lyon, France
France
(since 1988) Frankfurt, Germany
Germany
(since 1988) Auckland, New Zealand
New Zealand
(since 1989) Gwangju, South Korea
South Korea
(since 1996) Linköping, Sweden
Sweden
(since 1997) Durban, South Africa
Africa
(since 2000) Bristol, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(since 2001) Yekaterinburg, Russia
Russia
(since 2002) Arequipa, Peru
Peru
(since 2004) Surabaya, Indonesia
Indonesia
(since 2005) Vilnius, Lithuania
Lithuania
(since 2006) Birmingham, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(since 2006) Hambantota, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(since 2007) Recife, Brazil
Brazil
(since 2007) Tampere, Finland
Finland
(since 2008) Bangkok, Thailand
Thailand
(since 2009) Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia
Malaysia
(since 2011) Petaling Jaya, Malaysia
Malaysia
(since 2012) Rabat, Morocco
Morocco
(since 2013) Ahmedabad, India
India
(since 2014) Łódź, Poland
Poland
(since 2014) Ecatepec, Mexico
Mexico
(since 2016)[165][166][167][168] Genoa, Italy
Italy
(since 2016)

See also[edit]

China
China
portal

Canton System
Canton System
and Old China
China
Trade World's largest cities Historical capitals of China

Notes[edit]

^ Given in contemporary sources as the "Guisi Day" (癸巳) of the 9th lunar month of the first year of the Qianyuan Era under Emperor Suzong of the Tang. ^ The term "Persian" may, however, have been loosely applied and referred indifferently to any similar-looking foreign women.[55] ^ "Buying and selling of children was scarcely unknown in Ming China, but the large new demands of the Portuguese may have stimulated kidnappings from good families..."[67] ^ "Some early Chinese historians go even so far as to give vivid details of the price paid for the children and how they were roasted."[72] ^ "On the day of St Nicholas [6 Dec.] in the year 1522 they put boards on them with the sentence that they should die and be exposed in pillories as robbers. The sentences said: 'Petty sea robbers sent by the great robber falsely; they come to spy out our country; let them die in pillories as robbers.' A report was sent to the king according to the information of the mandarins, and the king confirmed the sentence. On 23 Sept. 1523 these twenty-three persons were each one cut in pieces, to wit, heads, legs, arms, and their private members placed in their mouths, the trunk of the body being divided into two pieces round the belly. In the streets of Canton, outside the walls, in the suburbs, through the principal streets they were put to death, at distances of one crossbow shot from one another, that all might see them, both those of Canton and those of the environs, in order to give them to understand that they thought nothing of the Portuguese, so that the people might not talk of the Portuguese. Thus... they were all killed, and their heads and private members were carried on the backs of the Portuguese in front of the mandarins of Canton with the playing of musical instruments and rejoicing, were exhibited suspended in the streets, and were then thrown into the dunghills. And from henceforth it was resolved not to allow any more Portuguese into the country nor other strangers."[78] ^ The Shaowu
Shaowu
Emperor's remains are buried in Yuexiu Park. ^ In fact, the Danish Asiatic Company was formally chartered in April 1732 while this first ship, the Cron-Printz Christian, was on its return trip.[88] Counting the Cron-Printz Christian, up to 1833, the DAC dispatched 130 ships to Guangzhou, losing five. The average voyage from Copenhagen
Copenhagen
took 216 days and the voyage back, 192.[85] ^ The statement is an excerpt from the longer proverb "Be born in Suzhou, play in Hangzhou, eat in Guangzhou, and die in Liuzhou" (生在苏州,玩在杭州,食在广州,死在柳州). ^ The other seven are the cuisines of Anhui, Fujian, Hunan, Jiangsu, Shandong, Sichuan
Sichuan
and Zhejiang.[145]

References[edit] Citations[edit]

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Cuisine. Beautyfujian.com Archived 2011-07-10 at the Wayback Machine.. Accessed June 2011. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 April 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2011.  ^ "Viii. Appendix Ii". China.hrw.org. December 28, 1997. Archived from the original on October 3, 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.  ^ Glancey, Jonathan (2006), Paula Regan; Debra Wolter; Louise Dick, eds., Architecture, Eyewitness Companions, Attleborough: CobaltId for Dorling Kindersley, p. 177, ISBN 978-0-7566-1732-5  ^ "Six Banyan Trees Temple – Famous Buddhist temple of Guangzhou". Excelguangzhou.com. Archived from the original on 2011-07-29. Retrieved 2011-08-28.  ^ "Temple of the Six Banyan Trees", Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Attractions, Top China Travel, 2004  ^ Keung. Ching Feng. p. 235.  ^ "CHINA Beijing
Beijing
and Guangzhou
Guangzhou
attack underground Churches – Asia News". Asianews.it. Archived from the original on 2011-06-12. Retrieved 2011-08-28.  ^ Lipman, Jonathan Neaman (1997). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. University of Washington Press. p. 29. ISBN 962-209-468-6.  ^ "Charaktereigenschaften der Guangzhouer – Guangzhou
Guangzhou
– Deutschabteilung Der SYSU". Fls.sysu.edu.cn. 9 October 2007. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2011.  ^ The Official website of the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup
2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup
Archived 2017-05-27 at the Wayback Machine., FIBA.com, Retrieved 9 March 2016. ^ " Guangzhou
Guangzhou
wins Asiad bid". News Guangdong. July 2, 2004. Archived from the original on November 27, 2010. Retrieved June 30, 2010.  ^ "Bayern Munich's Franck Ribéry leads rout of Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Evergrande". The Guardian. December 18, 2013. Archived from the original on December 18, 2013.  ^ "GZ's New Television Tower Named Canton Tower". 30 September 2010. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 5 October 2010.  ^ "广州去年旅游业收入突破2500亿元". Feb 12, 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-10-21. Retrieved 2016-01-21.  ^ "Mega Campus goes Wireless" (PDF). Intel Corporation. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.  ^ "New Guangzhou Library
Guangzhou Library
Opens". Guangzhou
Guangzhou
International. 2013-06-25. Archived from the original on 2013-07-06. The brand-new Guangzhou Library officially opened on June 23 after six months of trial service.  ^ "Rare Collections". Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Library of Guangdong
Guangdong
Province. Archived from the original on 2018-01-18. Retrieved 2018-01-18.  ^ "Sister Cities of Guangzhou". Archived from the original on 20 October 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2015.  ^ " Guangzhou
Guangzhou
and Rabat
Rabat
sign sister city agreement". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2015.  ^ "Gestiona Ecatepec
Ecatepec
oportunidades para intercambios estudiantiles con Guangzhou, China". Archived from the original on 2016-03-23.  ^ "Relación México-Estados Unidos necesita puentes para construir paz, respeto y reconocimiento, no muros: EAV". Archived from the original on 2017-09-05.  ^ "Viajarán a China
China
alumnos de Ecatepec". Archived from the original on 2016-04-11.  ^ "Gestiona Ecatepec
Ecatepec
oportunidades para Intercambios estudiantiles con Guangzhou, China". Archived from the original on 2017-09-05. 

Bibliography[edit]

An Anglochinese Calendar for the Year 1845, Corresponding to the Year of the Chinese Cycle Æra 4482 or the 42d Year of the 75th Cycle of Sixty, being the 25th Year of the Reign of Ta'ukwa'ng, Vol. II, Hong Kong: Office of the Chinese Repository .  Douglass, Robert Kennaway (1878), "Canton (1.)", in Baynes, T.S., Encyclopædia Britannica, 5 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, pp. 37–9   Douglass, Robert Kennaway (1911), "Canton (China)", in Chisholm, Hugh, Encyclopædia Britannica, 5 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 218–220  Kuo, Ping-chia, "Guangzhou", Encyclopædia Britannica, online ed., Encyclopædia Britannica, retrieved 15 July 2016 . Ring, Trudy; Salkin, Robert M.; La Boda, Sharon, eds. (1996), International Dictionary of Historic Places, Vol. V: Asia and Oceania, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 1-884964-04-4 . "Guangzhou", Time Out: Hong Kong, London: Time Out Guides, 2011, pp. 284–300, ISBN 978-1-84670-114-6 . Bulletins and Other State Intelligence, Westminster: F. Watts, 1841 . Beck, Sanderson (2007), Republican China
China
in Turmoil 1912–1926  Bretschneider, E. (1871), On the Knowledge Possessed by the Ancient Chinese of the Arabs and Arabian Colonies: And Other Western Countries, Mentioned in Chinese Books  Butel, Paul (1997), Européens et Espaces Maritimes: vers 1690-vers 1790, Par Cours Universitaires (in French), Bordeaux: Bordeaux University Press  Cortesao, Armando, ed. (1944), Suma Oriental of Tome Pires, an Account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, Written in Malacca and India in 1512–1515, New Delhi: Asian Educational Services  Douglas, Robert Kennaway (2006), Europe and the Far East, Adamant Media, ISBN 0-543-93972-3  Dunn, Ross E. (1986), The Adventures of Ibn Battuta, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-05771-6  Dutra, Francis A.; Santos, João Camilo dos (1995), Francis A. Dutra; João Camilo dos Santos, eds., Proceedings of the International Colloquium on the Portuguese and the Pacific: University of California, Santa Barbara, October 1993, Santa Barbara: Jorge de Sena Center for Portuguese Studies, University of California, ISBN 0-942208-29-3 . Gray, John Henry (1875), Walks in the City of Canton, Hong Kong: De Souza & Co.  Gunn, Geoffrey, History without Borders: The Making of an Asian World Region, 1000–1800  Kjellberg, Sven T. (1975), Svenska Ostindiska Compagnierna 1731–1813: Kryddor, Te, Porslin, Siden [The Swedish East India Company 1731–1813: Spice, Tea, Porcelain, Silk (in Swedish) (2nd ed.), Malmö: Allhem, ISBN 91-7004-058-3  "Commercial Intercourse with China", Knight's Store of Knowledge for All Readers, London: Charles Knight & Co., 1841, pp. 130–152  Li Kangying (2010), The Ming Maritime Trade Policy in Transition, 1368 to 1567, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz  MacPherson, D. (1842), Two Years in China: Narrative of the Chinese Expedition, from Its Formation in April, 1840, Till April, 1842 : with an Appendix, Containing the Most Important of the General Orders & Despatches Published During the Above Period, London: Saunders & Otley  Von Glahn, Richard (1996), Fountain of Fortune: Money and Monetary Policy in China, 1000–1700, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-20408-5  Wakeman, Frederic, Jr. (1985), The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-Century China, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-04804-0  Wilbur, Clarence Martin (1983), The Nationalist Revolution in China, 1923–1928, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press  Wills, John E., Jr. (1998), "Relations with Maritime Europe, 1514–1662", in Denis Twitchett; John King Fairbank; Albert Feuerwerker, The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 8: The Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644, Pt. 2, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 333–375, ISBN 0-521-24333-5  Wills, John E., Jr.; Cranmer-Byng, John; Witek, John W. (2010), Wills, Jr., John E., ed., China
China
and Maritime Europe, 1500–1800: Trade, Settlement, Diplomacy, and Missions, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-17945-9 . Yü Ying-shih (1987), "Han Foreign Relations", The Cambridge History of China, Vol. I: The Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C.–A.D. 220, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-24327-8 

Further reading[edit] Main article: Bibliography of Guangzhou

The World in Guangzhou: Africans and other foreigners in South China's marketplace. University of Chicago
Chicago
Press. 2017. ISBN 9780226506074.  Gray, Mrs. John Henry (1880), Fourteen Months in Canton, London: William Clowes & Sons for Macmillan & Co., p. 444  Foster, Simon; Lin-Liu, Jen; Pham, Sherisse; Beth Reiber; Sharon Owyang; Lee Wing-sze; Christopher D. Winnan (2010), Frommer's China, Frommer's, pp. 542 ff., ISBN 978-0-470-52658-3  Johnson, Graham E. (1999). Historical Dictionary of Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Canton) and Guangdong. Lanham: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-3516-0.  Lee, Edward Bing-Shuey (1936). Modern Canton. Shanghai: The Mercury Press.  Ng, Yong Sang (1936). Canton, City of the Rams: A General Description and a Brief Historical Survey. Canton: M.S. Cheung. ASIN B0008D1HHO.  Perdue, Peter C. (2009), "Canton Trade", Rise & Fall of the Canton Trade System, Visualizing Cultures, MIT  Shaw, Samuel; Josiah Quincy (1847). The journals of Major Samuel Shaw : the first American consul at Canton : with a life of the author. Boston: Wm. Crosby and H.P. Nichols. Retrieved 2008-04-05.  Vogel, Ezra F. (1969). Canton Under Communism: Programs and Politics in a Provincial Capital, 1949–1968. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-09475-8.  Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Statistical Yearbook 2016

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Guangzhou.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Guangzhou.

Wikisource has several original texts related to: Guangzhou

Guangzhou
Guangzhou
International: Official website of government of Guangzhou municipality Guangzhou, China
China
Network

Preceded by N/A Capital of Nanyue Nanyue 204–111 BC Succeeded by N/A

Preceded by Fengtian Capital of China Republic of China July 1, 1925 – February 21, 1927 Succeeded by Wuhan

Preceded by Taiyuan Capital of China Republic of China May 28, 1931 – December 22, 1931 Succeeded by Chongqing

Preceded by Nanjing Capital of China Republic of China April 23, 1949 – October 14, 1949 Succeeded by Chongqing

Links to related articles

v t e

Guangzhou

Administrative divisions

Yuexiu Liwan Haizhu Tianhe Baiyun Huangpu Huadu Panyu Nansha

New Area Free-Trade Zone

Conghua Zengcheng

Defunct divisions

Dongshan Fangcun Luogang

Attractions

Baiyun Mountain Xiguan

Shamian Island Chen Clan Ancestral Hall Litchi Bay

Guangdong
Guangdong
Museum Temple of the Six Banyan Trees Zhenhai Tower The Memorial Museum of Generalissimo Sun Yat-sen's Mansion Sacred Heart Cathedral Huaisheng Mosque Guangxiao Temple Chigang Pagoda Canton Tower Canton Fair Pazhou
Pazhou
Pagoda Chimelong Paradise Museum of the Western Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
Mausoleum of the Nanyue
Nanyue
King Peasant Movement Institute Shopping malls

Teem Plaza TaiKoo Hui Grandview Mall Happy Valley

CITIC Plaza Whampoa Military Academy Nansha Tianhou Palace Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Opera House Huacheng Square
Huacheng Square
(Zhujiang New Town) Twin Towers

CTF Finance Centre International Finance Center

Haixinsha Island Haizhu Square Dr. Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Memorial Hall South China
China
Botanical Garden People's Park

Culture & demographics

Cantonese
Cantonese
language Cantonese
Cantonese
culture Cantonese
Cantonese
cuisine Cantonese
Cantonese
people Cantonese
Cantonese
opera

Higher Education

Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Higher Education Mega Center Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
University South China
China
University of Technology South China
China
Normal University Jinan
Jinan
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Guangdong
University of Foreign Studies South China
China
Agricultural University Guangdong
Guangdong
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Guangzhou
University Guangzhou University
Guangzhou University
of Chinese Medicine Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Medical University Guangdong
Guangdong
Pharmaceutical University

History

Timeline Bibliography

Sports venues

Guangdong
Guangdong
Provincial People's Stadium Yuexiushan Stadium Tianhe Stadium Guangdong
Guangdong
Olympic Stadium Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Gymnasium Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center
Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center
Central Stadium Guangzhou
Guangzhou
International Sports Arena Yanzigang Stadium Henry Fok Stadium

Transport

Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Baiyun International Airport Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Metro Guangzhou
Guangzhou
BRT Railway stations

Guangzhou
Guangzhou
railway station Guangzhou
Guangzhou
East railway station Guangzhou
Guangzhou
South railway station Guangzhou
Guangzhou
North railway station

Guangzhou- Zhuhai
Zhuhai
Intercity MRT Guangfo Metro Guangzhou
Guangzhou
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Guangzhou
Water Buses Guangzhou
Guangzhou
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Haizhu Tram

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v t e

County-level divisions of Guangdong
Guangdong
Province

Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(capital)

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Guangzhou

Baiyun District Conghua
Conghua
District Haizhu District Huadu District Huangpu District Liwan District Nansha District

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Shaoguan

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Zhuhai

Doumen District Jinwan District Xiangzhou District

Hengqin
Hengqin
New Area Guangdong
Guangdong
Free-Trade Zone

Shantou

Chaonan District Chaoyang District Chenghai District Haojiang District Jinping District Longhu District Nan'ao County

Foshan

Chancheng District Gaoming District Nanhai District Sanshui
Sanshui
District Shunde District

Jiangmen

Jianghai District Pengjiang District Xinhui District Enping
Enping
City Heshan City Kaiping
Kaiping
City Taishan
Taishan
City

Zhanjiang

Chikan District Mazhang District Potou District Xiashan District Leizhou
Leizhou
City Lianjiang City Wuchuan City Suixi County Xuwen County

Maoming

Maonan District Dianbai District Gaozhou
Gaozhou
City Huazhou City Xinyi City

Zhaoqing

Dinghu District Duanzhou District Gaoyao
Gaoyao
District Sihui
Sihui
City Deqing County Fengkai County Guangning County Huaiji County

Huizhou

Huicheng District Huiyang District Boluo County Huidong County Longmen County

Meizhou

Meijiang District Meixian District Xingning City Dabu County Fengshun County Jiaoling County Pingyuan County Wuhua County

Shanwei

Cheng District Lufeng City Haifeng County

Shenshan SC Zone

Luhe County

Heyuan

Yuancheng District Heping County Lianping County Longchuan County Dongyuan County Zijin County

Yangjiang

Jiangcheng District Yangdong District Yangchun
Yangchun
City Yangxi County

Qingyuan

Qingcheng District Qingxin District Lianzhou
Lianzhou
City Yingde
Yingde
City Fogang County Yangshan County Liannan Autonomous County Lianshan Autonomous County

Dongguan

v t e

Dongguan

Subdistricts

Dongcheng Guancheng Nancheng Wanjiang

Towns

Chang'an Changping Chashan Dalang Dalingshan Daojiao Dongkeng Fenggang Gaobu Hengli Hongmei Houjie Huangjiang Humen Liaobu Machong Qiaotou Qingxi Qishi Shatian Shijie Shilong Shipai Tangxia Wangniudun Xiegang Zhangmutou Zhongtang

Zhongshan

v t e

Zhongshan

Subdistricts

Dongqu Nanqu Shiqi Xiqu Wuguishan Zhongshangang

Towns

Banfu Dachong Dongfeng Dongsheng Fusha Gangkou Guzhen Henglan Huangpu Nanlang

Cuiheng
Cuiheng
New Area

Nantou Minzhong Sanjiao Sanxiang Shaxi Shenwan Tanzhou Xiaolan

Chaozhou

Xiangqiao District Chao'an District

Fengxi District

Raoping County

Jieyang

Rongcheng District Jiedong District Puning
Puning
City Huilai County Jiexi County

Yunfu

Yuncheng
Yuncheng
District Yun'an District Luoding
Luoding
City Xinxing County Yunan County

Guangdong
Guangdong
township-level divisions Guangdong
Guangdong
Free-Trade Zone

Category:County-level divisions of Guangdong

v t e

Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
Metropolitan Region (Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area)

Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
Economic Zone

Guangdong
Guangdong
Province

Guangzhou

Panyu Huadu Nansha Zengcheng Conghua

Shenzhen

Bao'an

Zhuhai

Hengqin

Dongguan Zhongshan

Cuiheng

Foshan Jiangmen

Enping Taishan Kaiping Heshan

Huizhou Zhaoqing

Sihui Gaoyao

Special
Special
administrative regions

 Hong Kong

New Territories Kowloon Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Island

 Macau

Macau
Macau
Peninsula Taipa Coloane Cotai

v t e

Major cities along the Pearl River

Cities (from upper reaches to lower reaches)

Major Tributaries

v t e

Bei River

Bei

Nanxiong Shaoguan

Zhenjiang Wujiang Qujiang

Yingde Qingyuan

Qingxin Qingcheng

Foshan

Sanshui waterways with Xi Nanhai Chancheng Sanshui

Guangzhou

Panyu Nansha

merged into the Shiziyang

v t e

Dong River

Dong

Heyuan

Yuancheng

Huizhou

Huicheng

Dongguan Guangzhou

Zengcheng Huangpu

merged into the Shiziyang

v t e

Xi River

Xi

Gui→Li

Guilin

Diecai Qixing Xiufeng Xiangshan Yanshan

Wuzhou

Changzhou Wanxiu

merged into the Xi

Xun

Yong→Yu

Zuo

Chongzuo

Jiangzhou

Nanning

Jiangnan Xixiangtang

merged into the Yong→Yu

You

Baise

Youjiang

Nanning

Xixiangtang

merged into the Yong→Yu

tributaries of Zuo & You Nanning

Jiangnan Xixiangtang Qingxiu Liangqing Yongning

Guigang

Qintang Gangnan Gangbei

Guiping merged into the Xun

Qian

Liu

Long

Hechi

Jinchengjiang

Yizhou merged into the Liu

Rong

Liuzhou

Liubei Liunan Chengzhong Yufeng

merged into the Liu

tributaries of Long & Rong merged into the Qian

Hongshui

Beipan

Xuanwei Liupanshui

Liuzhi

merged into the Hongshui

Nanpan

Qujing

Qilin

merged into the Hongshui

tributaries of Beipan & Nanpan Heshan Laibin

Xingbin

merged into the Qian

tributaries of Liu & Hongshui Guiping merged into the Xun

tributaries of Yong→Yu & Qian Wuzhou

Changzhou Longxu Wanxiu

merged into the Xi

tributaries of Gui→Li & Xun Wuzhou

Wanxiu

Yunfu

Yun'an

Zhaoqing

Gaoyao Duanzhou Dinghu

Foshan

Sanshui waterways with Bei Gaoming Nanhai Shunde

Heshan Jiangmen

Pengjiang waterways with Shiziyang
Shiziyang
& Lingdingyang

Zhongshan Jiangmen

Jianghai Xinhui

Zhuhai

Doumen Jinwan Xiangzhou

South China
China
Sea

Pearl River

Pearl

Guangzhou

Baiyun

Foshan

Nanhai

Guangzhou

Liwan Haizhu Yuexiu Tianhe Huangpu

Dongguan Shiziyang

Shiziyang

Pearl tributary of Dong Dongguan Guangzhou

Panyu tributary of Bei Nansha

waterways with Xi

Lingdingyang

Lingdingyang

Shiziyang Guangzhou

Nansha District

waterways with Xi Zhongshan Shenzhen

Bao'an District Guangming New District Longhua New District Nanshan District, Shenzhen Futian District Luohu District Yantian District Longgang District Pingshan New District Dapeng New District

Zhuhai

Xiangzhou Jinwan District Doumen District

Hong Kong

New Territories Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Island Kowloon

Macau

Macau
Macau
Peninsula Taipa Coloane Cotai

Jiuzhouyang

Jiuzhouyang

Lingdingyang South China
China
Sea

Major cities along the Yangtze River · Major cities along the Yellow River

v t e

Metropolitan cities of China

Major Metropolitan regions

Jingjinji
Jingjinji
(JJJ) Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
(PRD) / Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta
(YRD)

Central Plain (Zhongyuan) Chengyu Cross-Strait Western Coast Guanzhong Mid-Southern Liaoning Shandong
Shandong
Peninsula Yangtze River Mid-Reaches (Yangtze River Valley)

Major Cities

National Central Cities

Beijinga Chongqinga Guangzhoub2 Shanghaia2 Tianjina2

Special
Special
Administrative Regions

Hong Kong Macau

Regional Central Cities

Chengdub Nanjingb Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb

Sub-provincial cities

Changchunb Chengdub Dalianc2 Guangzhoub2 Hangzhoub Harbinb Jinanb Nanjingb Ningboc2 Qingdaoc2 Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb Xiamenc1

Provincial capitals (Prefecture-level)

Changsha Fuzhou2 Guiyang Haikou Hefei Kunming Lanzhou Nanchang Shijiazhuang Taiyuan Xining Zhengzhou Taibei5

Autonomous regional capitals

Hohhot Lhasa Nanning Ürümqi Yinchuan

Comparatively large cities

Anshan Baotou Benxi Datong Fushun Handan Huainan Jilin Luoyang Suzhou Tangshan Qiqihar Wuxi Xuzhou Zibo

Prefecture-level cities
Prefecture-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Shijiazhuang* Tangshan* Qinhuangdao2 Handan* Xingtai Baoding Zhangjiakou Chengde Cangzhou Langfang Hengshui

Shanxi

Taiyuan* Datong* Yangquan Changzhi Jincheng Shuozhou Jinzhong Yuncheng Xinzhou Linfen Lüliang

Inner Mongolia

Hohhot* Baotou* Wuhai Chifeng Tongliao Ordos Hulunbuir Bayannur Ulanqab

Liaoning

Shenyang* Dalian* Anshan* Fushun* Benxi* Dandong Jinzhou Yingkou Fuxin Liaoyang Panjin Tieling Chaoyang Huludao

Jilin

Changchun* Jilin Siping Liaoyuan Tonghua Baishan Songyuan Baicheng

Heilongjiang

Harbin* Qiqihar* Jixi Hegang Shuangyashan Daqing Yīchun Jiamusi Qitaihe Mudanjiang Heihe Suihua

Jiangsu

Nanjing* Wuxi* Xuzhou* Changzhou Suzhou* Nantong Lianyungang2 Huai'an Yancheng Yangzhou Zhenjiang Tàizhou Suqian

Zhejiang

Hangzhou* Ningbo* Wenzhou2 Jiaxing Huzhou Shaoxing Jinhua Quzhou Zhoushan Tāizhou Lìshui

Anhui

Hefei* Wuhu Bengbu Huainan* Ma'anshan Huaibei Tongling Anqing Huangshan Chuzhou Fùyang Sùzhou Lu'an Bozhou Chizhou Xuancheng

Fujian

Fúzhou* Xiamen* Putian Sanming Quanzhou Zhangzhou Nanping Longyan Ningde

Jiangxi

Nanchang* Jingdezhen Píngxiang Jiujiang Xinyu Yingtan Ganzhou Jí'ān Yíchun Fǔzhou Shangrao

Shandong

Jinan* Qingdao* Zibo* Zaozhuang Dongying Yantai2 Weifang Jĭning Tai'an Weihai Rizhao Laiwu Linyi Dezhou Liaocheng Binzhou Heze

Henan

Zhengzhou* Kaifeng Luoyang* Pingdingshan Anyang Hebi Xinxiang Jiaozuo Puyang Xuchang Luohe Sanmenxia Nanyang Shangqiu Xinyang Zhoukou Zhumadian

Hubei

Wuhan* Huangshi Shiyan Yichang Xiangyang Ezhou Jingmen Xiaogan Jinzhou Huanggang Xianning Suizhou

Hunan

Changsha* Zhuzhou Xiangtan Hengyang Shaoyang Yueyang Changde Zhangjiajie Yiyang Chenzhou Yongzhou Huaihua Loudi

Guangdong

Guangzhou* Shaoguan Shenzhen* Zhuhai1 Shantou1 Foshan Jiangmen Zhanjiang2 Maoming Zhaoqing Huizhou Meizhou Shanwei Heyuan Yangjiang Qingyuan Dongguan Zhongshan Chaozhou Jieyang Yunfu

Guangxi

Nanning* Liuzhou Guilin Wuzhou Beihai2 Fangchenggang Qinzhou Guigang Yùlin Baise Hezhou Hechi Laibin Chongzuo

Hainan1

Haikou* Sanya Sansha4 Danzhou

Sichuan

Chengdu* Zigong Panzhihua Luzhou Deyang Mianyang Guangyuan Suining Neijiang Leshan Nanchong Meishan Yibin Guang'an Dazhou Ya'an Bazhong Ziyang

Guizhou

Guiyang* Liupanshui Zunyi Anshun Bijie Tongren

Yunnan

Kunming* Qujing Yuxi Baoshan Zhaotong Lìjiang Pu'er Lincang

Tibet

Lhasa* Shigatse Chamdo Nyingchi Shannan

Shaanxi

Xi'an* Tongchuan Baoji Xianyang Weinan Yan'an Hanzhong Yúlin Ankang Shangluo

Gansu

Lanzhou* Jiayuguan Jinchang Baiyin Tianshui Wuwei Zhangye Pingliang Jiuquan Qingyang Dingxi Longnan

Qinghai

Xining* Haidong

Ningxia

Yinchuan* Shizuishan Wuzhong Guyuan Zhongwei

Xinjiang

Ürümqi* Karamay Turpan Hami

Taiwan5

(none)

Other cities (partly shown below)

Prefecture-level capitals (County-level)

(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot Xilinhot) Jiagedaqi3, Heilongjiang Enshi, Hubei Jishou, Hunan (Sichuan:Xichang Kangding Barkam) (Guizhou: Xingyi Kaili Duyun) (Yunnan: Chuxiong Mengzi Wenshan Jinghong Dali Mangshi Shangri-La Lushui) (Gansu: Linxia Hezuo) (Qinghai: Yushu Delingha) (Xinjiang: Changji Bole Korla Yining Artux Aksu Kashgar1 Hotan Tacheng Altay)

Province-governed cities (Sub-prefecture-level)

Jiyuan, Henan (Hubei: Xiantao Qiánjiang Tianmen Shennongjia) (Hainan1: Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang) ( Xinjiang
Xinjiang
- XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi Aral Tumxuk Wujiaqu Beitun Tiemenguan Shuanghe Kokdala Kunyu)

Former Prefecture-level cities

Chaohu, Anhui Yumen,Gansu Dongchuan, Yunnan Shashi, Hubei (Sichuan: Fuling Wanxian) (Jilin: Meihekou Gongzhuling)

Sub-prefecture-level cities (Prefecture-governed)

Qian'an, Hebei Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia Erenhot, Inner Mongolia Golmud, Qinghai

County-level cities
County-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Xinji Jinzhou Xinle Zunhua Qian'an* Wu'an Nangong Shahe Zhuozhou Dingzhou Anguo Gaobeidian Botou Renqiu Huanghua Hejian Bazhou Sanhe Shenzhou

Shanxi

Gujiao Lucheng Gaoping Jiexiu Yongji Hejin Yuanping Houma Huozhou Xiaoyi Fenyang

Inner Mongolia

Holingol Manzhouli* Yakeshi Zhalantun Ergun Genhe Fengzhen Ulanhot* Arxan Erenhot* Xilinhot*

Liaoning

Xinmin Wafangdian Zhuanghe Haicheng Donggang Fengcheng Linghai Beizhen Gaizhou Dashiqiao Dengta Diaobingshan Kaiyuan Beipiao Lingyuan Xingcheng

Jilin

Yushu Dehui Jiaohe Huadian Shulan Panshi Gongzhuling Shuangliao Meihekou Ji'an Linjiang Fuyu Taonan Da'an Yanji Tumen Dunhua Hunchun Longjing Helong

Heilongjiang

Shangzhi Wuchang Nehe Hulin Mishan Tieli Tongjiang Fujin Fuyuan Suifenhe Hailin Ning'an Muling Dongning Bei'an Wudalianchi Anda Zhaodong Hailun

Jiangsu

Jiangyin Yixing Xinyi Pizhou Liyang Changshu Zhangjiagang Kunshan Taicang Qidong Rugao Haimen Dongtai Yizheng Gaoyou Danyang Yangzhong Jurong Jingjiang Taixing Xinghua

Zhejiang

Jiande Lin'an Yuyao Cixi Fenghua Rui'an Yueqing Haining Pinghu Tongxiang Zhuji Shengzhou Lanxi Yiwu Dongyang Yongkang Jiangshan Wenling Linhai Longquan

Anhui

Chaohu Jieshou Tongcheng Tianchang Mingguang Ningguo

Fujian

Fuqing Changle Yong'an Shishi Jinjiang Nan'an Longhai Shaowu Wuyishan Jian'ou Zhangping Fu'an Fuding

Jiangxi

Leping Ruichang Gongqingcheng Lushan Guixi Ruijin Jinggangshan Fengcheng Zhangshu Gao'an Dexing

Shandong

Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China
China
Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan
Taiwan
no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
China
instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in China Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2010)

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Shanghai

Beijing 1 Shanghai Shanghai 20,217,700 11 Foshan Guangdong 6,771,900

Chongqing

Guangzhou

2 Beijing Beijing 16,858,700 12 Nanjing Jiangsu 6,238,200

3 Chongqing Chongqing 12,389,500 13 Shenyang Liaoning 5,890,700

4 Guangzhou Guangdong 10,641,400 14 Hangzhou Zhejiang 5,849,500

5 Shenzhen Guangdong 10,358,400 15 Xi'an Shaanxi 5,399,300

6 Tianjin Tianjin 10,007,700 16 Harbin Heilongjiang 5,178,000

7 Wuhan Hubei 7,541,500 17 Dalian Liaoning 4,222,400

8 Dongguan Guangdong 7,271,300 18 Suzhou Jiangsu 4,083,900

9 Chengdu Sichuan 7,112,000 19 Qingdao Shandong 3,990,900

10 Hong Kong Hong Kong 7,055,071 20 Zhengzhou Henan 3,677,000

v t e

Guangdong
Guangdong
topics

Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(capital)

General

History Politics Economy

Geography

Cities Metropolitan areas

Chaoshan Pearl River Delta

Sanyi
Sanyi
(Sam Yup) Sze Yup
Sze Yup
(Siyi) Leizhou
Leizhou
Peninsula Regions

Pearl River Delta Yuexi Yuebei Yuedong

Pearl River (China) East River West River Nanling Mountains Pratas Islands Shamian Island

Education

Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Education Shenzhen
Shenzhen
Education Shenzhen
Shenzhen
University Huizhou
Huizhou
University Guangdong
Guangdong
Institute of Education Guangzhou
Guangzhou
University

Culture

Lingnan culture Cantonese
Cantonese
people Cantonese
Cantonese
language Taishanese language Hailufeng dialect Lingnan architecture Tong lau Lingnan garden Cantonese
Cantonese
embroidery Teochew woodcarving Lingnan penjing Canton porcelain Lingnan school of painting Music Cantonese
Cantonese
opera Nam Hoi Chiu Nam yum Cantonese
Cantonese
music Gou Wu Cantonese
Cantonese
poetry Yum cha Hung Ga Wing Chun Lingnan Confucianism Flowermarket Cantonese
Cantonese
lion dance Wong Tai Sin Hung Shing Cantonese
Cantonese
merchants Red cotton flower Cantonese
Cantonese
folktales The Legend of Five Goats Villain hitting Hakka
Hakka
people Teochew people

Cuisine

Cantonese
Cantonese
cuisine White boiled shrimp Chinese steamed eggs Beef chow fun Chow mein Char siu Roasted suckling pig Bird's nest soup Seafood birdsnest Cantonese
Cantonese
fried rice Dim sum Leung cha Tong sui Hakka
Hakka
cuisine Teochew cuisine

Visitor attractions

Danxia Mountain Seven Star Crags Dinghu Mountain Xinfengjiang Reservoir Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Park Guangdong
Guangdong
Provincial Museum Humen Pearl River Bridge Zhenhai Tower Guangji Bridge Canton Tower Chime-Long Paradise New South China
China
Mall Kaiping
Kaiping
Diaolou Nanhua Temple Happy Valley Shenzhen Chung Ying Street Window of the World Minsk World Baiyun Mountain Foshan
Foshan
Ancestral Temple Dapeng Fortress Nanfeng Kiln Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Memorial Hall Sacred Heart Cathedral Chen Clan Ancestral Hall Huaisheng Mosque Temple of the Six Banyan Trees Museum of the Mausoleum of the Nanyue
Nanyue
King Temple of Madam Xian

Category Commons

Cities of China
China
and the World

v t e

Provincial capitals of China

Changchun
Changchun
(Jilin) Changsha
Changsha
(Hunan) Chengdu
Chengdu
(Sichuan) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(Fujian) Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Guangdong) Guiyang
Guiyang
(Guizhou) Haikou
Haikou
(Hainan) Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(Zhejiang) Harbin
Harbin
(Heilongjiang) Hefei
Hefei
(Anhui) Hohhot
Hohhot
(Inner Mongolia) Jinan
Jinan
(Shandong) Kunming
Kunming
(Yunnan) Lanzhou
Lanzhou
(Gansu) Lhasa (Tibet) Nanchang
Nanchang
(Jiangxi) Nanjing
Nanjing
(Jiangsu) Nanning
Nanning
(Guangxi) Shenyang
Shenyang
(Liaoning) Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
(Hebei) Taibei¹ (Taiwan¹) Taiyuan
Taiyuan
(Shanxi) Ürümqi
Ürümqi
(Xinjiang) Wuhan
Wuhan
(Hubei) Xi'an
Xi'an
(Shaanxi) Xining
Xining
(Qinghai) Yinchuan
Yinchuan
(Ningxia) Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
(Henan)

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

v t e

World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

v t e

Host cities of Asian Games

Summer

1951: Delhi 1954: Manila 1958: Tokyo 1962: Jakarta 1966: Bangkok 1970: Bangkok 1974: Tehran 1978: Bangkok 1982: Delhi 1986: Seoul 1990: Beijing 1994: Hiroshima 1998: Bangkok 2002: Busan 2006: Doha 2010: Guangzhou 2014: Incheon 2018: Jakarta/Palembang 2022: Hangzhou

Winter

1986: Sapporo 1990: Sapporo 1996: Harbin 1999: Kangwon 2003: Aomori 2007: Changchun 2011: Astana-Almaty 2017: Sapporo

v t e

Dutch Empire

Colonies and trading posts of the Dutch East India
India
Company (1602–1798)

Governorate General

Batavia

Governorates

Ambon Banda Islands Cape Colony Celebes Ceylon Coromandel Formosa Malacca Moluccas Northeast coast of Java

Directorates

Bengal Persia Suratte

Commandments

Bantam Malabar West coast of Sumatra

Residencies

Bantam Banjarmasin Batavia Cheribon Palembang Preanger Pontianak

Opperhoofd settlements

Myanmar Canton Dejima Mauritius Siam Timor Tonkin

Colonies and trading posts of the Dutch West India
India
Company (1621–1792)

Colonies in the Americas

Berbice 1 Brazil Cayenne Curaçao
Curaçao
and Dependencies Demerara Essequibo New Netherland Pomeroon Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
and Dependencies Surinam 2 Tobago Virgin Islands

Trading posts in Africa

Arguin Gold Coast Loango-Angola Senegambia Slave Coast

1 Governed by the Society of Berbice 2 Governed by the Society of Suriname

Settlements of the Noordsche Compagnie
Noordsche Compagnie
(1614–1642)

Settlements

Jan Mayen Smeerenburg

Colonies of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
(1815–1962)

Until 1825

Bengal Coromandel Malacca Suratte

Until 1853

Dejima

Until 1872

Gold Coast

Until 1945

Dutch East Indies

Until 1954

Curaçao
Curaçao
and Dependencies 3 Surinam 3

Until 1962

New Guinea

3 Became constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; Suriname
Suriname
gained full independence in 1975, Curaçao
Curaçao
and Dependencies was renamed to the Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles, which was eventually dissolved in 2010.

Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
(1954–present)

Constituent countries

Aruba Curaçao Netherlands Sint Maarten

Public bodies of the Netherlands

Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius

v t e

World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 233695911 GND: 4073204-6 BNF: cb11963210p (d

.