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GREENOCK (/ˈɡriːnək/ ( listen ); Scottish Gaelic : Grianaig, pronounced ) is a town and administrative centre in the Inverclyde council area in Scotland
Scotland
and a former burgh within the historic county of Renfrewshire
Renfrewshire
, located in the west central Lowlands of Scotland
Scotland
. It forms part of a contiguous urban area with Gourock to the west and Port Glasgow to the east.

The 2011 census showed that Greenock
Greenock
had a population of 44,248, a decrease from the 46,861 recorded in the 2001 Census . It lies on the south bank of the Clyde at the " Tail of the Bank " where the River Clyde expands into the Firth of Clyde
Firth of Clyde
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Name * 1.2 Early history: baronies and kirks * 1.3 Fishing villages and harbours * 1.4 Custom house
Custom house
and steamboats

* 2 Industry and railways

* 2.1 Victoria Tower * 2.2 Villas * 2.3 Battery Park and torpedoes * 2.4 Old West Kirk
Old West Kirk
* 2.5 Second World War
Second World War
* 2.6 Postwar years

* 3 Governance * 4 Health

* 5 Geography

* 5.1 Areas and suburbs

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Shipbuilding
Shipbuilding
* 6.2 Shipping * 6.3 Sugar * 6.4 Electronics
Electronics
* 6.5 Trade and commerce

* 7 Transport

* 8 Culture

* 8.1 In television * 8.2 In film

* 9 Media

* 10 Greenockians

* 10.1 People associated with Greenock
Greenock

* 11 Sports

* 11.1 Public sports and leisure facilities

* 12 Climate * 13 Twin cities * 14 Gallery * 15 Notes * 16 References * 17 Further reading * 18 External links

HISTORY

NAME

The name of the town has had various spellings over time. It was printed in early Acts of Parliament as Grinok, Greenhok, Grinock, Greenhoke, Greinnock, and later as Greinok. Old Presbyterial records used Grenok, a common spelling until it was changed to Greenock
Greenock
around 1700. The origin of the name is unknown, suggested sources have included the Common Brittonic "Graenag", a gravelly or sandy place which accurately describes the foreshore before the docks and piers were constructed, or Gaelic meaning a sunny place, which Grenockians have thought an improbable description. It has also been suggested that "Grian cnoc" or sunny hill could refer to the hill on which the castle and mansion house stood, but this has not found much support.

The spelling "Greenoak" was found in two factory accounts dating back to 1717, and a legend developed of a green oak tree at the edge of the Clyde at William Street being used by fishermen to tie up their boats. This has been generally dismissed as imaginative folk etymology , but the image has frequently been used as an emblem or logo, carved on public buildings, used on banners and badges, and was once emblazoned on the local Co-operative Society emblem. The town's modern indoor shopping centre is called The Oak Mall and uses a green tree as its logo. The name is also recalled in a local song (The Green Oak Tree). Significantly, no green oak appears on the town's coat of arms which features the three chalices of the Shaw Stewarts, a sailing ship in full sail and two herring above the motto God Speed Greenock. Anecdotal evidence suggests that there was a 'Green Oak Tree', situated in Cathcart Square, at the top end of William Street, close to the Oak Mall – indeed, a horseshoe set into the cobblestones, between the 'Mid-Kirk' church and the central feature of the square, was where it once, supposedly, grew.

EARLY HISTORY: BARONIES AND KIRKS

The Old West Kirk
Old West Kirk
of 1591, much altered over the years, was moved in 1928 to a new location, again close to the Firth of Clyde
Firth of Clyde
.

Hugh de Grenock was created a Scottish Baron
Baron
in 1296, and the seat of the feudal barony of Greenock
Greenock
was apparently what became Easter Greenock
Greenock
Castle . Around 1400 his successor Malcolm Galbraith died with no sons, and his estate was divided between his two daughters to become two baronies: the eldest inherited Easter Greenock
Greenock
and married a Crawfurd, while Wester Greenock
Greenock
went to the younger daughter who married Schaw of Sauchie. Around 1540 the adjoining barony of Finnart was passed to the Schaw family, extending their holdings westward to the boundary of Gourock , and in 1542 Sir John Schaw founded Wester Greenock
Greenock
castle.

The Scottish Reformation
Scottish Reformation
of 1560 closed the chapels in the parish, and as the parish church was some 6 miles (9.7 km) distant at Inverkip over a difficult route which was impassable in winter, in 1589 John Schaw obtained a charter from King James VI to build a kirk for the "poor people upon his lands who were all fishers and of a reasonable number". Later known as the Old Kirk or the Old West Kirk
Old West Kirk
, it was constructed on the west bank of the West Burn estuary and is reputed to have been the first Protestant
Protestant
church built in Scotland
Scotland
after the Reformation.

FISHING VILLAGES AND HARBOURS

The coast of Greenock
Greenock
formed a broad bay with three smaller indentations: the Bay of Quick was known as a safe anchorage as far back as 1164. To its east, a sandy bay ran eastwards from the Old Kirk and the West Burn as far as Wester Greenock
Greenock
castle. The fishing village of Greenock
Greenock
developed along this bay, and around 1635 Sir John Schaw had a jetty built into the bay which became known as Sir John's Bay. In that year he obtained a Charter raising Greenock
Greenock
to a Burgh of Barony with rights to a weekly market. Further east, Saint Laurence Bay curved round past the Crawfurd Barony of Easter Greenock
Greenock
to Garvel (or Gravel) Point. When a pier (or dyke) was built making the bay an important harbour, the fishing village of Cartsburn gained the alternative name of Crawfurdsdyke. In 1642 it was made into the Burgh of Barony of Crawfurdsdyke, and part of the ill-fated Darien Scheme set out from this pier in 1697. This town was later renamed Cartsdyke.

The fishing trade grew prosperous, with barrels of salted herring exported widely, and shipping trade developed. As seagoing ships could not go further up the River Clyde , the Glasgow
Glasgow
merchants including the Tobacco Lords wanted harbour access but were in disputes with Greenock
Greenock
over harbour dues and warehouses. They tried to buy the Garvel estate for a harbour when Easter Greenock
Greenock
lands were put up for sale to meet debts, but were outbid by Sir John Schaw who then got a Crown Charter of 1670 uniting Easter and Wester Greenock
Greenock
into the Burgh Barony of Greenock. A separate Barony of Cartsburn was created, the first baron being Thomas Craufurd. In 1668 the City of Glasgow
Glasgow
got the lease of 13 acres (5.3 ha) of land upriver close to Newark Castle , and construction promptly started on Newport Glasgow
Glasgow
harbour which by 1710 had the principal Clyde custom house . The harbour, c. 1838

In 1696 and 1700 Schaw and residents of the town made unsuccessful bids to the Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
for grants for a Greenock
Greenock
harbour, then when the Act of Union 1707 opened up trade to the Americas, they raised their own funds. The work was completed in 1710, with quays extended out into Sir John's Bay to enclose the harbour. In 1711 the shipbuilding industry was founded when Scotts leased ground between the harbour and the West Burn to build fishing boats. Greenock
Greenock
rapidly became a major port and shipbuilding centre, and though from 1774 deepening of the River Clyde increasingly allowed ships to take merchandise directly to Glasgow, merchants continued to use Greenock harbour. The American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
temporarily interrupted trade, and the gun battery of Fort Beauclerc near the West Burn was extended to guard against the threat of privateers , but the emphasis shifted to wider markets including imports of rum and sugar from the Caribbean , wines from Spain, and fish from North America. A whaling business operated for about 40 years.

CUSTOM HOUSE AND STEAMBOATS

In 1714 Greenock
Greenock
became a custom house port as a branch of Port Glasgow
Glasgow
, and for a period this operated from rooms leased in Greenock. Receipts rose rapidly from the 1770s, and in 1778 the custom house moved to new built premises at the West Quay
Quay
of the harbour.

By 1791 a new pier was constructed at the East Quay. In 1812 Europe's first steamboat service was introduced by PS Comet with frequent sailings between Glasgow, Greenock
Greenock
and Helensburgh
Helensburgh
, and as trade built up the pier became known as Steamboat Quay. The custom house needed larger premises, and in May 1817 the foundation stone was laid at the quay for a Custom House building designed by William Burn
William Burn
, which was completed in 1818. Its gracious neoclassical architecture features a Grecian Doric portico looking out over the quayside, which was given the name Customhouse Quay. In 1828 the Custom House was praised as "a grand National Structure" in "the highest style of elegance". By then there were scheduled steamboat sailings to Belfast , Londonderry , Liverpool, Inverness
Inverness
, Campbeltown , the Hebrides and "all the principal places in the Highlands".

The Custom House underwent extensive refurbishment which was completed in 1989 and, until closure of the building in 2010, housed a customs and excise museum which was open to the public. In June 2008 HM Revenue and Customs
HM Revenue and Customs
(HMRC) announced that the building would close in 2011 as part of a rationalisation project with any jobs being transferred to offices in Glasgow
Glasgow
, and despite a campaign to oppose these plans, the building closed in August 2010.

Riverside Inverclyde arranged further refurbishment works, and in 2013 announced that space had already been let to companies including PG Paper Company Ltd and Toshiba
Toshiba
which had planning permission to form meeting rooms and an executive office in the building. Greenock Telegraph estimated that £4.1 milion has been spent over 5-year period for the renovation works.

INDUSTRY AND RAILWAYS

The Cut – visitor centre The Cut – aqueduct

Greenock
Greenock
became a centre of industry, with water power being used to process imported goods. In 1827 Loch Thom was constructed as a reservoir with The Cut aqueduct , bringing water to two lines of falls for water mills to power a paper mill, cotton and woollen mills, sugar refineries and shipbuilding

Greenock Central railway station at Cathcart Street opened in 1841, for the first time providing a fast route from Glasgow
Glasgow
to the coast linking up with Clyde steamer services. The provision of this new line eliminated the necessity of taking the steamer all the way down river from Glasgow. In 1869 the Caledonian Railway
Caledonian Railway
was bypassed by the rival Glasgow
Glasgow
and South Western Railway which opened a station on the waterfront at Princes Pier. To regain custom, the Caledonian Railway extended (what is now known as the Inverclyde Line ) the Glasgow, Paisley and Greenock
Greenock
Railway west to Gourock; this line was built to run inland through deep cuttings and tunnels to avoid disturbance to the villas of Greenock's west end. The Gourock line opened in 1889.

VICTORIA TOWER

View from above Cathcart Street over Cathcart Square to the Municipal Buildings, with the Victoria Tower to the right of "Cowan's Corner", and the Mid Kirk spire of 1781 to the left.

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Greenock's increasing importance and wealth was manifested in the construction of the Italianate
Italianate
Municipal Buildings, whose Victoria Tower, completed in 1886, stands 245 feet (75 m) tall. Begun five years previously in a competition won by architects H & D Barclay , it exceeds the height of the tower of Glasgow
Glasgow
City Chambers by more than a metre. The Municipal Buildings were bombed during World War 2 and what is known as Cowans Corner on the southern elevation of the building was destroyed beyond repair and remains like so today.

Cowan's Corner is named so after the story of how an obstinate shop owner took on the town council and thwarted its plans for the construction of the Municipal Buildings. In the 1850s, the council started buying up all the property on the projected Municipal Building site, but the council did not anticipate it would run into problems when attempting to negotiate with a certain Robert Cowan, one of the owners of the firm of Cowan ">

In 1907 the Admiralty
Admiralty
compulsorily purchased part of this land and constructed the Clyde Torpedo Factory, which opened in 1910, with 700 workers transferred from the Royal Arsenal , Woolwich
Woolwich
. The site was tasked with designing and testing of torpedoes . These were then tested in Loch Long
Loch Long
. During the Second World War
Second World War
the site switched entirely to manufacturing torpedoes. The original gun battery site was occupied by the Navy Buildings, the main offices, just to the east of the torpedo factory buildings. Following WW2, in 1947, the site became fully committed to R"> The Old West Kirk
Old West Kirk
features a scale model of a 20-gun frigate above its Sailor's loft: the Laird's Gallery is on the right.

A church which became known as the Old West Kirk
Old West Kirk
had been established in Greenock
Greenock
in 1591 under the patronage of John Schaw, the first built in Scotland
Scotland
since the Reformation . It was extended over the years, at an early stage the Schaw aisle provided pews for the Laird of the Barony, built as a gallery to the east of the nave of the church. Opposite it, above the front entrance, is the Crawfurdsburn or Choir Gallery. At the south end of the nave, the Sailor's Loft gallery was built in 1698, and features a 19th-century model frigate, which replaced earlier models. At the north end, the Farmer's Gallery is above the main seating area. A tower was added in the mid 19th century.

In 1926, to make way for expansion of the Harland "> Free French Memorial on Lyle Hill overlooking Gourock The original James Watt Memorial College building Greenock
Greenock
Town Hall

Greenock
Greenock
suffered badly during the Second World War
Second World War
and its anchorage at the Tail of the Bank became the base for the Home Fleet
Home Fleet
as well as the main assembly point for Atlantic
Atlantic
convoys. On 30 April 1940 the French Vauquelin class destroyer Maillé Brézé blew up off Greenock with heavy loss of life following an accident involving two of her own torpedoes. Although this disaster occurred before the Free French Naval Forces were established, many people tend to regard the Cross of Lorraine on Lyle Hill as a memorial to the loss of the Maillé Brézé as well as to the later losses of the Free French Naval Forces
Free French Naval Forces
which sailed from the town. On the nights of 6 May and 7 May 1941 around 300 Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
aircraft attacked the town in the Greenock Blitz .

A large building housing a drapery business constructed on Cowan's property at the corner of the Municipal Buildings was badly damaged and was demolished, leaving the blank brick corner area still known as "Cowan's Corner". This was later set as a garden for the blind.

The original blank brick of Cowans Corner was covered in 2008 as part of the continuing work to improve the look of the town centre.

POSTWAR YEARS

Greenock
Greenock
thrived in the post-war years but as the heavy industries declined in the 1970s and 1980s unemployment became a major problem, and it has only been in the last ten years with reinvestment and the redevelopment of large sections of the town that the local economy has started to revive. Tourism has appeared as an unexpected bonus with the development of the Clydeport Container Terminal as an Ocean Terminal for cruise ships crossing the Atlantic. Students who do not travel further afield for study often attend the Greenock
Greenock
campus of West College (formerly known as James Watt College of Further and Higher Education).

Greenock
Greenock
reached its population peak in 1921 (81,123) and was once the sixth largest town in Scotland.

GOVERNANCE

Main article: Greenock (UK Parliament constituency)

Until 1974 Greenock
Greenock
was a parliamentary burgh in its own right. It was merged with Port Glasgow to form Greenock
Greenock
and Port Glasgow constituency. In 1997 it became Greenock
Greenock
and Inverclyde . After the redistribution of Scottish seats, it was merged into an enlarged Inverclyde constituency – the first time in political history that Greenock
Greenock
has not been named in a parliamentary seat. Greenock
Greenock
and Inverclyde remains a Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
constituency.

HEALTH

Main article: Inverclyde Royal Hospital

The Inverclyde Royal Hospital is located in Greenock
Greenock
serving the population of Inverclyde , Largs , the Isle of Bute and the Cowal Peninsula . Ravenscraig Hospital deals with psychiatric, day patients, referrals and specialised prescribing.

Langhill Clinic situated behind Inverclyde Royal Hospital is now the main psychiatric hospital with an IPCU unit and Day hospital alongside the main psychiatric ward.

GEOGRAPHY

AREAS AND SUBURBS

Arran View , Bogston , Bow Farm , Braeside , Branchton , Bridgend , Broomhill , Cartsburn , Cornhaddock , Fancy Farm , Fort Matilda , Gibshill , Greenock
Greenock
West , Grieve Hill , Hole Farm , Larkfield , Lyle Hill , Lynedoch , Overton , Pennyfern , Strone , Strone Farm and Whinhill . Spango Valley is located to the west of the town.

ECONOMY

Historically, the town relied on shipbuilding , sugar refining and wool manufacturing for employment, but none of these industries are today part of Greenock's economy. More recently the town relied heavily on electronics manufacture. However, this has given way mostly to call centre business, insurance, banking and shipping export.

The Fleming and Reid merino wool mill employed 500 people – mostly women and produced wool garments spun and woven at the mill. This mill was at the corner of Drumfrochar Road and Mill Road.

As of October 2012 Greenock
Greenock
has an unemployment rate of 5.3%, above the Scottish average of 3.9% (figure is for the Scottish Parliament constituency and includes Gourock , Inverkip , Port Glasgow and Wemyss Bay ).

SHIPBUILDING

Greenock
Greenock
waterfront from Victoria Harbour
Harbour
to Ocean Terminal, the skyline dominated by Victoria Tower. Greenock
Greenock
Central The Inchgreen Drydock lacked major repair work for almost a decade, then in March 2013 it was used for urgent repairs to the ro-ro Stena Line ferry Finnarrow. View looking north over the Inchgreen Drydock and repair quay, with the Greenock
Greenock
Great Harbour
Harbour
to the left, after the announcement that the dry dock cranes are to be demolished.

In the early 17th century, the first pier was built in Greenock. Shipbuilding
Shipbuilding
was already an important employer by this time. The first proper harbour was constructed in 1710 and the first well-known shipbuilders, Scotts Shipbuilding and Engineering Company
Scotts Shipbuilding and Engineering Company
, was established the following year. It was the oldest shipbuilding business in the world and gained numerous contracts with the Royal Navy from 1806, building ships such as the Glasgow
Glasgow
.

In 1967 Scott's was merged with Lithgows (founded 1874, later the largest privately owned yard in the world) the same year becoming Scott Lithgow , which was later nationalised as part of British Shipbuilders in 1977. From the 1800 to 1980 many thousands of people worked to design, build and repair ships. The reduction in shipbuilding in the 1970s and 1980s meant that none of these companies are still trading.

Greenock
Greenock
Shipbuilders included: Scotts, Browns, William Lithgows, Fergusons, Head the Boat Builder (lifeboats). Other marine engineering related companies included engine-makers – Kincaids, Scotts, Rankin and Blackmore (which included the Eagle Foundry) – ship repair (Lamonts) and Hasties for steering gear. Yacht builders included Adams and McLean (at Cardwell Bay). Other yards included Cartsburn, Cartsdyke, and Klondyke – all of which closed during the 1970s and 1980s due to competition from South Korea
South Korea
and Japan.

Part of the site of the Scott's yard, is now an EE call centre, and the Kingston Yard was redeveloped for housing. Shipbuilding
Shipbuilding
is now continued at Ferguson Marine Engineering in nearby Port Glasgow , after Ferguson Shipbuilders was taken over by Jim McColl and began modernisation. Ship repair work continues at the Garvel Drydock in Greenock's Great Harbour.

The Inchgreen Drydock was opened in 1964 as one of the largest in the world at 305m long and 48m wide. It was used to re-fit the RMS Queen Elizabeth , and to fit-out the QE2
QE2
. In 1966 it came under the nationalised Clydeport, which was privatised in 1882 and in 2003 was sold to Peel Ports of The Peel Group . They subsequently operated the drydock as part of their Cammell Laird shipbuilding subsidiary. Peel Ports put the drydock on the market for a lease in 2014, and Jim McColl opened discussions on leasing the dock to expand Fergusons' shipbuilding, but nothing came of the negotiations. On 1 May 2017 Clydeport stated that the drydock cranes are to be demolished.

SHIPPING

Ocean Terminal seen from the esplanade

Freight traffic is handled at the container cranes of Greenock's Ocean Terminal, at Prince's Pier
Pier
which was constructed for the Glasgow and South Western Railway . The same terminal is a regular port of call for cruise liners visiting the west of Scotland.

Greenock
Greenock
was a regular port of call for Cunard Line and Canadian Pacific in the 1950s and 1960s. Ships on the Montreal to Liverpool transit would anchor at the Tail of the Bank off Greenock
Greenock
in the Firth of Clyde and steam paddlewheel ferries would service the liners. Cunard operated the RMS Ivernia (1954), RMS Saxonia (1955), RMS Carinthia (1956) and RMS Sylvania (1957). These four ships were built at John Brown & Company shipyards, typically 22,000 tons, twin screw, 600 passengers. CP operated the Empress of Britain (1956), Empress of Canada and Empress of England.

Greenock's Great Harbour
Harbour
is one of the three main ports providing marine services support to the Royal Navy, in dual site operation with Faslane at HMNB Clyde
HMNB Clyde
on the Gare Loch . 240 staff of the former Royal Maritime Auxiliary Service were transferred to Serco Denholm under a 15-year £1bn PFI contract awarded in December 2007. This facility means that "Admiralty" boats and tugs are a common sight on the Clyde.

Greenock's attractive esplanade provides a gently curving riverside walk just over a mile (1.6 km) long extending to the west from Ocean Terminal to the Royal West of Scotland
Scotland
Amateur Boat Club sailing, kayaking and rowing facilities and clubhouse at the corner of the Navy Buildings which housed a main Her Majesty\'s Coastguard centre until it closed in December 2012, as well as a Royal Naval Reserve establishment, HMS Dalriada .

SUGAR

Sugar refining began in Greenock
Greenock
in 1765. John Walker began a sugar refinery in Greenock
Greenock
in 1850 followed by the prominent local cooper and shipowner Abram Lyle who, with four partners, purchased the Glebe Sugar Refinery in 1865. Another 12 refineries were active at one point. The most successful of these was Tate "> The Sugar Warehouse dominates the James Watt
James Watt
Dock

By the end of the 19th century, around 400 ships a year were transporting sugar from Caribbean
Caribbean
holdings to Greenock
Greenock
for processing. There were 14 sugar refineries, including The Westburn, Walkers, The Glebe, Lochore and Ferguson and Dempster, plus a sugar beet factory on Ingleston Street. Tobacco from the Americas also arrived here.

When Tate and Lyle finally closed its Greenock
Greenock
refinery in 1997 it brought to an end the town's 150-year-old connections with sugar manufacture. A newly built sugar warehouse continued shipping operations at Greenock's Ocean Terminal. The former sugar warehouse at the James Watt
James Watt
Dock was by then scheduled as a category A listed building as a fine example of early industrial architecture, with an unusual feature of a colonnade of cast iron columns forming a sheltered unloading area next to the quayside . This building has since lain empty, with various schemes being proposed for conversion and restoration. The photographs show the building still intact in February 2006, but a fire on the evening of 12 June 2006 caused severe damage to much of the building before being brought under control in the early hours of 13 June. The local council confirmed that parts of the building will have to be taken down to ensure public safety, but promised an investigation and emphasised the importance of this world heritage building.

Fortunately in 2007, contracts to develop the sugar refinery into housing went ahead and the building is slowly being restored to its grand spectacle alongside the ever increasingly developing waterfront of the East end of Greenock. Many new and exciting housing projects combining new environmentally friendly technologies along with historically fashioned architecture are restoring Greenock's Waterfront fascia to its once glorious former self.

ELECTRONICS

Since IBM
IBM
arrived in the town in 1951, electronics and light manufacturing have, until recently, been the mainstay of local employment. Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
(Formerly National Semiconductor
National Semiconductor
) has run a silicon wafer manufacturing plant in the town since 1970.

However, with manufacturing moving to Eastern Europe and Asia, work has shifted to the service sector , especially call centres. EE and IBM
IBM
both have major call centre operations in Greenock, while the Royal Bank of Scotland
Scotland
Mortgage Centre processes Mortgage applications from throughout the UK "> at 1.2 miles (1.9 km) in length. Located directly under Newton Street in the town, the tunnel allowed for the extension of the railway to Gourock .

Greenock
Greenock
is served by a number of local bus routes covering the majority of Greenock, Gourock and Port Glasgow. Long distance services travel regularly to Glasgow, Largs and Dunoon. The majority of routes are run by McGill\'s Bus Services . The Largs to Glasgow
Glasgow
corridor is served by three services, the 901, 906, which provide a bus along this route every 15 minutes for most of the day. Route 907 offers a service from Glasgow's Buchanan bus station to Dunoon via Renfrew road paisley, Port Glasgow and Greenock
Greenock
every 2 hours. The X7 service also offers travel from Greenock
Greenock
to Glasgow, serving the Slaemuir area of Port Glasgow before travelling through Kilmacolm, Bridge of Weir, Houston and Linwood, then joining the motorway to Braehead before heading into Glasgow
Glasgow
City Centre.

Greenock
Greenock
is located at the end of the A8 road /M8 motorway which begins in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
. It is also the northern terminus of Euroroute E05 which heads south through England, France and Spain, ending at the Spanish port and container terminal of Algeciras .

CULTURE

Greenock
Greenock
is one of the settings for Alan Sharp 's 1965 novel A Green Tree in Gedde. It is fictionalised as 'Gantock' by Robin Jenkins in his 1979 novel Fergus Lamont (The Gantocks are a rocky shoal in the Firth of Clyde
Firth of Clyde
nearby, just off Dunoon ). Alasdair Gray 's 1984 novel 1982, Janine is set in a Greenock
Greenock
hotel room. Matthew Fitt 's cyberpunk novel But\'n\'Ben A-Go-Go features a submerged Greenock after the effects of global warming . Greenock
Greenock
has featured in the poetry of W.S. Graham (evoking his childhood) and Douglas Dunn
Douglas Dunn
.

Greenock
Greenock
is home to the world's first Burns Club , The Mother Club , which was founded in 1801 by merchants born in Ayrshire
Ayrshire
, some of whom had known Robert Burns. They held the first Burns Supper on what they thought was his birthday on 29 January 1802, but in 1803 discovered from the Ayr parish records that the correct date was 25 January 1759.

The Victorian landscape artist John Atkinson Grimshaw
John Atkinson Grimshaw
depicted a somewhat idealised Greenock
Greenock
in several of his paintings.

The Mclean Museum is the largest museum in the Inverclyde area, featuring exhibitions on James Watt
James Watt
and a collection of Ancient Egyptian artefacts. The Arts Guild Theatre (Greenock) is a local venue that hosts many comedians, musicians and plays every year. It will be replaced in 2013 by the Beacon Arts Centre.

Greenock
Greenock
hosted the National Mòd in 1904 and 1925.

IN TELEVISION

Greenock Academy

In 2012, Greenock
Greenock
became the setting for the BBC
BBC
television drama Waterloo Road , after the series was relocated from Rochdale
Rochdale
, Greater Manchester. The series was shot at Greenock Academy , a former secondary school in the west of the town.

IN FILM

Greenock
Greenock
has featured as the backdrop to several films: the television films Just a Boys\' Game (1979), Down Where The Buffalo Go (1988) and Down Among the Big Boys (1993) and the cinema films Sweet Sixteen (2002) and Dear Frankie (2004). "Leaving" 1988 by Danny Boyle. In "Rob Roy ", which is set in the mid-eighteenth century, Greenock
Greenock
is referred to as "the new world".

MEDIA

The town has a daily evening newspaper, The Greenock Telegraph . Dating from 1857, it is one of the oldest daily local newspapers in the United Kingdom. Inverclyde FM on line is a community Internet radio station run by volunteers. An internet-based TV station - Inverclyde TV - is run by Creative Industries students at Greenock's West College Scotland
Scotland
- http://www.inverclyde-tv.com

GREENOCKIANS

A statue at the original James Watt College building marks the site of his birthplace.

Engineer James Watt
James Watt
was remembered in the name of the local college, however this was renamed in 2014 to West College Scotland. However, his name is still used at the library instituted in his memory, by the original James Watt
James Watt
Memorial College building on the site of his birthplace in William Street which incorporates a commemorative statue and a pub.

Other Greenockians include the composers Hamish MacCunn
Hamish MacCunn
and William Wallace , musicians John McGeoch and Thomas Leer , mathematician William Spence , poets Denis Devlin , W. S. Graham and Jean Adam , merchant Matthew Algie , actors Richard Wilson , Martin Compston and Stella Gonet , artists William Scott and Frederick Donald Blake , playwrights Bill Bryden , Neil Paterson and Peter McDougall , comedian Charles \'Chic\' Murray , opera singer Hugh Enes Blackmore , broadcaster Jimmy Mack , American football
American football
player Lawrence Tynes , Antarctic explorer Henry Robertson \'Birdie\' Bowers and portrait painter Leonard Boden .

Two Greenockians, Alexander Bruce and Theophilus S. Marshall, were involved in the drafting of the laws for Australian Rules Football.

PEOPLE ASSOCIATED WITH GREENOCK

Pirate William Kidd
William Kidd
claimed on death row that he was born in Greenock, but subsequent evidence has shown that he was born either in Belfast
Belfast
or Dundee
Dundee
.

Robert Burns
Robert Burns
' love Mary Campbell (Highland Mary) and her father sailed from Campbeltown to visit her brother in Greenock
Greenock
early in October 1786. Her brother fell ill with typhus , which she caught while nursing him. She died of typhus on 20 or 21 October 1786, and was buried in the Old West Kirk
Old West Kirk
graveyard. In 1842 increasing interest in their romance led to a monument being erected by public subscription to mark the grave. In 1920 when the church site was needed to expand Harland and Wolff
Harland and Wolff
's shipyard, the monument was moved to its present site in Greenock
Greenock
Cemetery, with her remains being transferred to a casket and re-interred with due ceremony. The church itself was moved and rebuilt in its current location at the west end of the Esplanade in 1926. Cemetery entrance from Inverkip Street, with plaque commemorating John Galt .

The novelist John Galt , who founded Guelph
Guelph
, Ontario in 1827, lived in the town and based some of his work, most notably Annals of the Parish (1821), on Greenock
Greenock
and surrounding towns. He is buried in the Inverkip Street Cemetery. The mother of American comedian and writer Jay Leno
Jay Leno
, Catherine Muir, was born in Greenock
Greenock
and emigrated to the US as a child. The American actress Julianne Moore is the daughter of the late Anne Love, a former psychiatric social worker who emigrated from Greenock. The Rev William C. Hewitt (minister at Westburn Parish Church in Greenock), Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland
Scotland
in 2009–2010, is the first serving minister at a church in Greenock
Greenock
to be appointed.

Abdelbaset al-Megrahi , the Libyan intelligence officer convicted of the Lockerbie Bombing was incarcerated at Greenock Prison from 2005 until his release on 20 August 2009.

Dr Donald McIntyre FRSE
FRSE
(1891-1954) was born and raised in Greenock.

SPORTS

Cappielow Park , home of Morton F.C.

Greenock Morton F.C.
Greenock Morton F.C.
are the local senior football team who currently play in the Scottish Championship
Scottish Championship
. Founded in 1874 as Morton F.C., they play their home matches at Cappielow
Cappielow
. At lower levels of the game, Greenock Juniors F.C.
Greenock Juniors F.C.
play in the West of Scotland
Scotland
Football League.

Greenock
Greenock
hosts a rugby union team, Greenock Wanderers RFC , founded in 1873. It is one of the oldest clubs in Scotland.

Greenock
Greenock
also has 2 successful athletics clubs, Inverclyde AC and Glenpark Harriers

It is also the hometown of the Greenock Cricket Club
Greenock Cricket Club
. and Greenock Golf Club ,

The town was also the host of the first ever international women\'s football match, which was between Scotland
Scotland
and England; it was held at the Ravenscraig Sports Centre.

PUBLIC SPORTS AND LEISURE FACILITIES

Leisure facilities in Greenock
Greenock
are primarily provided by Inverclyde Leisure. There are several sports facilities in the town and surrounding area managed by Inverclyde Leisure:

* Waterfront Leisure Complex * Greenock
Greenock
Sports Centre * Lady Octavia Sports Centre * Boglestone Community Centre and Fitness Gym * Ravenscraig Sports Centre * Battery Park Pavilion * Gourock Fitness Gym * Gourock Outdoor Swimming Pool * Birkmyre Park Fitness Gym (Kilmacolm)

As of 2009, there are plans to build a new multi-purpose facility at Rankin Park.

CLIMATE

Greenock
Greenock
Temp.(click to enlarge)

Greenock's climate is temperate maritime having mainly cool summers but with relatively mild winters. Its location means that the heat retentive properties of seawater help keep winter temperatures higher. Additionally, the effect of the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
on the Clyde helps Greenock's average temperature stay approximately one degree above that of eastern coastal towns on the same latitude . Indeed, Greenock's latitude (55.94 degrees north with a longitude of 4.75 degrees west) places it at the same latitude as the Moscow area. The warming effect of the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
however, keeps the winter weather in Greenock
Greenock
much milder than that of Moscow.

Greenock
Greenock
anecdotally has the reputation for having higher than average rainfall (the song The Green Oak Tree comments on this) but this is not statistically true; northwest of Fort William has the highest average rainfall in Scotland. Greenock's location gives long hours of daylight in midsummer with the opposite true in midwinter . On the longest day, 21 June, the sun rises at 04:31 and sets at 22:07. In midwinter, 21 December, the sun rises at 08:46 and sets at 15:44.

TWIN CITIES

Greenock's twin cities are Veulettes-sur-Mer and Cany-Barville , both in France. Another sister city is Coatesville , in Pennsylvania.

GALLERY

*

View from Greenock
Greenock
East India Harbour
Harbour
over the River Clyde *

Mclean Museum and Art Gallery *

Greenock
Greenock
Sheriff Court in baronial style , by architects Peddie and Kinnear *

MS Caribbean Princess docking at Greenock
Greenock
*

View over West Greenock
Greenock
towards The Gare Loch . *

Loch Thom , seen from the south *

Looking north west over Greenock
Greenock
in winter *

Panorama from Craig's Top on the Lyle Hill , overlooking Greenock
Greenock
and Gourock.

NOTES

* ^ Smith 1921 , pp. 8–9 * ^ Smith 1921 , p. 9 * ^ Smith 1921 , pp. 4–5

* ^ Smith 1921 , pp. 9, 86, 109 Monteith 2004 , p. 3 * ^ Smith 1921 , pp. 6, 9, 64 Brown 1905 , p. 4 * ^ Smith 1921 , pp. 6, 55, 85 Monteith 2003 , p. 3 * ^ Smith 1921 , pp. 6, 55, 85, 87, 94 * ^ A B Monteith 2004 , p. 19 * ^ Wood 1828 , pp. 172–175 * ^ "Regeneration Projects Attracting Interest". Inverclyde Now. 16 November 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013. * ^ "PG Paper moves to Greenock\'s Custom House". HeraldScotland. Retrieved 2017-02-06. * ^ "£4m Greenock
Greenock
Custom House project nears an end". Greenock Telegraph. Retrieved 2017-02-06. * ^ "Secret Scotland
Scotland
- Royal Naval Torpedo Factories". * ^ I worked there 1957-59 * ^ "Welcome To The Old West Kirk,Greenock". Lyle Kirk. Retrieved 2016-09-15. * ^ " Inverclyde Royal Hospital". NHS Greater Glasgow
Glasgow
and Clyde. Retrieved 2010-05-07. * ^ "Page 2" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-04-17. * ^ "nomis – official labour market statistics". Nomisweb.co.uk. 30 September 2010. Retrieved 2013-01-26. * ^ A B "End of an era as cranes set to be flattened at Inchgreen". Greenock
Greenock
Telegraph. 1 May 2017. Retrieved 11 May 2017. * ^ "History". Peel Ports. Retrieved 11 May 2017. * ^ "Inchgreen Drydock". Cammell Laird. 10 October 2015. Retrieved 11 May 2017. * ^ "Revealed: billionaire scouts giant Greenock
Greenock
dry dock as potential shipyard". HeraldScotland. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2017. * ^ "Signing of Marine Services Contract". Serco Group plc. 14 December 2007. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2010. * ^ "Online encyclopedia from Britannica 1911". * ^ "Picture Gallery". Archived from the original on 26 October 2006. * ^ "£180 million Regeneration Project Approved". Inverclyde Council. 7 January 2010. Archived from the original on 19 September 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2010. * ^ "Workers\' disgust at Hungary
Hungary
move", Greenock
Greenock
Telegraph, 15 February 2006, archived from the original on 27 February 2012, retrieved 7 May 2010 * ^ "OAK MALL GREENOCK LIMITED ". Insolvent, Winding Up, Bankrupt & Administration Information. * ^ Greenock
Greenock
from Old Photographs, 1984 * ^ "Congratulation Greenock
Greenock
Burns Club". The Robert Burns
Robert Burns
World Federation Limited. Archived from the original on 26 January 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2010. * ^ List of Mod\'s places for each year on Sabhal Mòr Ostaig website * ^ "Waterloo Road relocates to Greenock". BBC
BBC
News . 27 October 2011. * ^ "Screen One" Down Among the Big Boys (1993) on IMDb
IMDb
* ^ "Inverclydemedia.com". Archived from the original on 2009-08-31. Retrieved 2009-11-10. * ^ Craik, A. D. D. (October 2013). "Polylogarithms, functional equations and more: The elusive essays of William Spence (1777—1815)". Historia Mathematica. 40 (4): 353–482. doi :10.1016/j.hm.2013.06.002 . * ^ "KIDD-L Archives – Subject: Captain William Kidd: recent biography". RootsWeb. Retrieved 2007-12-13. * ^ " William Kidd
William Kidd
1645–1701". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-13. * ^ "Highland Mary (Mary Campbell)". Famous Sons and Daughters of Greenock. Nostalgic Greenock. Archived from the original on 21 August 2008. Retrieved 2010-01-17. * ^ "National Burns Collection – Design for a Monument proposed to be erected in memory of Highland Mary". Retrieved 2010-01-18. * ^ "GMFC.net". Greenock
Greenock
Morton FC. * ^ "Greenockwanderers.co.uk". Greenock
Greenock
Wanderers RFC. * ^ "Greenockcricketclub.com". Greenock
Greenock
Cricket Club. * ^ "Greenockgolfclub.co.uk". Greenock
Greenock
Golf Club. * ^ Baxter, Eric (13 February 2009), "Council tax frozen...but £23m leisure boost", Greenock
Greenock
Telegraph, retrieved 2010-05-07 * ^ "Northern Scotland: climate". Met Office. Archived from the original on 13 August 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2010.

REFERENCES

* Brown, Archibald (1905), The Early Annals of Greenock, Greenock Telegraph printing works, archived from the original on 19 November 2014 ( Inverclyde Council website) * Monteith, Joy (2003), Old Port Glasgow, Catrine, Ayrshire: Stenlake Publishing, ISBN 9781840332506 * Monteith, Joy (2004), Old Greenock, Catrine, Ayrshire: Stenlake Publishing, ISBN 9781840333145 * Smith, R.M. (1921), The History of Greenock, Greenock: Orr, Pollock & Co ( Inverclyde Council website) * Wood, John (1828), Descriptive account of the principal towns in Scotland: to accompany Wood's town atlas, Edinburgh, pp. 171–177 (Plan of the Town of Greenock
Greenock
from actual survey. – Maps of Scotland, 1825, National Library of Scotland
Scotland
website)

FURTHER READING

* Snoddy, TG (1937) Round About Greenock * Weir, D (1827, r. 2004) History of the Town of Greenock

EXTERNAL LINKS

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