Graaff-Reinet is a town in the
Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.
It is the fourth-oldest town in South Africa, after Cape Town,
Stellenbosch, and Swellendam.
4 Tourist attractions
5 Notable people
5.1 Early history
5.2 Great Trek and Boer Republics
5.6 Literature and the Arts
6 Coats of arms
6.2 Municipal (1)
6.3 Municipal (2)
6.4 Divisional council
7 Further reading
8 See also
10 External links
Boer republic of Graaf-Reinet (blue) and other Dutch territories
Graaf-Reinet was established by the VOC (Dutch East India Company) in
1786, being named after the then governor of the Cape Colony, Cornelis
Jacob van de Graaff, and his wife, whose maiden name was "Reinet".
It was originally established as a trading post to expand trading
inland from the Cape Colony.
In 1795, the burghers, annoyed by the exactions of the VOC, and
under the leadership of Adriaan van Jaarsveld, expelled the Landdrost
Maynier and proclaimed an independent "Colony of Graaff-Reinet,"
requesting guardianship from the government in the
not the VOC). Similar action was subsequently taken by the burghers of
Swellendam. Claims that the two "independent" regions wanted to be
independent republics were found to be untrue. Before the authorities
Cape Town could take decisive measures against the rebels, they
were themselves compelled to capitulate to the British who invaded and
occupied the Cape. The burghers having endeavoured, unsuccessfully, to
get aid from a French warship at
Algoa Bay surrendered to Colonel
(afterwards General Sir) JO Vandeleur.
In January 1799, Marthinus Prinsloo, a leader of the independent
movement in 1795, again rebelled, but surrendered the following April.
Prinsloo and nineteen others were imprisoned in the
Cape Town castle.
After trial, Prinsloo and another commandant were sentenced to death
and others to banishment. The sentences were not carried out and the
prisoners were released, March 1803, on the retrocession of the Cape
to the Netherlands. In February 1803, in terms of the Treaty of
Amiens signed in 1802 (between England and France), the British
Cape Colony to the Netherlands, then renamed the Batavian
In 1801, there had been another revolt in Graaff Reinet, but owing to
the conciliatory measures of General F Dundas (acting governor of the
Cape Colony) peace was soon restored. It was this district, where an
independent "Colonie" government in
South Africa was first proclaimed,
which furnished large numbers of the
Voortrekkers in 1835–1842.
In 1806, a British fleet of sixty-one ships dropped anchor at Robben
Island and landed 6000 troops at Blaauwberg. The Battle of Blaauwberg
followed and Dutch resistance crumbled. On 13 August 1814 the Cape
Colony was formally ceded to Britain by a convention under which Dutch
vessels were entitled to resort freely to the Cape of Good Hope for
the purposes of refreshment and repairs. Britain agreed on 13 August
1814 to pay five million sterling to the United
Netherlands for the
Dutch possession at the Cape.
Cape Colony received a degree of independence in 1872 when
"Responsible Government" was declared and, in 1877, the government of
John Molteno began construction of the railway line
Port Elizabeth on the coast. This was
officially opened on 26 August 1879.
Graaff Reinet became the centre of British military operations for the
Eastern Cape during the Second Boer War. In 1901, a number of
captured Boer rebels were tried in the town for crimes ranging from
high treason, murder, attempted murder, arson and robbery. Nine were
sentenced to death, with eight of these being executed by firing squad
on the outskirts of the town, while the ninth sentence was carried out
in Colesberg. The Burgher Monument in Donkin Street commemorates
the fallen Boers.
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe (1050–1270)
Kingdom of Mutapa
Kingdom of Mutapa (1430–1760)
Cape Colony (1652–1795)
Mthethwa Paramountcy (ca. 1780–1817)
Ndwandwe (ca. 1780–1817)
Cape Colony (1795–1802)
Cape Colony (1802–06)
Cape Colony (1806–1910)
Waterboer's Land (1813–71)
Zulu Kingdom (1818–97)
Adam Kok's Land
Adam Kok's Land (1825–61)
Natalia Republic (1839–43)
South African Republic
South African Republic (1852–1902)
Orange Free State
Orange Free State (1854–1902)
Republic of Utrecht
Republic of Utrecht (1854–58)
Lydenburg Republic (1856–60)
Griqualand East (1861–79)
Griqualand West (1870–80)
Diggers' Republic (1870-71)
Nieuw Republiek (1884–88)
Klein Vrystaat (1886–91)
Cape Colony (1652–1910)
South Africa (1910–61)
South Africa (1961–present)
South Africa portal
The town lies 750 metres (2,460 ft) above the sea and is built on
the banks of the Sundays River, which rises a little further north on
the southern slopes of the Sneeuberge, and splits into several
channels here. The
Dutch Reformed church
Dutch Reformed church in the town is a prominent
stone building in Church street with seating accommodation for 1,500
people. The building is influenced by the architecture of Salisbury
Cathedral in England.
The college is an educational centre of some importance; it was
rebuilt in 1906. The Graaff Reinet Teachers College was closed down in
1990 after it was used as a centre for further educational training
for about six years.
Graaff Reinet is a flourishing market for agricultural produce, the
district being noted for its mohair industry, sheep and ostrich
In the South African National Census of 2011, the population of
Graaff-Reinet (including the township of uMasizakhe) was recorded as
35,672 people living in 8,393 households. Of this population, 62.2%
described themselves as "
Coloured who are in fact KhoeSan, the
original inhabitants of this place", 28.2% as "Black African", and
8.7% as "White". The dominant language was Afrikaans, which was the
first language of 76.0% of the population. 18.9% spoke Xhosa, and 3.6%
spoke English. There is currently very little traces of the original
languages of this place namely the Khoekhoe and Bushman languages
which KhoeSan were prohibited from speaking. 
Dutch Reformed Church
Dutch Reformed Church
Dutch Reformed Church (Grotekerk) in Graaff-Reinet.
An aerial view of Graaff-Reinet's Dutch Reformed Church.
The Valley of Desolation, a geological wonder of weathered dolerite
pillars which is a declared national monument with magnificent views
Camdeboo National Park
Camdeboo National Park of 200 km2, on the outskirts of the
town with its interesting flora and fauna
Stretch's Court, a picturesque restored street of
Karoo cottages with
brightly painted shutters and doors
Reinet House Museum, a
Cape Dutch building, formerly the Dutch
Reformed Church parsonage
Agave Distillery, a distillery producing tequila from the agave
The Dutch Reformed Church, a national monument in the centre of the
Dutch Reformed Church
Dutch Reformed Church is the only known church in South
Africa and possibly in the world to have a kitchen and a
The Drostdy Hotel, a
Cape Dutch building erected in 1806 as the local
seat of government by the VOC, currently a hotel.
Graaff-Reinet is home to more national monuments than any other town
or city in South Africa.
The Drostdy Hotel
Monument to Andries Pretorius
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Chief Hykon – Koebaha or Lord of all the Inqua Tribe (c.1689)
Koerikei – Bushman leader who rebelled against the Dutch farmers
Adriaan van Jaarsveld – Commandant of the Boers in the district and
later instigator of the independent
Graaff-Reinet Colony of 1795.
Coenraad de Buys
Coenraad de Buys (1761–1822) – A Boer farmer of the Eastern Cape
frontier who rebelled against both the Dutch and English authorities.
Sir Andries Stockenström, 1st Baronet (6 July 1792,
Cape Town – 16
March 1864, London) – lived in Graaff-Reinet.
Great Trek and Boer Republics
Andries Pretorius, Born Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius (27
November 1798 – 23 July 1853) Great Trek Leader after whom Pretoria
was named farmed in the district before the Great Trek. Also
instrumental in the creation of the Transvaal Republic.
Andries Hendrik Potgieter, Great Trek leader was born on 19 December
1792 in Graaff-Reinet
Lourens Jacobus Wepener (Louw Wepener) (1812–1865) was born in
Graaf-Reinet. He was a Commandant in the
Orange Free State
Orange Free State and was
killed in the 2nd Orange Free State-Basuto War while trying to storm
the mountain stronghold of Moshoeshoe I, founder of the Basotho
nation. He was renowned for his bravery.
Martinus Wessel Pretorius. (1819–1901) Boer soldier and statesman,
president of the
South African Republic
South African Republic (1857–71), born in
Graaff-Reinet, the son of Andries Pretorius. He succeeded his father
as commandant-general in 1853, and was elected president of the South
African Republic, and of the
Orange Free State
Orange Free State (1859–63). He fought
against the British again in 1877, until the independence of the
Republic was recognised (1881), then retired.
Gerrit Maritz, Great Trek Leader after whom Pietermaritzburg was
partly named was a wagon-maker in the town.
Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff
Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff (31 January 1808 – 21 April 1881) was the
second President of the Orange Free State, from 1855 to 1859. He was
born in Kogmanskloof, Montagu and completed his schooling in
Graaff-Reinet where he worked for a further 14 years.
Thomas François Burgers
Thomas François Burgers (15 April 1834 – 9 December 1881) was the
4th president of the
South African Republic
South African Republic from 1871 to 1877. He was
the youngest child of Barend and Elizabeth Burger of the farm
Langefontein in the Camdeboo district of Graaff Reinet, Cape Colony.
General Nicolaas Jacobus Smit (30 May 1837 – 1896), commander of the
Boer forces at the battles of Ingogo and Majuba. Member of the
Volksraad (Parliament), he was vice-president of the ZAR in 1887.
Prussia made him Knight of the Red Eagle while the
him their highest award as Commander of the Order of the Netherlands
Lion. Portugal also gave him the highest award of their country. Born
Graaff-Reinet district, on 30 May 1837, died in Pretoria
4 April 1896.
Daniel François Malan
Daniel François Malan (22 May 1874 – 7 February 1959), D.F. Malan,
was a Prime Minister of South Africa. He is seen as the champion of
Afrikaner nationalism, and his government started to legalise
apartheid policies. An ordained Dutch Reformed minister in
Graaff-Reinet between 1912 and 1915. He is positioned 81st on the Top
100 Great South Africans list.
Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe
Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe (5 December 1924 – 27 February 1978) was a
South African political dissident, who founded the Pan Africanist
Congress in opposition to the Apartheid regime. Sobukwe was born in
Graaff-Reinet. In 2004 Sobukwe was voted 42nd in the Top 100 Great
Beyers Naude – anti-apartheid activist raised and matriculated
here. In 2004, he was voted 36th in the Top 100 Great South Africans.
Matthew Goniwe (1947–1985) Well known teacher and political activist
in South Africa. His political involvement led to his arrest and
conviction in 1977 under the Suppression of Communism Act and he was
sentenced to 4 years in prison. He taught at a local school in 1982.
On 27 June 1985 Goniwe and 3 other activists, Fort Calata, Sparrow
Mkonto and Sicelo Mhlauli who became known as the "Cradock Four" were
killed and mutilated by unnamed members of the Security Forces.
Cameron Muir Dugmore (b. 16 September 1963) – was sworn in as MEC
for Education in the
Western Cape Province on 30 April 2004. He
attended the Union Primary School in Graaff Reinet. His father was
Principal at Union High School. He has been a member of the Western
Cape Provincial Executive of the African National Congress since 1993.
Mzuvukile Jeff Maqetuka – who hails from
Graaff-Reinet is the
Director-General of Home Affairs. He was trained by the Stasi, the
former secret police of Communist East Germany. Maqetuka previously
served as the co-ordinator of intelligence in the National
Intelligence Co-ordinating Committee. He went into exile in 1978 and
completed his military training in Angola and was trained in the
former German Democratic Republic.
Frederick Emmanuel Hufkie Headmaster of Spandau Senior Secondary
School – Theologican of the Congregational Church detained without
trial in terms of the National Party security laws of 1976 and 1985
Francis Guthrie the Four Colour Theorem mathematician and botanist,
Harry Bolus botanist and founder of the Bolus Herbarium, lived here.
Andrew Geddes Bain
Andrew Geddes Bain (1797 – 20 October 1864), esteemed geologist,
road engineer, palaeontologist and explorer. Lived in Graaff-Reinet
from 1822 for 13 years and worked as a saddle maker. He helped with
the construction of the Ouberg Pass and supervised the construction of
the Van Rynevelds Pass. In 1837 he was appointed superintendent of
military roads by the Royal Engineers. He built eight mountain passes
including Michell’s Pass and Bain’s Kloof Pass. He can rightly be
called the father of South African paleontology. His first fossil
discovery was made in 1838. Famous for a fossil he discovered with a
very impressive jaw filled with teeth which he named the "Blinkwater
Monster". This fossil was later housed at the British Natural History
Thomas Charles John Bain
Thomas Charles John Bain (29 September 1830 – 1893) became an even
more famous road builder than his father and is the best known of the
19th century road builders. Famous for his 24 mountain passes. He was
born in Graaff-Reinet; the second son and seventh child of Andrew
James Leonard Brierley Smith (26 October 1897 – 7 January 1968)
was a famous South African ichthyologist who was born in Graaff
Reinet. He was the first to identify, in 1938, a captured fish as a
coelacanth, at the time thought long extinct.
Dr Sidney Henry Southey Rubidge (31 May 1887 – 1970) Farmer on
"Wellwood" Farm in the district. His hobby of fossil collecting became
so highly developed that it brought him worldwide recognition for his
contribution to science in the field of paleontology. In 1952 he was
awarded an Honorary Doctorate by the University of the Orange Free
State for his work in this field. He built and maintained a fossil
museum on "Wellwood". This has come to be recognised as the finest
private collection of
Karoo fossils in the world. A founder of the
Merino Ram Breeders' Association of
South Africa and of what today is
the National Wool Growers Association of South Africa.
Johannes Jacobus Brummer (Joe) was born in
Graaff-Reinet on 2
September 1921. He was an economic geologist and one of the most
successful mine finders ever. He was responsible for finding copper in
Zambia, nickel, copper and zinc deposits in Manitoba as well as zinc
and uranium deposits in Saskatchewan. Recipient of
the Barlow Gold Medal (CIM) in 1978 and in 1984 the GAC awarded him
the Duncan R. Derry medal for his major contributions to economic
Prof James William Kitching (6 February 1922 – 24 December 2003) who
grew up in the district was a South African vertebrate palaeontologist
and regarded as one of the world’s greatest fossil finders. He,
together with James (Jim) Collinson, was the first person to identify
and collect therapsid fossils in the Antarctic confirming the former
continental link between southern Africa and Antarctica.[citation
William Smith is South Africa's best-known and most popular television
science and mathematics teacher. He matriculated at Union High School
in Graaff-Reinet. In 2004, he was voted 86th in the Top 100 Great
South Africans. The coelacanth "living fossil" was discovered by
Smith's father, Professor James Leonard Brierley Smith, a renowned
Pierre Terblanche, born in 1956 in Graaff-Reinet, was one of the
designers of the Ducati 916. The Ducati 916 is an
Italian sports motorcycle manufactured by Ducati from 1993 to 1999. He
also worked on the Ducati 888 and the 916. He has been the director of
design at Ducati since 1997.
Douglas Proudfoot, the first captain of the GRGC in 1894 was a
legendary South African golfer before the turn of the previous
century. He was the SA Amateur champion for seven years in a row from
1893 and again in 1902.
Herbert Hayton Castens (23 November 1864 – 18 October 1929) Born in
the village of
Pearston neighbouring the
Graaff-Reinet District. He is
a former South African rugby union footballer, and cricketer. He was
South Africa's first ever rugby and cricket captain. On 30 July 1891
South Africa in their first ever rugby international,
against the touring British Isles team. In 1896(?) a South African
cricket tour to England was organised, with Castens appointed as the
first ever South African cricket captain.
Arthur Edward Ochse (born 11 March 1870 in Graaff-Reinet, Cape Colony,
died 11 April 1918 in France) He was a South African cricketer who
played two Tests for
South Africa in 1888–89. Known to his teammates
as ‘Okey’, Ochse held a unique record in South African cricket
history for well over one hundred years, being the youngest test
cricketer selected for
South Africa at 19 years and one day when he
took the field for the first test.
Arthur Lennox Ochse (b. 11 October 1899, Graaff-Reinet) Springbok
cricketer; Right hand batsman, Right arm fast bowler. Debut: Against
England, 3rd Test, Marylebone Cricket Club in
South Africa 1927/28
Kingsmead, Durban, South Africa
Louis Babrow (24 April 1915 – 26 January 2004) Famous Springbok
rugby player. Babrow’s international career was a brief one – just
one season with the Springboks, but it was a great enough one for him
to be included in the 50 top
Springboks of all-time in a recent book,
The Chosen. The year in which he played was 1937 – when the
Springboks became the first team to beat the All Blacks in New
Zealand, a feat not equalled till 1971. During World War II he was
awarded a Military Cross for gallantry at the Battle of El Alamein,
when he was wounded. After the War, Babrow captained the British
Empire XV against the Rest of the World. He attended Sacred Heart
Convent in Graaff-Reinet.
Pieter Kuyper Albertyn (PK) (b. 27 May 1897) Dutch Reformed minister
Graaff-Reinet between 1906 and 1921. Springbok rugby captain in
Clarence Skelton Wimble, a South African cricketer, was born in
Graaff-Reinet on 22 April 1861 and died in Johannesburg on 28 January
1930, aged 68.
Harry Smith – SA heavyweight boxing champion, originally from
Graaff-Reinet. He was born Frans Liebenberg, but as Harry Smith became
one of the most popular figures of his era. In February 1913 he
claimed the SA heavyweight title when he beat Williams on a
Anthony Llewellyn Biggs (Dassie Biggs) a Springbok cricket player was
Graaff-Reinet on 26 April 1946. Selected as a Springbok for
South Africa's cancelled tour to Australia in 1971–72.
Arthur Martin Short (b. 27 September 1947) Born and still farming in
Graaff-Reinet. An opening batsman, Arthur Short was twice selected as
a Springbok, being named in the 1970 squad to tour England and the
1971–72 squad to tour Australia. Both trips were cancelled.
Gletwynne Rubidge (1968) Springbok spearfisherman grew up and was
educated at Union High School. He is going to Spain for the Euro
Qualifications in 2007.
Kosie Welman Rugby player – flyhalf, South African Rugby Union, SARU
Danie Koeberg Rugby player – flank forward and centre
Piet Koeberg Rugby player – flyhalf SARU
Mzivukile Tom Soccer player – left back, Golden Arrows (PSL) and the
national team (Bafana-Bafana)
Olivier DippenaarSpringbok – South African Volleyball Team
Lubabalo Falakhe Athletics sprinter junior champion =
50m/100m/1200/relay gold and silver medalist, he was near breaking the
junior championship record 1200m by split seconds in Cradock during
the inter-schools meeting (1996)
Janice BrummerSpringbok – Horseriding
Louis Davids – Rugby player, South African Federation Rugby Union
Barend Koekemoer – International athlete, South African Junior 400 m
champion, finalist in 2015 Youth Athletic Championship in Beijing,
Jano Vermaak - Springbok and Western Province Rugby Player.
Literature and the Arts
Andrew Murray (jnr) (1828–1917) was a Christian pastor and author
who was born in Graaff-Reinet. He was a champion of the South African
Revival of 1860. Murray served as the first president of the YMCA
(Young Men's Christian Fellowship) and authored over 240 books. Over 2
million of his books have been published to date.
Helen Elizabeth Martins (23 December 1897 – 8 December 1976) is
considered South Africa's foremost outsider artist. She was schooled
in Graaff-Reinet, and her "Owl House" is situated in the village of
Nieu-Bethesda 50 km away.
Stephanus Le Roux Marais, (1 February 1896 – 25 May 1979) –
Afrikaans organist, teacher and composer especially of
Afrikaans lieder (art songs), lived in Graaff-Reinet.
Anna Neethling-Pohl (1906–1992), regarded as a legend of Afrikaans
theatre, was born in Graaff-Reinet. She performed in more than 50
stage works and lead roles, and translated 7 of Shakespeare's dramas
into Afrikaans. She published several novels for which she received
the Langenhoven prize in 1926 and the Vaderland prize in 1937.
Professor of Drama at Pretoria University.
Hymne Weiss (1910 – 6 October 2001) An author of novels and short
stories matriculated at Hoër Volkskool in Graaff-Reinet. Hymne also
translated many books from German, Dutch, English, Norwegian and
Afrikaans and was awarded the Academy Award for the
translation of Barabbas by
Pär Lagerkvist - Swedish (1953): Barábas
Eben Leibrandt (1915 – 22 October 2007) was a respected South
African artist. Born in Graaff-Reinet, he studied at the Johannesburg
Art School and the
Central School of Art in London. Regarded as a
versatile artist’s artist, Leibrandt was a painter, sculptor,
acclaimed mosaic artist and etcher and printer, who represented SA at
the 1963 São Paulo Biennial and at the
Venice Biennale three years
later. His work is in many major collections, including the SA
National Gallery, the Johannesburg Art Gallery, the Pretoria Art
SABC Collection and the Rupert Collection.
David Botha, born in
Graaff-Reinet in 1921, was both painter and
graphic artist. He is best known for his oil paintings of wet Cape
street scenes, usually depicting scenes in Paarl and Stellenbosch. He
is considered to be an exponent of ‘Cape Impressionism’.
Dalene Matthee (13 October 1938 – 20 February 2005) was a well-known
South African author who studied music at the Holy Cross Covent in
Etienne van Heerden (1954), a well-known writer, grew up on a merino
farm in the
Graaff-Reinet district. He is the author of novels, short
story collections, books of poetry, essays, cabaret collections and a
theoretical book on post-modernism. He also is the founding editor of
the multi-cultural South-African internet journal, LitNet, and
currently teaches at the University of Cape Town.
Trudi Dicks was born in
Graaff-Reinet in 1940. A well-known artist,
she has been living in Namibia since 1967. Since the mid-1980s she has
exhibited widely both in
South Africa and Namibia and has also taken
part in some group shows in Europe. Her work was also featured on the
1995 Johannesburg Biennale. She has been the recipient of numerous
awards and scholarships.
Maya Fowler, a novelist, was born in
Cape Town in 1980. She started
her schooling in Stellenbosch, but spent most of her childhood in
Graaff-Reinet, where drought and a harsh landscape fostered an
appreciation for beauty that resides in many forms and the tiniest
things. Maya holds BA and MA (Linguistics) degrees from the University
of Stellenbosch, and she works as deputy editor of Edgars Club
Sonia Doubell (1981) is a London-based actress, model and singer. A
Bond girl in the James Bond film
Die Another Day
Die Another Day starring Pierce
Brosnan. She attended Union High School for a short spell. She has
performed live on the British television show, Top of the Pops. Also
the lead singer of dance-music group Dark Monk, whose debut single
made it to number one on the German dance charts.
Isobel Dixon (1969) was born in
Umtata but raised in Graaff-Reinet.
Her father, previously the Dean of
Umtata Cathedral, taught at Union
High School where Isobel matriculated in 1987. Isobel is the author of
two books, Weather Eye (Carapace 2001) and A Fold in the Map (UK: Salt
2007; SA: Jacana 2007). Weather Eye won the unpublished section of the
Sanlam Prize in
South Africa in 2000 and the Olive Schreiner Prize,
administered by the English Academy of South Africa, in 2004. A Fold
in the Map looks back, in the first instance, to
South Africa from
Scotland and England, while in the second, is a reflection on the
authors late and much loved father, his illness and death, and also
about her four sisters, and her mother, the women who loved him.
Isobel has also had poems published in Ask for It by Name and Unfold.
She lives with her husband in Cambridge.
Anton Rupert (4 October 1916 – 18 January 2006) was an
Afrikaner-South African entrepreneur, businessman and conservationist.
He was born and raised in
Graaff-Reinet and was educated in the Hoër
Volkskool in Graaff-Reinet. In 2004, he was voted 28th in the Top 100
Great South Africans.
Gerrit Thomas Ferreira "GT" Ferreira – well known banker and founder
of First Rand Bank was raised and educated in
Graaff-Reinet at the
Christo Viljoen – was born in
Graaff-Reinet in 1937 and passed
matric at the Hoër Volkskool in 1954 as the first Dux student of the
newly established high school. Engineer, Dean of Engineering and
Stellenbosch University. Chairman of the
1989–1993. Established Technopark
Stellenbosch science and
technology park in
Stellenbosch 1985. Received awards in both the
sciences (engineering technology, 2001) and humanities (genealogy,
2014) from the SA Academy for Arts and Science.
Sophia Johanna Werner – was born in
Graaff-Reinet in 1827. Better
known as Black Sophie because of her dark compexion, she was a
well-known brothel "madam" in
Cape Town and had her premises in Bree
Sylvia Raphael, one of the leading female operatives in Israel's
external intelligence agency, the Mossad, was a Graaff-Reinet-born
Christian with a Jewish father. Posing as a Canadian photojournalist
under the alias "Patricia Roxborough", she was one of the first Mossad
agents to penetrate Yasser Arafat's bases in Jordan and Lebanon in the
1960s. She was closely involved in Israel's partially successful
attempts to track down the PLO terrorists responsible for the deaths
of 11 Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics.
Coats of arms
In 1804, when the
Cape Colony was ruled by the Batavian Republic, the
government assigned armorial seals to each of the drostdyen, i.e.
administrative districts. Graaff Reinet was given the arms of its
founder, Cornelis Jacob van de Graaff, namely a silver shield
displaying two black stripes with embattled edges, and a golden canton
bearing a double-headed black eagle. An anchor was placed behind the
shield. The British authorities discontinued the drostdy seals in
1814, and replaced them with the royal coat of arms.
In September 1911, the Graaff Reinet municipal council adopted the Van
de Graaff arms, complete with crest (a double-headed black eagle),
supporters (two black eagles) and motto (Dieu mon conduise).
The coat of arms was re-designed in the 1980s, and registered at the
Bureau of Heraldry
Bureau of Heraldry in May 1979.
The arms were now: Argent, two bars embattled counter-embattled Gules,
on a canton Sable an anchor erect Or (i.e. the bars were changed from
black to red, and the canton to a gold anchor on a black background).
The crest was differenced by placing a golden anchor on the eagle's
breast. The supporters and motto remained the same.
The divisional council, i.e. the local authority for the rural areas
outside the town, assumed its own coat of arms, had it granted by the
provincial administrator in July 1966 and registered it at the
Bureau of Heraldry
Bureau of Heraldry in January 1969.
The arms were : Argent, on a chevron Vert. a pair of compasses
expanded Argent, in base a spade erect Sable, on a chief embattled
Sable a merino ram's head caboshed Or. In layman's terms, a silver
shield displaying, from top to bottom, a golden merino ram's head on a
black stripe with an embattled edge, a pair of silver compasses on a
green chevron, and an upright black spade.
The crest was a double-headed black eagle, and the motto was Monemus
Graaf Reinet Road Committee (1857). The Graaf Reinet Railway. Graaf
Reinet Road Committee. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
Cosmo Grenville Henning (1975). Graaff-Reinet. T.V. Bulpin.
Tony Westby-Nunn (2004). Graaff-Reinet: An Illustrated Historical
Guide to the Town Including Aberdeen and Nieu-Bethesda. Elephant Head
Publications. ISBN 978-0-620-31690-3.
List of heritage sites in Graaff-Reinet
^ "Chronological order of town establishment in
South Africa based on
Floyd (1960:20-26)" (PDF). pp. xlv–lii.
^ a b c d e f Sum of the Main Places Graaff Reinet and uMasizakhe from
^ Floyd, TB (1960). "What are the Oldest Towns in South
^ a b c d e f One or more of the preceding
sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public
domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Graaff Reinet".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
^ Burman, Jose (1984), Early Railways at the Cape. Cape Town: Human
& Rousseau, p.68. ISBN 0-7981-1760-5
^ Innocent Bloodauthor=Graham Jooste, Roger Webster. New Africa Books.
2002. p. 50. ISBN 0-86486-532-5. Retrieved 12 October
^ "NG Grootkerk History". Archived from the original on 4 September
2014. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
Dutch Reformed Church
Dutch Reformed Church Church Street Graaff-Reinet". South African
Heritage Resources Agency. Archived from the original on
^ "Things To Do In
Graaff-Reinet - Thyme & Again B&B".
Graaff-Reinet Accommodation - Thyme & Again B&B. Retrieved
Graaff-Reinet City website".
^ "Matthew Goniwe". SA History. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
^ Pama, C. (1965) Lions and Virgins.
Cape Town Gazette 418 (15 January 1814).
Western Cape Archives : Graaff Reinet Municipal Minutes (22
^ The arms were depicted on a cigarette card issued in 1931.
^ a b http://www.national.archsrch.gov.za[permanent dead link]
^ Cape of Good Hope Official Gazette 3354 (8 July 1966).
Media related to
Graaff-Reinet at Wikimedia Commons
Graaff-Reinet travel guide from Wikivoyage
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