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Gotland (, ; ''Gutland'' in the local dialect), also historically spelled Gottland or Gothland (), is Sweden's largest
island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), sometimes known as a coral atoll, is ...

island
. It is also a
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...

province
,
county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert Chambers (publisher bo ...

county
,
municipality A municipality is usually a single having status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. The term ''municipality'' may also mean the governing or ruling body of a gi ...
, and
diocese In Ecclesiastical polity, church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. History In the later organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided Roman province, prov ...
. The province includes the islands of
Fårö Fårö () is a Baltic Sea island just north of the island of Gotland, itself off mainland Sweden's southeastern coast. It is the second-largest island in the province and it is a popular summer resort. It has its own dialect (''Faroymal'', a dialec ...
and
Gotska Sandön Gotska Sandön (literally translated as "The Gotland Gotland (, ; ''Gutland'' in Gutnish, the local dialect), also historically spelled Gottland or Gothland (), is Sweden's largest island. It is also a Provinces of Sweden, province, Counties of ...
to the north, as well as the Karlsö Islands (
Lilla Lilla is a female given name, derived from Elizabeth (given name), Elizabeth. Given name * Lilla Barzó, a Hungarian tennis player * Lilla Bodor, a Hungarian painter * Lilla Brignone, an Italian film and theater actress * Lilla Cabot Perry, an Amer ...

Lilla
and
Stora Stora Enso Oyj (from sv, Stora and fi, Enso ) is a manufacturer of pulp, paper and other forest productA forest product is any material derived from forestry for direct consumption or commercial use, such as lumber, paper, or forage for liv ...

Stora
) to the west. The population is 58,595,Statistics Sweden (as of December 31, 2017)
/ref> of which about 23,600 live in
Visby Visby () is an urban area in Sweden and the seat of Gotland Municipality in Gotland County on the island of Gotland with 24,330 inhabitants . Visby is also the episcopal see for the Diocese of Visby. The Hanseatic League, Hanseatic city of ...

Visby
, the main town. Outside Visby, there are minor settlements and a mainly rural population. The island of Gotland and the other areas of the province of Gotland make up less than one percent of Sweden's total land area. The county formed by the archipelago is the second smallest by area and is the least populated in Sweden. In spite of the small size due to its narrow width, the driving distance between the furthermost points of the populated islands is about . Gotland has been inhabited since approximately 7200 BC. Its location in the centre of the
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the , enclosed by , , , , , , northeast , , and the . The sea stretches from to and from to . A of the Atlantic, with limited water exchange between the two water bodies, the Baltic Sea drains through the int ...

Baltic Sea
has historically given it great strategic importance. The island's main sources of income are agriculture, food processing, tourism, information technology services, design, and some heavy industry such as concrete production from locally mined
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its nat ...

limestone
. From a military viewpoint, it occupies a strategic location in the
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the , enclosed by , , , , , , northeast , , and the . The sea stretches from to and from to . A of the Atlantic, with limited water exchange between the two water bodies, the Baltic Sea drains through the int ...

Baltic Sea
. As of 2018, the
Gotland Regiment The Gotland Regiment ( sv, Gotlands regemente, P 18) is a Swedish Army armoured warfare, armoured regiment which has been active in various forms between 1963–1994 and 2000–2005, when it was disbanded. The regiment was re-raised on 1 January 2 ...
has been re-raised and it is the first time since World War II that a new regiment has been established in Sweden.


Name

The name of Gotland is closely related to that of the
Geats The Geats ( ; ang, gēatas ; non, gautar ; sv, götar ), sometimes called ''Geats#Goths, Goths'', were a large North Germanic peoples, North Germanic tribe who inhabited ("land of the Geats") in modern southern Sweden from antiquity until the ...
and Goths.


History


Prehistoric time to Viking Age

The island is the home of the Gutes, and sites such as the Ajvide Settlement show that it has been occupied since prehistory.Outram, A. K. 2006
Distinguishing bone fat exploitation from other taphonomic processes: what caused the high level of bone fragmentation at the Middle Neolithic site of Ajvide, Gotland?
pp. 32-43. In Mulville, J and Outram, A (eds). ''The Zooarchaeology of Milk and Fats''. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
A DNA study conducted on the 5,000-year-old skeletal remains of three Middle Neolithic seal hunters from Gotland showed that they were related to modern-day Finns, while a farmer from Gökhem parish in Västergötland on the mainland was found to be more closely related to modern-day Mediterraneans. This is consistent with the spread of agricultural peoples from the Middle East at about that time.DNA study published in nature.com on April 26, 2012. Pontus Skoglund on prehistoric Gotlanders: ''"The hunter-gatherers show the greatest similarity to modern-day Finns."''
/ref> Gutasaga contains legends of how the island was settled by Þjálfi and Röskva, Þieluar and populated by his descendants. It also tells that a third of the population had to emigrate and settle in southern Europe, a tradition associated with the migration of the Goths, whose name has the same origin as ''Gutes'', the native name of the people of the island. It later tells that the Gutes voluntarily submitted to the king of Sweden and asserts that the submission was based on mutual agreement, and notes the duties and obligations of the Swedish King and Bishop in relationship to Gotland. According to some historians, it is therefore an effort not only to write down the history of Gotland, but also to assert Gotland's independence from Sweden. It gives Awair Strabain as the name of the man who arranged the mutually beneficial agreement with the king of Sweden; the event would have taken place before the end of the 9th century, when Wulfstan of Hedeby reported that the island was subject to the Swedes: The number of Arabs, Arab dirhams discovered on the island of Gotland alone is astoundingly high. In the various hoards located around the island, there are more of these silver coins than at any other site in Western Eurasia. The total sum is almost as great as the number that has been unearthed in the entire Muslim world. These coins moved north through trade between Rus' people, Rus merchants and the Abbasid Caliphate, along the Silver-Fur Road, and the money made by Scandinavian merchants would help northern Europe, especially Viking Scandinavia and the Carolingian Empire, as major commercial centers for the next several centuries. The Berezan' Runestone, discovered in 1905 in Ukraine, was made by a Varangians, Varangian (Vikings, Viking) trader named Grani in memory of his félag, business partner Karl. It is assumed that they were from Gotland.


Notable archaeological findings

The Mästermyr chest, an important artefact from the Viking Age, was found in Gotland. On 16July 1999, the world's largest Viking silver treasure, the Spillings Hoard, was found in a field at Spillings farm northwest of Slite. The silver treasure was divided into two parts weighing a total of ( and ) and consisted mostly of coins, about 14,000, from foreign countries, mostly Islamic. It also contained about of bronze objects along with numerous everyday objects such as nails, glass beads, parts of tools, pottery, iron bands and clasps. The treasure was found by using a metal detector, and the finders fee, given to the farmer who owned the land, was over 2 million kronor (about US$308,000). The treasure was found almost by accident while filming a news report for TV4 (Sweden), TV4 about illegal treasure hunting on Gotland.


Middle Ages

Early on, Gotland became a commercial center, with the town of Visby the most important Hanseatic League, Hanseatic city in the Baltic Sea. In late medieval times, the island had twenty district courts (thing (assembly), tings), each represented by its elected judge at the island-ting, called ''landsting''. New laws were decided at the landsting, which also took other decisions regarding the island as a whole. The city of Visby and rest of the island were governed separately, and a civil war caused by conflicts between the German merchants in Visby and the peasants they traded with in the countryside Treaty of Gotland (1288), had to be put down by King Magnus III of Sweden in 1288. In 1361, Valdemar IV of Denmark, Valdemar Atterdag of Denmark invaded the island. About 1,500 Gotlandic farmers were killed by the Danish invaders after massing for Battle of Mästerby, battle at Mästerby. The Victual Brothers occupied the island in 1394 to set up a stronghold as a headquarters of their own in Visby. At last, Gotland became a fief of the Teutonic Knights, awarded to them on the condition that they expel the piratical Victual Brothers from their fortified sanctuary. An invading army of Teutonic Knights conquered the island in 1398, destroying Visby and driving the Victual Brothers from Gotland. In 1409, Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen of the Teutonic Knights guaranteed peace with the Kalmar Union of Scandinavia by selling the island of Gotland to Queen Margaret I of Denmark, Margaret of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The authority of the landsting was successively eroded after the island was occupied by the Teutonic Order, then sold to Eric of Pomerania and after 1449 ruled by Denmark, Danish governors. In late medieval times, the ting consisted of twelve representatives for the farmers, free-holders or tenants.


Early modern period

Since the Second Treaty of Brömsebro (1645), Treaty of Brömsebro in 1645, the island has remained under Swedish rule. On 19 September 1806, the Swedish government offered the sovereignty of Gotland to the Knights Hospitaller, Order of St. John of Jerusalem, who had been Mediterranean campaign of 1798#Malta, expelled from Malta in 1798, but the Order rejected the offer since it would have meant renouncing their claim to Malta. The Order never regained its territory, and eventually it reestablished itself in Rome as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. On 22 April 1808, during the Finnish War between Sweden and Russia, a Russian army landed on the southeastern shores of Gotland near Grötlingbo. Under command of Nikolai Bodisko, Nikolai Andreevich Bodisko 1,800 Russians took the city of
Visby Visby () is an urban area in Sweden and the seat of Gotland Municipality in Gotland County on the island of Gotland with 24,330 inhabitants . Visby is also the episcopal see for the Diocese of Visby. The Hanseatic League, Hanseatic city of ...

Visby
without any combat or engagement, and occupied the island. A Swedish naval force rescue expedition was sent from Karlskrona under the command of admiral Rudolf Cederström with 2,000 men; the island was liberated and the Russians capitulated. Russian forces left the island on 18 May 1808.


Administration

The traditional provinces of Sweden serve no administrative or political purposes today, but are historical and cultural entities. In the case of Gotland, however, due to its insular position, the administrative counties of Sweden, county (''län''), Gotland County, and the municipalities of Sweden, municipality (''kommun''), Region Gotland, both cover the same territory as the province. Furthermore, the diocese of Visby is also congruent with the province. Gotland is traditionally divided into 92 sockens. On 1January 2016, they were all reconstituted into Registration districts in Sweden, Districts, administrative areas with the same borders as the former sockens.


Heraldry

Gotland was granted its arms in about 1560. The coat of arms is represented with a ducal coronet. Blazon: "Azure a ram statant Argent armed Or holding on a cross-staff of the same a banner Gules bordered and with five tails of the third." The county was granted the same coat of arms in 1936. The municipality, created in 1971, uses the same picture, but with other tincture (heraldry), tinctures. The Gotlandic flag displays the Gotlandic coat of arms, white on red ground, known from the 13th century in the shape of the seal of the Gutnish Republic with the proud ram. It reads: "Gutenses signo xpistus signatur in agno".


Geography

Gotland is Sweden's largest island, and it is the largest island fully encompassed by the
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the , enclosed by , , , , , , northeast , , and the . The sea stretches from to and from to . A of the Atlantic, with limited water exchange between the two water bodies, the Baltic Sea drains through the int ...

Baltic Sea
(with Denmark's Zealand at the Baltic's edge). With its total area of the island of Gotland and the other areas of the province of Gotland make up 0.8% of Sweden's total land area. The province includes the small islands of Fårö and Gotska Sandön to the north, as well as the Karlsö Islands, (Lilla and Stora) to the west, which are even smaller. The island of Gotland has an area of , whereas the province has [ of land excluding the lakes and rivers]. The population is 57,221, of which about 23,600 live in Visby, the seat of the municipality as well as the capital of the county. About two-fifths of the island's population live in Visby. Gotland is located about east of the Swedish mainland and about from the Baltic states, Latvia being the nearest. Gotland is the name of the main island, but the adjacent islands are generally considered part of Gotland and the Gotlandic culture: * Furillen *
Fårö Fårö () is a Baltic Sea island just north of the island of Gotland, itself off mainland Sweden's southeastern coast. It is the second-largest island in the province and it is a popular summer resort. It has its own dialect (''Faroymal'', a dialec ...
*
Gotska Sandön Gotska Sandön (literally translated as "The Gotland Gotland (, ; ''Gutland'' in Gutnish, the local dialect), also historically spelled Gottland or Gothland (), is Sweden's largest island. It is also a Provinces of Sweden, province, Counties of ...
, a List of national parks of Sweden, National park of Sweden * The Karlsö Islands (Stora Karlsö and Lilla Karlsö) * Lau, Gotland#Lau Islets, Laus holmar * Ytterholmen * Östergarnsholm There are several shallow lakes located near the shores of the island. The biggest is Lake Bästeträsk, located near Fleringe in the northern part of Gotland. The Hoburg Shoal bird reserve is situated on the southern tip of the island. The highest point of the island is Lojsta#Lojsta Moor, Lojsta Hed which stands above sea level. Settlements besides Visby include: * Burgsvik * Fårösund * Hemse * Klintehamn * Roma, Gotland, Roma * Slite * Tofta, Gotland, Tofta * Vibble Of these, Hemse is the largest settlement in southern Gotland and along with Roma the two largest inland villages. Burgsvik is the southernmost locality and Fårösund the northernmost. The island of Fårö is permanently settled, but with only a few hundred year-round residents and lacks a permanent fixed link to the main island. Residents are depending on an around the clock, free of charge, Roll-on/roll-off, car ferry for transportation over a strait roughly wide, taking about eight minutes. Fårö may get connected to the main island with a bridge in the future, but the project has had plenty of delays related to funding. At the closest point, the two islands are separated by less than , although that is at a distance from road connections. Slite is the largest settlement on Gotland's sparsely populated east coast.


Climate

Gotland has a semi-continental variety of a oceanic climate, marine climate (Köppen climate classification, Cfb). This results in larger seasonal differences than typical of marine climates in spite of it being surrounded by the Baltic Sea for large distances in all directions. This is due to strong continental winds travelling over the sea from surrounding great landmasses. Seasonal temperature variation is smaller in more isolated places on the island such as Hoburgen or Östergarnsholm, having warmer autumn and winter, but are cooler during spring and summer days. Seasonal lag being exceptionally strong in the weather station Östergarnsholm. As an example, December is warmer than March with temperature lows being similar to April. August is typically the warmest month, an unusual occurrence in Swedish sites. In capital Visby, July and August temperatures tend to be quite even. Since winters usually remain just above freezing and brackish water remaining liquid longer than freshwater, the sea remains ice-free all year round, except during rare extreme cold waves. The last time the whole passage from the mainland to Gotland froze was in 1987 when icebreakers were used to maintain passenger and goods traffic to the island.


Geology

Gotland is made up of a sequence of sedimentary rocks of a Silurian age, dipping to the south-east. The main Silurian succession of
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its nat ...

limestone
s and shales comprises thirteen units spanning of stratigraphic thickness, being thickest in the south, and overlies a thick Ordovician sequence. It was deposited in a shallow, hot and salty sea, on the edge of an equatorial continent. The water depth never exceeded , and became shallower over time as Reef knoll, bioherm detritus, and terrestrial sediments, filled the basin. Reef growth started in the Llandovery, when the sea was , and reefs continued to dominate the sedimentary record. Some sandstones are present in the youngest rocks towards the south of the island, which represent sand bars deposited very close to the shore line. The lime rocks have been weathered into characteristic karstic List of rock formations, rock formations known as rauks. Fossils, mainly of crinoids, rugosa, rugose corals and brachiopods, are abundant throughout the island; palæo-Stack (geology), sea-stacks are preserved in places.


Economy

The island's main sources of income are agriculture along with food processing, tourism, IT solutions, design and some heavy industry such as concrete production from locally mined
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its nat ...

limestone
. Most of Gotland's economy is based on small scale production. In 2012, there were over 7,500 registered companies on Gotland. 1,500 of these had more than one employee. Gotland has the world's northernmost established vineyard and winery, located in Hablingbo.


Military

Gotland occupies a strategic location in the Baltic sea from a defence viewpoint. The Swedish government decided in March 2015, to begin reestablishing a permanent military presence on Gotland, starting with an initial 150 troop garrison, consisting primarily of elements from the Swedish Army. It has been reported that the bulk of this initial garrison will make up a new motorised rifle battalion,Gotland får permanent militär styrka
helagotland.se
alternatively referred to in other reports as a "modular-structured rapid response Army battalion". A later report claimed that plans were at an advanced stage for a Swedish Air Force#Helicopter units, support helicopter squadron and an Air Force "fast response Gripen jet squadron" to also be based on the island to support the new garrison and further reinforce the defences. Prior to the disbandment of the original garrison, there had been a continuous Swedish military presence on Gotland in one form or another, for nearly 200 years. After the standing down of the original garrison, a battalion of the Home Guard (Sweden), Swedish Home Guard is based on Gotland for emergencies as part of the Eastern Military Region (''MR E''). The unit, ''32:a Gotlandsbataljonen'' (the 32nd Gotland battalion), acts as a reserve component of the Swedish Amphibious Corps. Among the residual war reserve stocks reported to be still in storage on Gotland in March 2015, were 14 tanks (Stridsvagn 122s) at the ''Tofta skjutfält'' (the Tofta, Gotland, Tofta firing range), but without any crews or dedicated maintenance personnel assigned to them. Gotland currently has no local air defence capability. Despite its importance as a naval base in the past, , there are no naval units based out of Gotland. The Tofta firing range itself (also known as the Tofta Tank firing range), is a military training ground which is located south of Visby. Another less common name for the range is the Toftasjön firing range. Tracing its origins back to 1898, the range extended over . It was a major training and storage facility for the Gotland garrison during its existence, and was still occasionally used for training by various elements of the Swedish Armed Forces, Armed Forces since the garrison was shut down in 2005. However, from the second half of 2014 onwards, there has been a marked increase in the use of the range, especially by armored units (mostly company sized), as tensions in Northeastern Europe have escalated. At least one of the buildings on the range, the former tank Backshop, repair shop, is currently owned by a private company (Peab), with the military renting back the top floor for its own use. When not used by the military, a number of cultural and sports events have been held at the range, one of the most notable being the Gotland Grand National, the world's largest enduro race. As of 2018, Gotland has received a lot more attention military-wise and has seen a much larger spending on the military. As of 2018, the
Gotland Regiment The Gotland Regiment ( sv, Gotlands regemente, P 18) is a Swedish Army armoured warfare, armoured regiment which has been active in various forms between 1963–1994 and 2000–2005, when it was disbanded. The regiment was re-raised on 1 January 2 ...
has been re-raised and is the first time since World War II that a new regiment has been established in Sweden.


Tourism

The first modern day tourists came to Gotland during the 19th century and were known as "bathers". Gotland became very popular with socialites at the time through Princess Eugenie of Sweden and Norway, Princess Eugenie who lived in Västerhejde, in the west part of the island from the 1860s. When a new law ensuring two weeks vacation for all employees in Sweden was passed in 1938, camping became a popular pastime among the Swedes, and in 1955, Gotland was visited by 80,000 people. In the 1970s mostly young people were attracted to Gotland. Since 2010 the island has become a more versatile vacation spot visited by people from all over the world, in all manner of ways. In 2001, it was the fifth largest tourist destination in Sweden based on the total number of guest nights. Gotland is usually the part of Sweden which receives the most hours of sunlight during a year with Visby statistically the location with the most sunshine in Sweden. In 2007 approximately 750,000 people visited Gotland. In 1996, for the first time, ferries between Gotland and mainland Sweden carried more than 1 million passengers in a year. In 2007, the number of passengers exceeded 1.5 million. In 2012, the ferries had 1,590,271 passengers and the airlines 327,255 passengers.


Cruise ships and new pier

The main port of call on Gotland is Visby. The city is visited by a number of cruise ships every year. About 40 cruise lines frequent the Baltic sea with Visby as one of their destinations. In 2005, 147 ships docked at Visby, in 2010 the number was 69. In 2014, 62 ships are scheduled to visit Visby. The decrease in visiting ships is due to the fact that the modern cruise ships are too large to enter Visby harbor. Ships must anchor a fair distance from shore whereupon passengers are shuttled to shore in small boats, which is not possible during bad weather. In 2007, the first proposition for building a new pier at Visby harbor, large enough to serve the modern cruise ships, was made. In 2011, the matter of the new pier was discussed in the Riksdag and in 2012 research and planning for the pier began. In January 2014, a letter of intent for building a new cruise pier in Visby harbor was signed by Region Gotland and Copenhagen Malmö Port (CMP). The pier is scheduled to be finished in 2018. The estimated cost is 250 million Swedish krona, crowns (about US$38.52 million).


Culture

A number of stones with Grooves (archaeology), grooves exist on Gotland. Archaeologists interpret these grooves as traces of an unknown industrial process in the High Middle Ages. There are approximately 3,700 grinding grooves, of which about 750 occur in the solid limestone outcrop and the rest in other rock formations. The latter often consist of hard rocks such as granite or gneiss, but also soft rocks such as sandstone occur. Grinding grooves are also found in Skåne, in southern Sweden and in Finland. Astronomer Göran Henriksson dates a number of these grinding grooves to the Stone Age, from c. 3300 BCE to c. 2000 BCE, based on astronomical alignments, although his methodology has been heavily criticized. The Medieval town of Visby has been entered as a site of the UNESCO World Heritage Site, World heritage programme. An impressive feature of Visby is the fortress wall that surrounds the old city, dating from the 13th century. Many of the residents still speak Gutnish (Gutamål), the Indigenous language, autochthonous language on the islands. But most of them now speak Gotlandic ( sv, gotländska), a Gutnish-influenced Swedish dialect. In the 13th century, a work containing the laws of the island, called "the Gotlandic law" (Gutalagen), was published in Old Gutnish, as well as the Gutasaga. Gotland is noted for its 94 List of churches on Gotland, Medieval churches, most of which are restored and in active use. These churches exhibit two major styles of architecture: Romanesque architecture, Romanesque and Gothic architecture, Gothic. The older churches were constructed in the Romanesque style from 1150 to 1250. The newer churches were constructed in the Gothic architectural style that prevailed from about 1250–1400. The oldest painting inside one of the churches on Gotland stretches as far back in time as the 12th century. Traditional games of skill like Kubb, Pärk, and Varpa are played on Gotland. They are part of what has become called "Gutniska Lekar", and are performed preferably on the Midsummer's Eve celebration on the island, but also throughout the summer months. The games have widespread renown; some of them are played by people as far away as in the United States. The knotwork design subsequently named the "Valknut" has the most attested historic instances on picture stones in Gotland, which include being on both the Stora Hammars stones, Stora Hammars I and the Tängelgårda stones. Gotland also has a rich heritage of folklore, including myths about the bysen, ''Di sma undar jordi'', Hoburgsgubben and the Martebo lights. Gotland gives its name to the traditional farmhouse ale Gotlandsdricka, a turbid beer with much in common with Finnish sahti, and related beers from the Baltic states.


Notable people

There are a number of notable people born or living on Gotland, or in other major ways associated with the island.


Sport


Events

* Gotland competes in the biennial International Island Games Association, Island Games, which it hosted in 1999 Island Games, 1999 and 2017 Island Games, 2017. * Round Gotland Race-sailing event ("ÅF Offshore Race") starting at Stockholm, around the island of Gotland and back. * :sv:Gotland Grand National, Gotland Grand National (GGN) is an annual enduro race on Gotland. GGN is a part of the Swedish ''enduroklassikern'' (enduro classics, Ränneslättsloppet, Stångebroslaget and Gotland Grand National). GNN is the world's largest enduro race. * Stånga Games are annual games for Gotlandic sports. The games are held during five days each summer in Stånga. The games are unofficially called "the Gotland Olympic Games". Some of the sports at the Stånga Games are pärk, varpa and caber toss.


Organizations

In 2012, there were 171 registered sports organizations on Gotland. Gotland has two senior women's sport teams playing in the first tiers: basketball team Visby Ladies Basket Club (in Basketligan dam) and floorball team Endre IF (in the Swedish Super League (women's floorball), Swedish Super League). Visby Ladies won the Swedish Championship in 2005. Football in the province is administered by Gotlands Fotbollförbund. The leading football club is FC Gute, playing in the fourth-tier league Swedish Football Division 2, Division 2 . Visby/Roma HK is a Ice hockey, hockey club located in Visby, currently playing in group East of Hockeyettan.


In popular culture

''The Long Ships'', or ''Red Orm'' (original title: ''Röde Orm''), a best-selling Swedish novel written by Frans G. Bengtsson, contains a vivid description of Gotland in the Viking Age. A section of the book is devoted to a Viking ship setting out to Russia, stopping on its way at Gotland and engaging a pilot from the island who plays an important part in their voyage. Gotlanders of the Viking era are depicted as city people, more sophisticated and cosmopolitan than other Scandinavians of their time, and proud of their knowledge and skills. Naomi Mitchison, in her autobiographic book "''You may well ask''", relates an experience during a walking tour in Sweden: "Over in Gotland I walked again, further than I would have if I had realized that the milestones were in Scandinavian mile, old Swedish miles, so that my disappointing three-mile walk along the cold sea edge under the strange ancient fortifications was really fifteen English miles [24 km]".Naomi Mitchison, You may well ask", London, 1979, Part I, Chap 7. The crime novels of Mari Jungstedt, featuring Detective Superintendent Anders Knutas, are set on Gotland. In the ''Battlefield Vietnam'' video game Mod (video gaming), modification ''Invasion Gotland'', the Soviet Armed Forces, Soviet Union invades Gotland in 1977. For the 1989 Studio Ghibli film, ''Kiki's Delivery Service'', by Hayao Miyazaki, he and other illustrators spent time in Gotland in preparation for animation.


Astronomy

A number of asteroids in the Asteroid belt, main-belt are named after places on Gotland or Gotlanders, such as 10795 Babben, 3250 Martebo and 7545 Smaklösa. Most of them have been named by Swedish astronomer Claes-Ingvar Lagerkvist, a summer resident on Gotland. All the Gotlandic names are vividly described in NASA's JPL Small-Body Database in connection to each asteroid.


See also

* Cold War II * Danes * Danes (Germanic tribe) *
Geats The Geats ( ; ang, gēatas ; non, gautar ; sv, götar ), sometimes called ''Geats#Goths, Goths'', were a large North Germanic peoples, North Germanic tribe who inhabited ("land of the Geats") in modern southern Sweden from antiquity until the ...
* Germanic peoples * Gothic alphabet * Gothic language * Gotland Museum * Gotland National Conscription * HVDC Gotland * Kvenland * List of church ruins on Gotland * List of churches on Gotland * Norsemen * Old Norse * Proto-Norse language * Scandza * Sweden during World War II * Sweden proper * Vavle


References


Further reading

There are over 8,700 titles about Gotland in the National Library of Sweden on line database LIBRIS. About 560 of the books are in English. See
LIBRIS


External links

* *
''Gotland, facts and statistics 2013'', pdf, Gotland County.

Important years in Gotland' s history
''GotslandsResor'' tourist website
Official portal for Gotland County

Gotland administrative portal

Swedish Radio on Gotland, P4

Portal on Gotland with detailed facts about everything on the island

Commercial portal on Gotland

Official Gotland Tourist Association

Famous footprints – traveling on Gotland

Portal for eastern Gotland – Östergarnslandet

Portal for eastern Gotland – Ljugarn



Interactive map of Gotland

A short video (with music) with footage of the Gotland Grand National 2007

Gotland Grand National (GGN) webpage
(''Nordic Sport & Event'') {{Authority control Gotland, Provinces of Sweden Islands of Gotland County Swedish islands in the Baltic Ramsar sites in Sweden