Gospel According to John (Greek: Τὸ κατὰ Ἰωάννην
εὐαγγέλιον, translit. Tò katà Iōánnēn
euangélion; also called the
Gospel of John, the Fourth Gospel, or
simply John) is one of the four canonical gospels in the New
Testament. It traditionally appears fourth, after the Synoptic Gospels
of Matthew, Mark, and Luke.
Gospel of John is anonymous, Christian tradition
historically has attributed it to John the Apostle, son of
one of Jesus' Twelve Apostles. The gospel is so closely related in
style and content to the three surviving
Johannine epistles that
commentators treat the four books, along with the
Revelation, as a single corpus of Johannine literature, albeit not
necessarily written by the same author.[Notes 1]
C. K. Barrett,[Notes 2] and later Raymond E. Brown, suggested
that a tradition developed around the "Johannine Community", and that
this tradition gave rise to the gospel. The discovery of a large
number of papyrus fragments of manuscripts with Johannine themes has
led more scholars to recognize that the texts were among the most
influential in the early Church.
The discourses contained in this gospel seem to be concerned with
issues of the church–synagogue debate at the time of composition.
It is notable that in John, the community appears to define itself
primarily in contrast to Judaism, rather than as part of a wider
Christian community.[Notes 3] Though
Christianity started as a
movement within Judaism, it gradually separated from
of mutual opposition between the two religions.
1 Structure and content
Book of Signs
Book of Glory
2 Composition and setting
2.1 Authorship, date, and origin
2.3 Historical reliability
2.4 Textual history and position in the New Testament
3.3.1 Frequency of allusion
3.3.2 Importance to the evangelist
3.5 John the Baptist
3.6 Gnostic elements
4 Comparison with the synoptics
4.2 Theological emphasis
4.4 Literary style
6 See also
7.4 Further reading
8 External links
Structure and content
Gospel of John can be divided into four sections: a prologue
Book of Signs
Book of Signs (1:19–12:50), a
Book of Glory
(13:1–20:31), and an epilogue (21). The structure is highly
schematic: there are seven "signs" culminating in the raising of
Lazarus (foreshadowing the resurrection of Jesus), and seven "I am"
sayings and discourses, culminating in Thomas's proclamation of Jesus
as "my Lord and my God"—the same title (dominus et deus) claimed by
Roman Emperor Domitian.
Main article: Prologue to John
Jesus is placed in his cosmic setting as the
Logos made flesh who
reveals God and gives salvation to believers; John the Baptist,
Andrew, and Nathanael bear witness to him as the Lamb of God, the Son
of God, and the Christ.
Book of Signs
Book of Signs
The narrative of Jesus' public ministry, beginning with the
introduction of the first disciples of Jesus. It consists of seven
miracles, or "signs", interspersed with long dialogues, discourses,
"Amen, amen" sayings, and "I Am" sayings, culminating with the raising
of Lazarus from the dead. In John it is this, and not the cleansing of
the Temple, that prompts the authorities to have
Jesus executed. The
seven signs consist of Jesus' miracle at the wedding at Cana, his
healing the royal official's son, his healing the paralytic at
Bethesda, his feeding the 5,000, his walking on water, his healing the
man born blind, and his raising Lazarus from the dead. Other incidents
recounted in this segment of the gospel include the cleansing of the
Temple; Jesus' conversation with the Pharisee Nicodemus, wherein he
explains the importance of spiritual rebirth; his conversation with
the Samaritan woman at the well, wherein he gives the Water of Life
Discourse; the Bread of Life Discourse, which prompted many of his
disciples to leave; the Woman Taken in Adultery; Jesus' claims to be
the Light of the World; Jesus' answer to Pilate; the Good Shepherd
pericope; Jesus' rejection by the Jews; the
Jesus wept; the plot to
kill Jesus; the anointing of Jesus; Jesus' triumphal entry into
Jerusalem; the prediction of the glorification of the Son of Man; and
the prediction of the Last Judgment.
Book of Glory
Jesus giving the
Farewell Discourse to his 11 remaining disciples,
from the Maestà of Duccio, 1308–1311.
The narrative of Jesus' Passion, Resurrection, and post-Resurrection
appearances. The Passion narrative opens with an account of the Last
Supper that differs significantly from that found in the Synoptics,
Jesus washing the disciples' feet instead of ushering in a new
covenant of his body and blood. This is followed by Jesus'
Farewell Discourse, an account of his betrayal, arrest, trial, death,
burial, post-Resurrection appearances,[Notes 4] and final commission
for his followers. It also includes Peter's denial, the institution of
New Commandment and the New Covenant, the promise of the
Paraclete, the allegory of the True Vine, the High Priestly Prayer,
the ut omnes unum sint, the What is truth?, Jesus' mocking and
crowning with thorns, the Ecce homo, the discovery of the empty tomb,
the noli me tangere, the Great Commission, and the incredulity of
Thomas. The section ends with a conclusion on the purpose of the
gospel: "that [the reader] may believe that
Jesus is the Christ, the
Son of God, and that believing you may have life in his name."
Main article: John 21
The narrative of Jesus' post-Resurrection appearance to his disciples
by the lake, the miraculous catch of fish, the prophecy of the
crucifixion of Peter, the restoration of Peter, and the fate of the
Beloved Disciple. A majority of modern scholars believes this
chapter not to be integral to the original gospel.
Composition and setting
Authorship, date, and origin
Main article: Authorship of the Johannine works
Gospel of John is anonymous. According to a Church tradition
dating from the 2nd century, first attested by Irenaeus, the author
was "the Disciple whom
Jesus loved" mentioned in John 21:24, who
is understood to be John son of Zebedee, one of Jesus' Twelve
Apostles. These identifications, however, are rejected by many
modern biblical scholars.[Notes 5] Nevertheless, the author of
Gospel is sometimes called John the Evangelist, often out
of convenience since the definitive name of the author is still
John is usually dated to AD 90–110.[Notes 6] It arose in a
Jewish Christian community in the process of breaking from the Jewish
synagogue. Scholars believe that the text went through two to
three redactions, or "editions", before reaching its current
John, which regularly describes Jesus' opponents simply as "the Jews",
is more consistently hostile to "the Jews" than any other body of New
Testament writing.[Notes 7] Historian and former Roman Catholic
priest James Carroll states: "The climax of this movement comes in
chapter 8 of John, when
Jesus is portrayed as denouncing 'the Jews'
who were gathered at the Temple as the offspring of Satan." In
Jesus tells the Jews: "You are of your father the devil, and
the desires of your father you will do. He was a murderer from the
beginning, and he stood not in the truth; because truth is not in
him." In 8:38 and 11:53, "the Jews" are depicted as wishing to kill
Jesus. However, Carroll cautions that this and similar statements in
Gospel of Matthew and the 1 Thessalonians should be viewed as
"evidence not of Jew hatred but of sectarian conflicts among Jews" in
the early years of the Christian church.
As noted by
New Testament scholar Obrey M. Hendricks, Jr.: "Although
its scathing portrayal of the Jews has opened John to charges of
anti-Semitism, a careful reading reveals 'the Jews' to be a class
designation, not a religious or ethnic grouping; rather than denoting
Judaism in general, the term primarily refers to the
hereditary Temple religious authorities." In later centuries, John
was used to support anti-Semitic polemics, but the author of the
gospel regarded himself as a Jew, championed
Jesus and his followers
as Jews, and probably wrote for a largely Jewish community.
Rudolf Bultmann, in a seminal work published in 1941, argued that
John's sources were a hypothetical "Signs Gospel" listing Christ's
miracles, a revelation discourse, and a passion narrative. Bultmann's
work, combined with that of other scholars (the work of Raymond E.
Brown was particularly influential in the English-speaking world), led
to a scholarly consensus in the second half of the 20th century that
Gospel of John was independent of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, known
as the "Synoptic Gospels." This agreement broke down in the last
decade of the century, and there are now many scholars who believe
that John did know the Synoptics, especially Mark, while the
hypothesis of a "signs" source has been increasingly undermined.
But theories of either complete independence or complete dependence on
the Synoptics are largely rejected in current scholarship: on the one
hand, elements such as distinctive Johannine language, the lengthy
discourses, and the prologue on the Logos, are clearly unique to John;
on the other, John clearly shares a multitude of episodes with the
The most important sources used by the evangelist were the Jewish
scriptures (the Tanakh, more or less identical with the Christian Old
Testament), probably in the Greek translation. John quotes from them
directly, references important figures from them, and uses narratives
from them as the basis for several of the discourses. But the author
was also familiar with non-Jewish sources: the
Logos of the prologue
(the Word that is with God from the beginning of creation) derives
from both the Jewish concept of Lady Wisdom and from the Greek
John 6 alludes not only to the exodus but also to
Greco-Roman mystery cults, while
John 4 alludes to Samaritan messianic
Further information: Historicity of the Bible
Chapters 19 and 21 of John hint that "the Disciple whom
or "the Beloved Disciple", was an eyewitness to Jesus' ministry, but
the majority of scholars are cautious of accepting this at face
value. With the exception of the "Johannine Thunderbolt"
passages,[Notes 8] the teachings of
Jesus found in the synoptic
gospels are very different from those recorded in John, and since the
19th century some scholars have argued that these discourses in
Johannine style are less likely to be historical, and more likely to
have been written for theological purposes.
Scholars usually agree that John is not entirely without historical
value. It has become generally accepted that certain sayings in
John are as old or older than their synoptic counterparts. His
representation of the topography around
Jerusalem is often superior to
that of the Synoptics, his testimony that
Jesus was executed before,
rather than on, Passover, might well be more accurate, and his
Jesus in the garden and the prior meeting held by the
Jewish authorities are possibly more historically plausible than their
Textual history and position in the New Testament
Further information: Biblical manuscript
Papyrus is perhaps the earliest
New Testament fragment;
dated from its handwriting to about 125.
Papyrus P52, a Greek papyrus fragment with John
18:31–33 on one side and 18:37–38 on the other, commonly dated to
the first half of the 2nd century, is the oldest New Testament
manuscript known. A substantially complete text of John exists
from the beginning of the 3rd century at the latest, so that the
textual evidence for this gospel is commonly accepted as both earlier
and more reliable than that for any other. John stands fourth in the
standard ordering of the gospels, after Matthew, Mark and Luke.
Further information: Christology
Gospel of John presents a "high Christology," depicting
divine, and yet subordinate to the one God. John gives more focus
to the relationship of the Son to the Father than the Synoptics, as
seen in chapter 17 of the gospel. In the Synoptics,
Jesus speaks often
about the Kingdom of God while his own divine role is obscured (see
Messianic Secret), but in John,
Jesus talks openly about his divine
role, echoing the Jewish God's own statement of identity "I Am that I
Am" with several "I Am" declarations that also identify him with
symbols of major significance. He says "I am":
"the bread of life"[6:35]
"the light of the world"[8:12]
"the gate for the sheep"[10:7]
"the good shepherd"[10:11]
"the resurrection and the life"[11:25]
"the way and the truth and the life"[14:6] and
"the true vine"[15:1]
In the prologue, John identifies
Jesus as the
Logos (Word). In Ancient
Greek philosophy, the term logos meant the principle of cosmic reason.
In this sense, it was similar to the Hebrew concept of Wisdom, God's
companion and intimate helper in creation. The Hellenistic Jewish
Philo merged these two themes when he described the Logos
as God's creator of and mediator with the material world. The
evangelist adapted Philo's description of the Logos, applying it to
Jesus, the incarnation of the Logos.
The opening verse of John is translated as "the Word was with God and
the Word was God" in all "orthodox" English Bibles.[Notes 9] There are
alternative views. The Jehovah's Witnesses' New World Translation of
the Holy Scriptures renders the verse as "The Word was with God, and
the Word was a god." The Scholars Version of the gospel, developed by
Jesus Seminar, loosely translates the phrase as "The
what God was," offered as a better representation of the original
meaning of the evangelist.
The portrayal of Jesus' death in John is unique among the four
Gospels. It does not appear to rely on the kinds of atonement theology
indicative of vicarious sacrifice (cf. Mk 10:45, Rom 3:25) but rather
presents the death of
Jesus as his glorification and return to the
father. Likewise, the three "passion predictions" of the Synoptic
Gospels (Mk 8:31, 9:31, 10:33–34 and pars.) are replaced instead in
John with three instances of
Jesus explaining how he will be exalted
or "lifted up"(Jn 3:14, 8:28, 12:32). The verb for "lifted up"
reflects the double entendre at work in John's theology of the cross,
Jesus is both physically elevated from the earth at the
crucifixion but also, at the same time, exalted and glorified.
Further information: Sacrament
Among the most controversial areas of interpretation of John is its
sacramental theology. Scholars' views have fallen along a wide
spectrum ranging from anti-sacramental and non-sacramental, to
sacramental, to ultra-sacramental and hyper-sacramental. Scholars
disagree both on whether and how frequently John refers to the
sacraments at all, and on the degree of importance he places upon
them. Individual scholars' answers to one of these questions do not
always correspond to their answer to the other.
Frequency of allusion
According to Rudolf Bultmann, there are three sacramental allusions:
one to baptism (3:5), one to the
Eucharist (6:51–58), and one to
both (19:34). He believed these passages to be later interpolations,
though most scholars now reject this assessment. Some scholars on the
weaker-sacramental side of the spectrum deny that there are any
sacramental allusions in these passages or in the gospel as a whole,
while others see sacramental symbolism applied to other subjects in
these and other passages.
Oscar Cullmann and Bruce Vawter, a
Protestant and a Catholic respectively, and both on the
stronger-sacramental end of the spectrum, have found sacramental
allusions in most chapters. Cullmann found references to baptism and
Eucharist throughout the gospel, and Vawter found additional
references to matrimony in 2:1–11, anointing of the sick in
12:1–11, and penance in 20:22–23. Towards the center of the
spectrum, Raymond Brown is more cautious than Cullmann and Vawter but
more lenient than Bultmann and his school, identifying several
passages as containing sacramental allusions and rating them according
to his assessment of their degree of certainty.
Importance to the evangelist
Most scholars on the stronger-sacramental end of the spectrum assess
the sacraments as being of great importance to the evangelist.
However, perhaps counterintuitively, some scholars who find fewer
sacramental references, such as Udo Schnelle, view the references that
they find as highly important as well. Schnelle in particular views
John's sacramentalism as a counter to
Docetist anti-sacramentalism. On
the other hand, though he agrees that there are anti-Docetic passages,
James Dunn views the absence of a Eucharistic institution narrative as
evidence for an anti-sacramentalism in John, meant to warn against a
conception of eternal life as dependent on physical ritual.
In comparison to the synoptic gospels, the Fourth
Gospel is markedly
individualistic, in the sense that it places emphasis more on the
individual's relation to
Jesus than on the corporate nature of the
Church. This is largely accomplished through the consistently
singular grammatical structure of various aphoristic sayings of Jesus
throughout the gospel.[Notes 10] According to Richard Bauckham,
emphasis on believers coming into a new group upon their conversion is
conspicuously absent from John. There is also a theme of "personal
coinherence", that is, the intimate personal relationship between the
Jesus in which the believer "abides" in
Jesus and Jesus
in the believer.[Notes 11] According to C. F. D. Moule, the
individualistic tendencies of the Fourth
Gospel could potentially give
rise to a realized eschatology achieved on the level of the individual
believer; this realized eschatology is not, however, to replace
"orthodox", futurist eschatological expectations, but is to be "only
[their] correlative." Some have argued that the Beloved Disciple
is meant to be all followers of Jesus, inviting all into such a
personal relationship with Christ. Beyond this, the emphasis on the
individual's relationship with
Jesus in the
Gospel has suggested its
usefulness for contemplation on the life of Christ.
John the Baptist
Further information: John the Baptist
John's account of the Baptist is different from that of the synoptic
gospels. In this gospel, John is not called "the Baptist." The
Baptist's ministry overlaps with that of Jesus; his baptism of Jesus
is not explicitly mentioned, but his witness to
unambiguous. The evangelist almost certainly knew the story of
John's baptism of
Jesus and he makes a vital theological use of
it. He subordinates the Baptist to Jesus, perhaps in response to
members of the Baptist's sect who regarded the
Jesus movement as an
offshoot of their movement.
In John's gospel,
Jesus and his disciples go to
Judea early in Jesus'
John the Baptist
John the Baptist was imprisoned and executed by Herod.
He leads a ministry of baptism larger than John's own. The Jesus
Seminar rated this account as black, containing no historically
accurate information. According to the biblical historians at the
Jesus Seminar, John likely had a larger presence in the public mind
Further information: Christian Gnosticism
Although not commonly understood as Gnostic, many scholars, including
Bultmann, have forcefully argued that the
Gospel of John has elements
in common with Gnosticism.
Christian Gnosticism did not fully
develop until the mid-2nd century, and so 2nd-century Proto-Orthodox
Christians concentrated much effort in examining and refuting it.
To say John's gospel contained elements of
Gnosticism is to assume
Gnosticism had developed to a level that required the author to
respond to it. Bultmann, for example, argued that the opening
theme of the
Gospel of John, the pre-existing Logos, was actually a
Gnostic theme. Other scholars, e.g.
Raymond E. Brown have argued that
Logos theme arises from the more ancient Jewish
writings in the eighth chapter of the
Book of Proverbs, and was fully
developed as a theme in Hellenistic
Gnosticism are based not in what the author says, but
in the language he uses to say it, notably, use of the concepts of
Logos and Light. Other scholars, e.g. Raymond E. Brown, have
argued that the ancient Jewish
Qumran community also used the concept
of Light versus Darkness. The arguments of Bultmann and his school
were seriously compromised by the mid-20th-century discoveries of the
Nag Hammadi library of genuine Gnostic writings (which are dissimilar
Gospel of John) as well as the
Qumran library of Jewish
writings (which are often similar to the
Gospel of John).
Gnostics read John but interpreted it differently from the way
Gnosticism taught that salvation came from
gnosis, secret knowledge, and Gnostics did not see
Jesus as a savior
but a revealer of knowledge.
Barnabas Lindars asserts that the
gospel teaches that salvation can only be achieved through revealed
wisdom, specifically belief in (literally belief into) Jesus.
Raymond Brown contends that "The Johannine picture of a savior who
came from an alien world above, who said that neither he nor those who
accepted him were of this world, and who promised to return to
take them to a heavenly dwelling could be fitted into the gnostic
world picture (even if God's love for the world in 3:16 could
not)." It has been suggested that similarities between John's
Gnosticism may spring from common roots in Jewish
Comparison with the synoptics
Gospel of John is significantly different from the synoptic
gospels, with major variations in material, theological emphasis,
chronology, and literary style. There are also some discrepancies
between John and the Synoptics, some amounting to contradictions.
John lacks scenes from the Synoptics such as Jesus' baptism, the
calling of the Twelve, exorcisms, parables, the Transfiguration, and
the Last Supper. Conversely, it includes scenes not found in the
Jesus turning water into wine at the wedding at
Cana, the resurrection of Lazarus,
Jesus washing the feet of his
disciples, and multiple visits to Jerusalem.
In the fourth gospel, Jesus' mother Mary, while frequently mentioned,
is never identified by name. John does assert that
known as the "son of Joseph" in 6:42. For John, Jesus' town of origin
is irrelevant, for he comes from beyond this world, from God the
While John makes no direct mention of Jesus' baptism, he does
quote John the Baptist's description of the descent of the Holy Spirit
as a dove, as happens at Jesus' baptism in the Synoptics. Major
synoptic speeches of
Jesus are absent, including the Sermon on the
Mount and the Olivet Discourse, and the exorcisms of demons are
never mentioned as in the Synoptics. John never lists all of
Twelve Disciples and names at least one disciple, Nathanael, whose
name is not found in the Synoptics. Thomas is given a personality
beyond a mere name, described as "Doubting Thomas".
Jesus is identified with the Word ("Logos"), and the Word is
identified with theos ("god" in Greek); no such identification is
made in the Synoptics. In Mark,
Jesus urges his disciples to keep
his divinity secret, but in John he is very open in discussing it,
even referring to himself as "I AM", the title God gives himself in
Exodus at his self-revelation to Moses. In the Synoptics, the chief
theme is the Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of Heaven (the latter
specifically in Matthew), while John's theme is
Jesus as the source of
eternal life and the Kingdom is only mentioned twice. In
contrast to the synoptic expectation of the Kingdom (using the term
parousia, meaning "coming"), John presents a more individualistic,
realized eschatology.[Notes 12]
In the Synoptics, the ministry of
Jesus takes a single year, but in
John it takes three, as evidenced by references to three Passovers.
Events are not all in the same order: the date of the crucifixion is
different, as is the time of Jesus' anointing in
Bethany and the
cleansing of the temple occurs in the beginning of Jesus' ministry
rather than near its end.
In the Synoptics, quotations from
Jesus are usually in the form of
short, pithy sayings; in John, longer quotations are often given. The
vocabulary is also different, and filled with theological import: in
Jesus does not work "miracles" (Greek: δῠνάμεις,
translit. dynámeis, sing. δύνᾰμῐς, dýnamis), but
"signs" (Greek: σημεῖᾰ, translit. sēmeia, sing.
σημεῖον, sēmeion) which unveil his divine identity. Most
scholars consider John not to contain any parables. Rather it
contains metaphorical stories or allegories, such as those of the Good
Shepherd and of the True Vine, in which each individual element
corresponds to a specific person, group, or thing. Some scholars,
however, find some such parables as the short story of the
childbearing woman (16:21) or the dying grain (12:24).[Notes 13]
According to the Synoptics, the arrest of
Jesus was a reaction to the
cleansing of the temple, while according to John it was triggered by
the raising of Lazarus. The Pharisees, portrayed as more uniformly
legalistic and opposed to
Jesus in the synoptic gospels, are instead
portrayed as sharply divided; they debate frequently in John's
accounts. Some, such as Nicodemus, even go so far as to be at least
partially sympathetic to Jesus. This is believed to be a more accurate
historical depiction of the Pharisees, who made debate one of the
tenets of their system of belief.
Bede translating the
Gospel of John on his deathbed, by James Doyle
The gospel has been depicted in live narrations and dramatized in
productions, skits, plays, and Passion Plays, as well as in film. The
most recent such portrayal is the 2014 film 'The
Gospel of John',
directed by David Batty and narrated by
David Harewood and Brian Cox,
Selva Rasalingam as Jesus. The 2003 film The
Gospel of John, was
directed by Philip Saville, narrated by Christopher Plummer, with
Henry Ian Cusick
Henry Ian Cusick as Jesus.
Parts of the gospel have been set to music. One such setting is Steve
Warner's power anthem "Come and See", written for the 20th anniversary
of the Alliance for Catholic Education and including lyrical fragments
taken from the
Book of Signs. Additionally, some composers have made
settings of the Passion as portrayed in the gospel, most notably the
one composed by Johann Sebastian Bach, although some verses are
borrowed from Matthew.
Chronology of Jesus
Free Grace theology
Bible verses not included in modern translations
List of Gospels
Textual variants in the
Gospel of John
^ Harris 2006, p. 479: "Most scholars believe that the same
person wrote all three documents but that he is not to be identified
with either the apostle John or the author of the Gospel."
^ The use of first person plural in John, specially in the letters, is
the base of these theories. Barrett quotes on that sense Robinson, who
in 1965 asserted "the gospel is composed in
Judea and under the
pressure of controversy with "the jews" [sic] of that area. But in
its present form it is an appeal to those outside the Church, to win
to the faith that Greek speaking Diaspora
Judaism to which the author
now finds himself belonging".
^ Chilton & Neusner 2006, p. 5: "by their own word what they
(the writers of the New Testament) set forth in the
New Testament must
qualify as a Judaism. ... [T]o distinguish between the religious
world of the
New Testament and an alien
Judaism denies the authors of
New Testament books their most fiercely held claim and renders
incomprehensible much of what they said."
^ The resurrection itself is not detailed in the gospel, though it is
entailed from the post-resurrection appearances.
^ For the circumstances which led to the formation of the tradition,
and the reasons why the majority of modern scholars reject it, see
Lindars, Edwards & Court 2000, pp. 41–42. For arguments in
support of the tradition, see Craig, Blomberg (2009).
Jesus and the
Gospels. pp. 197–98.
^ For the reasons behind this, see Lincoln 2005, p. 18
^ For details see Dunn 1992, p. 183
^ The term Johannine Thunderbolt refers to the Q source–derived
logion in Matthew 11:25–27 and Luke 10:21–22. The phrase was
Karl von Hase
Karl von Hase in an 1823–24 lecture series entitled
Geschichte Jesu: "... wie ein Aerolith aus dem johanneischen
Himmel gefallen ..." ("... a meteorite fallen from the
Johannine sky ...")
^ That is, the New International Version, Today's New International
Version, the New American Standard Bible, the New American Bible, the
New American Bible
New American Bible Revised Edition, the Amplified Bible, the New
Living Translation, the Douay–Rheims Bible, the King James Version,
Young's Literal Translation, the Darby Translation, and the Wycliffe
New Testament, to name a few.
^ Bauckham (2015) contrasts John's consistent use of the third person
singular ("The one who ..."; "If anyone ..."; "Everyone
who ..."; "Whoever ..."; "No one ...") with the
alternative third person plural constructions he could have used
instead ("Those who ..."; ""All those who ..."; etc.). He
also notes that the sole exception occurs in the prologue, serving a
narrative purpose, whereas the later aphorisms serve a "paraenetic
^ See John 6:56, 10:14–15, 10:38, and 14:10, 17, 20, and 23.
Realized eschatology is a Christian eschatological theory
C. H. Dodd (1884–1973). It holds that the
eschatological passages in the
New Testament do not refer to future
events, but instead to the ministry of
Jesus and his lasting
legacy. In other words, it holds that Christian eschatological
expectations have already been realized or fulfilled.
^ See Zimmermann 2015, pp. 333–60.
^ a b Burkett 2002, p. 215.
^ Lindars 1990, p. 63.
^ Barrett 1978, p. 133.
^ Barrett 1978, p. 137.
^ Brown 1966, p. 43.
^ Ehrman 2009.
^ De Santos Otero 1993, p. 97.
^ Lindars 1990, p. 53.
^ Lindars 1990, p. 59.
^ Köstenberger, Kellum & Quarles 2009, p. 305.
^ Witherington 2004, p. 83.
^ a b c Edwards 2015, p. 171.
^ a b c Harris 2006.
^ Bauckham 2007, p. 271.
^ John 21:24
^ Joel B. Green, Scot McKnight, I. Howard Marshall (1992). Dictionary
Jesus and the Gospels: A Compendium of Contemporary Biblical
Scholarship. InterVarsity Press. p. 369.
ISBN 978-0-8308-1777-1. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors
^ Lindars, Edwards & Court 2000, p. 41–42.
^ Lincoln 2005, p. 18.
^ Burkett 2002, pp. 215–16.
^ Edwards 2015, p. ix.
^ Ehrman 2004, pp. 164–65.
^ Dunn 1992, pp. 182–83, 195.
^ Carroll 2001, p. 92.
^ Carroll 2001, p. 85.
^ Hendricks 2007.
^ Senior 1991, pp. 155–56.
^ Dunn 1992, p. 209.
^ Lincoln 2005, pp. 29–30.
^ Porter 2015, pp. 69–70.
^ Reinhartz 2011, p. 155.
^ Witherington 2004, p. 84.
^ Kysar 2007, p. 80.
^ Denaux 1992, pp. 113–47.
^ Sanders 1995, pp. 57, 70–71.
^ a b Theissen & Merz 1998, pp. 36–37.
^ Metzger & Ehrman 1985, pp. 55–56.
^ Hurtado 2005, p. 53.
^ a b Harris 2006, pp. 302–10.
^ a b Funk &
Jesus Seminar 1998, pp. 365–440.
^ Robert Kysar, "John: The Maverick Gospel" (Louisville: Westminster
John Knox), 1976, pp. 49–54
^ a b c d e f g Bauckham 2015.
^ a b Moule 1962, p. 172.
^ Moule 1962, p. 174.
^ Shea, SJ, Henry J. (Summer 2017). "The
Beloved Disciple and the
Spiritual Exercises". Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits. 49
^ a b Cross & Livingstone 2005.
^ Barrett 1978, p. 16.
^ Funk &
Jesus Seminar 1998, p. 268.
^ Olson 1999, p. 36.
^ Kysar 2005, pp. 88ff.
^ Brown 1997.
^ Van den Broek & Vermaseren 1981, pp. 467ff.
^ Combs 1987.
^ Most 2005, pp. 121ff.
^ Skarsaune 2008, pp. 247ff.
^ Lindars 1990, p. 62.
^ John 17:14
^ John 14:2–3
^ Brown 1997, p. 375.
^ Kovacs 1995.
^ a b c d e f g h Burge 2014, pp. 236–37.
^ a b c Funk, Hoover &
Jesus Seminar 1993, pp. 1–30.
^ Williamson 2004, p. 265.
^ Michaels 1971, p. 733.
^ Fredriksen 2008.
^ Pagels 2003.
^ a b Thompson 2006, p. 184.
^ Walvoord, John F. (1985). The
Bible Knowledge Commentary. Wheaton,
IL: Victor Books. p. 313.
^ Ehrman 2005.
^ Carson, D. A. (1991). The Pillar
New Testament Commentary: The
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^ Moule 1962, pp. 172–74.
^ Sander 2015.
^ Ladd & Hagner 1993, p. 56.
^ Barry 1911.
^ Neusner 2003, p. 8.
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A Brief Introduction to the
Gospel According to John
Gospel According to John,
Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
A textual commentary on the
Gospel of John Detailed text; critical
discussion of the 300 most important variants of the Greek text (PDF,
376 pages; archived on 4 March 2016)
John Rylands papyrus: text, translation, illustration and a
bibliography of the discussion
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