The GOSPEL ACCORDING TO JOHN (Greek : Τὸ κατὰ Ἰωάννην
εὐαγγέλιον, translit. _To kata Iōánnēn euangélion_;
also called the GOSPEL OF JOHN, the FOURTH GOSPEL, or simply JOHN) is
one of the four canonical gospels in the
New Testament . It
traditionally appears fourth, after the synoptic gospels of Matthew ,
Mark , and Luke .
Gospel of John is anonymous, Christian tradition
historically has attributed it to
John the Apostle , son of Zebedee
and one of Jesus'
Twelve Apostles . The gospel is so closely related
in style and content to the three surviving
Johannine epistles that
commentators treat the four books, along with the
Book of Revelation
, as a single corpus of
Johannine literature , albeit not necessarily
written by the same author.
C. K. Barrett , and later
Raymond E. Brown , suggested that a
tradition developed around the "Johannine Community ", and that this
tradition gave rise to the gospel. The discovery of a large number of
papyrus fragments of manuscripts with Johannine themes has led more
scholars to recognize that the texts were among the most influential
in the early Church.
The discourses contained with this gospel seem to be concerned with
issues of the church–synagogue debate at the time of composition.
It is notable that in John, the community appears to define itself
primarily in contrast to
Judaism , rather than as part of a wider
Christian community. Though
Christianity started as a movement within
Judaism, it gradually separated from
Judaism because of mutual
opposition between the two religions.
* 1 Structure and content
* 1.1 Prologue
Book of Signs
Book of Glory
* 1.4 Epilogue
* 2 Composition and setting
* 2.1 Authorship, date, and origin
* 2.2 Sources
* 2.3 Historical reliability
* 2.4 Textual history and position in the
* 3 Theology
* 3.1.1 Jesus\' divine role
* 3.2 Cross
* 3.3 Sacraments
* 3.3.1 Frequency of allusion
* 3.3.2 Importance to the evangelist
* 3.4 Individualism
John the Baptist
John the Baptist
* 3.6 Gnostic elements
* 4 Comparison with the synoptics
* 4.1 Material
* 4.2 Theological emphasis
* 4.3 Chronology
* 4.4 Literary style
* 4.5 Discrepancies
* 5 Representations
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 7.1 Notes
* 7.2 Footnotes
* 7.3 Bibliography
* 7.4 Further reading
* 8 External links
STRUCTURE AND CONTENT
Gospel of John can be divided into four sections: a prologue
Book of Signs (1:19–12:50), a
Book of Glory
(13:1–20:31), and an epilogue (21). The structure is highly
schematic: there are seven "signs" culminating in the raising of
Lazarus (foreshadowing the resurrection of
Jesus ), and seven "I am"
sayings and discourses, culminating in Thomas's proclamation of Jesus
as "my lord and my God"—the same title (_dominus et deus_) claimed
by Roman Emperor
Prologue to John
Jesus is placed in his cosmic setting as the eternal
Logos made flesh
who reveals God and gives salvation to believers;
John the Baptist
John the Baptist ,
Andrew , and Nathanael bear witness to him as the
Lamb of God , the
Son of God , and the
BOOK OF SIGNS
Book of Signs
The narrative of Jesus\' public ministry , beginning with the
introduction of the first disciples of
Jesus . It consists of seven
miracles, or "signs", interspersed with long dialogues, discourses,
"Amen, amen" sayings, and "I Am " sayings, culminating with the
raising of Lazarus from the dead. In John it is this, and not the
cleansing of the Temple , that prompts the authorities to have Jesus
executed . The seven signs consist of Jesus' miracle at the wedding at
Cana , his healing the royal official\'s son , his healing the
paralytic at Bethesda , his feeding the 5,000 , his walking on water ,
his healing the man born blind , and his raising Lazarus from the
dead. Other incidents recounted in this segment of the gospel include
the cleansing of the Temple ; Jesus' conversation with the Pharisee
Nicodemus , wherein he explains the importance of spiritual rebirth ;
his conversation with the
Samaritan woman at the well , wherein he
Water of Life Discourse ; the
Bread of Life Discourse ,
which prompted many of his disciples to leave ; the Woman Taken in
Adultery ; Jesus' claims to be the
Light of the World ; Jesus\' answer
to Pilate ; the
Good Shepherd pericope ; Jesus' rejection by the Jews
; the _
Jesus wept _; the plot to kill Jesus; the anointing of
Jesus' triumphal entry into
Jerusalem ; the prediction of the
glorification of the Son of Man ; and the prediction of the Last
BOOK OF GLORY
Jesus giving the
Farewell Discourse to his 11 remaining
disciples, from the
Maestà of Duccio , 1308–1311.
The narrative of Jesus' Passion , Resurrection , and
post-Resurrection appearances . The Passion narrative opens with an
account of the
Last Supper that differs significantly from that found
in the synoptics, with
Jesus washing the disciples\' feet instead of
ushering in a new covenant of his body and blood . This is followed
Farewell Discourse , an account of his betrayal , arrest ,
trial , death , burial , post-Resurrection appearances , and final
commission for his followers. It also includes Peter\'s denial , the
institution of the
New Commandment and the
New Covenant , the promise
Paraclete , the allegory of the
True Vine , the High Priestly
Prayer , the _ut omnes unum sint _, the _What is truth?_, Jesus\'
mocking and crowning with thorns , the _
Ecce homo _, the discovery of
the empty tomb , the _noli me tangere_ , the
Great Commission , and
the incredulity of Thomas . The section ends with a conclusion on the
purpose of the gospel: "that may believe that
Jesus is the
the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in his name."
The narrative of Jesus' post-Resurrection appearance to his disciples
by the lake, the miraculous catch of fish , the prophecy of the
crucifixion of Peter , the restoration of Peter , and the fate of the
Beloved Disciple . A large majority of scholars believes this chapter
to be an addition to the gospel.
COMPOSITION AND SETTING
AUTHORSHIP, DATE, AND ORIGIN
Authorship of the Johannine works
Gospel of John is anonymous. Traditionally, Christians have
identified the author as "the
Disciple whom Jesus loved " mentioned in
John 21:24, who is understood to be John son of Zebedee, one of
Twelve Apostles . These identifications, however, are rejected
by the majority of modern biblical scholars . Nevertheless, the
author of the fourth
Gospel is sometimes called
John the Evangelist
John the Evangelist ,
often out of convenience since the true name of the author remains
A significant minority consider the traditional account of John the
Apostle's authorship to be genuine. Scholars have argued that the
stylistic unity of John is a significant barrier to theories of
multiple stages of editing, with
D. A. Carson and Douglas J. Moo
arguing that "stylistically it is cut from one cloth". In addition,
the ancient external attestation for Johannine authorship is strong
and consistent. As
Craig Blomberg has noted, "No orthodox writer ever
proposes any other alternative for the author of the Fourth
the book is accepted in all of the early canonical lists, which is all
the more significant given the frequent heterodox misinterpretations
John is usually dated to AD 90–110. It arose in a Jewish
Christian community in the process of breaking from the Jewish
synagogue. Scholars believe that the text went through two to three
redactions, or "editions", before reaching its current form.
John, which regularly describes Jesus' opponents simply as "the
Jews", is more consistently hostile to "the Jews" than any other body
New Testament writing. Historian and former Roman Catholic priest
James Carroll states: "The climax of this movement comes in chapter 8
of John, when
Jesus is portrayed as denouncing 'the Jews' as the
offspring of Satan." In John 8:44
Jesus tells the Jews: "You are of
your father the devil, and the desires of your father you will do. He
was a murderer from the beginning, and he stood not in the truth;
because truth is not in him." In 8:38 and 11:53, "the Jews" are
depicted as wishing to kill Jesus. However, Carroll cautions that this
and similar statements in the
Gospel of Matthew and the 1
Thessolonians should be viewed as "evidence not of Jew hatred but of
sectarian conflicts among Jews" in the early years of the Christian
As noted by
New Testament scholar Obrey M. Hendricks, Jr.: "Although
its scathing portrayal of the Jews has opened John to charges of
anti-Semitism , a careful reading reveals 'the Jews' to be a class
designation, not a religious or ethnic grouping; rather than denoting
Judaism in general, the term primarily refers to the
hereditary Temple religious authorities." In later centuries, John
was used to support anti-Semitic polemics, but the author of the
gospel regarded himself as a Jew, championed
Jesus and his followers
as Jews, and probably wrote for a largely Jewish community.
Rudolf Bultmann , in a seminal work published in 1941, argued that
John's sources were a hypothetical "
Signs Gospel " listing Christ's
miracles, a revelation discourse, and a passion narrative. Bultmann's
work, combined with that of other scholars (the work of Raymond E.
Brown was particularly influential in the English-speaking world), led
to a scholarly consensus in the second half of the 20th century that
Gospel of John was independent of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, known
as the synoptic gospels . This agreement broke down in the last decade
of the century, and there are now many scholars who believe that John
did know the synoptics, especially Mark, while the hypothesis of a
"signs" source has been increasingly undermined.
But theories of either complete independence of or complete
dependence on the synoptics are largely rejected in current
scholarship: on the one hand, elements such as distinctive Johannine
language, the lengthy discourses, and the prologue on the Logos, are
clearly unique to John; on the other, John clearly shares a multitude
of episodes with the other three.
The most important sources used by the evangelist were the Jewish
Tanakh , more or less identical with the Christian Old
Testament ), probably in the Greek translation. John quotes from them
directly, references important figures from them, and uses narratives
from them as the basis for several of the discourses. But the author
was also familiar with non-Jewish sources: the
Logos of the prologue
(the Word that is with God from the beginning of creation) derives
from both the Jewish concept of Lady Wisdom and from the Greek
John 6 alludes not only to the exodus but also to
Greco-Roman mystery cults, while
John 4 alludes to Samaritan messianic
Historicity of the Bible
Chapters 19 and 21 of John hint that "the Disciple whom
", or "the Beloved Disciple", was an eyewitness to Jesus' ministry,
but the majority of scholars are cautious of accepting this at face
value. With the exception of the "Johannine Thunderbolt" passages,
the teachings of
Jesus found in the synoptic gospels are very
different from those recorded in John, and since the 19th century some
scholars have argued that these discourses in Johannine style are less
likely to be historical, and more likely to have been written for
Scholars usually agree that John is not entirely without historical
value. It has become generally accepted that certain sayings in John
are as old or older than their synoptic counterparts. His
representation of the topography around
Jerusalem is often superior to
that of the synoptics, his testimony that
Jesus was executed before,
rather than on, Passover, might well be more accurate, and his
Jesus in the garden and the prior meeting held by the
Jewish authorities are possibly more historically plausible than their
TEXTUAL HISTORY AND POSITION IN THE NEW TESTAMENT
Biblical manuscript The Rylands
perhaps the earliest
New Testament fragment; dated from its
handwriting to about 125.
Papyrus P52 , a Greek papyrus fragment with John
18:31–33 on one side and 18:37–38 on the other, commonly dated to
the first half of the 2nd century, is the oldest New Testament
manuscript known. A substantially complete text of John exists from
the beginning of the 3rd century at the latest, so that the textual
evidence for this gospel is commonly accepted as both earlier and more
reliable than that for any other. John stands fourth in the standard
ordering of the gospels, after Matthew, Mark and Luke.
Gospel of John presents a "high Christology," depicting
divine, and yet, according to some unorthodox interpretations,
subordinate to the one God. However, in his _
Summa Theologiae _,
Thomas Aquinas flatly rejects any denial of equality among the persons
Trinity , including denials based on Johannine passages.
John's gospel gives more focus to the relationship of the Son to the
Father than the synoptics , as seen in chapter 17 of the gospel.
Jesus\' Divine Role
In the synoptics,
Jesus speaks often about the Kingdom of God ; his
own divine role is obscured (see
Messianic Secret ). In John, Jesus
talks openly about his divine role. He echoes the Father's own
statement of identity, i.e. "I Am Who I Am ", with several "I Am "
declarations that also identify him with symbols of major
significance. He says "I am":
* "the bread of life "
* "the light of the world "
* "the gate for the sheep"
* "the good shepherd "
* "the resurrection and the life"
* "the way and the truth and the life " and
* "the true vine "
In the prologue, John identifies
Jesus as the
Logos (Word). In
Ancient Greek philosophy , the term _logos _ meant the principle of
cosmic reason. In this sense, it was similar to the Hebrew concept of
Wisdom , God's companion and intimate helper in creation. The
Hellenistic Jewish philosopher
Philo merged these two themes when he
Logos as God's creator of and mediator with the material
world. The evangelist adapted Philo's description of the Logos,
applying it to Jesus, the incarnation of the Logos.
The opening verse of John is translated as "the Word was with God and
the Word was God" in all "orthodox " English Bibles. There are
alternative views. The
New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures of
Jehovah\'s Witnesses has "The Word was with God, and the Word was a
god." The Scholars Version of the gospel, developed by the Jesus
Seminar , loosely translates the phrase as "The
Logos was what God
was," offered as a better representation of the original meaning of
The portrayal of Jesus' death in John is unique among the four
Gospels. It does not appear to rely on the kinds of atonement theology
indicative of vicarious sacrifice (cf. Mk 10:45, Rom 3:25) but rather
presents the death of
Jesus as his glorification and return to the
father. Likewise, the three "passion predictions" of the Synoptic
Gospels (Mk 8:31, 9:31, 10:33-34 and pars.) are replaced instead in
John with three instances of
Jesus explaining how he will be exalted
or "lifted up"(Jn 3:14, 8:28, 12:32). The verb for "lifted up"
reflects the double entendre at work in John's theology of the cross,
Jesus is both physically elevated from the earth at the
crucifixion but also, at the same time, exalted and glorified.
Among the most controversial areas of interpretation of John is its
sacramental theology. Scholars' views have fallen along a wide
spectrum ranging from anti-sacramental and non-sacramental, to
sacramental, to ultra-sacramental and hyper-sacramental. Scholars
disagree both on whether and how frequently John refers to the
sacraments at all, and on the degree of importance he places upon
them. Individual scholars' answers to one of these questions do not
always correspond to their answer to the other.
Frequency Of Allusion
Rudolf Bultmann , there are three sacramental allusions:
one to baptism (3:5), one to the
Eucharist (6:51–58), and one to
both (19:34). He believed these passages to be later interpolations,
though most scholars now reject this assessment. Some scholars on the
weaker-sacramental side of the spectrum deny that there are any
sacramental allusions in these passages or in the gospel as a whole,
while others see sacramental symbolism applied to other subjects in
these and other passages.
Oscar Cullmann and
Bruce Vawter , a
Protestant and a Catholic respectively, and both on the
stronger-sacramental end of the spectrum, have found sacramental
allusions in most chapters. Cullmann found references to baptism and
Eucharist throughout the gospel, and Vawter found additional
references to matrimony in 2:1–11, anointing of the sick in
12:1–11, and penance in 20:22–23. Towards the center of the
spectrum, Raymond Brown is more cautious than Cullmann and Vawter but
more lenient than Bultmann and his school, identifying several
passages as containing sacramental allusions and rating them according
to his assessment of their degree of certainty.
Importance To The Evangelist
Most scholars on the stronger-sacramental end of the spectrum assess
the sacraments as being of great importance to the evangelist.
However, perhaps counterintuitively, some scholars who find fewer
sacramental references, such as
Udo Schnelle , view the references
that they find as highly important as well. Schnelle in particular
views John's sacramentalism as a counter to Docetist
anti-sacramentalism. On the other hand, though he agrees that there
are anti-Docetic passages, James Dunn views the absence of a
Eucharistic institution narrative as evidence for an
anti-sacramentalism in John, meant to warn against a conception of
eternal life as dependent on physical ritual.
In comparison to the synoptic gospels, the Fourth
Gospel is markedly
individualistic, in the sense that it places emphasis more on the
individual's relation to
Jesus than on the corporate nature of the
Church. This is largely accomplished through the consistently
singular grammatical structure of various aphoristic sayings of Jesus
throughout the gospel. According to
Richard Bauckham , emphasis on
believers coming into a new group upon their conversion is
conspicuously absent from John. There is also a theme of "personal
coinherence", that is, the intimate personal relationship between the
Jesus in which the believer "abides" in
Jesus and Jesus
in the believer. According to
C. F. D. Moule , the individualistic
tendencies of the Fourth
Gospel could potentially give rise to a
realized eschatology achieved on the level of the individual believer;
this realized eschatology is not, however, to replace "orthodox",
futurist eschatological expectations, but is to be "only
correlative." Some have argued that the
Beloved Disciple is meant to
be all followers of Jesus, inviting all into such a personal
relationship with Christ. Beyond this, the emphasis on the
individual's relationship with
Jesus in the
Gospel has suggested its
usefulness for contemplation on the life of Christ.
JOHN THE BAPTIST
John the Baptist
John the Baptist
John's account of the Baptist is different from that of the synoptic
gospels. In this gospel, John is not called "the Baptist." The
Baptist's ministry overlaps with that of
Jesus ; his baptism of Jesus
is not explicitly mentioned, but his witness to
Jesus is unambiguous.
The evangelist almost certainly knew the story of John's baptism of
Jesus and he makes a vital theological use of it. He subordinates the
Baptist to Jesus, perhaps in response to members of the Baptist's sect
who regarded the
Jesus movement as an offshoot of their movement.
In John's gospel,
Jesus and his disciples go to
Judea early in Jesus'
John the Baptist
John the Baptist was imprisoned and executed by Herod.
He leads a ministry of baptism larger than John's own. The Jesus
Seminar rated this account as black, containing no historically
accurate information. According to the biblical historians at the
Jesus Seminar, John likely had a larger presence in the public mind
Although not commonly understood as Gnostic , many scholars,
including Bultmann, have forcefully argued that the
Gospel of John has
elements in common with
Christian Gnosticism did not
fully develop until the mid-2nd century, and so 2nd-century
Proto-Orthodox Christians concentrated much effort in examining and
refuting it. To say John's gospel contained elements of
to assume that
Gnosticism had developed to a level that required the
author to respond to it. Bultmann, for example, argued that the
opening theme of the
Gospel of John, the pre-existing Logos, was
actually a Gnostic theme. Other scholars, e.g.
Raymond E. Brown have
argued that the pre-existing
Logos theme arises from the more ancient
Jewish writings in the eighth chapter of the
Book of Proverbs , and
was fully developed as a theme in Hellenistic
Gnosticism are based not in what the author says, but
in the language he uses to say it, notably, use of the concepts of
Logos and Light. Other scholars, e.g.
Raymond E. Brown , have argued
that the ancient Jewish
Qumran community also used the concept of
Light versus Darkness. The arguments of Bultmann and his school were
seriously compromised by the mid-20th-century discoveries of the Nag
Hammadi library of genuine Gnostic writings (which are dissimilar to
Gospel of John) as well as the
Qumran library of Jewish writings
(which are often similar to the
Gospel of John).
Gnostics read John but interpreted it differently from the way
Gnosticism taught that salvation came from
_gnosis_, secret knowledge, and Gnostics did not see
Jesus as a savior
but a revealer of knowledge.
Barnabas Lindars asserts that the gospel
teaches that salvation can only be achieved through revealed wisdom,
specifically belief in (literally belief _into_) Jesus.
Raymond Brown contends that "The Johannine picture of a savior who
came from an alien world above, who said that neither he nor those who
accepted him were of this world, and who promised to return to take
them to a heavenly dwelling could be fitted into the gnostic world
picture (even if God's love for the world in 3:16 could not)." It has
been suggested that similarities between John's gospel and Gnosticism
may spring from common roots in Jewish
Apocalyptic literature .
COMPARISON WITH THE SYNOPTICS
Gospel of John is significantly different from the synoptic
gospels , with major variations in material, theological emphasis,
chronology, and literary style. There are also some discrepancies
between John and the synoptics, some amounting to contradictions.
John lacks scenes from the synoptics such as Jesus' baptism, the
calling of the Twelve, exorcisms, parables, the Transfiguration, and
the Last Supper. Conversely, it includes scenes not found in the
Jesus turning water into wine at the wedding at
Cana, the resurrection of Lazarus,
Jesus washing the feet of his
disciples, and multiple visits to Jerusalem.
In the fourth gospel, Jesus' mother Mary , while frequently
mentioned, is never identified by name. John does assert that Jesus
was known as the "son of Joseph " in 6:42. For John, Jesus' town of
origin is irrelevant, for he comes from beyond this world, from God
the Father .
While John makes no direct mention of Jesus' baptism, he does quote
John the Baptist
John the Baptist 's description of the descent of the Holy Spirit as a
dove , as happens at Jesus' baptism in the synoptics. Major synoptic
Jesus are absent, including the
Sermon on the Mount and
Olivet Discourse , and the exorcisms of demons are never
mentioned as in the synoptics. John never lists all of the Twelve
Disciples and names at least one disciple, Nathanael , whose name is
not found in the synoptics. Thomas is given a personality beyond a
mere name, described as "
Doubting Thomas ".
Jesus is identified with the Word ("
Logos "), and the Word is
identified with _theos_ ("god" in Greek); no such identification is
made in the synoptics. In Mark,
Jesus urges his disciples to keep his
divinity secret, but in John he is very open in discussing it, even
referring to himself as "I AM", the title God gives himself in Exodus
at his self-revelation to
Moses . In the synoptics the chief theme is
the Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of Heaven (the latter specifically
in Matthew), while John's theme is
Jesus as the source of eternal life
and the Kingdom is only mentioned twice. In contrast to the synoptic
expectation of the Kingdom (using the term _parousia _, meaning
"coming"), John presents a more individualistic, realized eschatology
In the synoptics the ministry of
Jesus takes a single year, but in
John it takes three, as evidenced by references to three Passovers.
Events are not all in the same order: the date of the crucifixion is
different, as is the time of Jesus' anointing in Bethany, and the
cleansing of the temple occurs in the beginning of Jesus' ministry
rather than near its end.
In the synoptics, quotations from
Jesus are usually in the form of
short, pithy sayings; in John, longer quotations are often given. The
vocabulary is also different, and filled with theological import: in
Jesus does not work "miracles" (Greek : δῠνάμεις,
translit. _dynámeis_, sing. δύνᾰμῐς, _dýnamis_), but
"signs" (Greek : σημεῖᾰ, translit. _sēmeia_, sing.
σημεῖον, _sēmeion_) which unveil his divine identity. Most
scholars consider John not to contain any parables . Rather it
contains metaphorical stories or allegories , such as those of the
Good Shepherd and of the
True Vine , in which each individual element
corresponds to a specific person, group, or thing. Some scholars,
however, find some such parables as the short story of the
childbearing woman (16:21) or the dying grain (12:24).
According to the synoptics, the arrest of
Jesus was a reaction to the
cleansing of the temple, while according to John it was triggered by
the raising of Lazarus. The
Pharisees , portrayed as more uniformly
legalistic and opposed to
Jesus in the synoptic gospels, are instead
portrayed as sharply divided; they debate frequently in John's
accounts. Some, such as
Nicodemus , even go so far as to be at least
partially sympathetic to Jesus. This is believed to be a more accurate
historical depiction of the Pharisees, who made debate one of the
tenets of their system of belief.
Bede translating the
Gospel of John on his deathbed_, by James
Doyle Penrose , 1902.
The gospel has been depicted in live narrations and dramatized in
productions, skits , plays , and Passion Plays , as well as in film .
The most recent such portrayal is the 2014 film 'The
Gospel of John',
directed by David Batty and narrated by
David Harewood and Brian Cox ,
Selva Rasalingam as Jesus. The 2003 film _The
Gospel of John _,
was directed by
Philip Saville , narrated by
Christopher Plummer ,
Henry Ian Cusick as Jesus.
Parts of the gospel have been set to music. One such setting is Steve
Warner 's power anthem "Come and See", written for the 20th
anniversary of the Alliance for Catholic Education and including
lyrical fragments taken from the
Book of Signs . Additionally, some
composers have made settings of the Passion as portrayed in the
gospel, most notably the one composed by
Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach ,
although some verses are borrowed from Matthew .
Chronology of Jesus
Free Grace theology
List of Bible verses not included in modern translations
List of Gospels
* Textual variants in the
Gospel of John
* ^ Harris 2006 , p. 479: "Most scholars believe that the same
person wrote all three documents but that he is not to be identified
with either the apostle John or the author of the Gospel."
* ^ The use of first person plural in John, specially in the
letters, is the base of these theories. Barrett quotes on that sense
Robinson, who in 1965 asserted "the gospel is composed in
under the pressure of controversy with "the jews" of that area. But
in its present form it is an appeal to those outside the Church, to
win to the faith that Greek speaking Diaspora
Judaism to which the
author now finds himself belonging".
* ^ Chilton & Neusner 2006 , p. 5: "by their own word what they
(the writers of the New Testament) set forth in the
New Testament must
qualify as a Judaism. ... o distinguish between the religious world of
New Testament and an alien
Judaism denies the authors of the New
Testament books their most fiercely held claim and renders
incomprehensible much of what they said."
* ^ The resurrection itself is not detailed in the gospel, though
it is entailed from the post-resurrection appearances.
* ^ For the circumstances which led to the formation of the
tradition, and the reasons why the majority of modern scholars reject
it, see Lindars, Edwards & Court 2000 , pp. 41–42. For arguments in
support of the tradition, see Craig, Blomberg (2009). _
Jesus and the
Gospels_. p. 197–98.
* ^ For the reasons behind this, see Lincoln 2005 , p. 18
* ^ For details see Dunn 1992 , p. 183
* ^ The term _Johannine Thunderbolt_ refers to the Q source
–derived logion in Matthew 11:25–27 and Luke 10:21–22. The
phrase was coined by
Karl von Hase in an 1823–24 lecture series
entitled _Geschichte Jesu_: "... wie ein Aerolith aus dem
johanneischen Himmel gefallen ..." ("... a meteorite fallen from the
Johannine sky ...")
* ^ Additionally, Aquinas cites the
Athanasian Creed , the first
ecumenical creed to explicitly outline the Trinitarian doctrine; the
Creed maintains the co-majesty, co-eternality, co-equality of the
persons of the Trinity.
* ^ That is, the
New International Version , Today\'s New
International Version , the
New American Standard Bible , the New
Bible , the
New American Bible Revised Edition , the
Amplified Bible , the
New Living Translation , the Douay–Rheims
Bible , the
King James Version
King James Version , Young\'s Literal Translation , the
Darby Translation , and the Wycliffe
New Testament , to name a few.
* ^ Bauckham (2015) contrasts John's consistent use of the third
person singular ("The one who ..."; "If anyone ..."; "Everyone who
..."; "Whoever ..."; "No one ...") with the alternative third person
plural constructions he could have used instead ("Those who ...";
""All those who ..."; etc.). He also notes that the sole exception
occurs in the prologue, serving a narrative purpose, whereas the later
aphorisms serve a "paraenetic function".
* ^ See John 6:56, 10:14–15, 10:38, and 14:10, 17, 20, and 23.
* ^ _Realized eschatology_ is a Christian eschatological theory
C. H. Dodd (1884–1973). It holds that the
eschatological passages in the
New Testament do not refer to future
events, but instead to the ministry of
Jesus and his lasting legacy.
In other words, it holds that Christian eschatological expectations
have already been realized or fulfilled.
* ^ See Zimmermann 2015 , pp. 333–60.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Burkett 2002 , p. 215.
* ^ Lindars 1990 , p. 63.
* ^ Barrett 1978 , p. 133.
* ^ Barrett 1978 , p. 137.
* ^ Brown 1966 , p. 43.
* ^ Ehrman 2009 .
* ^ De Santos Otero 1993 , p. 97.
* ^ Lindars 1990 , p. 53.
* ^ Lindars 1990 , p. 59.
* ^ Köstenberger, Kellum & Quarles 2009 , p. 305.
* ^ Witherington 2004 , p. 83.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Edwards 2015 , p. 171.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Harris 2006 .
* ^ Bauckham 2007 , p. 271.
* ^ John 21:24
* ^ Lindars, Edwards & Court 2000 , p. 41–42.
* ^ Carson & Moo 2009 , p. 246.
* ^ Blomberg 2011 , p. 25.
* ^ Lincoln 2005 , p. 18.
* ^ Burkett 2002 , p. 215–216.
* ^ Edwards 2015 , p. ix.
* ^ Ehrman 2004 , p. 164–165.
* ^ Dunn 1992 , p. 182–183,195.
* ^ Carroll 2001 , p. 92.
* ^ Carroll 2001 , p. 85.
* ^ Hendricks 2007 .
* ^ Senior 1991 , p. 155–156.
* ^ Dunn 1992 , p. 209.
* ^ Lincoln 2005 , p. 29–30.
* ^ Porter 2015 , p. 69–70.
* ^ Reinhartz 2011 , p. 155.
* ^ Witherington 2004 , p. 84.
* ^ Kysar 2007 , p. 80.
* ^ Denaux 1992 , p. 113-47.
* ^ Sanders 1995 , p. 57,70–71.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Theissen & Merz 1998 , p. 36–37.
* ^ Metzger & Ehrman 1985 , p. 55–56.
* ^ Hurtado 2005 , p. 53.
* ^ _
Summa Theologiae _, Part I, Question XLII.
Athanasian Creed at _
New Advent _.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Harris 2006 , p. 302–10.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Funk &
Jesus Seminar 1998 , p. 365–440.
* ^ Robert Kysar, "John: The Maverick Gospel" (Louisville:
Westminster John Knox), 1976, p. 49-54
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Bauckham 2015 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Moule 1962 , p. 172.
* ^ Moule 1962 , p. 174.
* ^ Shea, SJ, Henry J. (Summer 2017). "The
Beloved Disciple and the
Spiritual Exercises". _Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits_. 49,
* ^ _A_ _B_ Cross & Livingstone 2005 .
* ^ Barrett 1978 , p. 16.
* ^ Funk &
Jesus Seminar 1998 , p. 268.
* ^ Olson 1999 , p. 36.
* ^ Kysar 2005 , p. 88ff.
* ^ Brown 1997 .
* ^ Van den Broek & Vermaseren 1981 , p. 467ff.
* ^ Combs 1987 .
* ^ Most 2005 , p. 121ff.
* ^ Skarsaune 2008 , p. 247ff.
* ^ Lindars 1990 , p. 62.
* ^ John 17:14
* ^ John 14:2–3
* ^ Brown 1997 , p. 375.
* ^ Kovacs 1995 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ Burge 2014 , p. 236–237.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Funk, Hoover &
Jesus Seminar 1993 , p. 1–30.
* ^ Williamson 2004 , p. 265.
* ^ Michaels 1971 , p. 733.
* ^ Fredriksen 2008 .
* ^ Pagels 2003 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Thompson 2006 , p. 184.
* ^ Walvoord, John F. (1985). _The
Bible Knowledge Commentary_.
Wheaton, IL: Victor Books. p. 313.
* ^ Ehrman 2005 .
* ^ Carson, D. A. (1991). _The Pillar
New Testament Commentary: The
Gospel According to John_. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eardmans
Publishing Co. p. 117.
* ^ Moule 196 , p. 172-74.
* ^ Sander 2015 .
* ^ Ladd -webkit-column-width: 45em; column-width: 45em;">
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Gospel According to John,
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* A textual commentary on the
Gospel of John Detailed text; critical
discussion of the 300 most important variants of the Greek text (PDF,
376 pages; archived on 4 March 2016)
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bibliography of the discussion
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* _ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the
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Online translations of the
Gospel of John:
* Over 200 versions in over 70 languages at _
* The _Unbound Bible_ from Biola University
* David Robert