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Ginger
Ginger
( Zingiber
Zingiber
officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine.[2] It is a herbaceous perennial which grows annual pseudostems (false stems made of the rolled bases of leaves) about a meter tall bearing narrow leaf blades. The inflorescences bear pale yellow with purple flowers and arise directly from the rhizome on separate shoots.[3] Ginger
Ginger
is in the family Zingiberaceae, to which also belong turmeric (Curcuma longa), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), and galangal. Ginger originated in the tropical rainforests from the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
to Southern Asia
Southern Asia
where ginger plants show considerable genetic variation.[4] As one of the first spices exported from the Orient, ginger arrived in Europe
Europe
during the spice trade, and was used by ancient Greeks and Romans.[5] The distantly related dicots in the genus Asarum
Asarum
are commonly called wild ginger because of their similar taste.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Origin and distribution 3 Horticulture 4 Uses

4.1 Regional uses 4.2 Similar ingredients

5 Production 6 Nutritional information 7 Composition and safety

7.1 Chemistry 7.2 Biological effects

8 Medicinal use and research 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Etymology

Chopped Ginger

The English origin of the word, "ginger", is from the mid-14th century, from Old English
Old English
gingifer, from Medieval Latin gingiber, from Greek zingiberis, from Prakrit
Prakrit
(Middle Indic) singabera, from Sanskrit srngaveram, from srngam "horn" and vera- "body", from the shape of its root.[6] The word probably was readopted in Middle English from Old French gingibre (modern French gingembre).[7] Origin and distribution Ginger
Ginger
likely originated as ground flora of tropical lowland forests in regions from the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
to southern Asia,[5] where its cultivation remains among the world's largest producers, including India, China, and other countries of southern Asia (see Production). Numerous wild relatives are still found in these regions,[5] and in tropical or subtropical world regions, such as Hawaii, Japan, Australia, and Malaysia.[4] Horticulture

Ginger
Ginger
field

Ginger
Ginger
produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates, it is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems, about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. Traditionally, the rhizome is gathered when the stalk withers; it is immediately scalded, or washed and scraped, to kill it and prevent sprouting. The fragrant perisperm of the Zingiberaceae
Zingiberaceae
is used as sweetmeats by Bantu, and also as a condiment and sialagogue.[8] Uses

Ginger
Ginger
plant with flower

Ginger
Ginger
crop, hills near Kalaw, Myanmar

Ginger
Ginger
produces a hot, fragrant kitchen spice.[5] Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a mild taste. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. They can be steeped in boiling water to make ginger herb tea, to which honey may be added. Ginger
Ginger
can be made into candy or ginger wine. Mature ginger rhizomes are fibrous and nearly dry. The juice from ginger roots is often used as a seasoning in Indian recipes and is a common ingredient of Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese, and many South Asian cuisines for flavoring dishes such as seafood, meat, and vegetarian dishes. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of six to one, although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread, cookies, crackers and cakes, ginger ale, and ginger beer. Candied ginger, or crystallized ginger, is the root cooked in sugar until soft, and is a type of confectionery. Fresh ginger may be peeled before eating. For longer-term storage, the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated or frozen.

Gari, a type of pickled ginger

Regional uses

Fresh ginger rhizome

Two varieties of ginger

In Indian cuisine, ginger is a key ingredient, especially in thicker gravies, as well as in many other dishes, both vegetarian and meat-based. Ginger
Ginger
also has a role in traditional Ayurvedic
Ayurvedic
medicine. It is an ingredient in traditional Indian drinks, both cold and hot, including spiced masala chai. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. Fresh ginger together with peeled garlic cloves is crushed or ground to form ginger garlic masala. Fresh, as well as dried, ginger is used to spice tea and coffee, especially in winter. In south India, "sambharam" is a summer yogurt drink made with ginger as a key ingredient, along with green chillies, salt and curry leaves. Ginger
Ginger
powder is used in food preparations intended primarily for pregnant or nursing women, the most popular one being katlu, which is a mixture of gum resin, ghee, nuts, and sugar. Ginger
Ginger
is also consumed in candied and pickled form. In Japan, ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. It is made into a candy called shoga no sato zuke. In the traditional Korean kimchi, ginger is either finely minced or just juiced to avoid the fibrous texture and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process. In Burma, ginger is called gyin. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. It is consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot, which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil, with a variety of nuts and seeds. In Thailand' where it is called ขิง khing, it is used to make a ginger garlic paste in cooking. In Indonesia, a beverage called wedang jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. Indonesians also use ground ginger root, called jahe, as a common ingredient in local recipes. In Malaysia, ginger is called halia and used in many kinds of dishes, especially soups. Called luya in the Philippines, ginger is a common ingredient in local dishes and is brewed as a tea called salabat.[9][10] In Vietnam, the fresh leaves, finely chopped, can be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root. In China, sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish, and chopped ginger root is commonly paired with meat, when it is cooked. Candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes, and a herbal tea can be prepared from ginger. In the Caribbean, ginger is a popular spice for cooking and for making drinks such as sorrel, a drink made during the Christmas season. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. Ginger
Ginger
tea is often made from fresh ginger, as well as the famous regional specialty Jamaican ginger cake.

Freshly washed ginger

On the island of Corfu, Greece, a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsibira), a type of ginger beer, is made. The people of Corfu
Corfu
and the rest of the Ionian islands adopted the drink from the British, during the period of the United States of the Ionian Islands. In Arabic, ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East, gin�gayu (生姜湯). The Hebrew
Hebrew
name for the spice, zangevil, is a variation on the name. In Western cuisine, ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale, gingerbread, ginger snaps, parkin, ginger biscuits, and speculaas. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac, France. Ginger wine
Ginger wine
is a ginger-flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom, traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. Ginger
Ginger
is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea.

Ginger
Ginger
production, 2014 

Country Production (tonnes)

 India

655,000

 China

415,951

   Nepal

276,150

 Indonesia

266,145

 Thailand

161,404

 World

2,156,453

Source: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT)[11]

Similar ingredients Myoga
Myoga
( Zingiber
Zingiber
mioga 'Roscoe') appears in Japanese cuisine; the flower buds are the part eaten. Another plant in the Zingiberaceae
Zingiberaceae
family, galangal, is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine. Galangal
Galangal
is also called Thai ginger, fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda), Chinese ginger, or the Thai krachai. A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America, Asarum canadense, is also known as "wild ginger", and its root has similar aromatic properties, but it is not related to true ginger. The plant contains aristolochic acid, a carcinogenic compound.[12] The United States Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration
warns that consumption of aristolochic acid-containing products is associated with "permanent kidney damage, sometimes resulting in kidney failure that has required kidney dialysis or kidney transplantation. In addition, some patients have developed certain types of cancers, most often occurring in the urinary tract."[12] Production

German Ginger wine
Ginger wine
with stem ginger decoration

In 2014, with a global production of 2.2 million tonnes of raw ginger, India
India
accounted for 30% of the world total, followed by China
China
(19%), Nepal
Nepal
(13%), Indonesia
Indonesia
(12%), and Thailand
Thailand
(7%) (table).[11] Nutritional information

Ginger
Ginger
root (raw)

Ginger
Ginger
section

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 333 kJ (80 kcal)

Carbohydrates

17.77 g

Sugars 1.7 g

Dietary fiber 2 g

Fat

0.75 g

Protein

1.82 g

Vitamins

Thiamine
Thiamine
(B1)

(2%) 0.025 mg

Riboflavin
Riboflavin
(B2)

(3%) 0.034 mg

Niacin
Niacin
(B3)

(5%) 0.75 mg

Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid
(B5)

(4%) 0.203 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
B6

(12%) 0.16 mg

Folate
Folate
(B9)

(3%) 11 μg

Vitamin
Vitamin
C

(6%) 5 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
E

(2%) 0.26 mg

Minerals

Calcium

(2%) 16 mg

Iron

(5%) 0.6 mg

Magnesium

(12%) 43 mg

Manganese

(11%) 0.229 mg

Phosphorus

(5%) 34 mg

Potassium

(9%) 415 mg

Sodium

(1%) 13 mg

Zinc

(4%) 0.34 mg

Other constituents

Water 79 g

Full Link to USDA Database entry

Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Raw ginger is composed of 79% water, 18% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and 1% fat (table). In 100 grams (a standard amount used to compare with other foods), raw ginger supplies 80 Calories
Calories
and contains moderate amounts of vitamin B6 (12% of the Daily Value, DV) and the dietary minerals, magnesium (12% DV) and manganese (11% DV), but otherwise is low in nutrient content (table). When used as a spice powder in a common serving amount of one US tablespoon (5 grams), ground dried ginger (9% water) provides negligible content of essential nutrients, with the exception of manganese (70% DV).[13] Composition and safety If consumed in reasonable quantities, ginger has few negative side effects.[14] It is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list,[15] though it does interact with some medications, including the anticoagulant drug warfarin[16] and the cardiovascular drug, nifedipine.[17] Chemistry The characteristic fragrance and flavor of ginger result from volatile oils that compose 1-3% of the weight of fresh ginger, primarily consisting of zingerone, shogaols and gingerols with [6]-gingerol (1-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl]-5-hydroxy-3-decanone) as the major pungent compound.[2][18] Zingerone
Zingerone
is produced from gingerols during drying, having lower pungency and a spicy-sweet aroma.[18] Biological effects Ginger
Ginger
has a sialagogue action, stimulating the production of saliva, which makes swallowing easier.[19] Medicinal use and research The evidence that ginger helps alleviate chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting is inconclusive and it is not recommended for clinical use for this or for any type of nausea.[20][21] Studies have found no clear evidence of harm from taking ginger during pregnancy, though its safety has not been established and it is a suspected risk for mutagenicity.[21] Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash.[17] Although generally recognized as safe, ginger can cause heartburn and other side effects, particularly if taken in powdered form.[17] Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage, and individuals who have had ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger.[17] It can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones[2] and may interfere with the effects of anticoagulants, such as warfarin or aspirin.[2][17] Ginger
Ginger
is not effective for treating dysmenorrhea,[22] and there is no conclusive evidence for it having analgesic properties.[23] Ginger
Ginger
properties depend on a number of factors, such as cultivar, plant segment, and preparation method (dried or cooked). Examples:

One traditional medical form of ginger historically called "Jamaica ginger" was classified as a stimulant and carminative, and used frequently for dyspepsia, gastroparesis, slow gut motility symptoms, constipation, or colic.[17] Kampo
Kampo
Shokyo, Z. officinale, var. rubens, dried[24] Kampo
Kampo
Kankyo, Z. officinale, var. rubens, steamed and dried[24] Jamu
Jamu
Red ginger, Z. officinale, var. rubra[24] Shoga, Z. officinale, var. rubens[24] White ginger, Z. officinale, var. amarum[24]

See also

Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan – contains ginger material Xiao Yao Wan – contains ginger material

References

^ " Zingiber
Zingiber
officinale". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service
Agricultural Research Service
(ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 10 December 2017.  ^ a b c d "Ginger". University of Maryland Medical Centre. 2006. Retrieved 2 August 2007.  ^ Sutarno,H ; Hadad, E.A. ; Brink, M. " Zingiber
Zingiber
officinale Roscoe". - In: De Guzman, C.C ; Siemonsma, J.S. (eds.) "Plant resources of South-East Asia : no.13 : spices". - Leiden (Netherlands) : Backhuys, 1999. - 400 p. - p.238-244 ^ a b Thomas H. Everett (1982). The New York Botanical Garden Illustrated Encyclopedia of Horticulture, Volume 10. Taylor & Francis. p. 3591. ISBN 0824072405.  ^ a b c d " Zingiber
Zingiber
officinale Roscoe". Kew Science, Plants of the World Online. 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017.  ^ "Ginger". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 22 January 2011.  ^ Caldwell, Robert (1998-01-01). A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Or South-Indian Family of Languages. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 9788120601178.  ^ Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa - Watt & Brandwijk ^ Hardon, Anita (2001). Applied health research manual: anthropology of health and health care. Het Spinhuis. ISBN 90-5589-191-6.  ^ Taguba, Yvonne B. (1984). Common medicinal plants of the Cordillera region (Northern Luzon, Philippines). Community Health Education, Services and Training in the Cordillera Region (CHESTCORE).  ^ a b " Ginger
Ginger
production in 2014, Crops/Regions/World/Production Quantity (from pick lists)". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Statistics Division. 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2017.  ^ a b "Aristolochic Acid: FDA Warns Consumers to Discontinue Use of Botanical Products that Contain Aristolochic Acid". US Food and Drug Administration. April 11, 2001.  ^ "Nutrition facts for dried, ground ginger, serving size of one tablespoon, 5 grams (from pick list)". Nutritiondata.com, Conde Nast for the USDA National Nutrient Database, Standard Release SR-21. 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2017.  ^ Marcello Spinella (2001). The Psychopharmacology of Herbal Medications: Plant
Plant
Drugs That Alter Mind, Brain, and Behavior. MIT Press. pp. 272–. ISBN 978-0-262-69265-6. Retrieved 13 April 2013.  ^ "Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Part 182, Sec. 182.20: Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates): Substances Generally Recognized As Safe". US Food and Drug Administration. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 21 December 2014.  ^ Shalansky S, Lynd L, Richardson K, Ingaszewski A, Kerr C (2007). "Risk of warfarin-related bleeding events and supratherapeutic international normalized ratios associated with complementary and alternative medicine: a longitudinal analysis". Pharmacotherapy. 27 (9): 1237–47. doi:10.1592/phco.27.9.1237. PMID 17723077. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ a b c d e f "Ginger, NCCIH Herbs at a Glance". US National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Retrieved 25 April 2012.  ^ a b An K, Zhao D, Wang Z, Wu J, Xu Y, Xiao G (2016). "Comparison of different drying methods on Chinese ginger ( Zingiber
Zingiber
officinale Roscoe): Changes in volatiles, chemical profile, antioxidant properties, and microstructure". Food Chem. 197 (Part B): 1292–300. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.11.033. PMID 26675871.  ^ Wood, George Bacon (1867). "Class IX. Sialagogues". A Treatise On Therapeutics, And Pharmacology Or Materia Medica: Volume 2. J. B. Lippincott & Co. Retrieved 2 March 2013.  ^ Marx, WM; Teleni L; McCarthy AL; Vitetta L; McKavanagh D; Thomson D; Isenring E. (2013). " Ginger
Ginger
( Zingiber
Zingiber
officinale) and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a systematic literature review". Nutr Rev. 71 (4): 245–54. doi:10.1111/nure.12016. PMID 23550785.  ^ a b Ernst, E.; Pittler, M.H. (1 March 2000). "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). British Journal of Anesthesia. 84 (3): 367–371. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.bja.a013442. PMID 10793599. Retrieved 6 September 2006.  ^ Pattanittum P, Kunyanone N, Brown J, et al. (2016). "Dietary supplements for dysmenorrhoea". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (Systematic review). 3: CD002124. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002124.pub2. PMID 27000311.  ^ Terry, R; Posadzki, P; Watson, L. K; Ernst, E (2011). "The use of ginger ( Zingiber
Zingiber
officinale) for the treatment of pain: A systematic review of clinical trials". Pain Medicine. 12 (12): 1808–18. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2011.01261.x. PMID 22054010.  ^ a b c d e Tanaka, Ken; Arita, Masanori; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Ono, Naoaki; Tezuka, Yasuhiro (1 October 2015). "Analysis of Chemical Properties of Edible and Medicinal Ginger
Ginger
by Metabolomics Approach". Bio Med research international. 2015: 1–7. doi:10.1155/2015/671058. PMC 4606115 . PMID 26495311. 

External links

The dictionary definition of ginger at Wiktionary Media related to Ginger
Ginger
at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Zingiber
Zingiber
officinale at Wikispecies Zingiber
Zingiber
officinale List of Chemicals (Dr. Duke's)

v t e

Ginger
Ginger
( Zingiber
Zingiber
officinale)

Alimentary Varieties

Common (var. Roscoe) Shōga (生姜) (var. rubens) White Ginger
Ginger
(var. amarum) Assam (var. assam) China
China
(var. china) Rio de Janeiro (var. Rio)

Medicinal Varieties

Kampo

Shokyo Kankyo Ogawa Umare

Jamu

Red Ginger
Ginger
(var. rubra) Malaysian ginger Temulawak

Ayurveda

Mahaoushadha (designation) Ginger
Ginger
in Ayurveda

TCM

Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan Xiao Yao Wan

Thai aromatherapy

Plai (Z. cassumunar)

Burmese traditional medicine

meik-thalin (Z. barbatum)

Foods

Dishes

Gingerbread Pork shogayaki Ginger
Ginger
salad (gyin-thot) ginger garlic paste Pickled Ginger

Beni shōga Gari (ginger)

Shoga no sato zuke (ginger candy) Ginger
Ginger
nut Parkin (cake) Speculaas Canh khoai mỡ

Beverages

Ginger
Ginger
beer Ginger
Ginger
ale Ginger
Ginger
tea Domaine de Canton (liqueur) Ginger
Ginger
wine Wedang Jahe Masala chai

Bioactive constituents Health

Health effects Aromatherapy

In Fresh ginger

Paradols Gingerols Zingibain (enzyme) Oleoresins and derivatives:

Gingerdiols Acetoxy gingerdiols Diacetoxy gingerdiols

Processed

Azashogaol Shogaols Zingerone

Consumed parts

Rhizome
Rhizome
(root) Ginger
Ginger
leaf (canh khoai mỡ)

Preparation

Dehydration Grating Steeping Boiling

Unrelated species

wild ginger (toxic)

Related species

myoga galangal turmeric Plai (Z. cassumunar) zerumbet meik-thalin (Z. barbatum) Shell ginger Malaysian ginger (Z. spectabile) Temulawak (C. zanthorriza) others

Ginger
Ginger
on WikiBooks Ginger
Ginger
images at Commons Category:Ginger Drink Portal Spices Task Force

v t e

Culinary herbs and spices

Herbs

Angelica Basil

holy Thai

Bay leaf Indian bay leaf (tejpat) Boldo Borage Chervil Chives

garlic / Chinese

Cicely Coriander
Coriander
leaf / Cilantro

Bolivian Vietnamese (rau răm)

Culantro Cress Curry leaf Dill Epazote Hemp Hoja santa Houttuynia cordata
Houttuynia cordata
(giấp cá) Hyssop Jimbu Kinh gioi (Vietnamese balm) Kkaennip Lavender Lemon balm Lemon grass Lemon myrtle Lemon verbena Limnophila aromatica
Limnophila aromatica
(rice-paddy herb) Lovage Marjoram Mint Mugwort Mitsuba Oregano Parsley Perilla Rosemary Rue Sage Savory Sanshō leaf Shiso Sorrel Tarragon Thyme Woodruff

Spices

Aonori
Aonori
(ground seaweed) Ajwain Allspice Amchoor (mango powder) Anise

star

Asafoetida Camphor Caraway Cardamom

black

Cassia Celery
Celery
powder Celery
Celery
seed Charoli Chenpi Cinnamon Clove Coriander
Coriander
seed Cubeb Cumin

Nigella sativa Bunium persicum

Deulkkae Dill /  Dill
Dill
seed Fennel Fenugreek

blue

Fingerroot (krachai) Galangal

greater lesser

Garlic Ginger Aromatic ginger (kencur) Golpar Grains of Paradise Grains of Selim Horseradish Juniper berry Kokum Korarima Dried lime Liquorice Litsea cubeba Mace Mango-ginger Mastic Mahleb Mustard

black brown white

Nigella (kalonji) Njangsa Nutmeg Pomegranate
Pomegranate
seed (anardana) Poppy seed Radhuni Rose Saffron Salt Sarsaparilla Sassafras Sesame Shiso
Shiso
seeds / berries Sumac Tamarind Tonka bean Turmeric Uzazi Vanilla Voatsiperifery Wasabi Yuzu
Yuzu
zest Zedoary Zereshk Zest

Peppers

Alligator Brazilian Chili

Cayenne Paprika

Long Peruvian Sichuan (huājiāo) Japanese pricklyash Tasmanian Peppercorn (black / green / white)

Mixtures

Adjika Advieh Baharat Beau monde seasoning Berbere Bouquet garni Buknu Chaat masala Chaunk Chili powder Cinnamon
Cinnamon
sugar Crab boil Curry powder Doubanjiang Douchi Duqqa Fines herbes Five-spice powder Garam masala Garlic
Garlic
powder Garlic
Garlic
salt Gochujang Harissa Hawaij Herbes de Provence Idli podi Jamaican jerk spice Khmeli suneli Lemon pepper Mitmita Mixed spice Montreal steak seasoning Mulling spices Old Bay Seasoning Onion
Onion
powder Panch phoron Persillade Powder-douce Pumpkin pie spice Qâlat daqqa Quatre épices Ras el hanout Recado rojo Sharena sol Shichimi Tabil Tandoori masala Vadouvan Yuzukoshō Za'atar

Lists and related topics

Lists of herbs and spices

Culinary Australian Bangladeshi Indian Pakistani

Related topics

Chinese herbology Herbal
Herbal
tea Marination Spice
Spice
rub

v t e

Medicinal herbs and fungi

Herbs

Alfalfa Aloe vera Anise Asthma-plant Astragalus Cannabis

medical use

Caraway Cardamom Chamomile Chaparral Fenugreek Feverfew Flaxseed Ginger Ginkgo Ginseng Goldenseal Lemon balm Liquorice Marigold Marsh-mallow Neem Opium poppy Oregano Peppermint Purple coneflower Rosemary Sage Star anise Summer savory Tea tree oil Thyme Turmeric Umckaloabo Valerian Verbena White willow Yarrow Za'atar

Fungi

Almond mushroom Chaga mushroom Echigoshirayukidake Lingzhi mushroom Maitake Meshima Morel mushroom Shiitake

Regional practices

Chinese herbology Indian herbology Islamic herbology Japanese herbology Korean herbology

Related subjects

Alternative medicine Doctrine of signatures Herb
Herb
garden Herbal Herbal
Herbal
tea Herbalism Homeopathy Medicinal plants

List of plants used in herbalism

v t e

TRP channel modulators

TRPA

Activators

4-Hydroxynonenal 4-Oxo-2-nonenal 4,5-EET 12S-HpETE 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 α- Sanshool
Sanshool
(ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Acrolein Allicin
Allicin
(garlic) Allyl isothiocyanate
Allyl isothiocyanate
(mustard, radish, horseradish, wasabi) AM404 Bradykinin Cannabichromene
Cannabichromene
(cannabis) Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
(cannabis) Cannabigerol
Cannabigerol
(cannabis) Cinnamaldehyde
Cinnamaldehyde
(cinnamon) CR gas
CR gas
(dibenzoxazepine; DBO) CS gas
CS gas
(2-chlorobenzal malononitrile) Curcumin
Curcumin
(turmeric) Dehydroligustilide (celery) Diallyl disulfide Dicentrine
Dicentrine
( Lindera
Lindera
spp.) Farnesyl thiosalicylic acid Formalin Gingerols (ginger) Hepoxilin A3 Hepoxilin B3 Hydrogen peroxide Icilin Isothiocyanate Ligustilide (celery, Angelica acutiloba) Linalool
Linalool
(Sichuan pepper, thyme) Methylglyoxal Methyl salicylate
Methyl salicylate
(wintergreen) N-Methylmaleimide Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) Oleocanthal
Oleocanthal
(olive oil) Paclitaxel
Paclitaxel
(Pacific yew) Paracetamol
Paracetamol
(acetaminophen) PF-4840154 Phenacyl chloride Polygodial
Polygodial
(Dorrigo pepper) Shogaols (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Tear gases Tetrahydrocannabinol
Tetrahydrocannabinol
(cannabis) Thiopropanal S-oxide
Thiopropanal S-oxide
(onion) Umbellulone
Umbellulone
(Umbellularia californica) WIN 55,212-2

Blockers

Dehydroligustilide (celery) Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) Ruthenium red

TRPC

Activators

Adhyperforin
Adhyperforin
(St John's wort) Diacyl glycerol GSK1702934A Hyperforin
Hyperforin
(St John's wort) Substance P

Blockers

DCDPC DHEA-S Flufenamic acid GSK417651A GSK2293017A Meclofenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid Niflumic acid Pregnenolone sulfate Progesterone Pyr3 Tolfenamic acid

TRPM

Activators

ADP-ribose BCTC Calcium
Calcium
(intracellular) Cold Coolact P Cooling Agent 10 CPS-369 Eucalyptol
Eucalyptol
(eucalyptus) Frescolat MGA Frescolat ML Geraniol Hydroxycitronellal Icilin Linalool Menthol
Menthol
(mint) PMD 38 Pregnenolone sulfate Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Steviol glycosides (e.g., stevioside) (Stevia rebaudiana) Sweet tastants (e.g., glucose, fructose, sucrose; indirectly) Thio-BCTC WS-3 WS-12 WS-23

Blockers

Capsazepine Clotrimazole DCDPC Flufenamic acid Meclofenamic acid Mefenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) Niflumic acid Ruthenium red Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Tolfenamic acid TPPO

TRPML

Activators

MK6-83 PI(3,5)P2 SF-22

TRPP

Activators

Triptolide
Triptolide
(Tripterygium wilfordii)

Blockers

Ruthenium red

TRPV

Activators

2-APB 5',6'-EET 9-HODE 9-oxoODE 12S-HETE 12S-HpETE 13-HODE 13-oxoODE 20-HETE α- Sanshool
Sanshool
(ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Allicin
Allicin
(garlic) AM404 Anandamide Bisandrographolide (Andrographis paniculata) Camphor
Camphor
(camphor laurel, rosemary, camphorweed, African blue basil, camphor basil) Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
(cannabis) Cannabidivarin
Cannabidivarin
(cannabis) Capsaicin
Capsaicin
(chili pepper) Carvacrol
Carvacrol
(oregano, thyme, pepperwort, wild bergamot, others) DHEA Diacyl glycerol Dihydrocapsaicin
Dihydrocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Estradiol Eugenol
Eugenol
(basil, clove) Evodiamine
Evodiamine
(Euodia ruticarpa) Gingerols (ginger) GSK1016790A Heat Hepoxilin A3 Hepoxilin B3 Homocapsaicin
Homocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Homodihydrocapsaicin
Homodihydrocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Incensole
Incensole
(incense) Lysophosphatidic acid Low pH (acidic conditions) Menthol
Menthol
(mint) N-Arachidonoyl dopamine N-Oleoyldopamine N-Oleoylethanolamide Nonivamide
Nonivamide
(PAVA) (PAVA spray) Nordihydrocapsaicin
Nordihydrocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Paclitaxel
Paclitaxel
(Pacific yew) Paracetamol
Paracetamol
(acetaminophen) Phorbol esters
Phorbol esters
(e.g., 4α-PDD) Piperine
Piperine
(black pepper, long pepper) Polygodial
Polygodial
(Dorrigo pepper) Probenecid Protons RhTx Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Resiniferatoxin
Resiniferatoxin
(RTX) (Euphorbia resinifera/pooissonii) Shogaols (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Tetrahydrocannabivarin
Tetrahydrocannabivarin
(cannabis) Thymol
Thymol
(thyme, oregano) Tinyatoxin
Tinyatoxin
(Euphorbia resinifera/pooissonii) Tramadol Vanillin
Vanillin
(vanilla) Zucapsaicin

Blockers

α- Spinasterol
Spinasterol
( Vernonia
Vernonia
tweediana) AMG-517 Asivatrep BCTC Cannabigerol
Cannabigerol
(cannabis) Cannabigerolic acid (cannabis) Cannabigerovarin (cannabis) Cannabinol
Cannabinol
(cannabis) Capsazepine DCDPC DHEA DHEA-S Flufenamic acid GRC-6211 HC-067047 Lanthanum Meclofenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid NGD-8243 Niflumic acid Pregnenolone sulfate RN-1734 RN-9893 Ruthenium red SB-705498 Tivanisiran Tolfenamic acid

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ion channel modulators

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q35625 APDB: 20242 EoL: 987032 EPPO: ZINOF FoC: 200028468 GBIF: 2757280 GRIN: 42254 iNaturalist: 122971 IPNI: 798372-1 ITIS: 42402 NCBI: 94328 Plant
Plant
List: kew-273361 PLANTS: ZIOF Tropicos: 34500018 WCSP: 273361

Authority control

GND: 41617

.