GENETIC ENGINEERING, also called GENETIC MODIFICATION, is the direct
manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology . It is a set
of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including
the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce
improved or novel organisms . New
DNA is obtained by either isolating
and copying the genetic material of interest using molecular cloning
methods or by artificially synthesizing the DNA. A construct is
usually created and used to insert this
DNA into the host organism. As
well as inserting genes , the process can also be used to remove, or
"knock out ", genes. The new
DNA can be inserted randomly, or targeted
to a specific part of the genome .
An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is
considered to be genetically modified (GM) and the resulting entity is
a genetically modified organism (GMO). The first GMOs were bacteria
generated in 1973 and the first GM animals were mice in 1974. Insulin
-producing bacteria were commercialized in 1982 and genetically
modified food has been sold since 1994.
GloFish , the first GMO
designed as a pet, was sold in the United States in December 2003.
Genetic engineering techniques have been applied in numerous fields
including research, agriculture, industrial biotechnology, and
medicine. Enzymes used in laundry detergent and medicines such as
insulin and human growth hormone are now manufactured in GM cells,
experimental GM cell lines and GM animals such as mice or zebrafish
are being used for research purposes, and genetically modified crops
have been commercialized. IUPAC definition Process of inserting new
genetic information into existing cells in order to
modify a specific organism for the purpose of changing its
characteristics. Note: Adapted from ref.
* 1 Definition
* 2 History
* 3 Process
Gene isolation and cloning
* 3.2 Inserting
DNA into the host genome
* 4 Applications
* 4.1 Medicine
* 4.2 Research
* 4.3 Industrial
* 4.5 Other applications
* 5 Regulation
* 6 Controversy
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 9 Further reading
* 10 External links
Comparison of conventional plant breeding with transgenic and
cisgenic genetic modification.
Genetic engineering is a process that alters the genetic make-up of
an organism by either removing or introducing
DNA can be
introduced directly into the host organism or into a cell that is then
fused or hybridized with the host. This relies on recombinant nucleic
acid techniques to form new combinations of heritable genetic material
followed by the incorporation of that material either indirectly
through a vector system or directly through micro-injection ,
macro-injection or micro-encapsulation .
Genetic engineering does not normally include traditional animal and
plant breeding , in vitro fertilisation , induction of polyploidy ,
mutagenesis and cell fusion techniques that do not use recombinant
nucleic acids or a genetically modified organism in the process.
However, some broad definitions of genetic engineering include
selective breeding .
Cloning and stem cell research, although not
considered genetic engineering, are closely related and genetic
engineering can be used within them.
Synthetic biology is an emerging
discipline that takes genetic engineering a step further by
introducing artificially synthesised material into an organism.
Plants, animals or micro organisms that have been changed through
genetic engineering are termed genetically modified organisms or GMOs.
If genetic material from another species is added to the host, the
resulting organism is called transgenic . If genetic material from the
same species or a species that can naturally breed with the host is
used the resulting organism is called cisgenic . If genetic
engineering is used to remove genetic material from the target
organism the resulting organism is termed a knockout organism. In
Europe genetic modification is synonymous with genetic engineering
while within the United States of America and Canada genetic
modification can also be used to refer to more conventional breeding
History of genetic engineering
Humans have altered the genomes of species for thousands of years
through selective breeding , or artificial selection :1 :1 as
contrasted with natural selection , and more recently through
Genetic engineering as the direct manipulation of
humans outside breeding and mutations has only existed since the
1970s. The term "genetic engineering" was first coined by Jack
Williamson in his science fiction novel Dragon's Island, published in
1951 – one year before DNA's role in heredity was confirmed by
Alfred Hershey and
Martha Chase , and two years before James Watson
Francis Crick showed that the
DNA molecule has a double-helix
structure – though the general concept of direct genetic
manipulation was explored in rudimentary form in Stanley G. Weinbaum
's 1936 science fiction story Proteus Island. In 1974 Rudolf
Jaenisch created the first GM animal .
Paul Berg created the first recombinant
DNA molecules by
DNA from the monkey virus
SV40 with that of the lambda virus
. In 1973
Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen created the first
transgenic organism by inserting antibiotic resistance genes into the
plasmid of an E. coli bacterium. A year later Rudolf Jaenisch
created a transgenic mouse by introducing foreign
DNA into its embryo,
making it the world’s first transgenic animal . These achievements
led to concerns in the scientific community about potential risks from
genetic engineering, which were first discussed in depth at the
Asilomar Conference in 1975. One of the main recommendations from this
meeting was that government oversight of recombinant
should be established until the technology was deemed safe.
Genentech , the first genetic engineering company, was
Herbert Boyer and Robert Swanson and a year later the
company produced a human protein (somatostatin ) in E.coli. Genentech
announced the production of genetically engineered human insulin in
1978. In 1980, the
U.S. Supreme Court in the Diamond v. Chakrabarty
case ruled that genetically altered life could be patented. The
insulin produced by bacteria, branded humulin , was approved for
release by the
Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration in 1982.
In 1983, a biotech company, Advanced Genetic Sciences (AGS) applied
for U.S. government authorization to perform field tests with the
ice-minus strain of P. syringae to protect crops from frost, but
environmental groups and protestors delayed the field tests for four
years with legal challenges. In 1987, the ice-minus strain of P.
syringae became the first genetically modified organism (GMO) to be
released into the environment when a strawberry field and a potato
field in California were sprayed with it. Both test fields were
attacked by activist groups the night before the tests occurred: "The
world's first trial site attracted the world's first field trasher".
The first field trials of genetically engineered plants occurred in
France and the USA in 1986, tobacco plants were engineered to be
resistant to herbicides . The People’s Republic of China was the
first country to commercialize transgenic plants, introducing a
virus-resistant tobacco in 1992. In 1994 Calgene attained approval to
commercially release the
Flavr Savr tomato, a tomato engineered to
have a longer shelf life. In 1994, the
European Union approved
tobacco engineered to be resistant to the herbicide bromoxynil ,
making it the first genetically engineered crop commercialized in
Europe. In 1995, Bt Potato was approved safe by the Environmental
Protection Agency , after having been approved by the FDA, making it
the first pesticide producing crop to be approved in the USA. In 2009
11 transgenic crops were grown commercially in 25 countries, the
largest of which by area grown were the USA, Brazil, Argentina, India,
Canada, China, Paraguay and South Africa.
In 2010, scientists at the
J. Craig Venter Institute
J. Craig Venter Institute created the
first synthetic genome and inserted it into an empty bacterial cell.
The resulting bacterium, named
Synthia , could replicate and produce
proteins. Four years later this was taken a step further when
bacterium was developed that replicated a plasmid containing a unique
base pair , creating the first organism engineered to use an expanded
genetic alphabet. In 2013, researcher reported the first use of
clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), a
technique which can be used to easily alter the genome of almost any
Genetic engineering techniques
Creating a GMO is a multi-step process. Genetic engineers must first
choose what gene they wish to insert into the organism. This is driven
by what the aim is for the resultant organism and is built on earlier
research. Screens can be carried out to determine potential genes and
further tests then used to identify the best candidates. The
development of microarrays , transcriptomes and genome sequencing has
made it much easier to find suitable genes. Luck also plays its part;
the round-up ready gene was discovered after scientists noticed a
bacterium thriving in the presence of the herbicide.
GENE ISOLATION AND CLONING
The next step is to isolate the candidate gene. The cell containing
the gene is opened and the
DNA is purified. The gene is separated by
using restriction enzymes to cut the
DNA into fragments or Polymerase
chain reaction (PCR) to amplify up the gene segment. These segments
can then be extracted through gel electrophoresis . If the chosen gene
or the donor organism's genome has been well studied it may already be
accessible from a genetic library . If the
DNA sequence is known, but
no copies of the gene are available, it can also be artificially
synthesized . Once isolated the gene is ligated into a plasmid that
is then inserted into a bacterium. The plasmid is replicated when the
bacteria divide, ensuring unlimited copies of the gene are available.
Before the gene is inserted into the target organism it must be
combined with other genetic elements. These include a promoter and
terminator region, which initiate and end transcription . A selectable
marker gene is added, which in most cases confers antibiotic
resistance , so researchers can easily determine which cells have been
successfully transformed. The gene can also be modified at this stage
for better expression or effectiveness. These manipulations are
carried out using recombinant
DNA techniques, such as restriction
digests , ligations and molecular cloning.
DNA INTO THE HOST GENOME
There are a number of techniques available for inserting the gene
into the host genome. Some bacteria can naturally take up foreign DNA
. This ability can be induced in other bacteria via stress (e.g.
thermal or electric shock), which increases the cell membrane's
permeability to DNA; up-taken
DNA can either integrate with the genome
or exist as extrachromosomal
DNA is generally inserted into
animal cells using microinjection , where it can be injected through
the cell's nuclear envelope directly into the nucleus , or through the
use of viral vectors .
A. tumefaciens attaching itself to a
In plants the
DNA is generally inserted using Agrobacterium-mediated
recombination , taking advantage of the Agrobacteriums T-
that allows natural insertion of genetic material into plant cells.
Another method is biolistics , where particles of gold or tungsten are
DNA and then shot into young plant cells or plant embryos.
Another transformation method for plant and animal cells is
electroporation . This involves subjecting the cell to an electric
shock, which can make the cell membrane permeable to plasmid DNA. Due
to the damage caused to the cells and
DNA the transformation
efficiency of biolistics and electroporation is lower than
agrobacterial mediated transformation and microinjection.
As only a single cell is transformed with genetic material, the
organism must be regenerated from that single cell. As bacteria
consist of a single cell and reproduce clonally regeneration is not
necessary. In plants this is accomplished through the use of tissue
culture . In animals it is necessary to ensure that the inserted DNA
is present in the embryonic stem cells .
Selectable markers are used
to easily differentiate transformed from untransformed cells. These
markers are usually present in the transgenic organism, although a
number of strategies have been developed that can remove the
selectable marker from the mature transgenic plant.
Further testing using
Southern hybridization , and DNA
sequencing is conducted to confirm that an organism contains the new
gene. These tests can also confirm the chromosomal location and copy
number of the inserted gene. The presence of the gene does not
guarantee it will be expressed at appropriate levels in the target
tissue so methods that look for and measure the gene products (
protein) are also used. These include northern hybridization ,
Western blot , immunofluorescence ,
phenotypic analysis. All offspring from the first generation will be
heterozygous for the inserted gene and must be mated together to
produce a homozygous animal. For stable transformation the gene should
be passed to the offspring in a
Mendelian inheritance pattern, so the
organism's offspring are also studied.
The new genetic material can be inserted randomly within the host
genome or targeted to a specific location. The technique of gene
targeting uses homologous recombination to make desired changes to a
specific endogenous gene. This tends to occur at a relatively low
frequency in plants and animals and generally requires the use of
selectable markers . The frequency of gene targeting can be greatly
enhanced through genome editing .
Genome editing uses artificially
engineered nucleases that create specific double-stranded breaks at
desired locations in the genome, and use the cell’s endogenous
mechanisms to repair the induced break by the natural processes of
homologous recombination and nonhomologous end-joining . There are
currently four families of engineered nucleases: meganucleases ,
zinc finger nucleases , transcription activator-like effector
nucleases (TALENs), and the Cas9-guide
RNA system (adapted from
CRISPR). In addition to enhancing gene targeting, engineered
nucleases can be used to introduce mutations at endogenous genes that
generate a gene knockout .
Genetic engineering has applications in medicine, research, industry
and agriculture and can be used on a wide range of plants, animals and
Bacteria , the first organisms to be genetically
modified, can have plasmid
DNA inserted containing new genes that code
for medicines or enzymes that process food and other substrates .
Plants have been modified for insect protection, herbicide resistance,
virus resistance, enhanced nutrition, tolerance to environmental
pressures and the production of edible vaccines. Most commercialised
GMOs are insect resistant and/or herbicide tolerant crop plants.
Genetically modified animals have been used for research, model
animals and the production of agricultural or pharmaceutical products.
The genetically modified animals include animals with genes knocked
out , increased susceptibility to disease , hormones for extra growth
and the ability to express proteins in their milk.
Genetic engineering has many applications to medicine that include
the manufacturing of drugs, creation of model animals that mimic human
conditions and gene therapy . One of the earliest uses of genetic
engineering was to mass-produce human insulin in bacteria. This
application has now been applied to, human growth hormones, follistim
(for treating infertility), human albumin , monoclonal antibodies ,
antihemophilic factors , vaccines and many other drugs. Mouse
hybridomas , cells fused together to create monoclonal antibodies ,
have been humanised through genetic engineering to create human
monoclonal antibodies. Genetically engineered viruses are being
developed that can still confer immunity, but lack the infectious
Genetic engineering is used to create animal models of human
diseases. Genetically modified mice are the most common genetically
engineered animal model. They have been used to study and model
cancer (the oncomouse ), obesity, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis,
substance abuse, anxiety, aging and Parkinson disease. Potential
cures can be tested against these mouse models. Also genetically
modified pigs have been bred with the aim of increasing the success of
pig to human organ transplantation .
Gene therapy is the genetic engineering of humans , generally by
replacing defective genes with effective ones.
Clinical research using
somatic gene therapy has been conducted with several diseases,
including X-linked SCID , chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and
Parkinson\'s disease . In 2012,
Glybera became the first gene therapy
treatment to be approved for clinical use.
Germline gene therapy
would result in any change being inheritable, which has raised
concerns within the scientific community. In 2015, CRISPR was used
to edit the
DNA of non-viable human embryos , leading scientists of
major world academies to called for a moratorium on inheritable human
genome edits. There are also concerns that the technology could be
used not just for treatment, but for enhancement, modification or
alteration of a human beings' appearance, adaptability, intelligence,
character or behavior. The distinction between cure and enhancement
can also be difficult to establish.
Knockout mice Human cells in which some proteins are
fused with green fluorescent protein to allow them to be visualised
Genetic engineering is an important tool for natural scientists .
Genes and other genetic information from a wide range of organisms are
transformed into bacteria for storage and modification, creating
genetically modified bacteria in the process.
Bacteria are cheap, easy
to grow, clonal , multiply quickly, relatively easy to transform and
can be stored at -80 °C almost indefinitely. Once a gene is isolated
it can be stored inside the bacteria providing an unlimited supply for
Organisms are genetically engineered to discover the functions of
certain genes. This could be the effect on the phenotype of the
organism, where the gene is expressed or what other genes it interacts
with. These experiments generally involve loss of function, gain of
function, tracking and expression.
* LOSS OF FUNCTION EXPERIMENTS, such as in a gene knockout
experiment, in which an organism is engineered to lack the activity of
one or more genes. A knockout experiment involves the creation and
manipulation of a
DNA construct in vitro , which, in a simple
knockout, consists of a copy of the desired gene, which has been
altered such that it is non-functional. Embryonic stem cells
incorporate the altered gene, which replaces the already present
functional copy. These stem cells are injected into blastocysts ,
which are implanted into surrogate mothers. This allows the
experimenter to analyze the defects caused by this mutation and
thereby determine the role of particular genes. It is used especially
frequently in developmental biology . Another method, useful in
organisms such as
Drosophila (fruit fly), is to induce mutations in a
large population and then screen the progeny for the desired mutation.
A similar process can be used in both plants and prokaryotes . Loss of
function tells whether or not a protein is required for a function,
but does not always mean it's sufficient, especially if a function
requires multiple proteins and is lost if one protein is missing.
* GAIN OF FUNCTION EXPERIMENTS, the logical counterpart of
knockouts. These are sometimes performed in conjunction with knockout
experiments to more finely establish the function of the desired gene.
The process is much the same as that in knockout engineering, except
that the construct is designed to increase the function of the gene,
usually by providing extra copies of the gene or inducing synthesis of
the protein more frequently. Gain of function is used to tell whether
or not a protein is sufficient for a function, but does not always
mean it's required, especially when dealing with genetic or functional
* TRACKING EXPERIMENTS, which seek to gain information about the
localization and interaction of the desired protein. One way to do
this is to replace the wild-type gene with a 'fusion' gene, which is a
juxtaposition of the wild-type gene with a reporting element such as
green fluorescent protein (GFP) that will allow easy visualization of
the products of the genetic modification. While this is a useful
technique, the manipulation can destroy the function of the gene,
creating secondary effects and possibly calling into question the
results of the experiment. More sophisticated techniques are now in
development that can track protein products without mitigating their
function, such as the addition of small sequences that will serve as
binding motifs to monoclonal antibodies.
* EXPRESSION STUDIES aim to discover where and when specific
proteins are produced. In these experiments, the
DNA sequence before
DNA that codes for a protein, known as a gene's promoter , is
reintroduced into an organism with the protein coding region replaced
by a reporter gene such as GFP or an enzyme that catalyzes the
production of a dye. Thus the time and place where a particular
protein is produced can be observed. Expression studies can be taken a
step further by altering the promoter to find which pieces are crucial
for the proper expression of the gene and are actually bound by
transcription factor proteins; this process is known as promoter
Organisms can have their cells transformed with a gene coding for a
useful protein, such as an enzyme, so that they will overexpress the
desired protein. Mass quantities of the protein can then be
manufactured by growing the transformed organism in bioreactor
equipment using industrial fermentation , and then purifying the
protein. Some genes do not work well in bacteria, so yeast, insect
cells or mammalians cells can also be used. These techniques are used
to produce medicines such as insulin , human growth hormone , and
vaccines , supplements such as tryptophan , aid in the production of
food (chymosin in cheese making) and fuels. Other applications with
genetically engineered bacteria could involve making them perform
tasks outside their natural cycle, such as making biofuels , cleaning
up oil spills, carbon and other toxic waste and detecting arsenic in
drinking water. Certain genetically modified microbes can also be
used in biomining and bioremediation , due to their ability to extract
heavy metals from their environment and incorporate them into
compounds that are more easily recoverable.
In materials science , a genetically modified virus has been used in
an academic lab as a scaffold for assembling a more environmentally
friendly lithium-ion battery.
Bacteria have also been engineered to
function as sensors by expressing a fluorescent protein under certain
Genetically modified crops
Genetically modified crops and Genetically modified
food Bt-toxins present in peanut leaves (bottom image) protect
it from extensive damage caused by
European corn borer
European corn borer larvae (top
One of the best-known and controversial applications of genetic
engineering is the creation and use of genetically modified crops or
genetically modified livestock to produce genetically modified food .
Crops have been developed to increase production, increase tolerance
to abiotic stresses , alter the composition of the food, or to produce
The first crops to be realised commercially on a large scale provided
protection from insect pests or tolerance to herbicides . Fungal and
virus resistant crops have also being developed or are in development.
This make the insect and weed management of crops easier and can
indirectly increase crop yield. GM crops that directly improve yield
by accelerating growth or making the plant more hardy (by improving
salt, cold or drought tolerance) are also under development. Salmon
have been genetically modified with growth hormones to increase their
GMOs have been developed that modify the quality of produce by
increasing the nutritional value or providing more industrially useful
qualities or quantities. The
Amflora potato produces a more
industrially useful blend of starches. Cows have been engineered to
produce more protein in their milk to facilitate cheese production.
Soybeans and canola have been genetically modified to produce more
healthy oils. The first commercialised GM food was a tomato that had
delayed ripening, increasing its shelf life .
Plants and animals have been engineered to produce materials they do
not normally make. Pharming uses crops as bioreactors to produce
vaccines, drug intermediates, or the drugs themselves; the useful
product is purified from the harvest and then used in the standard
pharmaceutical production process. Cows and goats have been
engineered to express drugs and other proteins in their milk, and in
2009 the FDA approved a drug produced in goat milk.
Genetic engineering has potential applications in conservation and
natural areas management.
Gene transfer through viral vectors has been
proposed as a means of controlling invasive species as well as
vaccinating threatened fauna from disease.
Transgenic trees have been
suggested as a way to confer resistance to pathogens in wild
populations. With the increasing risks of maladaptation in organisms
as a result of climate change and other perturbations, facilitated
adaptation through gene tweaking could be one solution to reducing
extinction risks. Applications of genetic engineering in conservation
are thus far mostly theoretical and have yet to be put into practice.
Genetic engineering is also being used to create
BioArt . Some
bacteria have been genetically engineered to create black and white
photographs. Novelty items such as lavender-colored carnations ,
blue roses , and glowing fish have also been produced through
Regulation of genetic engineering and Regulation of
the release of genetically modified organisms
The regulation of genetic engineering concerns the approaches taken
by governments to assess and manage the risks associated with the
development and release of GMOs. The development of a regulatory
framework began in 1975, at Asilomar , California. The Asilomar
meeting recommended a set of voluntary guidelines regarding the use of
recombinant technology. As the technology improved USA established a
committee at the Office of Science and Technology , which assigned
regulatory approval of GM plants to the USDA, FDA and EPA. The
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety , an international treaty that governs
the transfer, handling, and use of GMOs, was adopted on 29 January
2000. One hundred and fifty-seven countries are members of the
Protocol and many use it as a reference point for their own
The legal and regulatory status of GM foods varies by country, with
some nations banning or restricting them, and others permitting them
with widely differing degrees of regulation. Some countries allow
the import of GM food with authorization, but either do not allow its
cultivation (Russia, Norway, Israel) or have provisions for
cultivation, but no GM products are yet produced (Japan, South Korea).
Most countries that do not allow for GMO cultivation do permit
research. Some of the most marked differences occurring between the
USA and Europe. The US policy focuses on the product (not the
process), only looks at verifiable scientific risks and uses the
concept of substantial equivalence . The
European Union by contrast
has possibly the most stringent GMO regulations in the world. All
GMOs, along with irradiated food , are considered "new food" and
subject to extensive, case-by-case, science-based food evaluation by
European Food Safety Authority
European Food Safety Authority . The criteria for authorization
fall in four broad categories: "safety," "freedom of choice,"
"labelling," and "traceability." The level of regulation in other
countries that cultivate GMOs lie in between Europe and the United
The regulation agencies by geographical regions
USDA , FDA and EPA
European Food Safety Authority
European Food Safety Authority
Health Canada and the
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Based on whether a product has novel features regardless of method
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
Final decision lies with each individual country.
Office of Agricultural Genetic
Engineering Biosafety Administration
Institutional Biosafety Committee, Review Committee on Genetic
Manipulation and Genetic
Engineering Approval Committee
Biotechnology Advisory Committee
(environmental impact), the National Service of Health and Agrifood
Quality (food safety) and the National Agribusiness Direction (effect
Fnal decision made by the Secretariat of Agriculture, Livestock,
Fishery and Food.
National Biosafety Technical Commission (environmental and food
safety) and the Council of Ministers (commercial and economical
Office of the
Gene Technology Regulator (overseas all), Therapeutic
Goods Administration (GM medicines) and Food Standards Australia New
Zealand (GM food).
The individual state governments can then assess the impact of
release on markets and trade and apply further legislation to control
approved genetically modified products.
One of the key issues concerning regulators is whether GM products
should be labeled. The
European Commission says that mandatory
labeling and traceability are needed to allow for informed choice,
False advertising and facilitate the withdrawal of
products if adverse effects on health or the environment are
American Medical Association
American Medical Association and the American
Association for the Advancement of Science say that absent
scientific evidence of harm even voluntary labeling is misleading and
will falsely alarm consumers". Labeling of GMO products in the
marketplace is required in 64 countries. Labeling can be mandatory up
to a threshold GM content level (which varies between countries) or
voluntary. In Canada and the USA labeling of GM food is voluntary,
while in Europe all food (including processed food ) or feed which
contains greater than 0.9% of approved GMOs must be labelled.
Genetically modified food
Genetically modified food controversies
Critics have objected to the use of genetic engineering on several
grounds, that include ethical, ecological and economic concerns. Many
of these concerns involve GM crops and whether food produced from them
is safe, whether it should be labeled and what impact growing them
will have on the environment. These controversies have led to
litigation, international trade disputes, and protests, and to
restrictive regulation of commercial products in some countries.
Accusations that scientists are "playing God " and other religious
issues have been ascribed to the technology from the beginning. Other
ethical issues raised include the patenting of life , the use of
intellectual property rights, the level of labeling on products,
control of the food supply and the objectivity of the regulatory
process. Although doubts have been raised, economically most studies
have found growing GM crops to be beneficial to farmers.
Gene flow between GM crops and compatible plants, along with
increased use of selective herbicides , can increase the risk of
"superweeds " developing. Other environmental concerns involve
potential impacts on non-target organisms, including soil microbes ,
and an increase in secondary and resistant insect pests. Many of the
environmental impacts regarding GM crops may take many years to be
understood are also evident in conventional agriculture practices.
With the commercialisation of genetically modified fish there are
concerns over what the environmental consequences will be if they
There are three main concerns over the safety of genetically modified
food; whether they may provoke an allergic reaction , whether the
genes could transfer from the food into human cells, and whether the
genes not approved for human consumption could outcross to other
crops. There is a scientific consensus that currently available
food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than
conventional food, but that each GM food needs to be tested on a
case-by-case basis before introduction. Nonetheless, members of the
public are much less likely than scientists to perceive GM foods as
* ^ "First transgenic pet, ‘GloFish’, sold to US public". PHG
Foundation. 9 January 2004.
* ^ "Terms and Acronyms". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
online. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
* ^ Vert, Michel; Doi, Yoshiharu; Hellwich, Karl-Heinz; Hess,
Michael; Hodge, Philip; Kubisa, Przemyslaw; Rinaudo, Marguerite;
Schué, François (2012). "Terminology for biorelated polymers and
applications (IUPAC Recommendations 2012)" (PDF). Pure and Applied
Chemistry . 84 (2): 377–410. doi :10.1351/PAC-REC-10-12-04 .
* ^ A B The European Parliament and the council of the European
Union (12 March 2001). "Directive on the release of genetically
modified organisms (GMOs) Directive 2001/18/EC ANNEX I A". Official
Journal of the European Communities: 17.
* ^ A B Staff Economic Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops on the
Agri-Food Sector; P. 42 Glossary - Term and Definitions The European
Commission Directorate-General for Agriculture, "Genetic engineering:
The manipulation of an organism's genetic endowment by introducing or
eliminating specific genes through modern molecular biology
techniques. A broad definition of genetic engineering also includes
selective breeding and other means of artificial selection.",
Retrieved 5 November 2012
* ^ Van Eenennaam, Alison. "Is Livestock
Cloning Another Form of
Genetic Engineering?" (PDF). agbiotech. Archived from the original
(PDF) on 11 May 2011.
* ^ Suter, David M.; Dubois-Dauphin, Michel; Krause, Karl-Heinz
Genetic engineering of embryonic stem cells" (PDF). Swiss Med
Wkly. 136 (27–28): 413–415. PMID 16897894 . Archived from the
original (PDF) on 7 July 2011.
* ^ Andrianantoandro, Ernesto; Basu, Subhayu; Kariga, David K.;
Weiss, Ron (16 May 2006). "Synthetic biology: new engineering rules
for an emerging discipline". Molecular Systems Biology. 2 (2006.0028):
2006.0028. PMC 1681505 . PMID 16738572 . doi :10.1038/msb4100073 .
* ^ "What is genetic modification (GM)?".
* ^ Jacobsen, E.; Schouten, H. J. (2008). "Cisgenesis, a New Tool
for Traditional Plant Breeding, Should be Exempted from the Regulation
on Genetically Modified
Organisms in a Step by Step Approach". Potato
Research. 51: 75–88. doi :10.1007/s11540-008-9097-y .
* ^ Capecchi, Mario R. (2001). "Generating mice with targeted
mutations". Nature Medicine. 7 (10): 1086–90. PMID 11590420 . doi
* ^ Staff
Biotechnology - Glossary of Agricultural Biotechnology
Terms Archived 30 August 2014 at the
Wayback Machine . United States
Department of Agriculture, "Genetic modification: The production of
heritable improvements in plants or animals for specific uses, via
either genetic engineering or other more traditional methods. Some
countries other than the United States use this term to refer
specifically to genetic engineering.", Retrieved 5 November 2012
* ^ Maryanski, James H. (19 October 1999). "Genetically Engineered
Foods". Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition at the Food and
Drug Administration .
* ^ Staff (28 November 2005)
Health Canada - The Regulation of
Genetically Modified Food Glossary definition of Genetically Modified:
"An organism, such as a plant, animal or bacterium, is considered
genetically modified if its genetic material has been altered through
any method, including conventional breeding. A 'GMO' is a genetically
modified organism.", Retrieved 5 November 2012
* ^ Root, Clive (2007). Domestication. Greenwood Publishing Groups.
* ^ Zohary, Daniel; Hopf, Maria; Weiss, Ehud (2012). Domestication
of Plants in the Old World: The origin and spread of plants in the old
world. Oxford University Press.
* ^ Stableford, Brian M. (2004). Historical dictionary of science
fiction literature. p. 133. ISBN 9780810849389 .
* ^ A, Hershey; Chase, M. (1952). "Independent functions of viral
protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage" (PDF). J Gen
Physiol. 36 (1): 39–56. PMC 2147348 . PMID 12981234 . doi
* ^ "Genetic Engineering". Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. April
* ^ Shiv Kant Prasad, Ajay Dash (2008). Modern Concepts in
Nanotechnology, Volume 5. Discovery Publishing House. ISBN
9788183562966 . CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link )
* ^ Jackson, DA; Symons, RH; Berg, P (1 October 1972). "Biochemical
Method for Inserting New Genetic Information into
DNA of Simian Virus
DNA Molecules Containing Lambda Phage Genes and the
Galactose Operon of Escherichia coli" . PNAS. 69 (10): 2904–2909.
Bibcode :1972PNAS...69.2904J. PMC 389671 . PMID 4342968 . doi
* ^ Arnold, Paul (2009). "History of Genetics: Genetic Engineering
* ^ Cohen, Stanley N.; Chang, Annie C. Y. (1 May 1973).
"Recircularization and Autonomous Replication of a Sheared R-Factor
DNA Segment in
Escherichia coli Transformants". PNAS. 70: 1293–1297.
doi :10.1073/pnas.70.5.1293 . Retrieved 17 July 2010.
* ^ Jaenisch, R. and Mintz, B. (1974 ) Simian virus 40 DNA
DNA of healthy adult mice derived from preimplantation
blastocysts injected with viral DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. 71(4)
* ^ Berg P; Baltimore, D; Brenner, S; Roblin, RO; Singer, MF; et
al. (1975). "Summary statement of the Asilomar Conference on
DNA molecules" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72
Bibcode :1975PNAS...72.1981B. PMC 432675 . PMID
806076 . doi :10.1073/pnas.72.6.1981 .
* ^ NIH Guidelines for research involving recombinant
Archived 10 September 2012 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ A B Goeddel, David; Kleid, Dennis G.; Bolivar, Francisco;
Heyneker, Herbert L.; Yansura, Daniel G.; Crea, Roberto; Hirose,
Tadaaki; Kraszewski, Adam; Itakura, Keiichi; Riggs, Arthur D. (January
1979). "Expression in
Escherichia coli of chemically synthesized genes
for human insulin" (PDF). PNAS. 76 (1): 106–110. Bibcode
:1979PNAS...76..106G. PMC 382885 . PMID 85300 . doi
* ^ US Supreme Court Cases from Justia & Oyez (16 June 1980).
"Diamond V Chakrabarty". 447 (303). Supreme.justia.com. Retrieved 17
* ^ "Artificial Genes". TIME. 15 November 1982. Retrieved 17 July
* ^ Bratspies, Rebecca (2007). "Some Thoughts on the American
Approach to Regulating Genetically Modified Organisms". Kansas Journal
of Law ">(PDF)format= requires url= (help ). 16 (3): 101–131. SSRN
* ^ A B BBC News 14 June 2002 GM crops: A bitter harvest?
* ^ Thomas H. Maugh II for the Los Angeles Times. 9 June 1987.
Altered Bacterium Does Its Job : Frost Failed to Damage Sprayed Test
Crop, Company Says
* ^ James, Clive (1996). "Global Review of the Field Testing and
Transgenic Plants: 1986 to 1995" (PDF). The
International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech
Applications. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
* ^ James, Clive (1997). "Global Status of
Transgenic Crops in
1997" (PDF). ISAAA Briefs No. 5.: 31.
* ^ Bruening, G.; Lyons, J.M. (2000). "The case of the FLAVR SAVR
tomato". California Agriculture. 54 (4): 6–7. doi
* ^ MacKenzie, Debora (18 June 1994). "
Transgenic tobacco is
European first". New Scientist.
* ^ Genetically Altered Potato Ok\'d For Crops Lawrence
Journal-World - 6 May 1995
* ^ Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2009 ISAAA
Brief 41-2009, 23 February 2010. Retrieved 10 August 2010
* ^ Pennisi, Elizabeth (2010-05-21). "Synthetic
Genome Brings New
Life to Bacterium". Science. 328 (5981): 958–959. ISSN 0036-8075 .
PMID 20488994 . doi :10.1126/science.328.5981.958 .
* ^ Gibson, D. G.; Glass, J. I.; Lartigue, C.; Noskov, V. N.;
Chuang, R.-Y.; Algire, M. A.; Benders, G. A.; Montague, M. G.; Ma, L.;
Moodie, M. M.; Merryman, C.; Vashee, S.; Krishnakumar, R.;
Assad-Garcia, N.; Andrews-Pfannkoch, C.; Denisova, E. A.; Young, L.;
Qi, Z.-Q.; Segall-Shapiro, T. H.; Calvey, C. H.; Parmar, P. P.;
Hutchison Ca, C. A.; Smith, H. O.; Venter, J. C. (2010). "Creation of
a Bacterial Cell Controlled by a Chemically Synthesized Genome".
Science. 329 (5987): 52–6. PMID 20488990 . doi
* ^ Malyshev, Denis A.; Dhami, Kirandeep; Lavergne, Thomas; Chen,
Tingjian; Dai, Nan; Foster, Jeremy M.; Corrêa, Ivan R.; Romesberg,
Floyd E. (2014-05-15). "A semi-synthetic organism with an expanded
genetic alphabet". Nature. 509 (7500): 385–388. ISSN 0028-0836 . PMC
4058825 . PMID 24805238 . doi :10.1038/nature13314 .
* ^ Thyer, Ross; Ellefson, Jared (2014-05-15). "Synthetic biology:
New letters for life\'s alphabet". Nature. 509 (7500): 291–292. ISSN
0028-0836 . PMID 24805244 . doi :10.1038/nature13335 .
* ^ Ledford, Heidi (2016-03-10). "CRISPR: gene editing is just the
beginning". Nature. 531 (7593): 156–159. PMID 26961639 . doi
* ^ Koh, Hee-Jong; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Thomson, Michael (2015-08-26).
Current Technologies in Plant Molecular Breeding: A Guide Book of
Plant Molecular Breeding for Researchers. Springer. p. 242. ISBN
* ^ "How to Make a GMO - Science in the News". Science in the News.
2015-08-09. Retrieved 2017-04-29.
* ^ Nicholl, Desmond S. T. (2008-05-29). An Introduction to Genetic
Engineering. Cambridge University Press. p. 34. ISBN 9781139471787 .
* ^ Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al. (2002). "8". Isolating,
Cloning, and Sequencing DNA. (4th ed.). New York: Garland Science.
* ^ Kaufman, R I; Nixon, B T (1996). "Use of
PCR to isolate genes
encoding sigma54-dependent activators from diverse bacteria" . J
Bacteriol. 178 (13): 3967–3970. PMC 232662 . PMID 8682806 . doi
* ^ Liang, Jing; Luo, Yunzi; Zhao, Huimin (2011). "Synthetic
biology: Putting synthesis into biology". Wiley Interdisciplinary
Biology and Medicine. 3: 7–20. doi
* ^ "5. THE PROCESS OF GENETIC MODIFICATION". www.fao.org.
* ^ Berg, P.; Mertz, J. E. (2010). "Personal Reflections on the
Origins and Emergence of Recombinant
DNA Technology" . Genetics. 184
(1): 9–17. PMC 2815933 . PMID 20061565 . doi
* ^ Chen, I; Dubnau, D (2004). "
DNA uptake during bacterial
transformation". Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2 (3): 241–9. PMID 15083159 .
doi :10.1038/nrmicro844 .
* ^ Health, National Research Council (US) Committee on Identifying
and Assessing Unintended Effects of Genetically Engineered Foods on
Human (2004-01-01). Methods and Mechanisms for Genetic Manipulation of
Plants, Animals, and Microorganisms. National Academies Press (US).
* ^ Gelvin, S. B. (2003). "Agrobacterium-Mediated Plant
Biology behind the "Gene-Jockeying" Tool" .
Microbiology and Molecular
Biology Reviews. 67 (1): 16–37, table of
contents. PMC 150518 . PMID 12626681 . doi
* ^ Head, Graham; Hull, Roger H; Tzotzos, George T. (2009).
Genetically Modified Plants: Assessing Safety and Managing Risk.
London: Academic Pr. p. 244. ISBN 0-12-374106-8 .
* ^ Darbani, Behrooz; Farajnia, Safar; Toorchi, Mahmoud;
Zakerbostanabad, Saeed; Noeparvar, Shahin; Stewart, Jr., C. Neal
(2010). "DNA-Delivery Methods to Produce
Transgenic Plants". Science
* ^ Hohn, Barbara; Levy, Avraham A; Puchta, Holger (2001).
"Elimination of selection markers from transgenic plants". Current
Opinion in Biotechnology. 12 (2): 139–43. PMID 11287227 . doi
* ^ Grizot S, Smith J, Daboussi F, et al. (September 2009).
"Efficient targeting of a SCID gene by an engineered single-chain
homing endonuclease" . Nucleic Acids Res. 37 (16): 5405–19. PMC
2760784 . PMID 19584299 . doi :10.1093/nar/gkp548 .
* ^ Gao H, Smith J, Yang M, et al. (January 2010). "Heritable
targeted mutagenesis in maize using a designed endonuclease". Plant J.
61 (1): 176–87. PMID 19811621 . doi
* ^ Townsend JA, Wright DA, Winfrey RJ, et al. (May 2009).
"High-frequency modification of plant genes using engineered
zinc-finger nucleases" . Nature. 459 (7245): 442–5. Bibcode
:2009Natur.459..442T. PMC 2743854 . PMID 19404258 . doi
* ^ Shukla VK, Doyon Y, Miller JC, et al. (May 2009). "Precise
genome modification in the crop species Zea mays using zinc-finger
nucleases". Nature. 459 (7245): 437–41. Bibcode
:2009Natur.459..437S. PMID 19404259 . doi :10.1038/nature07992 .
* ^ Christian M, Cermak T, Doyle EL, et al. (July 2010). "TAL
Effector Nucleases Create Targeted
DNA Double-strand Breaks" .
Genetics. 186 (2): 757–61. PMC 2942870 . PMID 20660643 . doi
* ^ Li T, Huang S, Jiang WZ, et al. (August 2010). "TAL nucleases
(TALNs): hybrid proteins composed of TAL effectors and FokI
DNA-cleavage domain" . Nucleic Acids Res. 39 (1): 359–72. PMC
3017587 . PMID 20699274 . doi :10.1093/nar/gkq704 .
* ^ Esvelt, KM.; Wang, HH. (2013). "Genome-scale engineering for
systems and synthetic biology" . Mol Syst Biol. 9: 641. PMC 3564264
. PMID 23340847 . doi :10.1038/msb.2012.66 .
* ^ Tan, WS.; Carlson, DF.; Walton, MW.; Fahrenkrug, SC.; Hackett,
PB. (2012). "Precision editing of large animal genomes" . Adv Genet.
Advances in Genetics. 80: 37–97. ISBN 9780124047426 . PMC 3683964
. PMID 23084873 . doi :10.1016/B978-0-12-404742-6.00002-8 .
* ^ Ekker, S.C. (2008). "Zinc finger-based knockout punches for
zebrafish genes" . Zebrafish. 5 (2): 1121–3. PMC 2849655 . PMID
18554175 . doi :10.1089/zeb.2008.9988 .
* ^ Geurts AM, Cost GJ, Freyvert Y, et al. (July 2009). "Knockout
rats via embryo microinjection of zinc-finger nucleases" . Science.
325 (5939): 433.
Bibcode :2009Sci...325..433G. PMC 2831805 . PMID
19628861 . doi :10.1126/science.1172447 .
* ^ "Genetic Modification of Bacteria".
Annenberg Foundation .
* ^ Panesar, Pamit et al (2010) "Enzymes in Food Processing:
Fundamentals and Potential Applications", Chapter 10, I K
International Publishing House, ISBN 978-9380026336
* ^ "GM traits list". International Service for the Acquisition of
* ^ "ISAAA Brief 43-2011: Executive Summary". International Service
for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications.
* ^ Connor, Steve (2 November 2007). "The mouse that shook the
world". The Independent.
* ^ Avise, John C. (2004). The hope, hype & reality of genetic
engineering: remarkable stories from agriculture, industry, medicine,
and the environment. Oxford University Press US. p. 22. ISBN
* ^ "
Engineering algae to make complex anti-cancer \'designer\'
drug". PhysOrg. 10 December 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
* ^ =Roque, AC; Lowe, CR; Taipa, MA. (2004). "Antibodies and
genetically engineered related molecules: production and
purification". Biotechnol Proress. 20 (3): 639–54. PMID 15176864 .
doi :10.1021/bp030070k .
* ^ Rodriguez, Luis L.; Grubman, Marvin J. (2009). "Foot and mouth
disease virus vaccines". Vaccine. 27: D90–4. PMID 19837296 . doi
* ^ "Background: Cloned and Genetically Modified Animals". Center
Genetics and Society. 14 April 2005.
* ^ "Knockout Mice". Nation Human
Genome Research Institute. 2009.
* ^ "GM pigs best bet for organ transplant". Medical News Today. 21
* ^ Fischer, Alain; Hacein-Bey-Abina, Salima; Cavazzana-Calvo,
Marina (2010). "20 years of gene therapy for SCID". Nature Immunology.
11 (6): 457–60. PMID 20485269 . doi :10.1038/ni0610-457 .
* ^ Ledford, Heidi (2011). "Cell therapy fights leukaemia". Nature.
doi :10.1038/news.2011.472 .
* ^ Brentjens, Renier J.; Davila, Marco L.; Riviere, Isabelle;
Park, Jae; Wang, Xiuyan; Cowell, Lindsay G.; Bartido, Shirley;
Stefanski, Jolanta; Taylor, Clare; Olszewska, Malgorzata;
Borquez-Ojeda, Oriana; Qu, Jinrong; Wasielewska, Teresa; He, Qing;
Bernal, Yvette; Rijo, Ivelise V.; Hedvat, Cyrus; Kobos, Rachel;
Curran, Kevin; Steinherz, Peter; Jurcic, Joseph; Rosenblat, Todd;
Maslak, Peter; Frattini, Mark; Sadelain, Michel (20 March 2013).
"CD19-Targeted T Cells Rapidly Induce Molecular Remissions in Adults
with Chemotherapy-Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia". Science
Translational Medicine. 5 (177): 177ra38–177ra38. PMC 3742551 .
PMID 23515080 . doi :10.1126/scitranslmed.3005930 .
* ^ Lewitt, Peter A; Rezai, Ali R; Leehey, Maureen A; Ojemann,
Steven G; Flaherty, Alice W; Eskandar, Emad N; Kostyk, Sandra K;
Thomas, Karen; Sarkar, Atom; Siddiqui, Mustafa S; Tatter, Stephen B;
Schwalb, Jason M; Poston, Kathleen L; Henderson, Jaimie M; Kurlan,
Roger M; Richard, Irene H; Van Meter, Lori; Sapan, Christine V;
During, Matthew J; Kaplitt, Michael G; Feigin, Andrew (2011).
"AAV2-GAD gene therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease: A
double-blind, sham-surgery controlled, randomised trial". The Lancet
Neurology. 10 (4): 309–19. PMID 21419704 . doi
* ^ Gallagher, James. (2 November 2012) BBC News –
Glybera approved by European Commission. Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved on 15
* ^ Richards, Sabrina. "
Gene Therapy Arrives in Europe". The
Scientist. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
* ^ "1990 The Declaration of Inuyama". 5 August 2001. Archived from
the original on 5 August 2001. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status
unknown (link )
* ^ Smith KR, Chan S, Harris J. Human germline genetic
modification: scientific and bioethical perspectives. Arch Med Res.
2012 Oct;43(7):491-513. doi :10.1016/j.arcmed.2012.09.003 . PMID
* ^ Kolata, Gina (23 April 2015). "Chinese Scientists Edit Genes of
Human Embryos, Raising Concerns".
New York Times
New York Times . Retrieved 24 April
* ^ Liang, Puping; et al. (18 April 2015). "CRISPR/Cas9-mediated
gene editing in human tripronuclear zygotes".
Protein & Cell . 6:
363–72. PMC 4417674 . PMID 25894090 . doi
:10.1007/s13238-015-0153-5 . Retrieved 24 April 2015.
* ^ Wade, Nicholas (3 December 2015). "Scientists Place Moratorium
on Edits to Human
Genome That Could Be Inherited".
New York Times
New York Times .
Retrieved 3 December 2015.
* ^ Bergeson, Emilie R. (1997). "The Ethics of
* ^ Hanna, Kathi E. "Genetic Enhancement". National Human Genome
* ^ "Applications of Genetic Engineering". Microbiologyprocedure.
Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
* ^ "Biotech: What are transgenic organisms?". Easyscience. 2002.
Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
* ^ Savage, Neil (1 August 2007). "Making Gasoline from Bacteria: A
biotech startup wants to coax fuels from engineered microbes".
Technology Review. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
* ^ Summers, Rebecca (24 April 2013)
Bacteria churn out first ever
petrol-like biofuel New Scientist, Retrieved 27 April 2013
* ^ "Applications of Some Genetically Engineered Bacteria".
Archived from the original on 27 November 2010. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
* ^ Sanderson, Katherine (24 February 2012) New Portable Kit
Detects Arsenic In Wells Chemical and
Engineering News, Retrieved 23
* ^ Reece, Jane B.; Urry, Lisa A.; Cain, Michael L.; Wasserman,
Steven A.; Minorsky, Peter V.; Jackson, Robert B. (2011). Campbell
Biology Ninth Edition. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings. p.
421. ISBN 0-321-55823-5 .
* ^ "New virus-built battery could power cars, electronic devices".
Web.mit.edu. 2 April 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
* ^ "Hidden Ingredient In New, Greener Battery: A Virus". Npr.org.
Retrieved 17 July 2010.
* ^ "Researchers Synchronize Blinking \'Genetic Clocks\' --
Bacteria That Keep Track of Time".
ScienceDaily. 24 January 2010.
* ^ Suszkiw, Jan (November 1999). "Tifton, Georgia: A
Showdown". Agricultural Research magazine. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
* ^ Magaña-Gómez, JA; de la Barca, A.M. (2009). "Risk assessment
of genetically modified crops for nutrition and health". Nutr. Rev. 67
(1): 1–16. PMID 19146501 . doi :10.1111/j.1753-4887.2008.00130.x .
* ^ Islam, Aparna (2008). "Fungus Resistant
Strategies, Progress and Lessons Learnt". Plant Tissue Culture and
Biotechnology. 16 (2): 117–38. doi :10.3329/ptcb.v16i2.1113 .
* ^ "Disease resistant crops". GMO Compass. Archived from the
original on 3 June 2010.
* ^ Demont, M; Tollens, E (2004). "First impact of biotechnology in
the EU: Bt maize adoption in Spain". Annals of Applied Biology. 145
(2): 197–207. doi :10.1111/j.1744-7348.2004.tb00376.x .
* ^ Chivian, Eric; Bernstein, Aaron (2008). Sustaining Life. Oxford
University Press, Inc. ISBN 978-0-19-517509-7 .
* ^ A B Whitman, Deborah B. (2000). "Genetically Modified Foods:
Harmful or Helpful?".
* ^ Pollack, Andrew (19 November 2015). "Genetically Engineered
Salmon Approved for Consumption". The New York Times. Retrieved 21
* ^ "Giant GM salmon on the way". BBC News. 11 April 2000.
* ^ Young, Emma (2003). "GM cows to please cheese-makers". New
* ^ Rapeseed (canola) has been genetically engineered to modify its
oil content with a gene encoding a "12:0 thioesterase" (TE) enzyme
from the California bay plant (
Umbellularia californica ) to increase
medium length fatty acids, see: Geo-pie.cornell.edu Archived 5 July
2009 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Bomgardner Melody M (2012). "Replacing Trans Fat: New crops
from Dow Chemical and DuPont target food makers looking for stable,
heart-healthy oils". Chemical and
Engineering News. 90 (11): 30–32.
* ^ Kramer, Matthew G.; Redenbaugh, Keith (1994-01-01).
"Commercialization of a tomato with an antisense polygalacturonase
gene: The FLAVR SAVR™ tomato story". Euphytica. 79 (3): 293–297.
ISSN 0014-2336 . doi :10.1007/BF00022530 .
* ^ Marvier, Michelle (2008). "Pharmaceutical crops in California,
benefits and risks. A review". Agronomy for Sustainable Development.
28 (1): 1–9. doi :10.1051/agro:2007050 .
* ^ "FDA Approves First Human Biologic Produced by GE Animals". US
Food and Drug Administration.
* ^ Rebêlo, Paulo (15 July 2004). "GM cow milk \'could provide
treatment for blood disease\'". SciDev.
* ^ Angulo, E.; Cooke, B. (2002). "First synthesize new viruses
then regulate their release? The case of the wild rabbit". Molecular
Ecology. 11: 2703–9. PMID 12453252 . doi
* ^ Adams; et al. (2 August 2002). "The Case for Genetic
Engineering of Native and Landscape Trees against Introduced Pests and
Diseases". Conservation Biology. 16: 874–879. doi
:10.1046/j.1523-1739.2002.00523.x . Retrieved 16 May 2016.
* ^ Thomas; et al. (25 September 2013). "Ecology:
Gene tweaking for
conservation". Nature. 501: 485–6. PMID 24073449 . doi
:10.1038/501485a . Retrieved 16 May 2016.
* ^ Pasko, Jessica M. (2007-03-04). "Bio-artists bridge gap between
arts, sciences: Use of living organisms is attracting attention and
* ^ Jackson, Joab (6 December 2005). "Genetically Modified Bacteria
Produce Living Photographs". National Geographic News.
* ^ Phys.Org website. 4 April 2005 "Plant gene replacement results
in the world\'s only blue rose".
* ^ Katsumoto, Yukihisa; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Fukui, Yuko;
Brugliera, Filippa; Holton, Timothy A.; Karan, Mirko; Nakamura,
Noriko; Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Togami, Junichi; Pigeaire, Alix;
Tao, Guo-Qing; Nehra, Narender S.; Lu, Chin-Yi; Dyson, Barry K.;
Tsuda, Shinzo; Ashikari, Toshihiko; Kusumi, Takaaki; Mason, John G.;
Tanaka, Yoshikazu (2007). "
Engineering of the Rose Flavonoid
Biosynthetic Pathway Successfully Generated Blue-Hued Flowers
Accumulating Delphinidin". Plant and Cell Physiology. 48 (11):
1589–600. PMID 17925311 . doi :10.1093/pcp/pcm131 .
* ^ Published PCT Application WO2000049150 "Chimeric Gene
Constructs for Generation of Fluorescent
Transgenic Ornamental Fish."
National University of Singapore
* ^ Stewart, C. Neal (2006). "Go with the glow: Fluorescent
proteins to light transgenic organisms". Trends in Biotechnology. 24
(4): 155–62. PMID 16488034 . doi :10.1016/j.tibtech.2006.02.002 .
* ^ Berg P, Baltimore D, Boyer HW, Cohen SN, Davis RW, Hogness DS,
Nathans D, Roblin R, Watson JD, Weissman S, Zinder ND (1974). "Letter:
Potential biohazards of recombinant
DNA molecules" (PDF). Science. 185
(4148): 303. PMID 4600381 . doi :10.1126/science.185.4148.303 .
* ^ Berg, P., Baltimore, D., Brenner, S., Roblin, R. O., and
Singer, M. F. (1975). "Summary Statement of the Asilomar Conference on
DNA Molecules" . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 72 (6):
1981–1984. PMC 432675 . PMID 806076 . doi :10.1073/pnas.72.6.1981
. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link )
* ^ McHughen A, Smyth S (2008). "US regulatory system for
genetically modified crop cultivars". Plant biotechnology journal. 6
(1): 2–12. PMID 17956539 . doi :10.1111/j.1467-7652.2007.00300.x .
* ^ A B U.S.
Office of Science and Technology Policy (1986).
"Coordinated framework for regulation of biotechnology" (PDF). Fed
Regist. 51 (123): 23302–50. PMID 11655807 . Archived from the
original (PDF) on 16 May 2011.
* ^ Redick, T.P. (2007). "The Cartagena Protocol on biosafety:
Precautionary priority in biotech crop approvals and containment of
commodities shipments, 2007". Colorado Journal of International
Environmental Law and Policy. 18: 51–116.
* ^ "About the Protocol". The Biosafety Clearing-House (BCH).
* ^ "AgBioForum 13(3): Implications of Import Regulations and
Information Requirements under the
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety for
GM Commodities in Kenya".
* ^ "Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms". Library of
Congress. June 9, 2015. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
* ^ Bashshur, Ramona (February 2013). "FDA and Regulation of GMOs".
American Bar Association. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
* ^ Sifferlin, Alexandra (October 3, 2015). "Over Half of E.U.
Countries Are Opting Out of GMOs". Time.
* ^ Lynch, Diahanna; Vogel, David (April 5, 2001). "The Regulation
of GMOs in Europe and the United States: A Case-Study of Contemporary
European Regulatory Politics". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved
February 24, 2016.
* ^ "Restrictions on Genetically Modified
Organisms - Law Library
of Congress". 22 January 2017.
* ^ Emily Marden, Risk and Regulation: U.S. Regulatory Policy on
Genetically Modified Food and Agriculture, 44 B.C.L. Rev. 733 (2003)
* ^ A B John Davison (2010)"GM plants: Science, politics and EC
regulations" Plant Science 178(2):94–98
* ^ A B GMO Compass: The European Regulatory System. Archived 14
August 2012 at the
Wayback Machine . Retrieved 28 July 2012.
* ^ Agency, Government of Canada, Canadian Food Inspection.
"Information for the general public". www.inspection.gc.ca.
Genetically Modified Food.
* ^ Evans, Brent and Lupescu, Mihai (15 July 2012) Canada -
Biotechnology Annual – 2012 GAIN (Global Agricultural
Information Network) report CA12029, United States Department of
Agriculture, Foreifn Agricultural Service, Retrieved 5 November 2012
* ^ McHugen, Alan (14 September 2000). "Chapter 1: Hors-d'oeuvres
and entrees/What is genetic modification? What are GMOs?". Pandora's
Picnic Basket. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198506744 .
* ^ A B
Transgenic harvest Editorial, Nature 467, pages 633–634,
7 October 2010, doi :10.1038/467633b . Retrieved 9 November 2010
* ^ "AgBioForum 5(4): Agricultural
Biotechnology Development and
Policy in China".
* ^ "TNAU Agritech
Portal :: Bio Technology".
* ^ A B C "BASF presentation" (PDF). Archived from the original
(PDF) on 28 September 2011.
Agriculture - Department of Primary Industries Archived 29
March 2011 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ A B "Welcome to the Office of the
Gene Technology Regulator
Website". Office of the
Gene Technology Regulator. Retrieved 25 March
* ^ "Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 of the European Parliament and of
the Council of 22 September 2003 On Genetically Modified Food And
Feed" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. The European
Parliament and the Council of the European Union. 2003. The labeling
should include objective information to the effect that a food or feed
consists of, contains or is produced from GMOs. Clear labeling,
irrespective of the detectability of
DNA or protein resulting from the
genetic modification in the final product, meets the demands expressed
in numerous surveys by a large majority of consumers, facilitates
informed choice and precludes potential misleading of consumers as
regards methods of manufacture or production.
* ^ "Regulation (EC) No 1830/2003 of the European Parliament and of
the Council of 22 September 2003 concerning the traceability and
labeling of genetically modified organisms and the traceability of
food and feed products produced from genetically modified organisms
and amending Directive 2001/18/EC". Official Journal L 268, 18/10/2003
P. 0024 - 0028. The European Parliament and the Council of the
European Union. 2003. (3) Traceability requirements for GMOs should
facilitate both the withdrawal of products where unforeseen adverse
effects on human health, animal health or the environment, including
ecosystems, are established, and the targeting of monitoring to
examine potential effects on, in particular, the environment.
Traceability should also facilitate the implementation of risk
management measures in accordance with the precautionary principle.
(4) Traceability requirements for food and feed produced from GMOs
should be established to facilitate accurate labeling of such
* ^ "Report 2 of the Council on Science and Public Health: Labeling
of Bioengineered Foods" (PDF). American Medical Association. 2012.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 September 2012.
American Association for the Advancement of Science
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS),
Board of Directors (2012). Statement by the AAAS Board of Directors On
Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods, and associated Press release:
Legally Mandating GM Food Labels Could Mislead and Falsely Alarm
* ^ Hallenbeck, Terri (2014-04-27). "How GMO labeling came to pass
in Vermont". Burlington Free Press. Retrieved 2014-05-28.
* ^ "The Regulation of Genetically Modified Foods".
* ^ Sheldon, Ian M. (2002-03-01). "Regulation of biotechnology:
will we ever ‘freely’ trade GMOs?". European Review of
Agricultural Economics. 29 (1): 155–176. ISSN 0165-1587 . doi
* ^ Dabrock, Peter (2017-05-05). "Playing God?
Synthetic biology as
a theological and ethical challenge" . Systems and Synthetic Biology.
3 (1–4): 47–54. ISSN 1872-5325 . PMC 2759421 . PMID 19816799 .
doi :10.1007/s11693-009-9028-5 .
* ^ Brown, Carolyn (2000-10-03). "Patenting life: genetically
altered mice an invention, court declares" . CMAJ: Canadian Medical
Association Journal. 163 (7): 867–868. ISSN 0820-3946 . PMC 80518
. PMID 11033718 .
* ^ Zhou, Wen (2015-08-10). "The Patent Landscape of Genetically
Organisms - Science in the News". Science in the News.
* ^ Puckett, Lily (2016-04-20). "Why The New GMO Food-Labeling Law
Is So Controversial". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2017-05-05.
* ^ Miller, Henry (2016-04-12). "GMO food labels are meaningless".
Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035 . Retrieved 2017-05-05.
* ^ Savage, Steven. "Who Controls The Food Supply?". Forbes.
* ^ Knight, Andrew J. (2016-04-14). Science, Risk, and Policy.
Routledge. p. 156. ISBN 9781317280811 .
* ^ Hakim, Danny (2016-10-29). "Doubts About the Promised Bounty of
Genetically Modified Crops". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 .
* ^ Areal, F. J.; Riesgo, L.; Rodríguez-Cerezo, E. (2013-02-01).
"Economic and agronomic impact of commercialized GM crops: a
meta-analysis". The Journal of Agricultural Science. 151 (1): 7–33.
ISSN 0021-8596 . doi :10.1017/S0021859612000111 .
* ^ Finger, Robert; El Benni, Nadja; Kaphengst, Timo; Evans, Clive;
Herbert, Sophie; Lehmann, Bernard; Morse, Stephen; Stupak, Nataliya
(2011-05-10). "A Meta Analysis on Farm-Level Costs and Benefits of GM
Crops". Sustainability. 3 (5): 743–762. doi :10.3390/su3050743 .
* ^ Klümper, Wilhelm; Qaim, Matin (2014-11-03). "A Meta-Analysis
of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops". PLOS ONE. 9 (11):
e111629. ISSN 1932-6203 . PMC 4218791 . PMID 25365303 . doi
* ^ Qiu, Jane. "
Genetically modified crops
Genetically modified crops pass benefits to weeds".
Nature. doi :10.1038/nature.2013.13517 .
* ^ A B "GMOs and the environment". www.fao.org. Retrieved
* ^ Dively, Galen P.; Venugopal, P. Dilip; Finkenbinder, Chad
(2016-12-30). "Field-Evolved Resistance in Corn Earworm to Cry
Proteins Expressed by
Transgenic Sweet Corn". PLOS ONE. 11 (12):
e0169115. ISSN 1932-6203 . PMC 5201267 . PMID 28036388 . doi
* ^ Qiu, Jane (2010-05-13). "GM crop use makes minor pests major
problem". Nature News. doi :10.1038/news.2010.242 .
* ^ Gilbert, Natasha (2013-05-02). "Case studies: A hard look at GM
crops". Nature. 497 (7447): 24–26. PMID 23636378 . doi
* ^ "Are GMO Fish Safe for the Environment? Accumulating Glitches
Learn Science at Scitable". www.nature.com. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
* ^ "Q&A: genetically modified food". World Health Organization.
* ^ Nicolia, Alessandro; Manzo, Alberto; Veronesi, Fabio; Rosellini,
Daniele (2013). "An overview of the last 10 years of genetically
engineered crop safety research" (PDF). Critical Reviews in
Biotechnology. 34: 1–12. PMID 24041244 . doi
:10.3109/07388551.2013.823595 . We have reviewed the scientific
literature on GE crop safety for the last 10 years that catches the
scientific consensus matured since GE plants became widely cultivated
worldwide, and we can conclude that the scientific research conducted
so far has not detected any significant hazard directly connected with
the use of GM crops.
The literature about Biodiversity and the GE food/feed consumption
has sometimes resulted in animated debate regarding the suitability of
the experimental designs, the choice of the statistical methods or the
public accessibility of data. Such debate, even if positive and part
of the natural process of review by the scientific community, has
frequently been distorted by the media and often used politically and
inappropriately in anti-GE crops campaigns. * ^ "State of Food and
Agriculture 2003–2004. Agricultural Biotechnology: Meeting the Needs
of the Poor. Health and environmental impacts of transgenic crops".
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved
February 8, 2016. Currently available transgenic crops and foods
derived from them have been judged safe to eat and the methods used to
test their safety have been deemed appropriate. These conclusions
represent the consensus of the scientific evidence surveyed by the
ICSU (2003) and they are consistent with the views of the World Health
Organization (WHO, 2002). These foods have been assessed for increased
risks to human health by several national regulatory authorities
(inter alia, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, the United Kingdom and
the United States) using their national food safety procedures (ICSU).
To date no verifiable untoward toxic or nutritionally deleterious
effects resulting from the consumption of foods derived from
genetically modified crops have been discovered anywhere in the world
(GM Science Review Panel). Many millions of people have consumed foods
derived from GM plants - mainly maize, soybean and oilseed rape -
without any observed adverse effects (ICSU).
* ^ Ronald, Pamela (May 5, 2011). "Plant Genetics, Sustainable
Agriculture and Global Food Security". Genetics. 188: 11–20. PMC
3120150 . PMID 21546547 . doi :10.1534/genetics.111.128553 . There
is broad scientific consensus that genetically engineered crops
currently on the market are safe to eat. After 14 years of cultivation
and a cumulative total of 2 billion acres planted, no adverse health
or environmental effects have resulted from commercialization of
genetically engineered crops (Board on
Agriculture and Natural
Resources, Committee on Environmental Impacts Associated with
Transgenic Plants, National Research Council and
Division on Earth and Life Studies 2002). Both the U.S. National
Research Council and the Joint Research Centre (the European Union's
scientific and technical research laboratory and an integral part of
the European Commission) have concluded that there is a comprehensive
body of knowledge that adequately addresses the food safety issue of
genetically engineered crops (Committee on Identifying and Assessing
Unintended Effects of Genetically Engineered Foods on Human Health and
National Research Council 2004;
European Commission Joint Research
Centre 2008). These and other recent reports conclude that the
processes of genetic engineering and conventional breeding are no
different in terms of unintended consequences to human health and the
European Commission Directorate-General for Research and
* ^ But see also: Domingo, José L.; Bordonaba, Jordi Giné (2011).
"A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified
plants" (PDF). Environment International. 37: 734–742. PMID 21296423
. doi :10.1016/j.envint.2011.01.003 . In spite of this, the number of
studies specifically focused on safety assessment of GM plants is
still limited. However, it is important to remark that for the first
time, a certain equilibrium in the number of research groups
suggesting, on the basis of their studies, that a number of varieties
of GM products (mainly maize and soybeans) are as safe and nutritious
as the respective conventional non-GM plant, and those raising still
serious concerns, was observed. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that
most of the studies demonstrating that GM foods are as nutritional and
safe as those obtained by conventional breeding, have been performed
by biotechnology companies or associates, which are also responsible
of commercializing these GM plants. Anyhow, this represents a notable
advance in comparison with the lack of studies published in recent
years in scientific journals by those companies. Krimsky, Sheldon
(2015). "An Illusory Consensus behind GMO Health Assessment" (PDF).
Science, Technology, & Human Values. 40: 1–32. doi
:10.1177/0162243915598381 . I began this article with the testimonials
from respected scientists that there is literally no scientific
controversy over the health effects of GMOs. My investigation into the
scientific literature tells another story. And contrast:
Panchin, Alexander Y.; Tuzhikov, Alexander I. (January 14, 2016).
"Published GMO studies find no evidence of harm when corrected for
multiple comparisons". Critical Reviews in Biotechnology: 1–5. ISSN
0738-8551 . PMID 26767435 . doi :10.3109/07388551.2015.1130684 . Here,
we show that a number of articles some of which have strongly and
negatively influenced the public opinion on GM crops and even provoked
political actions, such as GMO embargo, share common flaws in the
statistical evaluation of the data. Having accounted for these flaws,
we conclude that the data presented in these articles does not provide
any substantial evidence of GMO harm.
The presented articles suggesting possible harm of GMOs received high
public attention. However, despite their claims, they actually weaken
the evidence for the harm and lack of substantial equivalency of
studied GMOs. We emphasize that with over 1783 published articles on
GMOs over the last 10 years it is expected that some of them should
have reported undesired differences between GMOs and conventional
crops even if no such differences exist in reality. and
Yang, Y.T.; Chen, B. (2016). "Governing GMOs in the USA: science, law
and public health". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture.
96: 1851–1855. PMID 26536836 . doi :10.1002/jsfa.7523 . It is
therefore not surprising that efforts to require labeling and to ban
GMOs have been a growing political issue in the USA (citing Domingo
and Bordonaba, 2011).
Overall, a broad scientific consensus holds that currently marketed
GM food poses no greater risk than conventional food... Major national
and international science and medical associations have stated that no
adverse human health effects related to GMO food have been reported or
substantiated in peer-reviewed literature to date.
Despite various concerns, today, the American Association for the
Advancement of Science, the World Health Organization, and many
independent international science organizations agree that GMOs are
just as safe as other foods. Compared with conventional breeding
techniques, genetic engineering is far more precise and, in most
cases, less likely to create an unexpected outcome. * ^ "Statement
by the AAAS Board of Directors On Labeling of Genetically Modified
Foods" (PDF). American Association for the Advancement of Science.
October 20, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2016. The EU, for example, has
invested more than €300 million in research on the biosafety of
GMOs. Its recent report states: "The main conclusion to be drawn from
the efforts of more than 130 research projects, covering a period of
more than 25 years of research and involving more than 500 independent
research groups, is that biotechnology, and in particular GMOs, are
not per se more risky than e.g. conventional plant breeding
technologies." The World Health Organization, the American Medical
Association, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the British Royal
Society, and every other respected organization that has examined the
evidence has come to the same conclusion: consuming foods containing
ingredients derived from GM crops is no riskier than consuming the
same foods containing ingredients from crop plants modified by
conventional plant improvement techniques. Pinholster, Ginger (October
25, 2012). "AAAS Board of Directors: Legally Mandating GM Food Labels
Could "Mislead and Falsely Alarm Consumers"". American Association for
the Advancement of Science. Retrieved February 8, 2016.
* ^ "A decade of EU-funded GMO research (2001–2010)" (PDF).
Directorate-General for Research and Innovation. Biotechnologies,
Agriculture, Food. European Commission, European Union. 2010. ISBN
978-92-79-16344-9 . doi :10.2777/97784 . Retrieved February 8, 2016.
* ^ "AMA Report on Genetically Modified Crops and Foods (online
summary)". American Medical Association. January 2001. Retrieved March
19, 2016. A report issued by the scientific council of the American
Medical Association (AMA) says that no long-term health effects have
been detected from the use of transgenic crops and genetically
modified foods, and that these foods are substantially equivalent to
their conventional counterparts. (from online summary prepared by
ISAAA )" "Crops and foods produced using recombinant
have been available for fewer than 10 years and no long-term effects
have been detected to date. These foods are substantially equivalent
to their conventional counterparts. (from original report by AMA : )
"REPORT 2 OF THE COUNCIL ON SCIENCE AND PUBLIC HEALTH (A-12): Labeling
of Bioengineered Foods" (PDF). American Medical Association. 2012.
Archived from the original on 7 September 2012. Retrieved March 19,
2016. Bioengineered foods have been consumed for close to 20 years,
and during that time, no overt consequences on human health have been
reported and/or substantiated in the peer-reviewed literature. CS1
maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link )
* ^ "Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms: United States.
Public and Scholarly Opinion". Library of Congress. June 9, 2015.
Retrieved February 8, 2016. Several scientific organizations in the US
have issued studies or statements regarding the safety of GMOs
indicating that there is no evidence that GMOs present unique safety
risks compared to conventionally bred products. These include the
National Research Council, the American Association for the
Advancement of Science, and the American Medical Association. Groups
in the US opposed to GMOs include some environmental organizations,
organic farming organizations, and consumer organizations. A
substantial number of legal academics have criticized the US's
approach to regulating GMOs.
* ^ "Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects". The
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (US). 2016.
p. 149. Retrieved May 19, 2016. Overall finding on purported adverse
effects on human health of foods derived from GE crops: On the basis
of detailed examination of comparisons of currently commercialized GE
with non-GE foods in compositional analysis, acute and chronic animal
toxicity tests, long-term data on health of livestock fed GE foods,
and human epidemiological data, the committee found no differences
that implicate a higher risk to human health from GE foods than from
their non-GE counterparts.
* ^ "Frequently asked questions on genetically modified foods".
World Health Organization. Retrieved February 8, 2016. Different GM
organisms include different genes inserted in different ways. This
means that individual GM foods and their safety should be assessed on
a case-by-case basis and that it is not possible to make general
statements on the safety of all GM foods.
GM foods currently available on the international market have passed
safety assessments and are not likely to present risks for human
health. In addition, no effects on human health have been shown as a
result of the consumption of such foods by the general population in
the countries where they have been approved. Continuous application of
safety assessments based on the Codex Alimentarius principles and,
where appropriate, adequate post market monitoring, should form the
basis for ensuring the safety of GM foods. * ^ Haslberger,
Alexander G. (2003). "Codex guidelines for GM foods include the
analysis of unintended effects". Nature Biotechnology. 21: 739–741.
PMID 12833088 . doi :10.1038/nbt0703-739 . These principles dictate a
case-by-case premarket assessment that includes an evaluation of both
direct and unintended effects.
* ^ Some medical organizations, including the British Medical
Association , advocate further caution based upon the precautionary
"Genetically modified foods and health: a second interim statement"
(PDF). British Medical Association. March 2004. Retrieved March 21,
2016. In our view, the potential for GM foods to cause harmful health
effects is very small and many of the concerns expressed apply with
equal vigour to conventionally derived foods. However, safety concerns
cannot, as yet, be dismissed completely on the basis of information
When seeking to optimise the balance between benefits and risks, it
is prudent to err on the side of caution and, above all, learn from
accumulating knowledge and experience. Any new technology such as
genetic modification must be examined for possible benefits and risks
to human health and the environment. As with all novel foods, safety
assessments in relation to GM foods must be made on a case-by-case
Members of the GM jury project were briefed on various aspects of
genetic modification by a diverse group of acknowledged experts in the
relevant subjects. The GM jury reached the conclusion