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Gatot Soebroto
Gatot Soebroto
(10 October 1907 in Banjoemas – 11 June 1962 in Djakarta) was an Indonesian general who began his military career with the Royal Dutch East Indies Army
Royal Dutch East Indies Army
(KNIL) and rose to be deputy Army chief-of-staff.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Pre-independence military career 3 Political career 4 Return to the military

4.1 Notes

5 References

Early life[edit] Soebroto was born in Purwokerto, Central Java. He began his education at a Europeesche Lagere School, an elementary school for the children of Europeans, but was expelled for fighting with Dutch children.[1] He then moved to a Hollands Inlandse School for Indonesians. He did not continue his education after graduating from this elementary school, but instead found a job. However, he did not like this, and decided on a military career.[2][3] Pre-independence military career[edit] In 1923, Gatot enrolled in military school in Magelang. After graduating, he joined the Royal Dutch East Indies Army
Royal Dutch East Indies Army
(KNIL) and rose to the rank of sergeant.[4] In 1942, the Japanese invaded the Dutch East Indies, and Gatot joined the PETA (Defenders of the Fatherland), an army set up by the Japanese in case of invasion by the allies. He received training in Bogor, and was appointed commander of a company in Banyumas, then a battalion commander. Gatot was one of the group of ex-KNIL NCOs, which included future president Suharto
Suharto
and future army chief-of-staff Ahmad Yani
Ahmad Yani
who joined the BKR (People's Security Agency), the forerunner of the Indonesian Army as soon as it was set up[4] after the Indonesian Declaration of Independence on 17 August 1945. On 5 October 1946, he was appointed commander of the II/Gunung Jati Division in Central Java. On 31 May 1948 he became commander of the Military Police and later that year Military Governor of the Surakarta-Semarang-Pati- Madiun
Madiun
region. He was involved in the suppression of the 1948 Madiun
Madiun
Revolt. In July 1949, he went to Yogyakarta shortly after Army commander Sudirman's return to the city, which at the time was the capital. There he was sick, and had to be treated at the Panti Rapih Hospital.[5] On 3 August 1949, President Sukarno
Sukarno
announced a ceasefire with the Dutch, and Nasution, commander of the Java
Java
Military Territory, decided a reorganization of divisions was needed to face the threat of a possible third Dutch "police action". Central Java's III and IV divisions were merged, and Gatot Soebroto
Gatot Soebroto
appointed commander, although he was still in hospital at the time.[5] He was officially inaugurated on 20 November as commander of the renamed III/Diponegoro Division, which became the IV/ Diponegoro
Diponegoro
Military Territory in December.[3] In this capacity, he issued a warning to one of his brigade commanders, Suharto
Suharto
over the establishment of a transport enterprise using Army vehicles, which the future president had set up to provide jobs for veterans.[6] In March 1952, Gatot moved to Makassar
Makassar
to take over command of the VII/Wirabuana Military Territory, which covered all of Indonesia
Indonesia
east of Java
Java
and Kalimantan. However, on 16 November he was arrested and displaced by his chief-of-staff, Lt. Col. J. F. Warouw. This was one of a series of small-scale coups against officers blamed for their involvement in the 17 October 1952 incident where troops demonstrated in front of the Presidential Palace in Jakarta
Jakarta
calling for the dissolution of the legislature. Although Gatot supported the demonstration, he was not present in Jakarta
Jakarta
at the time.[7] He was subsequently either placed on non-active status as a result of the incident[4] or resigned from the military.[1][2] Political career[edit]

Soebroto on a 1969 stamp

On 20 May 1953, he attended a meeting led by Nasution
Nasution
(also inactive) in Tugu, West Java
Java
at which it was decided to establish a political party to "fight for the return to the spirit of the 1945 Constitution. The party was called the League of Supporters of Indonesian Independence (IPKI). The party won four seats in the 1955 election, and Gatot Soebroto
Gatot Soebroto
became a member of the Indonesian legislature representing Central Java.[5] Return to the military[edit] Soon after the elections, the cabinet and the Army began the process of appointing an Army chief-of-staff to replace the acting head Colonel Lubis, who had not officially been installed.[4] Gatot Soebroto emerged as a "compromise candidate",[7] but turned down the job as he was worried about being manipulated by other officers. He told the cabinet that if they wanted a high quality officer, they should recall Nasution
Nasution
to the post.[4] Nasution
Nasution
was officially re-appointed on 7 November 1955.[4] The following year, Gatot Soebroto was appointed deputy chief-of-staff, a position he held until his death. In 1959, together with Nasution, he called a special meeting of the major political parties at the time to persuade them to support the proposal to return to the 1945 Constitution, which had been abrogated in favor of the Provisional Constitution of 1950
Provisional Constitution of 1950
nine years before. All parties eventually agreed, and on 5 October 1959, the 1945 Constitution was reimposed by presidential decree.[5] Later that year, Nasution
Nasution
and Gatot Soebroto
Gatot Soebroto
decided against taking further action against Suharto
Suharto
after his dismissal from the command of the Diponegoro
Diponegoro
Division following revelations of involvement in smuggling.[1] Gatot Soebroto
Gatot Soebroto
died suddenly in Jakarta
Jakarta
on 11 June 1962 and was buried With Buddhist funeral ceremony in the village of Kalirejo Ungaran near Semarang
Semarang
. A week later, he was declared a National Hero via Presidential Decision No.222/1962.[1][4] Notes[edit]

^ a b c d Mutiara Sumber Widya (publisher)(1999) ^ a b Sudarmanto (1996) ^ a b Bachtiar (1988) ^ a b c d e f g Sundhaussen (1982) ^ a b c d Prasetyo & Hadad (Eds)(1998) ^ McDonald (1998) ^ a b Feith (2007)

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gatot Soebroto.

Bachtiar, Harsja W. (1988), Siapa Dia?: Perwira Tinggi Tentara Nasional Indonesia
Indonesia
Angkatan Darat (Who is S/He?: Senior Officers of the Indonesian Army), Penerbit Djambatan, Jakarta, ISBN 979-428-100-X Feith, Herbert (2007) The Decline of Constitutional Democracy in Indonesia
Indonesia
Equinox Publishing (Asia) Pte Ltd, ISBN 979-3780-45-2 McDonald, Hamish (1980) Suharto's Indonesia
Indonesia
Fontana/Collins, Victoria, Australia ISBN 978-0-00-635721-6 Mutiara Sumber Widya (publisher)(1999) Album Pahlawan Bangsa (Album of National Heroes), Jakarta Stanley Adi Prasetyo & Toriq Hadad (Editors) 1998 Jenderal Tanpa Pasukan, Politisi Tanpa Parta: Perjalanan Hidup A.H. Nasution
Nasution
General without Troops, Politician without a Party: The Life of A.H. Nasution, Pusat Data dan Analisa Tempo, Jakarta, ISBN 979-9065-02-X Sudarmanto, Y.B. (1996) Jejak-Jejak Pahlawan dari Sultan Agung hingga Syekh Yusuf (The Footsteps of Heroes from Sultan Agung to Syekh Yusuf), Penerbit Grasindo, Jakarta
Jakarta
ISBN 979-553-111-5 Sundhaussen, Ulf (1982) The Road to Power: Indonesian Military Politics 1945–1967, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-582521-7

v t e

National Heroes of Indonesia

Political

Abdul Halim Achmad Soebardjo Adam Malik Adnan Kapau Gani Andi Djemma Andi Sultan Daeng Radja Arie Frederik Lasut Bagindo Azizchan B.W. Lapian Tjilik Riwut Djoeanda Kartawidjaja Ernest Douwes Dekker Ferdinand Lumbantobing Gatot Mangkoepradja Hamengkubuwono IX Hazairin Idham Chalid Ida Anak Agung Gde Agung Ignatius Joseph Kasimo Hendrowahyono I Gusti Ketut Pudja Iwa Koesoemasoemantri Izaak Huru Doko Johannes Leimena Kusumah Atmaja Lambertus Nicodemus Palar Maskoen Soemadiredja Mohammad Hatta Mohammad Husni Thamrin Mohammad Natsir Moewardi Nani Wartabone Oto Iskandar di Nata Rajiman Wediodiningrat Rasuna Said Sahardjo Sam Ratulangi Samanhudi Soekarni Sukarno Sukarjo Wiryopranoto Supeno Soepomo Soeroso Ario Soerjo Soerjopranoto Sutan Sjahrir Sjafruddin Prawiranegara Tan Malaka Teuku Muhammad Hasan Teuku Nyak Arif Oemar Said Tjokroaminoto Wahid Hasyim Zainul Arifin

Military

Abdul Haris Nasution Abdul Rahman Saleh Adisucipto Andi Abdullah Bau Massepe Basuki Rahmat Djamin Ginting Djatikoesoemo Gatot Soebroto Halim Perdanakusuma Harun Thohir Hasan Basry Iswahyudi I Gusti Ngurah Rai John Lie R. E. Martadinata Mas Isman Moestopo Muhammad Mangundiprojo Muhammad Yasin Noer Alie Oerip Soemohardjo Slamet Rijadi Sudirman Supriyadi Sutomo
Sutomo
(Bung Tomo) T. B. Simatupang Usman Janatin Robert Wolter Mongisidi Yos Sudarso

Independence

Fatmawati

Revolutionaries

Ahmad Yani Karel Satsuit Tubun Mas Tirtodarmo Haryono Katamso Darmokusumo Donald Izacus Pandjaitan Pierre Tendean Siswondo Parman Sugiyono Mangunwiyoto Suprapto Sutoyo Siswomiharjo

Resistance

Alimin Dr. Soetomo Tjipto Mangoenkoesoemo Wahidin Soedirohoesodo

Literary

Abdoel Moeis Agus Salim Amir Hamzah Mohammad Yamin Raja Ali Haji

Art

Ismail Marzuki Wage Rudolf Supratman

Education

Dewi Sartika Herman Johannes Kartini Ki Hajar Dewantara Ki Sarmidi Mangunsarkoro Maria Walanda Maramis

Integration

Frans Kaisiepo Johannes Abraham Dimara Marthen Indey Pajonga Daeng Ngalie Silas Papare Syarif Kasim II

Press

Ilyas Yakoub Tirto Adhi Soerjo

Development

Suharso Siti Hartinah Wilhelmus Zakaria Johannes

Religion

Abdul Wahab Hasbullah Ahmad Dahlan As'ad Syamsul Arifin Albertus Soegijapranata Bagoes Hadikoesoemo Fakhruddin Haji Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah Hasyim Asy'ari Lafran Pane Mas Mansoer Nyai Ahmad Dahlan

Struggle

Abdul Kadir Achmad Rifa'i Ageng Tirtayasa Andi Mappanyukki Prince Antasari Sultan Agung Teungku Chik di Tiro Cut Nyak Dhien Cut Nyak Meutia Diponegoro Raja Haji Fisabilillah Hamengkubuwono I Hasanuddin Tuanku Imam Bonjol Iskandar Muda I Gusti Ketut Jelantik I Gusti Ngurah Made Agung Kiras Bangun La Maddukelleng Mahmud Badaruddin II Mangkunegara I Martha Christina Tiahahu Nuku Muhammad Amiruddin Nyi Ageng Serang Pakubuwono VI Pakubuwono X Pattimura Pong Tiku Radin Inten II Ranggong Daeng Romo Sisingamangaraja XII Syech Yusuf Tajul Khalwati Tuanku Tambusai Teuku Umar Thaha Syaifuddin Untung Surapati Zainal M

.