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The GöTTINGEN SCHOOL OF HISTORY was a historiographical debate at the University of Göttingen
University of Göttingen
in the late 18th century
18th century
.

It was the original centre of the "Historical Science" ("Geschichtswissenschaft") academic discipline. The historians sought to write a universal history by combining the critical methods of Jean Mabillon with that of the philosophical historians such as Voltaire and Edward Gibbon
Edward Gibbon
.

The group of historians played an important role in creating a "scientific" basis for historical research, and were responsible for coining fundamental terms in scientific racism such as Blumenbach and Meiners's color terminology for race : Caucasian or white race; Mongolian or yellow race; Malayan or brown race; Ethiopian or black race; and American or red race, and Gatterer, Schlözer and Eichhorn's Biblical terminology for race : Semitic , Hamitic
Hamitic
and Japhetic
Japhetic
.

LIST OF ACADEMICS

* Johann David Michaelis
Johann David Michaelis
(1717 – 1791), first chair of the department of Oriental Studies and Biblical Sciences * Johann Christoph Gatterer (1727 – 1799) * Christian Gottlob Heyne
Christian Gottlob Heyne
(1729 – 1812) * August Ludwig von Schlözer (1735 – 1809) * Christoph Meiners (1747 – 1810) * Johann Gottfried Eichhorn (1752 – 1827), second chair of the department of Oriental Studies and Biblical Sciences * Ludwig Timotheus Spittler (1752 – 1810) * Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
(1752 – 1840) * Arnold Hermann Ludwig Heeren (1760 – 1842)

REFERENCES

* ^ Gierl, Martin (3 May 2013). "Change of Paradigm as a Squabble between Institutions". Scholars in Action (2 vols): The Practice of Knowledge and the Figure of the Savant in the 18th Century. BRILL. p. 285. ISBN 90-04-24391-7 . The term “Gottingen school of history" refers not to student-teacher relations nor to a shared methodology, but precisely to this field of competition in historical, cultural and anthropological interpretation, which emerged in Gottingen in the second half of the eighteenth century as an institutional effect of the Gottingen university, and which is captivating not for its shared attitude, but for its vigorous activity emanating from all of the university’s areas of expertise in all areas of contemporary cultural-historical debate - which, as a political and cultural identity debate, was at the centre of discourse in the late Enlightenment. * ^ A B Burns, Robert M. (2006). Historiography: Foundations. Taylor & Francis. pp. 94–. ISBN 978-0-415-32078-8 . * ^ Iggers, Georg (1 November 2010). The Theory and Practice of History: Edited with an Introduction by Georg G. Iggers. Routledge. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-136-88292-0 . There had developed in the eighteenth century at the University of Gottingen a school of historians, including Johann Christoph Gatterer, August Ludwig Schlozer and Arnold Hermann Heeren, who combined the critical method of erudite scholars like Mabillon with the concern of the philosophic historians of the eighteenth century, such as Voltaire
Voltaire
and Gibbon, who sought to write universal history without a strict critical evaluation of their sources. Niebuhr and Ranke refined the concern with critical method, Ranke in the process narrowed the universality of the outlook of the Gottingen historians. What Ranke brought to history was less a new method - this had been developed to a great extent by the Gottingen school - than a greater emphasis on the professional and technical character of history and a conception of history that we shall discuss later in this Introduction. * ^ Cheng, Eileen K. (2008). The Plain and Noble Garb of Truth: Nationalism & Impartiality in American Historical Writing, 1784-1860. University of Georgia Press. pp. 362–. ISBN 978-0-8203-3073-0 . …historians of the Gottingen school played an important role in establishing the basis for critical scholarship and a more “scientific” approach to history during the second half of the eighteenth century as they used their training in philology and statistics and in what were considered the “auxiliary sciences" of paleography and numismatics to analyze historical data. * ^ The End of Racism by Dinesh D'Souza, pg 124, 1995, "Blumenbach's classification had a lasting influence in part because his categories neatly broke down into familiar tones and colors: white, black, yellow, red, and brown." * ^ A B C D E F G Gierl, Martin (3 May 2013). "Change of Paradigm as a Squabble between Institutions". Scholars in Action (2 vols): The Practice of Knowledge and the Figure of the Savant in the 18th Century. BRILL. p. 285. ISBN 90-04-24391-7 . ...that its opponent was by no means a united historians camp". On the contrary: August Ludwig Schlozer, an early full member with Gatterer, who later turned increasingly into Gatterer’s competitor, became a member of the academy as Michaelis protégé in 1766; the popular philosopher Christoph Meiners, who had published a cultural-anthropological History of Mankind in 1775, was a member of both societies as well; Spittler and Heeren two other leading thinkers of the so-called “Gottingen school of history", which, with respect to ancient history, encompassed Heyne and Michaelis with their works on antiquity - where members of the academy. * ^ A B https://www.uni-goettingen.de/en/old-testament/54892.html

* v * t * e

University of Göttingen
University of Göttingen

LEADERSHIP President Ulrike Beisiegel Vice President Norbert Lossau

FACULTIES

* Faculty of Agricultural Sciences * Faculty of Biology and Psychology * Faculty of Chemistry * Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology * Faculty of Geoscience and Geography * Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science * Faculty of Physics * Faculty of Law * Faculty of Social Sciences * Faculty of Economic Sciences * Faculty of Humanities * Faculty of Theology * Medical Center

RECOGNIZED INSTITUTES border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* German Aerospace Center
German Aerospace Center
(DLR) * German Primate Center * Center for European Governance and Economic Development Research * Göttingen Observatory * Center for Retrospective Digitization * Johann Sebastian Bach Institute

PARTNER INSTITUTIONS

* Göttingen Academy of Sciences and Humanities * Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht * Dieterich Publishing House * Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity * Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization * Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry
Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry
* Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine * Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research * International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Biology * International Max Planck Research School for Neurosciences

HOLDINGS border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Göttingen State and University Library * Paulinerkirche * Göttingen manuscript * Sammlung für Völkerkunde * Forestry Botanical Garden and Arboretum * New Botanic Garden of Göttingen University * Old Botanical Garden of Göttingen University * Theater im OP

MAJOR ACADEMIC PROJECTS

* AnimalBase * Germania Sacra * New Bach Edition * Deutsches Wörterbuch
Deutsches Wörterbuch
* Encyclopedia of Fairy Tales

AFFILIATED MOVEMENTS border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Göttingen School of History * History of religions school * Ritschlianism * Göttingen Manifesto * Göttingen minipig
Göttingen minipig
* Goettingen Journal of International Law * Göttingen Register of Electronic Texts in Indian Languages * Zentralblatt MATH * The Göttingen Circle * Kaiser Wilhelm Society

AFFILIATED PEOPLE

* List of University of Göttingen
University of Göttingen
people * University of Göttingen
University of Göttingen
alumni * University of Göttingen
University of Göttingen
faculty * Göttingen Seven * Göttingen Eighteen * Akademische Orchestervereinigung Göttingen

STUDENT ASSOCIATIONS

* Corps Hannovera Göttingen

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