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Fukuoka
Fukuoka
(福岡市, Fukuoka-shi, Japanese: [ɸɯ̥kɯꜜoka]) is the capital city of Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Prefecture, situated on the northern shore of Japanese island Kyushu. It is the most populous city on the island, followed by Kitakyushu. It is the largest city and metropolitan area west of Keihanshin. The city was designated on April 1, 1972, by government ordinance. Greater Fukuoka, with a population of 2.5 million people (2005 census), is part of the heavily industrialized Fukuoka– Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
zone as well as Northern Kyushu. As of 2015[update], Fukuoka
Fukuoka
is Japan’s sixth largest city, having passed the population of Kobe.[1] As of July 2011[update], Fukuoka
Fukuoka
passed the population of Kyoto. Since the founding of Kyoto
Kyoto
in 794, this marks the first time that a city west of the Kinki
Kinki
region has a larger population than Kyoto. In ancient times, however, the area near Fukuoka, the Chikushi region, was thought by some historians to have possibly been even more influential than the Yamato region.

Contents

1 Pre-history 2 History

2.1 Mongol invasions (1274–1281) 2.2 Formation of the modern city (1889) 2.3 20th century 2.4 21st century

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Earthquakes

4 Wards 5 Demographics 6 Economy 7 Culture

7.1 Tourism

7.1.1 Attractions

7.2 Museums 7.3 Festivals

7.3.1 Yamakasa 7.3.2 Hakata Dontaku

7.4 Music

8 Transport 9 Sports

9.1 Sports teams and facilities

10 Education 11 International relations 12 Notable people from Fukuoka 13 See also 14 References 15 External links

Pre-history[edit] Exchanges from the continent and the Northern Kyushu
Kyushu
area date as far back as Old Stone Age.[2] It has been thought that waves of immigrants arrived in Northern Kyushu
Kyushu
from mainland Asia.[3] Several Kofun
Kofun
exist. History[edit] See also: Timeline of Fukuoka Fukuoka
Fukuoka
was sometimes called the Port of Dazaifu (大宰府, 15 km (9 mi) southeast from Fukuoka). Dazaifu was an administrative capital in 663 A.D., but a historian proposed that a prehistoric capital was in the area.[4] Ancient texts, such as the Kojiki, Kanyen (found in Dazaifu) and archaeology confirm this was a very critical place in the founding of Japan. Some scholars[5] claim that it was the first place outsiders and the Imperial Family set foot, but like many early Japan
Japan
origin theories, it remains contested. Fukuoka
Fukuoka
is sometimes still referred to as Hakata, the central ward of the city. In 923, the Hakozaki-gū
Hakozaki-gū
in Fukuoka
Fukuoka
was transferred from Daibu-gū in Daibu (大分, 16 km (10 mi) northeast from Dazaifu) the origin of Usa Shrine
Usa Shrine
and established as a branch of the Usa Shrine
Usa Shrine
at Fukuoka.[6] In Ooho (大保, 15 km (9 mi) south from Dazaifu), there are remains of a big ward office with a temple, because in ancient East Asia, an emperor must have three great ministries (大宰, 大傳 and 大保). In fact, there is a record in Chinese literature that a king of Japan
Japan
sent a letter in 478 to ask the Chinese emperor's approval for employing three ministries. In addition, remains of the Korokan (鴻臚館, Government Guest House) were found in Fukuoka
Fukuoka
underneath a part of the ruins of Fukuoka Castle. Mongol invasions (1274–1281)[edit] Main article: Mongol invasions of Japan Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
turned his attention towards Japan starting in 1268, exerting a new external pressure on Japan
Japan
with which it had no experience. Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
first sent an envoy to Japan
Japan
to make the Shogunate acknowledge Khan's suzerainty. The Kamakura shogunate refused. Mongolia
Mongolia
repeatedly sent envoys thereafter, each time urging the Shogunate to accept their proposal, but to no avail. In 1274, Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
mounted an invasion of the northern part of Kyushu
Kyushu
with a fleet of 900 ships and 33,000 troops, including troops from Goryeo
Goryeo
on the Korean Peninsula. This initial invasion was compromised by a combination of incompetence and severe storms. After the invasion attempt of 1274, Japanese samurai built a stone barrier 20 km (12 mi) in length bordering the coast of Hakata Bay
Hakata Bay
in what is now the city of Fukuoka. The wall, 2–3 metres in height and having a base width of 3 metres, was constructed between 1276 and 1277, and was excavated in the 1930s. Kublai sent another envoy to Japan
Japan
in 1279. At that time, Hōjō Tokimune of the Hōjō clan
Hōjō clan
(1251–1284) was the Eighth Regent. Not only did he decline the offer, but he beheaded the five Mongolian emissaries after summoning them to Kamakura. Infuriated, Kublai organized another attack on Fukuoka Prefecture
Fukuoka Prefecture
in 1281, mobilizing 140,000 soldiers and 4,000 ships. The Japanese defenders, numbering around 40,000, were no match for the Mongols and the invasion force made it as far as Dazaifu, 15 km (9 mi) south of the city of Fukuoka. However, the Japanese were again aided by severe weather, this time by a typhoon that struck a crushing blow to the Mongolian troops, thwarting the invasion. It was this typhoon that came to be called the Kamikaze
Kamikaze
(Divine Wind), and was the origin of the term Kamikaze
Kamikaze
used to indicate suicide attacks by military aviators of the Empire of Japan
Japan
against Allied naval vessels during World War II. Formation of the modern city (1889)[edit]

The Tenjin area

Canal City Hakata

Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Tower

JR Kyushu's Hakata Station

Tenjin Underground City

Fukuoka
Fukuoka
was formerly the residence of the powerful daimyō of Chikuzen Province, and played an important part in the medieval history of Japan. The renowned temple of Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
in the district was destroyed by fire during the Boshin War
Boshin War
of 1868. The modern city was formed on April 1, 1889, with the merger of the former cities of Hakata and Fukuoka. Historically, Hakata was the port and merchant district, and was more associated with the area's culture and remains the main commercial area today. On the other hand, the Fukuoka
Fukuoka
area was home to many samurai, and its name has been used since Kuroda Nagamasa, the first daimyō of Chikuzen Province, named it after his birthplace in Okayama
Okayama
Prefecture[7] and the "old Fukuoka" is the main shopping area, now called Tenjin. When Hakata and Fukuoka
Fukuoka
decided to merge, a meeting was held to decide the name for the new city. Hakata was initially chosen, but a group of samurai crashed the meeting and forced those present to choose Fukuoka as the name for the merged city. However, Hakata is still used to refer to the Hakata area of the city and, most famously, to refer to the city's train station, Hakata Station, and dialect, Hakata-ben. 20th century[edit]

1903: Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Medical College, a campus associated with Kyoto
Kyoto
Imperial University, is founded. In 1911, the college is renamed Kyushu Imperial University and established as a separate entity. 1910: Fukuoka
Fukuoka
streetcar service begins. (The service ran until 1979.) 1929: Flights commence along the Fukuoka-Osaka- Tokyo
Tokyo
route. 1945: Saturation bombing of Japanese cities commences on Honshu, with Fukuoka
Fukuoka
also one of the targets.[7] 1947: First Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Marathon. 1951: Fukuoka
Fukuoka
airport opens.[8] 1953: Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Zoo opens. 1975: The city absorbed the town of Sawara. 1981: Subway commences service. 1988: Osaka's pro baseball team, the Nankai Hawks, are moved to Fukuoka
Fukuoka
and renamed the Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Daiei
Daiei
Hawks (renamed the Fukuoka SoftBank Hawks in 2004). 1989: Asian-Pacific Exposition is held.[9] 1997: The 30th annual meeting of the Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank
was held in Fukuoka.

21st century[edit]

2005: Fukuoka
Fukuoka
subway Nanakuma Line started operations. 2014: Selected as the National Strategic Zone for "global startups & job creation" by the Japanese government.[10]

Geography[edit] Fukuoka
Fukuoka
is bordered on three sides by mountains and opens, on the north, to the Genkai Sea. It is located 1,100 km (684 mi) from Tokyo. Climate[edit] Fukuoka
Fukuoka
has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa) and it has hot humid summers and relatively mild winters. The city also sees on average about 1,600 mm (63 in) of precipitation per year, with a stretch of more intense precipitation between the months of June and September. Along with much of the prefecture, Fukuoka
Fukuoka
City has a moderate climate with an annual average temperature of 16.3 °C (61 °F), average humidity of 70% and 1,811 annual daylight hours. Roughly 40% of the year is cloudy. Winter temperatures rarely drop below 0 °C (32 °F) and it rarely snows, though light rain does fall on most days if not as consistently as on the Sea of Japan
Japan
side of Honshu.[11] Spring is warm and sunnier, with cherry blossoms appearing in late March or early April. The rainy season (tsuyu) lasts for approximately six weeks through June and July, during which time the humidity is very high and temperatures hover between 25 °C (77 °F) and 30 °C (86 °F). Summers are humid and hot, with temperatures peaking around 37 °C (99 °F). Autumn, often considered to be Fukuoka's best season, is mild and dry, though the typhoon season runs between August and September.

Climate data for Fukuoka, Fukuoka
Fukuoka
(1981–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 21.5 (70.7) 24.3 (75.7) 26.3 (79.3) 30.1 (86.2) 32.3 (90.1) 37.3 (99.1) 37.3 (99.1) 37.9 (100.2) 36.5 (97.7) 33.3 (91.9) 28.2 (82.8) 23.5 (74.3) 37.9 (100.2)

Average high °C (°F) 9.9 (49.8) 11.1 (52) 14.4 (57.9) 19.5 (67.1) 23.7 (74.7) 26.9 (80.4) 30.9 (87.6) 32.1 (89.8) 28.3 (82.9) 23.4 (74.1) 17.8 (64) 12.6 (54.7) 20.9 (69.6)

Daily mean °C (°F) 6.6 (43.9) 7.4 (45.3) 10.4 (50.7) 15.1 (59.2) 19.4 (66.9) 23.0 (73.4) 27.2 (81) 28.1 (82.6) 24.4 (75.9) 19.2 (66.6) 13.8 (56.8) 8.9 (48) 17.0 (62.6)

Average low °C (°F) 3.5 (38.3) 4.1 (39.4) 6.7 (44.1) 11.2 (52.2) 15.6 (60.1) 19.9 (67.8) 24.3 (75.7) 25.0 (77) 21.3 (70.3) 15.4 (59.7) 10.2 (50.4) 5.6 (42.1) 13.6 (56.5)

Record low °C (°F) −6.0 (21.2) −8.2 (17.2) −4.7 (23.5) −1.4 (29.5) 1.4 (34.5) 4.3 (39.7) 13.8 (56.8) 15.4 (59.7) 7.9 (46.2) 0.4 (32.7) −2.1 (28.2) −5.4 (22.3) −8.2 (17.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 68.0 (2.677) 71.5 (2.815) 112.5 (4.429) 116.6 (4.591) 142.5 (5.61) 254.8 (10.031) 277.9 (10.941) 172.0 (6.772) 178.4 (7.024) 73.7 (2.902) 84.8 (3.339) 59.8 (2.354) 1,612.3 (63.476)

Average snowfall cm (inches) 2 (0.8) 1 (0.4) 1 (0.4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 4 (1.6)

Average precipitation days 11.0 10.1 12.9 11.0 10.7 12.4 11.9 10.4 10.9 7.3 9.7 10.3 128.7

Average snowy days 6.9 4.3 1.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 3.8 17.1

Average relative humidity (%) 63 63 65 65 68 74 75 72 73 67 67 64 68

Mean monthly sunshine hours 102.1 121.0 149.8 181.6 194.6 149.4 173.5 202.1 162.8 177.1 136.3 116.7 1,867

Source: [12]

Earthquakes[edit] Main article: 2005 Fukuoka
Fukuoka
earthquake Fukuoka
Fukuoka
is not as seismically active as many other parts of Japan, but does experience occasional earthquakes. The most powerful recent earthquake registered a lower 6 of maximum 7 of the Japanese intensity scale and hit at 10:53 am local time on March 20, 2005, killing one person and injuring more than 400. The epicentre of the earthquake was in the Genkai Sea
Genkai Sea
along a yet-undiscovered extension of the Kego fault that runs through the centre of Fukuoka. Genkai island, a part of Nishi-ku, was the most severely damaged by the earthquake and almost all island residents were forced to evacuate. Aftershocks continued intermittently throughout the following weeks as construction crews worked to rebuild damaged buildings throughout the city. Traditional Japanese houses, particularly in the areas of Daimyo and Imaizumi, were the most heavily damaged and many were marked for demolition, along with several apartment buildings. Insurance payments for damages were estimated at approximately 15.8 billion yen.[13] A similar quake, with an intensity of 5+, also occurred one month later on April 20, 2005. Fukuoka's major Kego fault runs northwest to southeast, roughly parallel to Nishitetsu's Ōmuta train line, and was previously thought to be 22 km (14 mi) long. It is estimated to produce earthquakes as strong as magnitude 7 at the focus approximately once every 15,000 years. If the focus were located at a depth of 10 km (6 mi), this would translate to an earthquake of a lower-6 magnitude (similar to the March 20, 2005 earthquake) in downtown Fukuoka
Fukuoka
if it were the epicenter. The probability of an earthquake along the known length of the Kego fault occurring within 30 years was estimated at 0.4% prior to the March 20, 2005 earthquake, but this probability has been revised upwards since. Including the new extension out into the Genkai Sea, the Kego fault is now thought to be 40 km (25 mi) long. Following reports that the city has only prepared for earthquakes up to a magnitude of 6.5, several strong aftershocks renewed fears that the quakes might cause the portion of the Kego fault that lies under the city to become active again, leading to an earthquake as big as, or bigger than, the March 20 quake. Wards[edit]

Fukuoka
Fukuoka
has 7 wards (ku): Ward Population Land area Pop. density

as of August 1, 2010 km² per km²

Higashi-ku 291 749 66.68 4 375.36

Hakata-ku 212 108 31.47 6 740.01

Chūō-ku (administrative center) 176 739 15.16 11,658.24

Minami-ku 248 901 30.98 8 034.25

Jōnan-ku 128 883 16.02 8 045.13

Sawara-ku 211 889 95.88 2 209.42

Nishi-ku 190 288 83.81 2 270.47

Demographics[edit] As of July 2016[update], the city had an estimated population of 1,550,627 and a population density of 4,515.64 persons per km².[14] The total area is 340.60 square kilometres (131.51 sq mi). Fukuoka
Fukuoka
city is the Japan’s youngest major city and has Japan’s fastest growing population. A government survey of 2013 found Fukuoka
Fukuoka
has 217 homeless.[15] Economy[edit]

Fukuoka
Fukuoka
MEA

Fukuoka
Fukuoka
is the economic center of the Kyushu
Kyushu
region, with an economy largely focused on the service sector. Fukuoka
Fukuoka
city is also the largest startup city in Japan, and is the only economic zone for startup.[16] They have various services for startups like startup visa, tax reduction, and free business consultations for startups. Fukuoka
Fukuoka
city has the number one opening business rate in Japan.[17] Large companies headquartered in the city include Iwataya and Kyushu Electric Power. Fukuoka
Fukuoka
is also the home of many small firms playing a supportive role in the logistics, IT, and high-tech manufacturing sectors. Most of the region's heavy manufacturing takes place in the nearby city of Kitakyushu. The GDP in Greater Fukuoka, Fukuoka Metropolitan Employment Area, was US$101.6 billion in 2010.[18][19] Several regional broadcasters are based in the city, including Fukuoka Broadcasting Corporation, Kyushu
Kyushu
Asahi Broadcasting, Love FM, RKB Mainichi Broadcasting, and Television Nishinippon Corporation. The port of Hakata and Fukuoka Airport
Fukuoka Airport
also make the city a key regional transportation hub. Fukuoka
Fukuoka
houses the headquarters of Kyushu Railway Company (JR Kyushu) and Nishi-Nippon Railroad. Air Next, a subsidiary of All Nippon Airways, is headquartered in Hakata-ku;[20] prior to its dissolution, Harlequin Air
Harlequin Air
was also headquartered in Hakata-ku.[21] Fukuoka
Fukuoka
has its own stock exchange, founded in 1949. It is one of six in Japan.[22] Culture[edit] Fukuoka
Fukuoka
was selected as one of Newsweek's 10 "Most Dynamic Cities" in its July 2006 issue.[23] It was chosen for its central Asian location, increasing tourism and trade, and a large increase in volume at its sea and airport. Fukuoka
Fukuoka
has a diverse culture and a wide range of cultural attractions. In its July/August 2008 issue, Monocle selected Fukuoka
Fukuoka
as number 17 of the "Top 25 liveable cities".[24] It was chosen for excellent shopping, outstanding food, good transport links, good museums, "a feeling of openness in its sea air", green spaces and because it's friendly, safe, clean and close to the rest of East Asia.[25] Tourism[edit] See also: Hakata-ku, Fukuoka
Hakata-ku, Fukuoka
§ Economy#Cruise ship tourism Fukuoka
Fukuoka
hosts more than 2 million foreign visitors annually, with the majority coming from neighboring South Korea
South Korea
and China. From the early 2010s Hakata became the beneficiary of significant growth in cruise ship tourism; particularly with visitors from China. After expansion and redevelopment of the Hakata Port international passenger ship terminal, the number of cruise ship port calls in 2016 is expected to exceed 400.[26] Nearly ten thousand international students attend universities in or near the Fukuoka
Fukuoka
prefecture each year.[27] Nearly 200 international conferences are held each year in Fukuoka.[28] Attractions[edit] Sky Dream Fukuoka, located in Fukuoka
Fukuoka
City's western ward, was one of the world's largest Ferris wheels at a height of 120 meters. It was closed on September 2009. Fukuoka Castle
Fukuoka Castle
located adjacent to Ohori Park in Maizuru Park features the remaining stone walls and ramparts[29] left after a devastating fire during the upheaval of the Meiji Restoration. It has now been preserved along with some reconstructed prefabricate concrete towers constructed during the 1950s and 1960s, when there was a trend across Japan
Japan
to rebuild damaged castles as tourist attractions. Ōhori Park
Ōhori Park
is also the location of one of Fukuoka
Fukuoka
City's major art galleries. There is a newly opened Kyushu
Kyushu
National Museum in nearby Dazaifu.

Hakata Ramen

The Marine Park Uminonakamichi is located on a narrow cape on the northern side of the Bay of Hakata. The park has an amusement park, petting zoo, gardens, beaches, a hotel, and a large marine aquarium which opened in 1989.[30] For tourists from other parts of Japan, local foods such as mentaiko, Hakata ramen
Hakata ramen
and motsunabe are associated with Fukuoka. Yatai (street stalls) serving ramen can be found in Tenjin and Nakasu
Nakasu
most evenings. Fukuoka Tower
Fukuoka Tower
is near the beach in Momochi. Itoshima, which can be found to the west of Fukuoka
Fukuoka
city, has recently become a very popular tourist destination. There are many beaches along the coast, notably Futamigaura beach, where there is a famous Shinto shrine in the ocean, and Keya beach, which hosts the annual Sunset Live festival every September. Inland, there is the Shingon Buddhist temple called Raizan Sennyoji, where there are many Buddhist statues and stunning autumn foliage.[31] Museums[edit]

Fukuoka
Fukuoka
City Museum

Fukuoka Art Museum
Fukuoka Art Museum
– In Ohori Park; contains a wide selection of contemporary and other art from around the world, including works by Mark Rothko, Roy Lichtenstein, and Salvador Dalí. Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Asian Art Museum – contains art from various countries of Asia. Fukuoka
Fukuoka
City Museum – displays a broad range of items from the region's history, including a spectacular gold seal. Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Oriental Ceramics Museum Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Prefectural Museum of Art Genko Historical Museum (元寇史料館, Museum of the Mongol Invasion) – In Higashi Koen (East Park); displays Japanese and Mongolian arms and armor from the 13th century as well as paintings on historical subjects. Open on weekends. Hakata Machiya Folk Museum – Dedicated to displaying the traditional ways of life, speech, and culture of the Fukuoka
Fukuoka
region.

The Fukuoka Asian Culture Prize was established to honor the outstanding work of individuals or organizations in Asia. Festivals[edit]

Hakata Gion Yamakasa

Fukuoka
Fukuoka
is home to many festivals (matsuri) that are held throughout the year. Of these, the most famous are Hakata Dontaku
Hakata Dontaku
and Hakata Gion Yamakasa. Yamakasa[edit] Yamakasa (山笠), held for two weeks each July,[32] is Fukuoka's oldest festival with a history of over 700 years. The festival dates back to 1241 when a priest called Shioichu Kokushi saved Hakata from a terrible plague by being carried around the city on a movable shrine and throwing water.[33][34] Teams of men (no women, except small girls, are allowed), representing different districts in the city, commemorate the priest's route by racing against the clock around a set course carrying on their shoulders floats weighing several thousand pounds. Participants all wear shimekomi (called fundoshi in other parts of Japan), which are traditional loincloths. Each day of the two-week festival is marked by special events and practice runs, culminating in the official race that takes place the last morning before dawn. Tens of thousands line the streets to cheer on the teams. During the festival, men can be seen walking around many parts of Fukuoka
Fukuoka
in long happi coats bearing the distinctive mark of their team affiliation and traditional geta sandals. The costumes are worn with pride and are considered appropriate wear for even formal occasions, such as weddings and cocktail parties, during the festival.

The uniform used during the ceremonies and preparation.

The uniform used during the competition.

Hakata Dontaku[edit] Hakata Dontaku
Hakata Dontaku
(博多どんたく) is held in Fukuoka
Fukuoka
City on May 3 and 4. Boasting over 800 years of history, Dontaku is attended by more than 2 million people, making it the festival with the highest attendance during Japan's Golden Week holidays. During the festival, stages are erected throughout downtown for traditional performances and a parade of floats is held. The full name is Hakata Dontaku
Hakata Dontaku
Minato Matsuri.[35] The festival was stopped for seven years during the Meiji era. Since it was restarted in the 12th year of the Meiji era
Meiji era
it has been known as Hakata Dontaku. Music[edit] Notable musical names in J-pop
J-pop
include Ayumi Hamasaki
Ayumi Hamasaki
(allegedly Japan's richest woman), singer-songwriter Ringo Shiina, hugely popular singer-songwriter duo Chage & Aska, singer-songwriter Eri Nobuchika, Misia
Misia
and Yui. During the 1970s, local musicians prided themselves on their origins and dubbed their sound, Mentai Rock. Morning Musume
Morning Musume
6th generation member Reina Tanaka
Reina Tanaka
was also born here in 1989 along with 9th generation member Erina Ikuta
Erina Ikuta
in 1997. Dominican songwriter and singer Juan Luis Guerra
Juan Luis Guerra
pays homage to the city in his bachata song Bachata en Fukuoka
Bachata en Fukuoka
(2010). HKT 48 have their own Theater at Nishitetsu
Nishitetsu
Hall. Transport[edit]

International terminal of Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Airport

Bayside Place Hakata Port

Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Dome

Level-5 Stadium

Main article: Transport in Fukuoka-Kitakyushu Fukuoka
Fukuoka
is served by Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Airport, the San'yō Shinkansen
San'yō Shinkansen
and the Kyushu
Kyushu
Shinkansen high-speed rail line and other JR Kyushu
Kyushu
trains at Hakata Station
Hakata Station
and by ferry. JR Kyushu
Kyushu
and a Korean company operate hydrofoil ferries (named Beetle and Kobee) between Hakata and Busan, South Korea. The city has three subway lines, and the newest one, Subway Nanakuma Line, opened on February 2, 2005. A private railway line, run by Nishitetsu
Nishitetsu
is also heavily used and connects the downtown area of Tenjin to the city of Ōmuta. Sports[edit] Fukuoka
Fukuoka
is the home of the Fukuoka
Fukuoka
SoftBank Hawks, one of Japan's top professional baseball teams. Threatened with bankruptcy and forced by its creditors to restructure, former owner Daiei
Daiei
sold the Hawks to Softbank Capital
Softbank Capital
in 2004. Fukuoka
Fukuoka
is home to a professional football team, Avispa Fukuoka. Annual sporting events include:

The All Japan
Japan
Judo
Judo
Category Championships are held in early April. The Kyushu
Kyushu
ekiden, beginning in Nagasaki
Nagasaki
and ending in Fukuoka, the world's longest relay race, held in October. (Defunct) The November tournament of professional Sumo
Sumo
is held at the Fukuoka Kokusai Center. Fukuoka
Fukuoka
International Open Marathon Championships, with start/finish at Heiwadai Athletic Stadium, held on the 1st Sunday of December.

Fukuoka
Fukuoka
has hosted the following sporting events:

1983 Asian Volleyball Championship for Women 1995 Summer Universiade 1997 Pan Pacific Swimming Championships 1998 Women's Volleyball World Championship 1999 Asian Basketball
Basketball
Championship 2001 World Aquatics Championships. 2006 IAAF World Cross Country Championships. Fukuoka
Fukuoka
International Women's Judo
Judo
Championships from 1983 to 2006. 2013-14 Grand Prix of Figure Skating Final

Sports teams and facilities[edit]

Club Sports League Venue Established

Kyuden Voltex Rugby Top League Level-5 Stadium 1951

Coca-Cola Red Sparks Rugby Top League Sawayaka Sports Park 1966

Fukuoka
Fukuoka
SoftBank Hawks Baseball Pacific League Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Yahoo! Japan
Japan
Dome 1989 (year of relocation from Ōsaka
Ōsaka
as Daiei
Daiei
Hawks, changed to current name from 2005)

Avispa Fukuoka Association football J. League Level-5 Stadium 1995 (year of relocation from Fujieda, Shizuoka
Fujieda, Shizuoka
as Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Blux, changed to current name from 1996)

Fukuoka
Fukuoka
J-Anclas Association football Nadeshiko League Level-5 Stadium 1986 (as Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Jogakuin High School football club, changed to a senior club team and participated Nadeshiko League Div. 2 from 2006)

Rizing Zephyr Fukuoka Basketball B.League Accion Fukuoka 2007

Education[edit] Fukuoka
Fukuoka
City operates all public elementary and junior high schools, while the prefecture operates the high schools.

National Universities

Kyushu
Kyushu
University (九州大学, Kyushu
Kyushu
Daigaku)

Kyushu
Kyushu
Institute of Design (九州芸術工科大学, Kyushu
Kyushu
Geijutsu Kōka Daigaku) – merged with Kyushu
Kyushu
University on October 2003

Prefectural University

Fukuoka Women's University
Fukuoka Women's University
(福岡女子大学, Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Joshi Daigaku)

Private Universities

Daiichi University, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences (第一薬科大学, Daiichi Yakka Daigaku) Fukuoka Institute of Technology
Fukuoka Institute of Technology
(福岡工業大学, Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Kōgyō Daigaku) Fukuoka Jo Gakuin University (福岡女学院大学, Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Jogakuin Daigaku) Fukuoka University
Fukuoka University
(福岡大学, Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Daigaku) Kyushu
Kyushu
Sangyo University (九州産業大学, Kyushu
Kyushu
Sangyō Daigaku) Nakamura Gakuen University
Nakamura Gakuen University
(中村学園大学, Nakamura Gakuen Daigaku) Seinan Gakuin University
Seinan Gakuin University
(西南学院大学, Seinan Gakuin Daigaku)

Colleges

Fukuoka College of Health Sciences (福岡医療短期大学, Fukuoka Iryō Tanki Daigaku) Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Institute of Technology, Junior college (福岡工業大学短期大学部 Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Kōgyō Daigaku Tanki Daigakubu) Junshin Junior College (純真短期大学, Junshin Tanki Daigaku) Koran Women's Junior College (香蘭女子短期大学, Kōran Joshi Tanki Daigaku) Kyushu
Kyushu
Zokei Art College (九州造形短期大学, Kyushu
Kyushu
Zōkei Tanki Daigaku) Nakamura Gakuen Junior College (中村学園大学短期大学部, Nakamura Gakuen Daigaku Tanki Daigakubu) Nishinihon Junior College (西日本短期大学, Nishi Nihon Tanki Daigaku) Seika Women's Junior College (精華女子短期大学, Seika Joshi Tanki Daigaku)

Catholic schools

Sophia Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Junior and Senior High School

International relations[edit] Fukuoka
Fukuoka
has nine sister cities.[36]

Atlanta, United States Auckland, New Zealand Bordeaux, France
France
(1982)[37][38] Busan, South Korea

Delhi, India
India
(2007)[39] Guangzhou, China
China
(1979)[40] Ipoh, Malaysia Oakland, California, United States Yangon, Myanmar

The city established the Asian Pacific City Summit in 1994. It consists of 26 Asia-Pacific cities. Notable people from Fukuoka[edit]

Nao Sakuma, principal dancer with Birmingham Royal Ballet Jirō Akagawa (novelist) Aska (singer) (Chage and Aska) Sonny Chiba
Sonny Chiba
(actor, singer, film producer, film director, and martial artist) Kaibara Ekken
Kaibara Ekken
(Neo-Confucianist philosopher) Kenji Hamada (voice actor) Ayumi Hamasaki
Ayumi Hamasaki
( J-pop
J-pop
singer) Angela Harry (model and actress) Kiyoshi Hikawa
Kiyoshi Hikawa
(enka singer) Kōki Hirota
Kōki Hirota
(politician: 32nd Prime Minister of Japan) Erina Ikuta
Erina Ikuta
( J-pop
J-pop
singer and member of Morning Musume) Tomo Inouye, (medical doctor) Gakuryū Ishii (film director) Ai Kawashima
Ai Kawashima
(singer-songwriter) Yoshinori Kobayashi (manga artist) Misia
Misia
( J-pop
J-pop
singer) Kenzo Nakamura ( Judo
Judo
athlete) Ai Nonaka
Ai Nonaka
(voice actor) Yukari Oshima
Yukari Oshima
(actress) Victoria Principal
Victoria Principal
(American actress) Noriko Sakai
Noriko Sakai
(singer and actress) Kensuke Sasaki
Kensuke Sasaki
(professional wrestler) Kōji Seto (actor) Sui Ishida (manga artist) Ringo Shiina
Ringo Shiina
( J-pop
J-pop
singer born in Saitama Prefecture
Saitama Prefecture
and raised in Fukuoka) Keita Tachibana ( J-pop
J-pop
singer and member of W-inds) Akitomo Takeno
Akitomo Takeno
(basketball player) Dan Takuma
Dan Takuma
(businessman) Tamori (TV presenter) Reina Tanaka
Reina Tanaka
( J-pop
J-pop
singer and a member of Morning Musume) and Lovendor Ryoko Tani (judo athlete) Rintaro Tokunaga (basketball player) Ryutaro Umeno
Ryutaro Umeno
(baseball player for the Hanshin Tigers) Masaaki Yuasa
Masaaki Yuasa
(director) Yui (singer) Yumeno Kyūsaku
Yumeno Kyūsaku
(novelist) Maonyan (singer and member SID) Elaiza Ikeda (model and actress) HKT48
HKT48
(Idol Group) Kanikapila (Rock Band) Masamune Kusano ( J-pop
J-pop
singer and a member of Spits) Sayuri
Sayuri
(Singer/Songwriter)

See also[edit]

Fukuoka
Fukuoka
mayoral election, 2006

References[edit]

^ "福岡市 平成27年国勢調査結果速報(本市独自集計)". www.city.fukuoka.lg.jp. Retrieved 2016-07-25.  ^ "Researchers uncover deeper Japan-Korea history on weapons, letters". AJW by The Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on 2013-10-29.  ^ "Austronesia".  ^ Takehiko Furuta, 失われた九州王朝 (A lost Kyushu
Kyushu
dynasty), Asahi publishing, 1993. ^ The Truth of Descent from Heaven. Yukio Yokota. Accessed March 19, 2008. ^ Fukuoka/Hakata Tourist Information website: Hakozaki Shrine ^ a b http://www.city.fukuoka.lg.jp/promo/english/magazine/sanpo.html ^ http://www.fuk-ab.co.jp/english/sp/cont.php?page=gaiyou ^ "History".  ^ "Council on National Strategic Special
Special
Zones (The Prime Minister in Action) Prime Minister of Japan
Japan
and His Cabinet". Retrieved 2016-07-26.  ^ 気象庁 Japan
Japan
Meteorological Agency. "気象庁 平年値(年・月ごとの値)". Data.jma.go.jp. Retrieved 2012-06-21.  ^ "気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値)". Japan
Japan
Meteorological Agency.  ^ "地震保険について Archived 2009-01-06 at the Wayback Machine.". 民間危機管理再生機構 The Nongovernmental crisis Management & Regeneration Organization(NPO). ^ "福岡市 福岡市推計人口(最新)". www.city.fukuoka.lg.jp. Retrieved 2016-07-25.  ^ "福岡市 ホームレス自立支援実施計画(素案)." Fukuoka
Fukuoka
city hall's document 2014. ^ "国家戦略特区「福岡市 グローバル創業・雇用創出特区」" (PDF). 国家戦略特区「福岡市 グローバル創業・雇用創出特区」. Fukuoka
Fukuoka
city government. June 2015. Retrieved July 25, 2016.  ^ "福岡特区通信". f-tokku.city.fukuoka.lg.jp (in Japanese). Retrieved 2016-07-25.  ^ Yoshitsugu Kanemoto. "Metropolitan Employment Area (MEA) Data". Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo.  ^ Conversion rates - Exchange rates. OECD Data. ^ "会社概要[dead link]." Air Next. Retrieved on May 20, 2009. ^ "会社概要." Harlequin Air. Retrieved on May 20, 2009. ^ "FSE.org.jp". Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Stock Exchange. Retrieved 2011-04-17.  ^ Newsweek
Newsweek
Print Article, Accessed November 15, 2008 ^ Telegraph.co.uk Accessed November 15, 2008 ^ Monocle, July/August 2008, issue 15, volume 02, page 26 ^ "Cruise ships with Chinese tourists pour into Japan". Japan
Japan
Today. Kyodo. 12 March 2016. [permanent dead link] ^ http://www.kokusaihiroba.or.jp/english/city/data.html Trend in the Number of Foreign Residents Registered in Fukuoka Prefecture
Fukuoka Prefecture
(as of end of December 2009) ^ http://www.jnto.go.jp/jpn/news/press_releases/pdf/pdf/131218_mice_report.pdf 2012 年の 「日本の国際会議 開催件数」 を発表 ^ ], Kyushu
Kyushu
Tourism
Tourism
Promotion Organization [ Japan. "FUKUOKA CASTLE RUINS|SIGHTSEEING SPOTS| Kyushu
Kyushu
Tourism
Tourism
Information [ Japan
Japan
]". Kyushu
Kyushu
Tourism
Tourism
Information [ Japan
Japan
].  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-19. Retrieved 2016-03-26.  ^ "雷山千如寺 大悲王院 (公式サイト)". www.sennyoji.or.jp.  ^ Hakata Gion Yamakasa
Hakata Gion Yamakasa
Festival. Japan
Japan
National Tourist Organization. Accessed March 19, 2008. ^ The Yamakasa. Cogito Kyushu
Kyushu
Networks. Accessed March 19, 2008. ^ Hakata Gion Yamakasa. WebJapan. Accessed March 19, 2008. ^ Hakata Dontaku
Hakata Dontaku
Minato Matsuri Archived 2007-02-06 at the Wayback Machine.. (in Japanese) Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Accessed March 19, 2008. ^ 姉妹都市交流 [Sister City Relations] (in Japanese). Fukuoka City. Archived from the original on 2012-03-24. Retrieved 2012-04-07.  ^ " Bordeaux
Bordeaux
– Rayonnement européen et mondial". Mairie de Bordeaux (in French). Archived from the original on 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2013-07-29.  ^ "Bordeaux-Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures". Délégation pour l'Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Archived from the original on 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2013-07-29.  ^ "SISTER-CITY AGREEMENTS/ MEMORANDUM". Department of Urban Development, Government of Delhi. Retrieved 28 February 2017.  ^ " Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Sister Cities[via WaybackMachine.com]". Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Foreign Affairs Office. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fukuoka, Fukuoka.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Fukuoka.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Fukuoka.

Fukuoka
Fukuoka
City official website (in Japanese) Official Tourism
Tourism
Site of Fukuoka
Fukuoka
City Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Now Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Facts Data about the Best of Fukuoka

v t e

Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Prefecture

Fukuoka
Fukuoka
(capital)

Wards of Fukuoka

Higashi Hakata Chūō Minami Nishi Jōnan Sawara

Wards of Kitakyushu

Moji Wakamatsu Tobata Kokurakita Kokuraminami Yahatahigashi Yahatanishi

Core city

Kurume

Cities

Asakura Buzen Chikugo Chikushino Dazaifu Fukutsu Iizuka Itoshima Kasuga Kama Koga Miyama Miyawaka Munakata Nakama Nōgata Ogōri Ōkawa Ōmuta Ōnojō Tagawa Ukiha Yame Yanagawa Yukuhashi

Asakura District

Chikuzen Tōhō

Chikujō District

Chikujō Kōge Yoshitomi

Chikushi District

Nakagawa

Kaho District

Keisen

Kasuya District

Hisayama Kasuya Sasaguri Shime Shingū Sue Umi

Kurate District

Kotake Kurate

Mii District

Tachiarai

Miyako District

Kanda Miyako

Mizuma District

Ōki

Onga District

Ashiya Mizumaki Okagaki Onga

Tagawa District

Aka Fukuchi Itoda Kawara Kawasaki Ōtō Soeda

Yame District

Hirokawa

List of mergers in Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Prefecture

v t e

Metropolitan cities of Japan

Tokyo
Tokyo
Metropolis

Special
Special
wards of Tokyo※ (Adachi Arakawa Bunkyo Chiyoda Chūō Edogawa Itabashi Katsushika Kita Koto Meguro Minato Nakano Nerima Ōta Setagaya Shibuya Shinagawa Shinjuku Suginami Sumida Toshima Taitō)

Designated cities

Chiba※ Fukuoka※ Hamamatsu Hiroshima※ Kawasaki Kitakyushu Kobe※ Kumamoto※ Kyoto※ Nagoya※ Niigata※ Okayama※ Osaka※ Sagamihara Saitama※ Sakai Sapporo※ Sendai※ Shizuoka※ Yokohama※

Core cities

Akita※ Amagasaki Aomori※ Asahikawa Fukuyama Funabashi Gifu※ Hachinohe Hachiōji Hakodate Higashiōsaka Himeji Hirakata Iwaki Kagoshima※ Kanazawa※ Kashiwa Kawagoe Kōchi※ Kōriyama Koshigaya Kurashiki Kure Kurume Maebashi※ Matsuyama※ Miyazaki※ Morioka※ Naha Nagano※ Nagasaki※ Nara※ Nishinomiya Ōita※ Okazaki Ōtsu※ Sasebo Shimonoseki Takamatsu※ Takasaki Takatsuki Toyama※ Toyohashi Toyonaka Toyota Utsunomiya※ Wakayama※ Yokosuka

Special
Special
cities

Akashi Atsugi Chigasaki Fuji Fukui※ Hiratsuka Ibaraki Ichinomiya Isesaki Jōetsu Kakogawa Kasugai Kasukabe Kawaguchi Kishiwada Kōfu※ Kumagaya Matsue※ Matsumoto Mito※ Nagaoka Neyagawa Numazu Odawara Ōta Saga※ Sōka Suita Takarazuka Tokorozawa Tottori※ Tsukuba Yamagata※ Yamato Yao Yokkaichi

Prefectural capitals

Fukushima Tsu Tokushima Yamaguchi

Note: ※ also a prefectural capital

v t e

Metropolitan areas in Japan
Japan
with a population of over a million

Hokkaido
Hokkaido
region

Sapporo(ja)

Ishikari Shiribeshi Sorachi

Tōhoku region

Sendai(ja)

Miyagi

Kantō region

Utsunomiya(ja)

Tochigi

Maebashi(ja)

Gunma

Tokyo(ja)

Saitama Chiba Tokyo Kanangawa Ibaraki Yamanashi

Chūbu region

Niigata(ja)

Niigata

Shizuoka(ja)

Shizuoka

Hamamatsu(ja)

Shizuoka

Nagoya(ja)

Gifu Aichi Mie

Kinki
Kinki
region

Kyoto(ja)

Shiga Kyoto

Osaka(ja)

Kyoto Osaka Hyogo Nara Wakayama

Kobe(ja)

Hyogo

Chūgoku region

Okayama(ja)

Okayama

Hiroshima(ja)

Hiroshima

Kyushu
Kyushu
region

Kitakyushu(ja)

Fukuoka

Fukuoka(ja)

Fukuoka Saga

Kumamoto(ja)

Kumamoto

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 139551068 LCCN: n80051369 ISNI: 0000 0001 0672 2176 GND: 41259

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