PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
* 1932 campaign
* 1st Inauguration * First 100 days
* 1936 campaign
* 2nd Inauguration
* 1940 campaign
* 3rd Inauguration
* WORLD WAR II
* 1944 campaign
* 4th Inauguration
* Declining health * Death and State Funeral
* Electoral History
* Legacy * Criticism * New Deal critics * Civil rights record
* Presidential Library * Memorial
* v * t * e
FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT (/ˈroʊzəvəlt/ , his own pronunciation,
or /ˈroʊzəvɛlt/ ; January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), commonly
known as FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who
served as the 32nd
President of the United States
Roosevelt was born in 1882 to an old, prominent Dutch-American family
Dutchess County, New York
In the 1932 presidential election , Roosevelt defeated incumbent
World War II
* 1 Personal life
* 1.1 Early life and education
* 1.2 Marriage and affairs
* 1.2.1 Image gallery
* 2 Early political career
* 2.1 State senator and Tammany antagonist
Assistant Secretary of the Navy
* 6 Presidency (1933–1945)
* 6.1 First term (1933–1937)
* 6.2 Landslide re-election, 1936
* 6.3 Second term (1937–1941)
* 6.3.1 Foreign policy (1937–1941) * 6.3.2 Educational contributions (1940)
* 6.4 Election of 1940: Breaking with Tradition
* 6.5 Third term (1941–1945)
* 6.5.1 Policies * 6.5.2 Pearl Harbor and declarations of war
* 6.6 War plans
* 6.6.1 Internment of Germans, Italians and Japanese * 6.6.2 War strategy * 6.6.3 Post-war planning
* 6.7 Declining health * 6.8 Election of 1944
* 6.9 Fourth term and death (1945)
* 6.9.1 Last days, death and memorial
* 6.10 Supreme Court appointments 1933–1945
* 7 Civil rights * 8 Criticism * 9 Legacy * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References
* 13 Bibliography
* 13.1 Biographical
* 13.2 Scholarly topical studies
* 13.3 Foreign policy and
World War II
* 13.6 Historiography
* 13.6.1 Primary sources
* 14 External links
EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION
One of the oldest Dutch-American families in New York State, the Roosevelts distinguished themselves in areas other than politics. One ancestor, Isaac Roosevelt, had served with the New York militia during the American Revolution.
Roosevelt attended events of the New York society Sons of the American Revolution , and joined the organization while he was president. His paternal family had become prosperous early on in New York real estate and trade, and much of his immediate family's wealth had been built by FDR's maternal grandfather, Warren Delano, Jr., in the China trade, including opium and tea . A young, unbreeched Roosevelt in 1884, 2 years old Roosevelt in 1893, at the age of 11 Roosevelt in 1900, at the age of 18
Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, in the
Roosevelt grew up in an atmosphere of privilege. Reportedly, when
Roosevelt attended Groton School , an Episcopal boarding school in Groton, Massachusetts ; 90% of the students were from families on the social register . He was strongly influenced by its headmaster, Endicott Peabody , who preached the duty of Christians to help the less fortunate and urged his students to enter public service. Forty years later Roosevelt said of Peabody, "It was a blessing in my life to have the privilege of guiding hand", and the headmaster remained a strong influence throughout his life, officiating at his wedding and visiting Roosevelt as president.
Peabody recalled Roosevelt as "a quiet, satisfactory boy of more than ordinary intelligence, taking a good position in his form but not brilliant", while a classmate described Roosevelt as "nice, but completely colorless"; an average student, he only stood out in being the only Democratic student, continuing the political tradition of his side of the Roosevelt family. Roosevelt remained consistent in his politics; immediately after his fourth election to the presidency, he defined his domestic policy as "a little left of center".
Like all but two of his twenty one Groton classmates, Roosevelt went
Harvard College in nearby
While undistinguished as a student or athlete, he became editor-in-chief of The Harvard Crimson daily newspaper, a position that required great ambition, energy, and the ability to manage others. While he was at Harvard, his fifth cousin Theodore "T. R." Roosevelt, Jr. (1858–1919) became President of the United States; his vigorous leadership style and reforming zeal made him Franklin's role model and hero. The younger Roosevelt remained a Democrat, campaigning for Theodore's opponent William Jennings Bryan . Later, in the 1900s, his father died, causing a great distress for him, leaving Roosevelt alone with his mother, who was rather controlling. He eventually distanced away from her, for independence. In mid-1902, Franklin was formally introduced to his future wife Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (1884–1962), who was Theodore's niece, on a train to Tivoli, New York (they had met briefly as children). Eleanor and Franklin were fifth cousins, once removed. She was the daughter of Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt (1860–94) and Anna Rebecca Hall (1863–92) of the Livingston family . At the time of their engagement, Roosevelt was twenty-two and Eleanor nineteen. He graduated from Harvard in 1903 with an A.B. in history. He later received an honorary LL.D. from Harvard in 1929.
Columbia Law School
Biographer James MacGregor Burns said that young Roosevelt was self-assured and at ease in the upper class. In contrast, Eleanor at the time was shy and disliked social life, and at first stayed at home to raise their several children. Although Eleanor had an aversion to sexual intercourse and considered it "an ordeal to be endured", they had six children, the first four in rapid succession:
Eleanor Roosevelt (1906 – 1975)
Roosevelt welcomed fatherhood, and he and Eleanor suffered greatly when their third child, named for Franklin, died of heart disease in infancy in 1909. Eleanor soon was pregnant again and gave birth to another son, Elliott, less than a year later. The fifth child and fourth son, born in 1914, was also named for Franklin.
Roosevelt had various extra-marital affairs, including one with
Eleanor's social secretary Lucy Mercer , which began soon after she
was hired in early 1914. In September 1918, Eleanor found letters
revealing the affair in Roosevelt's luggage, when he returned from
World War I
Franklin broke his promise to Eleanor. He and Lucy maintained a formal correspondence, and began seeing each other again in 1941, perhaps earlier. The Secret Service gave Lucy the code name "Mrs. Johnson". Lucy was with FDR on the day he died in 1945. Despite this, FDR's affair was not widely known until the 1960s.
Roosevelt's son Elliott claimed that his father had a 20-year affair with his private secretary, Marguerite "Missy" LeHand . Another son, James, stated that "there is a real possibility that a romantic relationship existed" between his father and Princess Märtha of Sweden , who resided in the White House during part of World War II. Aides began to refer to her at the time as "the president's girlfriend", and gossip linking the two romantically appeared in the newspapers.
The effect of these flirtations or affairs upon
Eleanor Roosevelt is
difficult to estimate. "I have the memory of an elephant. I can
forgive, but I cannot forget," she wrote to a close friend. After the
Lucy Mercer affair, any remaining intimacy left their relationship.
Eleanor soon thereafter established a separate house in Hyde Park at
Val-Kill , and increasingly devoted herself to various social and
political causes independently of her husband. The emotional break in
their marriage was so severe that when Roosevelt asked Eleanor in
1942—in light of his failing health—to come back home and live
with him again, she refused. He was not always aware of when she
visited the White House, and for some time she could not easily reach
him on the telephone without his secretary's help; he, in turn, did
not visit her
New York City
When Roosevelt was president, his dog Fala also became well known as his companion during his time in the White House. Fala was called the "most photographed dog in the world".
The birthplace of FDR at Springwood *
Roosevelt sailing with half-niece Helen and father James, 1899 *
Franklin and Eleanor at Campobello Island , Canada, in 1904 *
Eleanor and Franklin statues at FDR National Historic Site in Hyde Park, New York *
Franklin (left) with nephew Tadd (middle) and niece Helen (right) in January 1889 *
Sculpture at Dowdell\'s Knob in F. D. Roosevelt State Park *
FDR and cousins in Fairhaven, Massachusetts
EARLY POLITICAL CAREER
STATE SENATOR AND TAMMANY ANTAGONIST
In the state election of 1910 , Roosevelt ran for the New York State Senate from the district around Hyde Park in Dutchess County , which was strongly Republican, having elected one Democrat since 1856. The local party chose him as a paper candidate because his Republican cousin Theodore was still one of the country's most prominent politicians, and a Democratic Roosevelt was good publicity; the candidate could also pay for his own campaign. Surprising almost everyone, due to his aggressive and effective campaign, the Roosevelt name's influence in the Hudson Valley, and the Democratic landslide that year, Roosevelt won the election.
Taking his seat on January 1, 1911, Roosevelt immediately became the leader of a group of "Insurgents" who opposed the bossism of the Tammany machine dominating the state Democratic Party. The U.S. Senate election , which began with the Democratic caucus on January 16, 1911, was deadlocked by the struggle of the two factions for 74 days, as the new legislator endured what a biographer later described as "the full might of Tammany" behind its choice, William F. Sheehan . (Popular election of US Senators did not occur until after a constitutional amendment later that decade.) On March 31 compromise candidate James A. O\'Gorman was elected, giving Roosevelt national exposure and some experience in political tactics and intrigue; one Tammany leader warned that Roosevelt should be eliminated immediately, before he disrupted Democrats as much as his cousin disrupted the Republicans . Roosevelt soon became a popular figure among New York Democrats, though he had not as yet become an eloquent speaker. News articles and cartoons began depicting "the second coming of a Roosevelt" that sent "cold shivers down the spine of Tammany".
Despite a bout of typhoid fever , and due to the help of Louis
McHenry Howe who ran his campaign, Roosevelt was re-elected for a
second term in the state election of 1912 , and served as chairman of
the Agriculture Committee. His success with farm and labor bills was a
precursor to his
New Deal policies twenty years later. By this time
he had become more consistently progressive, in support of labor and
social welfare programs for women and children; cousin Theodore was of
some influence on these issues. Roosevelt, again in opposition to
Tammany Hall, supported southerner
ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE NAVY
Roosevelt as Assistant Secretary of the Navy, 1913
Roosevelt's support of Wilson led to his appointment in 1913 as
Assistant Secretary of the Navy
Roosevelt was still relatively obscure, but his friends were already
speaking of him as a future president; he reportedly began talking
about being elected to the presidency as early as 1907. In 1914,
Roosevelt made an ill-conceived decision to run for the U.S. Senate
seat for New York. The decision was doomed for lack of Wilson
administration backing. He was determined to take on Tammany again at
a time when Wilson needed them to help marshal his legislation and
secure his future re-election. He was soundly defeated in the
Democratic primary election for the
In March 1917, after Germany initiated its unrestricted submarine warfare campaign, Roosevelt asked Wilson for permission to fit the naval fleet out for war; the request was denied. He became an enthusiastic advocate of the submarine and of means to combat the German submarine menace to Allied shipping: he proposed building a mine barrier across the North Sea from Norway to Scotland. In 1918, he visited Britain and France to inspect American naval facilities. Roosevelt wanted to provide arms to the merchant marine; knowing that a sale of arms was prohibited, he asked Wilson for approval to lease the arms to the mariners. Wilson ultimately approved this by executive order, and a precedent was set for Roosevelt to take similar action in 1940.
During these war years, Roosevelt worked to make peace with the
Tammany Hall forces, and in 1918 the group supported others in an
unsuccessful attempt to persuade him to run for governor of New York.
He very much wanted to get into a military uniform, but the armistice
took shape before this could materialize; Wilson reportedly ordered
Roosevelt to not resign. With the end of
World War I
Roosevelt was sickened during the
1918 flu pandemic
CAMPAIGN FOR VICE PRESIDENT
Cox and Roosevelt in Ohio, 1920.
1920 Democratic National Convention chose Roosevelt by
acclamation as the vice-presidential candidate with its presidential
James M. Cox of Ohio. Although his nomination
surprised most people, Roosevelt was considered as bringing balance to
the ticket as a moderate, a Wilsonian, and a prohibitionist with a
famous name. Roosevelt had just turned 38, four years younger than
Theodore had been when he received the same nomination from his party.
The Cox–Roosevelt ticket was defeated by Republicans Warren G.
Main article: Franklin D. Roosevelt\'s paralytic illness Rare photograph of FDR in a wheelchair, with Fala and Ruthie Bie, the daughter of caretakers at his Hyde Park estate. Photo taken by his cousin Margaret Suckley (February 1941)
While the Roosevelts were vacationing at
Campobello Island , New
Brunswick, Canada in August 1921, Roosevelt fell ill and was diagnosed
with polio . The infectious disease left him with permanent
paralysis from the waist down. Following the illness, Roosevelt
remained out of the public eye for several years, turning his
attention away from politics and toward his legal practice and his
various indoor hobbies, such as reading and stamp collecting. For the
rest of his life, Roosevelt refused to accept the fact that he was
permanently paralyzed. He tried a wide range of therapies, including
hydrotherapy . In 1926, he purchased a resort at Warm Springs, Georgia
, where he founded a hydrotherapy center for the treatment of polio
patients; it still operates as the Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute
for Rehabilitation . In 1938, FDR founded the National Foundation for
Infantile Paralysis, now known as the
March of Dimes
At the time, Roosevelt convinced many people that he was improving, which he believed to be essential prior to running for public office again. He laboriously taught himself to walk short distances while wearing iron braces on his hips and legs by swiveling his torso, supporting himself with a cane. He was careful never to be seen using his wheelchair in public, and great care was taken to prevent any portrayal in the press that would highlight his disability. Few photographs of FDR in his wheelchair are known; they include two taken by his cousin and confidante Margaret Suckley , another taken by a sailor aboard the USS Indianapolis in 1933, and another published in a 1937 issue of Life magazine. Film clips of the "walk" he achieved after his illness are equally rare. He usually appeared in public standing upright, supported on one side by an aide or one of his sons. FDR used a car with specially designed hand controls that provided him with further mobility.
A 2003 retrospective diagnosis of Roosevelt's paralytic illness favored Guillain–Barré syndrome rather than polio, a conclusion criticized by other researchers.
GOVERNOR OF NEW YORK (1929–32)
Roosevelt maintained contacts and mended fences with the Democratic
Party during the 1920s, especially in New York. Although he initially
had made his name as an opponent of
New York City
As the Democratic Party presidential nominee in the 1928 election , Smith in turn asked Roosevelt to run for governor in the state election . Roosevelt was nominated by the Democrats by acclamation. While Smith lost the Presidency in a landslide, and was defeated in his home state, Roosevelt was narrowly elected governor, by a one-percent margin. As a reform governor, he established a number of new social programs, and was advised by Frances Perkins and Harry Hopkins .
When Roosevelt began his run for a second term In May 1930, he
reiterated his doctrine from the campaign two years before: "that
progressive government by its very terms, must be a living and growing
thing, that the battle for it is never ending and that if we let up
for one single moment or one single year, not merely do we stand still
but we fall back in the march of civilization." In this campaign for
re-election, Roosevelt needed the good will of the Tammany Hall
New York City
1932 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION
Main article: United States presidential election, 1932 1932 electoral vote results FDR in 1933
Roosevelt's strong base in the most populous state in the nation made
him an obvious candidate for the Democratic nomination, which was
hotly contested in light of incumbent
Breaking with tradition of the time, Roosevelt traveled to Chicago to
accept the nomination in person. In his acceptance speech, Roosevelt
declared, "I pledge you, I pledge myself to a new deal for the
American people... This is more than a political campaign. It is a
call to arms." The election campaign was conducted under the shadow
Roosevelt won 57% of the vote and carried all but six states. Historians and political scientists consider the 1932–36 elections a realigning election that created a new majority coalition for the Democrats, made up of organized labor, northern blacks, and ethnic Americans such as Italian-Americans, Polish-Americans and Jews. This transformed American politics and started what is called the "New Deal Party System" or (by political scientists) the Fifth Party System .
After the election, Roosevelt refused Hoover's requests for a meeting to develop a joint program to stop the downward spiral and calm investors, claiming publicly it would tie his hands, and that Hoover had all the power to act if necessary. Unofficially, he told reporters that "it is not my baby". The economy spiraled downward until the banking system began a complete nationwide shutdown as Hoover's term ended. In February 1933, Roosevelt escaped an assassination attempt. Giuseppe Zangara , who expressed a "hate for all rulers," attempted to shoot Roosevelt. He shot and mortally wounded Chicago Mayor Anton Cermak who was sitting alongside Roosevelt, but his attempt to murder Roosevelt failed when an alert spectator, Lillian Cross, hit his arm with her purse and deflected the bullet. Roosevelt leaned heavily on his "Brain Trust" of academic advisers, especially Raymond Moley , when designing his policies; he offered cabinet positions to numerous candidates, but some declined. The cabinet member with the strongest independent base was Cordell Hull at State. William Hartman Woodin – at Treasury – was soon replaced by the much more powerful Henry Morgenthau, Jr.
Main article: Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt
Roosevelt appointed powerful men to top positions but made certain he made all the major decisions, regardless of delays, inefficiency or resentment. Analyzing the president's administrative style, historian James MacGregor Burns concludes:
The president stayed in charge of his administration...by drawing fully on his formal and informal powers as Chief Executive; by raising goals, creating momentum, inspiring a personal loyalty, getting the best out of people...by deliberately fostering among his aides a sense of competition and a clash of wills that led to disarray, heartbreak, and anger but also set off pulses of executive energy and sparks of creativity...by handing out one job to several men and several jobs to one man, thus strengthening his own position as a court of appeals, as a depository of information, and as a tool of co-ordination; by ignoring or bypassing collective decision-making agencies, such as the Cabinet...and always by persuading, flattering, juggling, improvising, reshuffling, harmonizing, conciliating, manipulating.
FIRST TERM (1933–1937)
Nothing to Fear Sample of the Inaugural speech from FDR -------------------------
Problems playing this file? See media help .
When Roosevelt was inaugurated March 4, 1933 , the U.S. was at the nadir of the worst depression in its history. A quarter of the workforce was unemployed. Farmers were in deep trouble as prices fell by 60%. Industrial production had fallen by more than half since 1929. Two million people were homeless. By the evening of March 4, 32 of the 48 states – as well as the District of Columbia – had closed their banks. The New York Federal Reserve Bank was unable to open on the 5th, as huge sums had been withdrawn by panicky customers in previous days. Beginning with his inauguration address, Roosevelt began blaming the economic crisis on bankers and financiers, the quest for profit, and the self-interest basis of capitalism:
Primarily this is because rulers of the exchange of mankind's goods have failed through their own stubbornness and their own incompetence, have admitted their failure, and have abdicated. Practices of the unscrupulous money changers stand indicted in the court of public opinion, rejected by the hearts and minds of men. True they have tried, but their efforts have been cast in the pattern of an outworn tradition. Faced by failure of credit they have proposed only the lending of more money. Stripped of the lure of profit by which to induce our people to follow their false leadership, they have resorted to exhortations, pleading tearfully for restored confidence... The money changers have fled from their high seats in the temple of our civilization. We may now restore that temple to the ancient truths. The measure of the restoration lies in the extent to which we apply social values more noble than mere monetary profit.
Historians categorized Roosevelt's program as "relief, recovery and reform." Relief was urgently needed by tens of millions of unemployed. Recovery meant boosting the economy back to normal. Reform meant long-term fixes of what was wrong, especially with the financial and banking systems. Through Roosevelt's series of radio talks, known as fireside chats , he presented his proposals directly to the American public. In 1934, FDR paid a visit to retired Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. , who mused about the President: "A second class intellect. But a first class temperament."
First New Deal (1933–1934)
THE ROOSEVELT CABINET
OFFICE NAME TERM
President FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT 1933–1945
Vice President JOHN NANCE GARNER 1933–1941
HENRY AGARD WALLACE 1941–1945
HARRY S. TRUMAN 1945
Secretary of State CORDELL HULL 1933–1944
EDWARD R. STETTINIUS, JR. 1944–1945
Secretary of Treasury WILLIAM H. WOODIN 1933–1934
HENRY MORGENTHAU, JR. 1934–1945
Secretary of War GEORGE H. DERN 1933–1936
HARRY HINES WOODRING 1936–1940
HENRY L. STIMSON 1940–1945
Attorney General HOMER STILLE CUMMINGS 1933–1939
FRANK MURPHY 1939–1940
ROBERT H. JACKSON 1940–1941
FRANCIS B. BIDDLE 1941–1945
Postmaster General JAMES A. FARLEY 1933–1940
FRANK COMERFORD WALKER 1940–1945
Secretary of the Navy CLAUDE A. SWANSON 1933–1939
CHARLES EDISON 1940
FRANK KNOX 1940–1944
JAMES V. FORRESTAL 1944–1945
Secretary of the Interior HAROLD L. ICKES 1933–1945
Secretary of Agriculture HENRY A. WALLACE 1933–1940
CLAUDE R. WICKARD 1940–1945
Secretary of Commerce DANIEL C. ROPER 1933–1938
HARRY L. HOPKINS 1939–1940
JESSE H. JONES 1940–1945
HENRY A. WALLACE 1945
Secretary of Labor FRANCES C. PERKINS 1933–1945
Roosevelt's "First 100 Days " concentrated on the first part of his strategy: immediate relief. From March 9 to June 16, 1933, he sent Congress a record number of bills, all of which passed easily. To propose programs, Roosevelt relied on leading Senators such as George Norris , Robert F. Wagner , and Hugo Black , as well as his Brain Trust of academic advisers. Like Hoover, he saw the Depression caused in part by people no longer spending or investing because they were afraid.
Roosevelt's inauguration on March 4, 1933 occurred in the middle of a bank panic and led to the backdrop for his famous words: "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself." The very next day he declared a "bank holiday" and called for a special session of Congress to start March 9, at which Congress passed the Emergency Banking Act . This was his first proposed step to recovery. To give Americans confidence in the banks, Roosevelt signed the Glass–Steagall Act that created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) to underwrite savings deposits.
Relief measures included the continuation of Hoover's major relief
program for the unemployed under its new name: Federal Emergency
Relief Administration . The most popular of all
New Deal agencies –
and Roosevelt's favorite – was the Civilian Conservation Corps
(CCC), which hired 250,000 unemployed young men to work on rural local
projects. Congress also gave the
Federal Trade Commission
Reform of the economy was the goal of the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) of 1933. It tried to end cutthroat competition by forcing industries to come up with codes that established the rules of operation for all firms within specific industries, such as minimum prices, agreements not to compete, and production restrictions. Industry leaders negotiated the codes which were approved by NIRA officials. Industry needed to raise wages as a condition for approval. Provisions encouraged unions and suspended anti-trust laws. The NIRA was found to be unconstitutional by unanimous decision of the US Supreme Court on May 27, 1935. Roosevelt opposed the decision, saying, "The fundamental purposes and principles of the NIRA are sound. To abandon them is unthinkable. It would spell the return to industrial and labor chaos." In 1933, major new banking regulations were passed. In 1934, the Securities and Exchange Commission was created to regulate Wall Street, with 1932 campaign fundraiser Joseph P. Kennedy in charge.
Roosevelt wanted a federal minimum wage as part of the NIRA, arguing that. "No business which depends for existence on paying less than living wages to its workers has any right to continue in this country". Congress finally adopted the minimum wage in the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. It was the last major domestic reform measure of the New Deal.
Recovery was pursued through "pump-priming" (that is, federal
spending). The NIRA included $3.3 billion of spending through the
Public Works Administration to stimulate the economy, which was to be
handled by Interior Secretary Harold Ickes . Roosevelt worked with
George Norris to create the largest
government-owned industrial enterprise in American history — the
Tennessee Valley Authority
Roosevelt tried to keep his campaign promise by cutting the federal budget — including a reduction in military spending from $752 million in 1932 to $531 million in 1934 and a 40% cut in spending on veterans' benefits — by removing 500,000 veterans and widows from the pension rolls and reducing benefits for the remainder, as well as cutting the salaries of federal employees and reducing spending on research and education. But, the veterans were well organized and strongly protested; most benefits were restored or increased by 1934, but FDR vetoed their efforts to get a cash bonus. The benefit cuts also did not last. In June 1933, Roosevelt restored $50 million in pension payments, and Congress added another $46 million more.
Veterans groups such as the American Legion and the Veterans of Foreign Wars won their campaign to transform their benefits from payments due in 1945 to immediate cash when Congress overrode the President's veto and passed the Bonus Act in January 1936. It pumped sums equal to 2% of the GDP into the consumer economy and had a major stimulus effect.
Roosevelt also kept his promise to push for the repeal of Prohibition . On March 23, 1933, he signed the Cullen–Harrison Act , which redefined 3.2% alcohol as the maximum allowed. That act was preceded by Congressional action in the drafting and passage of the 21st Amendment , which was ratified later that year.
Second New Deal (1935–1936)
Roosevelt signs the Social Security Act into law, August 14, 1935
After the 1934 Congressional elections had given Roosevelt large majorities in both houses, his administration drafted a fresh surge of New Deal legislation. These measures included the Works Progress Administration (WPA), which set up a national relief agency that employed two million family heads. At the height of WPA employment in 1938, unemployment was down from 20.6% in 1933 to only 12.5%, according to figures from Michael Darby.
Social Security Act established Social Security and promised
economic security for the elderly, the poor and the sick. Senator
Robert Wagner wrote the
Wagner Act , which officially became the
National Labor Relations Act
While the First New Deal of 1933 had broad support from most sectors, the Second New Deal challenged the business community. Conservative Democrats, led by Al Smith , fought back with the American Liberty League , savagely attacking Roosevelt and equating him with Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin . But Smith overplayed his hand, and his boisterous rhetoric let Roosevelt isolate his opponents and identify them with the wealthy vested interests that opposed the New Deal, strengthening Roosevelt for the 1936 landslide. By contrast, labor unions, energized by the Wagner Act, signed up millions of new members and became a major backer of Roosevelt's reelections in 1936, 1940 and 1944.
Biographer James M. Burns suggests that Roosevelt's policy decisions were guided more by pragmatism than ideology, and that he "was like the general of a guerrilla army whose columns, fighting blindly in the mountains through dense ravines and thickets, suddenly converge, half by plan and half by coincidence, and debouch into the plain below." Roosevelt argued that such apparently haphazard methodology was necessary. "The country needs and, unless I mistake its temper, the country demands bold, persistent experimentation," he wrote. "It is common sense to take a method and try it; if it fails, admit it frankly and try another. But above all, try something."
Government spending increased from 8.0% of gross national product (GNP) under Hoover in 1932 to 10.2% of the GNP in 1936. The national debt as a percentage of the GNP had more than doubled under Hoover from 16% to 40% of the GNP in early 1933. It held steady at close to 40% as late as fall 1941, then grew rapidly during the war. Unemployment rate in the U.S. 1910–60, with the years of the Great Depression (1929–39) highlighted
Deficit spending had been recommended by some economists, most
John Maynard Keynes
Unemployment fell dramatically in Roosevelt's first term, from 25%
when he took office to 14.3% in 1937. However, it increased slightly
to 19.0% in 1938 ("a depression within a depression") and fell to
17.2% in 1939, and then dropped again to 14.6% in 1940 until it
reached 1.9% in 1945 during World War II. Total employment during
Roosevelt's term expanded by 18.31 million jobs, with an average
annual increase in jobs during his administration of 5.3%. Roosevelt
New Deal policies as central to his legacy, and in his
State of the Union Address
Roosevelt did not raise income taxes before
World War II
Conservation And The Environment
Roosevelt had a lifelong interest in the environment and conservation starting with his youthful interest in forestry on his family estate. As governor and president, he launched numerous projects for conservation, in the name of protecting the environment, and providing beauty and jobs for the people. He was strengthened in his resolve by the model of his cousin Theodore Roosevelt. Although FDR was never an outdoorsman or sportsman on TR's scale, his growth of the national systems were comparable. FDR created 140 national wildlife refuges (especially for birds) and established 29 national forests and 29 national parks and monuments. He thereby achieved the vision he had set out in 1931:
Heretofore our conservation policy has been merely to preserve as much as possible of the existing forests. Our new policy goes a step further. It will not only preserve the existing forests, but create new ones.
As president, he was active in expanding, funding, and promoting the National Park and National Forest systems. He used relief agencies to upgrade the facilities. Their popularity soared, from three million visitors a year at the start of the decade, to 15.5 million in 1939. His favorite agency was the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), which expended most of its effort on environmental projects. The CCC in a dozen years enrolled 3.4 million young men; they built 13,000 miles of trails, planted two billion trees and upgraded 125,000 miles of dirt roads. Every state had its own state parks, and Roosevelt made sure that WPA and CCC projects were set up to upgrade them as well as the national systems.
Roosevelt heavily funded the system of dams to provide flood control,
electricity, and modernization of rural communities through the
Tennessee Valley Authority
Foreign Policy (1933–1937)
The rejection of the
League of Nations
The main foreign policy initiative of Roosevelt's first term was the
Good Neighbor Policy , which was a re-evaluation of U.S. policy
The isolationist movement was bolstered in the early to mid-1930s by
Gerald Nye and others who succeeded in their effort to
stop the "merchants of death" in the U.S. from selling arms abroad.
This effort took the form of the Neutrality Acts ; the president asked
for, but was refused, a provision to give him the discretion to allow
the sale of arms to victims of aggression. In the interim, Italy
LANDSLIDE RE-ELECTION, 1936
Main article: United States presidential election, 1936 1936 electoral vote results
In the 1936 presidential election , Roosevelt campaigned on his New
Deal programs against
SECOND TERM (1937–1941)
In contrast to his first term, little major legislation was passed
during Roosevelt's second term. There was the
Housing Act of 1937 , a
second Agricultural Adjustment Act, and the Fair Labor Standards Act
(FLSA) of 1938, which created the minimum wage . When the economy
began to deteriorate again in late 1937, Roosevelt asked Congress for
$5 billion in
Works Progress Administration
The Supreme Court became Roosevelt's primary focus during his second term, after the court overturned many of his programs. In particular, the Court in 1935 unanimously ruled that the National Recovery Act (NRA) was an unconstitutional delegation of legislative power to the president. Roosevelt stunned Congress in early 1937 by proposing a law to allow him to appoint up to six new justices, what he referred to as a "persistent infusion of new blood." This "court packing " plan ran into intense political opposition from his own party, led by Vice President Garner, since it upset the separation of powers and gave the President control over the Court. Roosevelt's proposal to expand the court failed; but by 1941, Roosevelt had appointed seven of the nine justices of the court, a change in membership which resulted in a court that began to ratify his policies.
Roosevelt at first had massive support from the rapidly growing labor unions, but they split into bitterly feuding AFL and CIO factions, the latter led by John L. Lewis . Roosevelt pronounced a "plague on both your houses," but labor's disunity weakened the party in the elections from 1938 through 1946.
Determined to overcome the opposition of conservative Democrats in
Congress (mostly from the South), Roosevelt became involved in the
1938 Democratic primaries, actively campaigning for challengers who
were more supportive of
New Deal reform. His targets denounced
Roosevelt for trying to take over the Democratic party and to win
reelection, using the argument that they were independent. Roosevelt
failed badly, managing to defeat only one target, a conservative
New York City
In the November 1938 election, Democrats lost six Senate seats and 71 House seats. Losses were concentrated among pro- New Deal Democrats. When Congress reconvened in 1939, Republicans under Senator Robert Taft formed a Conservative coalition with Southern Democrats, virtually ending Roosevelt's ability to get his domestic proposals enacted into law. The minimum wage law of 1938 was the last substantial New Deal reform act passed by Congress. Following the autumn Congressional elections in 1938, Congress was now dominated by conservatives, many of whom feared that Roosevelt was "aiming at a dictatorship," according to the historian Hugh Brogan. In addition, as noted by another historian, after the 1938 election increased the strength of Republicans, "conservative Democrats held the balance of power between liberals and Republicans, and they used it to prevent completion of the structure of the Second New Deal."
Roosevelt had always belonged to the more liberal wing of the Democratic Party. He sought a realignment that would solidify liberal dominance by means of landslides in 1932, 1934 and 1936. During the 1932 campaign he predicted privately, "I'll be in the White House for eight years. When those years are over, there'll be a Progressive party. It may not be Democratic, but it will be Progressive." When the third consecutive landslide in 1936 failed to produce major legislation in 1937, his recourse was to purge his conservative opponents in 1938.
Foreign Policy (1937–1941)
The Roosevelts with
The aggressive foreign policy of Nazi dictator
In October 1937, Roosevelt gave the Quarantine Speech aiming to contain aggressor nations. He proposed that warmongering states be treated as a public health menace and be "quarantined." Meanwhile, he secretly stepped up a program to build long-range submarines that could blockade Japan.
At the time of the Munich Agreement in 1938 — with the U.S. not represented — Roosevelt said the country would not join a "stop-Hitler bloc" under any circumstances (Roosevelt was widely praised for his help making the conference possible ). He made it quite clear that, in the event of German aggression against Czechoslovakia, the U.S. would remain neutral. Roosevelt said in 1939 that France and Britain were America's "first line of defense" and needed American aid, but because of widespread isolationist sentiment, he reiterated the US itself would not go to war. In the spring of 1939, Roosevelt allowed the French to place huge orders with the American aircraft industry on a cash-and-carry basis, as allowed by law. Most of the aircraft ordered had not arrived in France by the time of its collapse in May 1940, so Roosevelt arranged in June 1940 for French orders to be sold to the British.
World War II
His relations with
Charles de Gaulle
In April 1940, Germany invaded Denmark and Norway, followed by invasions of the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and France in May. The German victories left Britain isolated in western Europe. Roosevelt, who was determined that Britain not be defeated, took advantage of the rapid shifts of public opinion. The fall of Paris shocked American opinion, and isolationist sentiment declined. A consensus was clear that military spending had to be dramatically expanded. There was no consensus on how much the US should risk war in helping Britain.
In July 1940, FDR appointed two interventionist Republican leaders,
Henry L. Stimson and
On September 2, 1940, Roosevelt openly defied the Neutrality Acts by
Destroyers for Bases Agreement , which, in exchange for
military base rights in the British Caribbean Islands, gave 50 WWI
American destroyers to Britain. The U.S. also received free base
The agreement with Britain was a precursor of the March 1941
Isolationist sentiment was waning in Congress when it passed the
Educational Contributions (1940)
President Roosevelt erected
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
ELECTION OF 1940: BREAKING WITH TRADITION
Main article: United States presidential election, 1940 1940 electoral vote results
The two-term tradition had been an unwritten rule (until the 22nd
Amendment after Roosevelt's presidency) since George Washington
declined to run for a third term in 1796. Both
Ulysses S. Grant and
In his campaign against Republican
Wendell Willkie , Roosevelt
stressed both his proven leadership experience and his intention to do
everything possible to keep the
THIRD TERM (1941–1945)
Roosevelt tried to avoid repeating what he saw as Woodrow Wilson's mistakes in World War I. He often made exactly the opposite decision. Wilson called for neutrality in thought and deed, while Roosevelt made it clear his administration strongly favored Britain and China.
Unlike the loans in World War I, the
State of the Union (Four Freedoms) (January 6, 1941) Franklin Delano Roosevelt 's January 6, 1941 State of the Union Address introducing the theme of the Four Freedoms (starting at 32:02) -------------------------
Problems playing this file? See media help .
Roosevelt's third term was dominated by World War II. Roosevelt
slowly began re-armament in 1938, although he was facing strong
isolationist sentiment from leaders like Senators
William Borah and
Robert A. Taft . By 1940, re-armament was in high gear, with
bipartisan support, partly to expand and re-equip the Army and Navy
and partly to become the "Arsenal of Democracy" supporting Britain,
France, China and (after June 1941), the Soviet Union. As Roosevelt
took a firmer stance against the
The homefront was subject to dynamic social changes throughout the war, though domestic issues were no longer Roosevelt's most urgent policy concern. The military buildup spurred economic growth. Unemployment fell in half from 7.7 million in spring 1940 (when the first accurate statistics were compiled) to 3.4 million in fall 1941 and fell in half again to 1.5 million in fall 1942, out of a labor force of 54 million. There was a growing labor shortage, accelerating the second wave of the Great Migration of African Americans, farmers and rural populations to manufacturing centers. African Americans from the South went to California and other West Coast states for new jobs in the defense industry. To pay for increased government spending, in 1941 FDR proposed that Congress enact an income tax rate of 99.5% on all income over $100,000; when the proposal failed, he issued an executive order imposing an income tax of 100% on income over $25,000, which Congress rescinded.
Roosevelt and Churchill conducted a highly secret bilateral meeting in Argentia, Newfoundland, and on August 14, 1941, drafted the Atlantic Charter , conceptually outlining global wartime and postwar goals. All the Allies endorsed it. This was the first of several wartime conferences ; Churchill and Roosevelt would meet ten more times in person.
In July 1941, Roosevelt had ordered Secretary of War
Henry Stimson ,
to begin planning for total American military involvement. The
resulting "Victory Program" provided the Army's estimates necessary
for the total mobilization of manpower, industry, and logistics to
defeat Germany and Japan. The program also planned to dramatically
increase aid to the Allied nations and to have ten million men in
arms, half of whom would be ready for deployment abroad in 1943.
Roosevelt was firmly committed to the Allied cause, and these plans
were formulated before Japan's
Attack on Pearl Harbor
Congress was debating a modification of the Neutrality Act in October
1941, when the USS Kearny , along with other ships, engaged a number
of U-boats south of Iceland; the Kearny took fire and lost eleven
crewmen. As a result, the amendment of the Neutrality Act to permit
the arming of the merchant marine passed both houses, though by a slim
margin. In 1942, with the
The White House became the ultimate site for labor mediation, conciliation or arbitration. One particular battle royale occurred between Vice-President Wallace, who headed the Board of Economic Warfare , and Jesse Jones, in charge of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation ; both agencies assumed responsibility for acquisition of rubber supplies and came to loggerheads over funding. FDR resolved the dispute by dissolving both agencies.
In 1944, the President requested that Congress enact legislation which would tax all unreasonable profits, both corporate and individual, and thereby support his declared need for over $10 billion in revenue for the war and other government measures. The Congress passed a revenue bill raising $2 billion, which FDR vetoed, though Congress in turn overrode him.
Pearl Harbor And Declarations Of War
See also: Events leading to the attack on Pearl Harbor , Attack on Pearl Harbor , and Europe first Roosevelt signing declaration of war against Japan (left) on December 8 and against Germany (right) on December 11, 1941
When Japan occupied northern
FDR felt that an attack by the Japanese was probable – most likely in the Dutch East Indies or Thailand. On December 4, 1941, The Chicago Tribune published the complete text of " Rainbow Five ", a top-secret war plan drawn up by the War Department. It dealt chiefly with mobilization issues, calling for a 10-million-man army. A majority of scholars have rejected the conspiracy theories that Roosevelt, or any other high government officials, knew in advance about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. The Japanese had kept their secrets closely guarded. Senior American officials were aware that war was imminent, but they did not expect an attack on Pearl Harbor.
On the morning of December 7, 1941, the Japanese struck the U.S.
naval base at Pearl Harbor with a surprise attack , knocking out the
main American battleship fleet and killing 2,403 American servicemen
and civilians. Roosevelt called for war in his famous "
Infamy Speech "
to Congress, in which he said: "Yesterday, December 7, 1941 — a date
which will live in infamy — the
In 1942 Roosevelt set up a new military command structure with Admiral Ernest J. King as Chief of Naval Operations in complete control of the Navy and Marines; General George C. Marshall in charge of the Army and in nominal control of the Air Force, which in practice was commanded by General Hap Arnold . Roosevelt formed a new body, the Joint Chiefs of Staff , which made the final decisions on American military strategy. The Joint Chiefs was a White House agency and was chaired by Admiral William D. Leahy . When dealing with Europe, the Joint Chiefs met with their British counterparts and formed the Combined Chiefs of Staff . Unlike the political leaders of the other major powers, Roosevelt rarely overrode his military advisors.
His civilian appointees handled the draft and procurement of men and equipment, but no civilians – not even the secretaries of War or Navy, had a voice in strategy. Roosevelt avoided the State Department and conducted high level diplomacy through his aides, especially Harry Hopkins . Since Hopkins also controlled $50 billion in Lend Lease funds given to the Allies, they paid attention to him.
After the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor, antiwar sentiment in the
In the opening weeks of the war, Japan had conquered the Philippines
, and the British and Dutch colonies in
Roosevelt met with Churchill in late December and planned a broad
informal alliance among the U.S., Britain, China and the Soviet Union.
This included Churchill's initial plan to invade North Africa (called
Operation Gymnast ) and the primary plan of the U.S. generals for a
western Europe invasion, focused directly on Germany (Operation
Sledgehammer ). An agreement was also reached for a centralized
command and offensive in the Pacific theater called
British, Dutch, Australian) to save China and defeat Japan.
Nevertheless, the Atlantic First strategy was intact, to Churchill's
great satisfaction. On New Year's Day 1942, Churchill and FDR issued
the "Declaration by United Nations", representing 26 countries in
opposition to the
Internment Of Germans, Italians And Japanese
When the war began, the danger of a Japanese attack on the west coast
led to growing pressure to move people of Japanese descent away from
the coastal region. This pressure grew due to fears of terrorism,
espionage, and/or sabotage; it was also related to anti-Japanese
competition and discrimination. On February 19, 1942, President
Executive Order 9066
After both Hitler and Fascist Italy declared war on the United States in December 1941, many German and Italian citizens who had not taken out American citizenship were arrested or placed into internment camps.
Roosevelt and Churchill at the
Casablanca Conference (January
The "Big Three" of Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin , together with
In October 1942, the President was advised that military resources were desperately needed at Guadalcanal to prevent overrunning by the Japanese. FDR heeded the advice, redirected armaments and the Japanese Pacific offensive was stalled.
The Allies undertook the invasions of French
Meanwhile, in the Pacific, the Japanese advance reached its maximum
extent by June 1942, when the U.S. Navy scored a decisive victory at
Battle of Midway
By late 1943, it was apparent that the Allies would ultimately defeat
the enemy, so it became increasingly important to make high-level
political decisions about the course of the war and the postwar future
of Europe. Roosevelt met with Churchill and the Chinese leader Chiang
Kai-shek at the
By the beginning of 1945, however, with the Allied armies advancing into Germany and the Soviets in control of Poland, the postwar issues came into the open. In February, Roosevelt met with Churchill at Malta and traveled to Yalta, in Crimea, to meet again with Stalin and Churchill. While Roosevelt maintained his confidence that Stalin would keep his Yalta promises regarding free elections in eastern Europe, one month after Yalta ended, Roosevelt's Ambassador to the USSR, Averell Harriman , cabled Roosevelt that "we must come clearly to realize that the Soviet program is the establishment of totalitarianism, ending personal liberty and democracy as we know it." Two days later, Roosevelt began to admit that his view of Stalin had been excessively optimistic and that "Averell is right."
Roosevelt, a chain-smoker throughout his entire adult life, had been in declining physical health since at least 1940, and by 1944 he was noticeably fatigued. In March 1944, shortly after his 62nd birthday, he underwent testing at Bethesda Hospital and was found to have high blood pressure , atherosclerosis , coronary artery disease causing angina pectoris , and congestive heart failure .
Hospital physicians and two outside specialists ordered Roosevelt to rest. His personal physician, Admiral Ross McIntire, created a daily schedule that banned business guests for lunch and incorporated two hours of rest each day. During the 1944 re-election campaign, McIntire denied several times that Roosevelt's health was poor; on October 12, for example, he announced that "The President's health is perfectly OK. There are absolutely no organic difficulties at all." Prior to the election, Roosevelt may have used his authority over the Office of Censorship to quash press reports of his declining physical health.
Roosevelt, aware that most publishers were opposed to him, had the Army issue a decree in 1943 that blocked all publishers and editors from visits to combat areas.
ELECTION OF 1944
Main article: United States presidential election, 1944 Democratic campaign poster of 1944 with Roosevelt and Truman 1944 electoral vote results
Party leaders insisted that Roosevelt drop
Henry A. Wallace
FOURTH TERM AND DEATH (1945)
Last Days, Death And Memorial
Roosevelt meets with King Abdul-Aziz of Saudi Arabia on board the USS Quincy at the Great Bitter Lake (February 14, 1945) Last photograph of Roosevelt, taken April 11, 1945, the day before his death Roosevelt's funeral procession in Washington, D.C., watched by 300,000 spectators (April 14, 1945) FDR gravesite at Hyde Park
The President left the
Yalta Conference on February 12, 1945, flew to
Egypt and boarded the USS Quincy operating on the Great Bitter Lake
When Roosevelt returned to the United States, he addressed Congress on March 1 about the Yalta Conference, and many were shocked to see how old, thin and frail he looked. He spoke while seated in the well of the House, an unprecedented concession to his physical incapacity. Roosevelt opened his speech by saying, "I hope that you will pardon me for this unusual posture of sitting down during the presentation of what I want to say, but... it makes it a lot easier for me not to have to carry about ten pounds of steel around on the bottom of my legs." Still in full command mentally, he firmly stated "The Crimean Conference ought to spell the end of a system of unilateral action, the exclusive alliances, the spheres of influence, the balances of power, and all the other expedients that have been tried for centuries—and have always failed. We propose to substitute for all these, a universal organization in which all peace-loving nations will finally have a chance to join."
During March 1945, he sent strongly worded messages to Stalin accusing him of breaking his Yalta commitments over Poland, Germany, prisoners of war and other issues. When Stalin accused the western Allies of plotting behind his back a separate peace with Hitler, Roosevelt replied: "I cannot avoid a feeling of bitter resentment towards your informers, whoever they are, for such vile misrepresentations of my actions or those of my trusted subordinates."
In his later years at the White House, Roosevelt was increasingly overworked and his daughter Anna had moved in to provide her father companionship and support. Anna had also arranged for her father to meet with his former mistress, the now widowed Lucy Mercer Rutherfurd . Shoumatoff, who maintained close friendships with both Roosevelt and Mercer, rushed Mercer away to avoid negative publicity and implications of infidelity.
On March 29, 1945, Roosevelt went to the
Little White House at Warm
Springs, Georgia , to rest before his anticipated appearance at the
founding conference of the
At the time he collapsed, Roosevelt had been sitting for a portrait painting by the artist Elizabeth Shoumatoff ; the painting would later become known as the famous Unfinished Portrait of FDR .
On the morning of April 13, Roosevelt's body was placed in a
flag-draped coffin and loaded onto the presidential train for the trip
back to Washington. Along the route, thousands flocked to the tracks
to pay their respects. After a White House funeral on April 14,
Roosevelt was transported by train from
Roosevelt's declining physical health had been kept secret from the general public. His death was met with shock and grief across the U.S. and around the world.
The war in Europe ended on May 8, less than a month after his death.
Harry S. Truman
SUPREME COURT APPOINTMENTS 1933–1945
Main article: Franklin D. Roosevelt Supreme Court candidates
SUPREME COURT APPOINTMENTS BY PRESIDENT FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT
POSITION NAME TERM
Chief Justice HARLAN FISKE STONE 1941–1946
Associate Justice HUGO BLACK 1937–1971
STANLEY FORMAN REED 1938–1957
FELIX FRANKFURTER 1939–1962
WILLIAM O. DOUGLAS 1939–1975
FRANK MURPHY 1940–1949
JAMES F. BYRNES 1941–1942
ROBERT H. JACKSON 1941–1954
WILEY BLOUNT RUTLEDGE 1943–1949
President Roosevelt appointed eight Justices to the Supreme Court of
See also: Franklin D. Roosevelt\'s record on civil rights
Roosevelt was a hero to major minority groups, especially African Americans, Catholics, and Jews, and was highly successful in attracting large majorities of these voters into his New Deal coalition . He won strong support from Chinese Americans and Filipino Americans, but not Japanese Americans, as he was responsible for their losses due to internship in concentration camps during the war. Roosevelt's understanding and awareness of problems in the world of the American Indians was questioned during the Hopi Hearings which were held in 1955.
African Americans and Native Americans fared well in two New Deal relief programs, the Civilian Conservation Corps and the Indian Reorganization Act , respectively. Sitkoff reported that the WPA "provided an economic floor for the whole black community in the 1930s, rivaling both agriculture and domestic service as the chief source" of income. Eleanor Roosevelt and Mary McLeod Bethune , a member of Roosevelt's Black Cabinet (a key advisory group on race relations)
Another significant change was establishment in 1941 of the Fair Employment Practices Committee , to implement Executive Order 8802 prohibiting racial and religious discrimination in employment among defense contractors. This was the first national program directed against employment discrimination. African Americans who gained defense industry jobs in the 1940s shared in the higher wages; in the 1950s they had gained in relative economic position, about 14% higher than other blacks who were not in such industries. Their moves into manufacturing positions were critical to their success.
Roosevelt needed the support of the powerful white Southern Democrats for his New Deal programs, and blacks were still disenfranchised in the South. He decided against pushing for federal anti-lynching legislation. It was not likely to pass and the political fight might threaten his ability to pass his highest priority programs—though he did denounce lynchings as "a vile form of collective murder". The frequency of lynchings had declined since the early decades of the century, in part due to the African Americans' Great Migration out of the South; millions were still leaving it behind.
Historian Kevin J. McMahon claims that strides were made for the civil rights of African Americans. In Roosevelt's Justice Department, the Civil Rights Section worked closely with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Roosevelt worked with other civil rights groups on cases dealing with police brutality, lynching, and voting rights abuses.
Beginning in the 1960s, FDR was charged with not acting decisively enough to prevent or stop the Holocaust .
The issue of desegregating the armed forces did not arise, but in 1940 Roosevelt appointed former federal judge William H. Hastie , an African American, to be a civilian aide to Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson. On the home front on June 25, 1941, Roosevelt signed Executive Order 8802 , forbidding discrimination on account of "race, creed, color, or national origin" in the hiring of workers in defense related industries. This was a precursor to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act to come decades later.
However, enemy aliens and people of Japanese ancestry were taken under control. On February 19, 1942, Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 that applied to everyone classified as an "enemy alien", including people who had dual citizenship living in designated high-risk areas that covered most of the cities on the West Coast. Roosevelt personally made the decision regarding 120,000 Japanese citizens and dual citizens forced to leave the West Coast. From 1942 to 1945, they lived in internment camps inland. Those outside the West Coast, and in Hawaii were not relocated.
During his presidency, and continuing to a lesser extent today, there has been much criticism of Roosevelt, some of it intense. Critics have questioned not only his policies, positions , and the consolidation of power that occurred due to his responses to the crises of the Depression and World War II, but also his breaking with tradition by running for a third term as president.
By the middle of his second term, much criticism of Roosevelt
centered on fears that he was heading toward a dictatorship, by
attempting to seize control of the Supreme Court in the court-packing
incident of 1937, by attempting to eliminate dissent within the
Democratic party in the South during the 1938 elections, and by
breaking the tradition established by
As president, Roosevelt was hit from both the right and the left. He
came under attack for his supposed anti-business policies, for being a
"warmonger", for being a "Fascist" and for being too friendly to
List of memorials to Franklin D. Roosevelt FDR
A majority of polls rank Roosevelt as the second or third greatest president . Roosevelt is the sixth most admired person from the 20th century by U.S. citizens, according to Gallup .
The rapid expansion of government programs that occurred during Roosevelt's term redefined the role of the government in the United States, and Roosevelt's advocacy of government social programs was instrumental in redefining liberalism for coming generations.
Roosevelt firmly established the United States' leadership role on
the world stage, with his role in shaping and financing World War II.
His isolationist critics faded away, and even the Republicans joined
in his overall policies. After his death, his widow, Eleanor,
continued to be a forceful presence in US and world politics, serving
as delegate to the conference which established the
Roosevelt's home in Hyde Park is now a National Historic Site and
home to his Presidential library . His retreat at Warm Springs,
Georgia is a museum operated by the state of Georgia. His summer
Campobello Island is maintained by the governments of both
Canada and the
Washington D.C. hosts two memorials to the former president. The
largest, the 7.50-acre Roosevelt Memorial , is located next to the
Roosevelt's leadership in the
March of Dimes
Roosevelt was honored by the
Roosevelt is the only
President of the United States
Roosevelt was also widely beloved for his role in repealing Prohibition.
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World War II
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FDR Pearl Harbor speech
Speech given before Joint Session of Congress in entirety. (3.1 MB ,
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* ^ Roosevelt is an Anglicized form of the Dutch surname 'Van Rosevelt' or 'Van Rosenvelt', meaning "of the field of roses". Although some use an Anglicized spelling pronunciation of /ˈruːzəvɛlt/ , that is, with the vowel of ruse, FDR used , with the vowel of rose * ^ It was common for boys to wear what was considered "gender-neutral" clothing, thus boys wore dresses up until they were 6 or 7. * ^ WPA workers were counted as unemployed. * ^ Secretary of War Stimson did control decisions about building and the use of the atomic bomb.
* ^ Abate, Frank R. (1999). The Oxford Desk Dictionary of People
and Places. Oxford University Press. p. 329. ISBN 978-0-19-513872-6 .
* ^ President Franklin Roosevelt 1933 Inauguration.
* ^ A B C Burns 1956 , p. 7.
* ^ Black 2005 , pp. 4–5, 9–10.
* ^ Maglaty, Jeanne (April 7, 2011). "When Did Girls Start Wearing
* ^ A B "Roosevelt Genealogy".
Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential
Library and Museum. Archived from the original on December 20, 2012.
Retrieved March 6, 2014.
* ^ Person. "Sara Delano". The Peerage. p. 13944.
* ^ "Roosevelt Facts and Figures". Franklin D. Roosevelt
Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
* ^ Gunther 1950 , pp. 158–59.
* ^ "
Franklin D. Roosevelt Biography". Encyclopedia of World
* ^ Gunther 1950 , p. 168.
* ^ Burns 1956 , p. 4.
* ^ Lash 1971 , p. 111.
* ^ Freedman, Russel (1990). Franklin Delano ROOSEVELT. New York:
Clarion Books. pp. 8–9.
* ^ Smith 2007 , p. 20.
* ^ Gunther 1950 , p. 169.
* ^ Gunther 1950 , p. 170.
* ^ A B Marrin, Albert (2015). FDR and the American Crisis. Random
House Children's Books. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-385-75362-3 .
* ^ Smith 2007 , p. 110.
* ^ Black 2005 , p. 21.
* ^ Burns 1956 , p. 16.
* ^ Gunther 1950 , p. 174.
* ^ Smith 2007 , p. 28.
* ^ Gunther 1950 , pp. 172–73, 202.
* ^ Gunther 1950 , p. 351.
* ^ Burg, David F. (2005). The Great Depression. Eyewitness
History. Facts On File. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-8160-5709-2 .
* ^ Gunther 1950 , p. 172.
* ^ Smith 2007 , p. 30.
* ^ Burns 1956 , pp. 18, 20.
* ^ "Family of Wealth Gave Advantages". The New York Times. April
15, 1945. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
* ^ Gunther 1950 , p. 176.
* ^ Smith 2007 , pp. 31–32.
* ^ Gunther 1950 , p. 175.
* ^ Burns 1956 , p. 24.
* ^ Gunther 1950 , p. 177.
* ^ "1884–1920: Becoming a Roosevelt". The Eleanor Roosevelt
* ^ Rowley 2010 , p. 125.
* ^ Rowley 2010 , p. 120.
* ^ Ward & Burns 2014 , p. 332.
* ^ Ireland, Barbara (September 7, 2007). "At the Home of FDR\'s
Secret Friend". The New York Times.
* ^ Kelly, Jim (March 18, 2012). "A "new" picture of FDR in a
wheelchair. USS Indianapolis 1933.". Indianapolis Morning Call.
Allentown, Pennsylvania. p. 1. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
* ^ Ward & Burns 2014 , pp. 332–33.
American Experience (excerpt). PBS. Retrieved August 28, 2011
– via YouTube.
* ^ "Rare Footage Shows FDR Walking at Baseball Game". Time.
Retrieved September 6, 2014.
* ^ "Exhibits".
Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and
Museum. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
* ^ Goldman, Armond S.; Schmalstieg, Elisabeth J.; Freeman, Daniel
H., Jr.; Goldman, Daniel A.; Schmalstieg, Frank C., Jr. (November
2003). "What was the cause of Franklin Delano Roosevelt\'s paralytic
illness?" (PDF). Journal of Medical Biography. 11 (4): 232–40. PMID
14562158 . doi :10.1177/096777200301100412 .
* ^ Burns 1956 , p. 93.
* ^ Burns 1956 , pp. 91–96.
* ^ Morgan 1985 , pp. 267, 269–72, 286–87.
* ^ Burns 1956 , p. 100.
* ^ Burns 1956 , p. 101.
* ^ Smith 2007 , pp. 238–42.
* ^ A B Burns 1956 , pp. 119–20.
* ^ Burns 1956 , p. 121.
* ^ Smith 2007 , pp. 272–74.
* ^ Burns 1956 , p. 139.
* ^ Kennedy 1999 , p. 102.
* ^ Roosevelt, Franklin Delano (September 23, 1932). "Commonwealth
Club Address". Retrieved May 4, 2011.
* ^ Collins 2002 , p. 5.
* ^ Sternsher, Bernard (Summer 1975), "The Emergence of the New
Deal Party System: A Problem in Historical Analysis of Voter
Journal of Interdisciplinary History , 6 (1): 127–49,
* ^ Best, Gary Dean (1992). FDR and the Bonus Marchers, 1933-1935.
Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-93715-7 .
* ^ Hausman, Joshua K. (April 2016). "Fiscal Policy and Economic
Recovery: The Case of the 1936 Veterans\' Bonus" (PDF). American
Economic Review . 106 (4). doi :10.1257/aer.20130957 .
* ^ A B Thornton, Mark, The Real Reason for FDR\'s Popularity,
* ^ Darby, Michael R. (February 1976). "Three and a half million US
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* ^ Burns 1956 , p. 454.
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* ^ Leuchtenburg, William E. (2015). In the Shadow of FDR: From
Harry Truman to
* Black, Conrad (2005) , Franklin Delano Roosevelt: Champion of Freedom (interpretive detailed biography), ISBN 978-1-58648-282-4 . * Brands, H. W. (2009). Traitor to His Class: The Privileged Life and Radical Presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Anchor Books. ISBN 978-0-307-27794-7 . : despite the title, a highly favorable biography by scholar. Plus Author Webcast Interview at the Pritzker Military Library on January 22, 2009 * Burns, James MacGregor (1956). Roosevelt. 1. Easton Press. ISBN 978-0-15-678870-0 . * ——— (1970). Roosevelt: the soldier of freedom. 2. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 978-0-15-678870-0 . . * Cook, Blanche Wiesen (1992). Eleanor Roosevelt. 1. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-009460-1 . * Daniels, Roger (2015), Franklin D. Roosevelt: Road to the New Deal, 1882-1939, University of Illinois Press, ISBN 978-0-252-03951-5 . * Davis, Kenneth S (1972), FDR: The Beckoning of Destiny, 1882–1928 (popular biography), ISBN 978-0-399-10998-0 .
* Freidel, Frank (1952–73), Franklin D. Roosevelt, 4 volumes, OCLC 459748221 : the most detailed scholarly biography; ends in 1934.
* Frank Freidel, Franlkin D. Roosevelt The Apprenticeship (vol 1 1952) to 1918; online * Frank Freidel, Franklin D. Roosevelt The Ordeal (1954), covers 1919 to 1928 online * Frank Freidel, Franklin D. Roosevelt The Triumph (1956) covers 1929-32 online
* ——— (1990), Franklin D. Roosevelt: A Rendezvous with
Destiny (scholarly biography), one volume, ISBN 978-0-316-29260-3 ;
covers entire life.
* Goodwin, Doris Kearns (1995), No Ordinary Time: Franklin and
Eleanor Roosevelt: The Home Front in World War II, ISBN
978-0-684-80448-4 ; popular joint biography
* Gunther, John (1950), Roosevelt in Retrospect, Harper & Brothers
* Jenkins, Roy (2003),
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
SCHOLARLY TOPICAL STUDIES
* Alter, Jonathan (2006), The Defining Moment: FDR's Hundred Days
and the Triumph of Hope (popular history), ISBN 978-0-7432-4600-2 .
* Badger, Anthony (2008), FDR: The First Hundred Days, ISBN
0-8090-4441-2 200 pp; overview by leading British scholar.
* Beasley, Maurine, ed. (2001), The
Eleanor Roosevelt Encyclopedia,
et al, ISBN 0-313-30181-6 .
* Bellush, Bernard (1955).
Franklin D. Roosevelt as Governor of New
York. LCCN 55006181 .
* Brinkley, Douglas (2016). Rightful Heritage: Franklin D. Roosevelt
and the Land of America. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-208923-6 . ; On
his environmental and conservation beliefs & policies.
* Collins, Robert M. (2002). More: The Politics of Economic Growth
in Postwar America. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515263-8 .
* Graham, Otis L; Wander, Meghan Robinson, eds. (1985), Franklin D.
Roosevelt: His Life and Times (encyclopedia), ISBN 978-0-8161-8667-9
* Hawley, Ellis (1995). The
New Deal and the Problem of Monopoly.
Fordham University Press. ISBN 0-8232-1609-8 .
* Jordan, David M (2011), FDR, Dewey, and the Election of 1944,
Bloomington: Indiana University Press, ISBN 978-0-253-35683-3 .
* Kennedy, David M (1999), Freedom From Fear: The American People in
Depression and War, 1929–1945 (wide-ranging survey of national
affairs by leading scholar; Pulitzer Prize), ISBN 978-0-19-503834-7 .
* ——— (Summer 2009), "What the
New Deal Did", Political
Science Quarterly, 124 (2): 251–68, doi
* Leuchtenburg, William E. (1963).
Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New
Deal, 1932–1940. Harpers. ISBN 978-0-06-133025-4 .
* ——— (2005), "Showdown on the Court", Smithsonian (fulltext),
Ebsco, 36 (2): 106–13, ISSN 0037-7333 .
* McMahon, Kevin J (2004), Reconsidering Roosevelt on Race: How the
Presidency Paved the Road to Brown, ISBN 978-0-226-50088-1 .
* Miscamble, Wilson D. (2007). From Roosevelt to Truman: Potsdam,
Hiroshima, and the Cold War. Cambridge University Press. ISBN
* Parmet, Herbert S; Hecht, Marie B (1968), Never Again: A President
Runs for a Third Term, Questia , on 1940 election.
* Pederson, William D (2011), A Companion to Franklin D. Roosevelt,
Chichester, West Sussex, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 978-1-4443-3016-8
, 768 pages; essays by scholars covering major historiographical
* Rauchway, Eric (2008), The
FOREIGN POLICY AND WORLD WAR II
* Berthon, Simon; Potts, Joanna (7 September 2007). Warlords: An
Extraordinary Re-creation of
World War II
* Barnes, Harry Elmer (1953), Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace: A
Critical Examination of the Foreign Policy of Franklin Delano
Roosevelt and Its Aftermath,
* Braden, Waldo W; Brandenburg, Earnest, eds. (1955), "Roosevelt's Fireside Chats", Communication Monographs, 22 (5): 290–302, doi :10.1080/03637755509375155 . * Buhite, Russell D; Levy, David W, eds. (1993), FDR's Fireside Chats . * Craig, Douglas B (2005), Fireside Politics: Radio and Political Culture in the United States, 1920–1940 . * Crowell, Laura (1952), "Building the 'Four Freedoms' Speech", Communication Monographs, 22 (5): 266–83, doi :10.1080/03637755509375153 . * ——— (1950), "Franklin D. Roosevelt's Audience Persuasion in the 1936 Campaign", Communication Monographs, 17: 48–64, doi :10.1080/03637755009374997 . * Houck, Davis W (2002), FDR and Fear Itself: The First Inaugural Address, Texas A&M UP . * ——— (2001), Rhetoric as Currency: Hoover, Roosevelt, and the Great Depression, Texas A&M UP . * Roosevelt, Franklin D. (2005), My Friends, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 1-4179-9610-2 * Ryan, Halford Ross (1979), "Roosevelt's First Inaugural: A Study of Technique", Quarterly Journal of Speech, 65 (2): 137–49, doi :10.1080/00335637909383466 . * ——— (1988), Franklin D. Roosevelt's Rhetorical Presidency, Greenwood Press . * Stelzner, Hermann G (1966), "'War Message,' December 8, 1941: An Approach to Language", Communication Monographs, 33 (4): 419–37, doi :10.1080/03637756609375508 .
* Hendrickson, Jr., Kenneth E. "FDR Biographies," in William D. Pederson, ed. A Companion to Franklin D. Roosevelt (2011) pp 1–14 online * Provizer, Norman W. " Eleanor Roosevelt Biographies," in William D. Pederson, ed. A Companion to Franklin D. Roosevelt (2011) pp 15–33 online
* Statistical Abstract of the
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