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Coordinates: 42°18′53″N 83°12′38″W / 42.31472°N 83.21056°W / 42.31472; -83.21056

Ford Motor Company

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The Ford World Headquarters
Ford World Headquarters
in Dearborn, Michigan, also known as the Glass House

Type

Public

Traded as

NYSE: F S&P 100 Component S&P 500 Component

Industry Automotive

Founded June 16, 1903; 114 years ago (1903-06-16)

Founder Henry Ford

Headquarters Dearborn, Michigan, U.S.

Area served

Worldwide

Key people

William C. Ford, Jr. (Executive Chairman) Jim Hackett ( President
President
and CEO)

Products

Automobiles Luxury Vehicles Commercial Vehicles Automotive parts

Services

Automotive finance Vehicle leasing Vehicle service

Revenue US$151.8 billion (2016)[1]

Operating income

US$4.116 billion (2016)[1]

Net income

US$4.596 billion (2016)[1]

Total assets US$237.9 billion (2016)[1]

Total equity US$29.17 billion (2016)[1]

Owner

The Vanguard Group
The Vanguard Group
(5.82%)[2] Evercore Wealth Management (5.58%) Ford family (1% equity; 40% voting power)[2][3]

Number of employees

201,000 (2016)[1]

Divisions

Ford Lincoln Motorcraft

Subsidiaries

List

Transportation

Ford Australia

Ford Performance Vehicles
Ford Performance Vehicles
(Until 2014)

Ford do Brasil

Troller

Ford of Europe

Ford of Britain Ford Germany Ford Romania

Ford Racing

Ford Team RS Special
Special
Vehicle Team

Ford Lio Ho
Ford Lio Ho
(70%) AutoAlliance Thailand
AutoAlliance Thailand
(50%) Blue Diamond Trucks (50%) Ford Sollers
Ford Sollers
(50%) Jiangling Motors
Jiangling Motors
(49%) Otosan
Otosan
(41%) Changan Ford
Changan Ford
(35%)

Finance

Ford Credit

Other

Automotive Components Holdings Getrag (50%)

International

Ford of Argentina Ford of Canada Ford of India Ford of Japan Ford of Korea Ford of New Zealand Ford of Philippines Ford of Taiwan

Website ford.com

The Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
(commonly referred to simply as "Ford") is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford
Henry Ford
and incorporated on June 16, 1903. The company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford also owns Brazilian SUV
SUV
manufacturer, Troller, and Australian performance car manufacturer FPV. In the past, it has also produced tractors and automotive components. Ford owns an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom,[needs update] and a 49% stake in Jiangling of China[citation needed]. It also has a number of joint-ventures, one in China (Changan Ford), one in Taiwan
Taiwan
(Ford Lio Ho), one in Thailand
Thailand
(AutoAlliance Thailand), one in Turkey (Ford Otosan), and one in Russia (Ford Sollers). It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family, although they have minority ownership (but majority of the voting power).[4][3] Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines; by 1914, these methods were known around the world as Fordism. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, were sold to Tata Motors
Tata Motors
in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010.[5] In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and the Middle East since 1938. During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, but it has since returned to profitability.[6] Ford is the second-largest U.S.-based automaker (preceded by General Motors) and the fifth-largest in the world (behind Toyota, VW, Hyundai-Kia and General Motors) based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe.[7] Ford is the eighth-ranked overall American-based company in the 2010 Fortune 500
Fortune 500
list, based on global revenues in 2009 of $118.3 billion.[8] In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles[9] and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide. The company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights.[10][3]

Contents

1 History

1.1 20th century 1.2 21st century 1.3 Logo evolution

2 Corporate affairs

2.1 Executive management 2.2 Financial results

3 Operations

3.1 North America 3.2 Europe 3.3 East and Southeast Asia

3.3.1 Ford of Korea

3.4 South and West Asia 3.5 South America 3.6 Africa

4 Former operations

4.1 East and Southeast Asia

4.1.1 Ford of Japan

4.2 Oceania

5 Products and services

5.1 Automobiles 5.2 Current Marques 5.3 Former Marques 5.4 Trucks 5.5 Buses 5.6 Tractors 5.7 Financial services 5.8 Automotive components

6 Motorsport

6.1 Stock car racing 6.2 Formula One 6.3 Rally 6.4 Rallycross 6.5 Sports cars 6.6 Touring cars 6.7 Other

7 Environmental initiatives

7.1 Compressed natural gas 7.2 Flexible fuel
Flexible fuel
vehicles 7.3 Electric drive vehicles

7.3.1 Hybrid electric vehicles 7.3.2 Plug-in electric vehicles

7.4 Hydrogen 7.5 Increased fuel efficiency 7.6 PC power management

8 Sponsorships 9 Sales numbers 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

History Main article: History of Ford Motor Company

Henry Ford
Henry Ford
(ca. 1919)

A 1910 Model T, photographed in Salt Lake City

20th century Henry Ford's first attempt at a car company under his own name was the Henry Ford
Henry Ford
Company on November 3, 1901, which became the Cadillac Motor Company on August 22, 1902, after Ford left with the rights to his name.[11] The Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
was launched in a converted factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John and Horace Dodge
Dodge
(who would later found their own car company). During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and later its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on each car, assembling it from parts made mostly by supplier companies contracting for Ford. Within a decade, the company would lead the world in the expansion and refinement of the assembly line concept, and Ford soon brought much of the part production in-house in a vertical integration that seemed a better path for the era. Henry Ford
Henry Ford
was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company, which would go on to become one of the world's largest and most profitable companies. It has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz (Benz Patent-Motorwagen). More efficient production methods were needed to make automobiles affordable for the middle class, to which Ford contributed by, for instance, introducing the first moving assembly line in 1913 at the Ford factory in Highland Park. Between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, and S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year. In 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the Model A, the first car with safety glass in the windshield.[12] Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors' mid-priced Pontiac, Oldsmobile, and Buick, Ford created the Mercury in 1939 as a higher-priced companion car to Ford. Henry Ford
Henry Ford
purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac
Cadillac
and Packard
Packard
for the luxury segment of the automobile market. In 1929, Ford was contracted by the government of the Soviet Union to set up the Gorky Automobile
Automobile
Plant in Russia initially producing Ford Model A and AAs thereby playing an important role in the industrialisation of that country.[13] The creation of a scientific laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan
Dearborn, Michigan
in 1951, doing unfettered basic research, led to Ford's unlikely involvement in superconductivity research. In 1964, Ford Research Labs made a key breakthrough with the invention of a superconducting quantum interference device or SQUID.[14] Ford offered the Lifeguard safety package from 1956, which included such innovations as a standard deep-dish steering wheel, optional front, and, for the first time in a car, rear seatbelts, and an optional padded dash.[15] Ford introduced child-proof door locks into its products in 1957, and, in the same year, offered the first retractable hardtop on a mass-produced six-seater car. In late 1955, Ford established the Continental division as a separate luxury car division. This division was responsible for the manufacture and sale of the famous Continental Mark II. At the same time, the Edsel
Edsel
division was created to design and market that car starting with the 1958 model year. Due to limited sales of the Continental and the Edsel
Edsel
disaster, Ford merged Lincoln, Mercury, and Edsel
Edsel
into "M-E-L," which reverted to "Lincoln-Mercury" after Edsel's November 1959 demise. The Ford Mustang
Ford Mustang
was introduced in April, 17, 1964 during New York World's Fair.[16] In 1965, Ford introduced the seat belt reminder light. With the 1980s, Ford introduced several highly successful vehicles around the world. During the 1980s, Ford began using the advertising slogan, "Have you driven a Ford, lately?" to introduce new customers to their brand and make their vehicles appear more modern. In 1990 and 1994 respectively, Ford also acquired Jaguar Cars
Jaguar Cars
and Aston Martin.[17] During the mid- to late 1990s, Ford continued to sell large numbers of vehicles, in a booming American economy with a soaring stock market and low fuel prices. With the dawn of the new century, legacy health care costs, higher fuel prices, and a faltering economy led to falling market shares, declining sales, and diminished profit margins. Most of the corporate profits came from financing consumer automobile loans through Ford Motor Credit Company.[18] 21st century

William Clay Ford, Jr., great-grandson of Henry Ford, serves as the executive chairman at the board of Ford Motor Company.

By 2005, both Ford and GM's corporate bonds had been downgraded to junk status,[19] as a result of high U.S. health care costs for an aging workforce, soaring gasoline prices, eroding market share, and an over dependence on declining SUV
SUV
sales. Profit margins decreased on large vehicles due to increased "incentives" (in the form of rebates or low interest financing) to offset declining demand.[20] In the latter half of 2005, Chairman
Chairman
Bill Ford asked newly appointed Ford Americas Division President
President
Mark Fields to develop a plan to return the company to profitability. Fields previewed the Plan, named The Way Forward, at the December 7, 2005, board meeting of the company and it was unveiled to the public on January 23, 2006. "The Way Forward" included resizing the company to match market realities, dropping some unprofitable and inefficient models, consolidating production lines, closing 14 factories and cutting 30,000 jobs.[21] Ford moved to introduce a range of new vehicles, including "Crossover SUVs" built on unibody car platforms, rather than more body-on-frame chassis. In developing the hybrid electric powertrain technologies for the Ford Escape Hybrid
Ford Escape Hybrid
SUV, Ford licensed similar Toyota
Toyota
hybrid technologies[22] to avoid patent infringements.[23] Ford announced that it will team up with electricity supply company Southern California Edison (SCE) to examine the future of plug-in hybrids in terms of how home and vehicle energy systems will work with the electrical grid. Under the multimillion-dollar, multi-year project, Ford will convert a demonstration fleet of Ford Escape
Ford Escape
Hybrids into plug-in hybrids, and SCE will evaluate how the vehicles might interact with the home and the utility's electrical grid. Some of the vehicles will be evaluated "in typical customer settings", according to Ford.[24][25] William Clay Ford Jr., great-grandson of Henry Ford
Henry Ford
(and better known by his nickname "Bill"), was appointed Executive Chairman
Chairman
in 1998, and also became Chief Executive Officer of the company in 2001, with the departure of Jacques Nasser, becoming the first member of the Ford family to head the company since the retirement of his uncle, Henry Ford II, in 1982. Ford sold motorsport engineering company Cosworth
Cosworth
to Gerald Forsythe and Kevin Kalkhoven in 2004, the start of a decrease in Ford's motorsport involvement. Upon the retirement of President
President
and Chief Operation Officer Jim Padilla in April 2006, Bill Ford assumed his roles as well. Five months later, in September, Ford named Alan Mulally as President
President
and CEO, with Ford continuing as Executive Chairman. In December 2006, the company raised its borrowing capacity to about $25 billion, placing substantially all corporate assets as collateral.[26] Chairman
Chairman
Bill Ford has stated that "bankruptcy is not an option".[27] Ford and the United Auto Workers, representing approximately 46,000 hourly workers in North America, agreed to a historic contract settlement in November 2007 giving the company a substantial break in terms of its ongoing retiree health care costs and other economic issues. The agreement included the establishment of a company-funded, independently run Voluntary Employee Beneficiary Association (VEBA) trust to shift the burden of retiree health care from the company's books, thereby improving its balance sheet. This arrangement took effect on January 1, 2010. As a sign of its currently strong cash position, Ford contributed its entire current liability (estimated at approximately US$5.5 billion as of December 31, 2009) to the VEBA in cash, and also pre-paid US$500 million of its future liabilities to the fund. The agreement also gives hourly workers the job security they were seeking by having the company commit to substantial investments in most of its factories. The automaker reported the largest annual loss in company history in 2006 of $12.7 billion,[28] and estimated that it would not return to profitability until 2009.[29] However, Ford surprised Wall Street in the second quarter of 2007 by posting a $750 million profit. Despite the gains, the company finished the year with a $2.7 billion loss, largely attributed to finance restructuring at Volvo.[30] On June 2, 2008, Ford sold its Jaguar and Land Rover
Land Rover
operations to Tata Motors
Tata Motors
for $2.3 billion.[31][32] During congressional hearings held in November 2008 at Washington D.C., and in a show of support, Ford's Alan Mulally
Alan Mulally
stated that "We at Ford are hopeful that we have enough liquidity. But we also must prepare ourselves for the prospect of further deteriorating economic conditions". Mulally went on to state that "The collapse of one of our competitors would have a severe impact on Ford" and that Ford Motor Company's supports both Chrysler
Chrysler
and General Motors
General Motors
in their search for government bridge loans in the face of conditions caused by the 2008 financial crisis.[33][34] Together, the three companies presented action plans for the sustainability of the industry. Mulally stated that "In addition to our plan, we are also here today to request support for the industry. In the near-term, Ford does not require access to a government bridge loan. However, we request a credit line of $9 billion as a critical backstop or safeguard against worsening conditions as we drive transformational change in our company" [35] GM and Chrysler
Chrysler
received government loans and financing through T.A.R.P. legislation funding provisions.[36] On December 19, the cost of credit default swaps to insure the debt of Ford was 68 percent the sum insured for five years in addition to annual payments of 5 percent. That meant $6.8 million paid upfront to insure $10 million in debt, in addition to payments of $500,000 per year.[37] In January 2009, Ford reported a $14.6 billion loss in the preceding year, a record for the company. The company retained sufficient liquidity to fund its operations. Through April 2009, Ford's strategy of debt for equity exchanges erased $9.9 billion in liabilities (28% of its total) in order to leverage its cash position.[38] These actions yielded Ford a $2.7 billion profit in fiscal year 2009, the company's first full-year profit in four years.[39] In 2012, Ford's corporate bonds were upgraded from junk to investment grade again, citing sustainable, lasting improvements.[40] On October 29, 2012, Ford announced the sale of its climate control components business, its last remaining automotive components operation, to Detroit
Detroit
Thermal Systems LLC for an undisclosed price.[41] On November 1, 2012, Ford announced that CEO Alan Mulally
Alan Mulally
will stay with the company until 2014. Ford also named Mark Fields, the president of operations in Americas, as its new chief operating officer [42] Ford's CEO Mulally was paid a compensation of over $174 million in his previous seven years at Ford since 2006. The generous amount has been a sore point for some workers of the company.[43] On January 3, 2017, Ford CEO Mark Fields announced that in a "vote of confidence" because of the pro-business climate being fostered in part by President-elect Donald Trump, Ford has cancelled plans to invest $1.6 billion in a new plant in Mexico
Mexico
to manufacture the Ford Focus. The Ford Focus
Ford Focus
will now be manufactured in the existing plant in Mexico. Instead, Fields announced that Ford will be investing $700 million in Michigan, which it plans to use to create 700 new jobs.[44] In February 2017, Ford Motor Co. acquired majority ownership of Argo AI, an artificial-intelligence startup. [45] In May 2017, Ford announced cuts to its global workforce amid efforts to address the company's declining share price and to improve profits. The company is targeting $3 billion in cost reduction and a nearly 10% reduction in the salaried workforce in Asia and North America this year to enhance earnings in 2018.[46][47] Jim Hackett was announced to replace Mark Fields as CEO of Ford Motor. Mr. Hackett most recently oversaw the formation of Ford Smart Mobility, a unit responsible for experimenting with car-sharing programs, self-driving ventures and other programs aimed at helping the 114-year-old auto maker better compete with Uber Technologies Inc., Alphabet Inc.
Alphabet Inc.
and other tech giants looking to edge in on the auto industry.[48][49] Logo evolution

1903

1907

1909

1911

1912

1912 variant

1927

1957

1976

2000

2003–present

Corporate affairs Executive management Members of the Ford board as of May 2017 are: Stephen Butler, Kimberly Casiano, Anthony F. Earley, Jr., Edsel
Edsel
Ford II, William Clay Ford Jr. (Executive Chairman), Jim Hackett ( President
President
and CEO), James H. Hance, Jr., William W. Helman IV, Jon M. Huntsman, Jr., William E. Kennard, John C. Lechleiter, Ellen Marram, Gerald L. Shaheen, John L. Thornton, Lynn Vojvodich, and John S. Weinberg.[50] Financial results In 2010, Ford earned a net profit of $6.6 billion and reduced its debt from $33.6 billion to $14.5 billion lowering interest payments by $1 billion following its 2009 net profit of $2.7 billion.[51][52] In the U.S., the F-Series was the best-selling vehicle for 2010. Ford sold 528,349 F-Series trucks during the year, a 27.7% increase over 2009, out of a total sales of 1.9 million vehicles, or every one out of four vehicles Ford sold. Trucks sales accounts for a big slice of Ford's profits, according to USA Today.[53] In 2017 it is estimated that 90 percent of the company's global profits comes from the Ford F-Series.[54] Ford's realignment also included the sale of its wholly owned subsidiary, Hertz Rent-a-Car to a private equity group for $15 billion in cash and debt acquisition. The sale was completed on December 22, 2005. A 50–50 joint venture with Mahindra & Mahindra of India, called Mahindra Ford India, Limited (MIFL), ended with Ford buying out Mahindra's remaining stake in the company in 2005.[55] Ford had previously upped its stake to 72% in 1998.[56] Between 2007 and 2012, Ford benefitted from $1.57 billion in local tax incentives.[57][58] Operations Ford has had manufacturing operations worldwide, including in the United States, Canada, Mexico, China, the United Kingdom, Germany, Turkey, Brazil, Argentina, Australia, and South Africa. Ford also has a cooperative agreement with Russian automaker GAZ. North America

Ford dealer in Garden City, New York, ca. 1930–1945

In the first five months of 2010, auto sales in the U.S. rose to 4.6 million cars and light trucks, an increase of 17% from a year earlier. The rise was mainly caused by the return of commercial customers that had all but stopped buying in 2009 during the recession. Sales to individual customers at dealerships have increased 13% while fleet sales have jumped 32%.[59] Ford reported that 37% of its sales in May came from fleet sales when it announced its sales for the month increased 23%.[60] In the first seven months of 2010, vehicle sales of Ford increased 24%, including retail and fleet sales. Fleet sales of Ford for the same period rose 35% to 386,000 units while retail sales increase 19%. Fleet sales account for 39 percent of Chrysler's sales and 31 percent for GM's.[61] Europe Main article: Ford of Europe

Ford's Dunton Technical Centre
Dunton Technical Centre
in Laindon, United Kingdom, the largest automotive research and development facility in the country[62]

The Ford Research Center in Aachen, Germany

At first, Ford in Germany
Germany
and Ford in Britain built different models from one another until the late 1960s, with the Ford Escort and then the Ford Capri
Ford Capri
being common to both companies. Later on, the Ford Taunus and Ford Cortina
Ford Cortina
became identical, produced in left hand drive and right hand drive respectively. Rationalisation of model ranges meant that production of many models in the UK switched to elsewhere in Europe, including Belgium
Belgium
and Spain as well as Germany. The Ford Sierra replaced the Taunus and Cortina in 1982, drawing criticism for its radical aerodynamic styling, which was soon given nicknames, the "Jellymould" and "The Salesman's Spaceship." In February 2002, Ford ended car production in the UK. It was the first time in 90 years that Ford cars had not been made in Britain, although production of the Transit van continued at the company's Southampton
Southampton
facility until mid-2013, engines at Bridgend
Bridgend
and Dagenham, and transmissions at Halewood. Development of European Ford is broadly split between Dunton in Essex (powertrain, Fiesta/Ka, and commercial vehicles) and Cologne
Cologne
(body, chassis, electrical, Focus, Mondeo) in Germany. Ford also produced the Thames range of commercial vehicles, although the use of this brand name was discontinued circa 1965. Elsewhere in continental Europe, Ford assembles the Mondeo range in Genk
Genk
(Belgium), Fiesta in Valencia
Valencia
(Spain) and Cologne
Cologne
(Germany), Ka in Valencia
Valencia
(Spain), Focus in Valencia
Valencia
(Spain), Saarlouis
Saarlouis
(Germany), and Vsevolozhsk
Vsevolozhsk
(Russia). Transit production is in Kocaeli (Turkey), Southampton
Southampton
(UK), and Transit Connect in Kocaeli (Turkey). Ford also owns a joint-venture production plant in Turkey. Ford Otosan, established in the 1970s, manufactures the Transit Connect compact panel van as well as the "Jumbo" and long-wheelbase versions of the full-size Transit. This new production facility was set up near Kocaeli in 2002, and its opening marked the end of Transit assembly in Genk. Another joint venture plant near Setúbal
Setúbal
in Portugal, set up in collaboration with Volkswagen, formerly assembled the Galaxy people-carrier as well as its sister ships, the VW Sharan and SEAT Alhambra. With the introduction of the third generation of the Galaxy, Ford has moved the production of the people-carrier to the Genk
Genk
plant, with Volkswagen
Volkswagen
taking over sole ownership of the Setúbal
Setúbal
facility. In 2008, Ford acquired a majority stake in Automobile
Automobile
Craiova, Romania. Starting 2009, the Ford Transit
Ford Transit
Connect was Ford's first model produced in Craiova, followed, in 2012, by low-capacity car engines and a new small class car, the B-Max.[63] Its 1959 Anglia two-door saloon was one of the most quirky-looking small family cars in Europe at the time of its launch, but buyers soon became accustomed to its looks and it was hugely popular with British buyers in particular. It was still selling well when replaced by the more practical Escort in 1967. The third incarnation of the Ford Escort was launched in 1980 and marked the company's move from rear-wheel drive saloons to front-wheel drive hatchbacks in the small family car sector. The fourth generation Escort was produced from 1990 until 2000, although its successor – the Focus – had been on sale since 1998. On its launch, the Focus was arguably the most dramatic-looking and fine-handling small family cars on sale and sold in huge volumes right up to the launch of the next generation Focus at the end of 2004. The 1982 Ford Sierra
Ford Sierra
– replacement for the long-running and massively popular Cortina and Taunus models – was a style-setter at the time of its launch. Its ultramodern aerodynamic design was a world away from a boxy, sharp-edged Cortina, and it was massively popular just about everywhere it was sold. A series of updates kept it looking relatively fresh until it was replaced by the front-wheel drive Mondeo at the start of 1993. The rise in popularity of small cars during the 1970s saw Ford enter the mini-car market in 1976 with its Fiesta hatchback. Most of its production was concentrated at Valencia
Valencia
in Spain, and the Fiesta sold in huge figures from the very start. An update in 1983 and the launch of an all-new model in 1989 strengthened its position in the small car market. On October 24, 2012, Ford announced that it would be closing its Genk assembly plant in eastern Belgium
Belgium
by the end of 2014.[64] East and Southeast Asia Ford formed its first passenger-vehicle joint venture in China in 2001, six years behind GM and more than a decade after VW. It has spent as of 2013 $4.9 billion to expand its lineup and double production capacity in China to 600,000 vehicles. This includes Ford's largest-ever factory complex in the southwestern city of Chongqing. Ford had 2.5% of the Chinese market in 2013, while VW controlled 14.5% and GM had 15.6%, according to consultant LMC Automotive. GM outsells Ford in China by more than six-to-one.[65] Ford's presence in Asia has traditionally been much smaller, confined to Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong, the Philippines, and Taiwan, where Ford has had a joint venture with Lio Ho since the 1970s. Ford began assembly of cars in Thailand in 1960, but withdrew from the country in 1976, and did not return until 1995 when it formed a joint venture with Mazda
Mazda
called Auto Alliance.[66] Now based in the Bo-win Sub District of the Sriracha District in Chonburi, the factory still produces passenger automobiles. The factory built in 1941 in Singapore was shortly taken over by the Japanese during the war and was the site of a surrender of the British to the Japanese, at the factory site which is now a national monument in Singapore. On April 30, 2013, Ford Motor Co. launched their car and truck line in Myanmar. Previously, heavy importation taxes had stifled imported car purchases in Myanmar, but due to currency reform, lifting of previous import restrictions, and the abolishment of shadow currency, Myanmar's car market had grown in demand.[67] Ford of Korea In 1967, Ford partnered with the South Korean company Hyundai, and at the new factory in Ulsan, South Korea, built the European Ford Cortina until 1974 when Hyundai introduced their all-new Hyundai Pony
Hyundai Pony
in 1975. Ford then developed a relationship with Korea's oldest car manufacturer Kia which built vehicles co-engineered with Mazda, later selling the Ford Festiva
Ford Festiva
from 1988–1993, and the Ford Aspire from 1994–1997 for export to the United States. With the acquisition of a stake in Japanese manufacturer Mazda
Mazda
in 1979, Ford began selling Mazda's Familia and Capella as the Ford Laser
Ford Laser
and Telstar throughout the region, replacing the European-sourced Escort and Cortina. Ford lost their Kia interest to Hyundai in 1998 during the Asian financial crisis. Kia had declared bankruptcy in 1997; in 1998, Hyundai Motor Company acquired 51% of the company, outbidding Ford which had owned an interest in Kia Motors
Kia Motors
since 1986.[68] After subsequent divestments,[69] Hyundai Motor Company
Hyundai Motor Company
owns less than 50% of the company but remains Kia's largest stakeholder. Ford currently sells the Focus and Mondeo with diesel engines, plus the Mustang, Taurus, Escape, and Explorer, as well as the Lincoln MKS, MKZ, and MKC.[70] South and West Asia Ford India began production in 1998 at Chennai, Tamil Nadu, with its Ford Escort model, which was later replaced by the locally produced Ford Ikon
Ford Ikon
in 2001. It has since added the Fusion, Fiesta, Mondeo and Endeavour models to its product line. On March 9, 2010, Ford Motor Co. launched its first made-for-India compact car. Starting at ₹349,900, the Figo was Ford's first car designed and priced for the mass Indian market.[71] On July 28, 2011, Ford India signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the State of Gujarat
Gujarat
for the construction of an assembly and engine plant in Sanand
Sanand
and planned to invest approximately US$1 billion on a 460-acre site.[72] Ford's market presence in the Middle East has traditionally been small, partly due to previous Arab boycotts of companies dealing with Israel. Ford and Lincoln vehicles are currently marketed in ten countries in the region.[73] Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates are the biggest markets. Ford also established itself in Egypt
Egypt
in 1926 but faced an uphill battle during the 1950s due to the hostile nationalist business environment.[74] Ford's distributor in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
announced in February 2003 that it had sold 100,000 Ford and Lincoln vehicles since commencing sales in November 1986. Half of the Ford and Lincoln vehicles sold in that country were Ford Crown Victorias.[75] In 2004, Ford sold 30,000 units in the region, falling far short of General Motors' 88,852 units and Nissan
Nissan
Motors' 75,000 units. South America During much of the 20th century, Ford faced protectionist government measures in South America, with the result that it built different models in different countries, without particular regard to rationalization or economy of scale inherent to producing and sharing similar vehicles between the nations. In many cases, new vehicles in a country were based on those of the other manufacturers it had entered into production agreements with, or whose factories it had acquired. For example, the Corcel and Del Rey in Brazil were originally based on Renault
Renault
vehicles. In 1987, Ford of Brazil and Ford of Argentina
Argentina
merged their operations with the Brazilian and Argentine operations of Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group, forming a new joint-venture company called Autolatina
Autolatina
with a shared model range. Sales figures and profitability were disappointing, and Autolatina
Autolatina
was dissolved in 1995. With the advent of Mercosur, the regional common market, Ford was finally able to rationalize its product line-ups in those countries. Consequently, the Ford Fiesta
Ford Fiesta
and Ford EcoSport
Ford EcoSport
are built only in Brazil, and the Ford Focus
Ford Focus
only built in Argentina, with each plant exporting in large volumes to the neighboring countries. Models like the Ford Mondeo
Ford Mondeo
from Europe could now be imported completely built up. Ford of Brazil produces a pick-up truck version of the Fiesta, the Courier, which is also produced in South Africa as the Ford Bantam
Ford Bantam
in right hand drive versions. Africa In Africa, Ford's market presence has traditionally been strongest in South Africa and neighbouring countries, with only trucks being sold elsewhere on the continent. Ford in South Africa began by importing kits from Canada to be assembled at its Port Elizabeth facility. Later Ford sourced its models from the UK and Australia, with local versions of the Ford Cortina
Ford Cortina
including the XR6, with a 3.0 V6 engine, and a Cortina-based 'bakkie' or pick-up, which was exported to the UK. In the mid-1980s, Ford merged with a rival company, owned by Anglo American, to form the South African Motor Corporation
South African Motor Corporation
(Samcor).[76] Following international condemnation of apartheid, Ford divested from South Africa in 1988, and sold its stake in Samcor, although it licensed the use of its brand name to the company.[77] Samcor
Samcor
began to assemble Mazdas as well, which affected its product line-up and saw the European Fords like the Escort and Sierra replaced by the Mazda-based Laser[78] and Telstar.[79] Ford bought a 45 per cent stake in Samcor
Samcor
following the demise of apartheid in 1994, and this later became, once again, a wholly owned subsidiary, the Ford Motor Company of Southern Africa. Ford now sells a local sedan version of the Fiesta (also built in India and Mexico), and the Focus. The Falcon model from Australia was also sold in South Africa but was dropped in 2003 while the Mondeo, after briefly being assembled locally, was dropped in 2005. The Mondeo has since been reintroduced but badged as the Fusion. Former operations East and Southeast Asia Ford decided to shut down their entire operations in Indonesia, including their dealer network by second half of 2016.[80] Ford of Japan Ford established a manufacturing facility in the port city of Yokohama in February 1925, where Model T
Model T
vehicles were assembled using imported knock-down kits.[81] The factory subsequently produced 10,000 Model A's up to 1936. Production ceased in 1940 as a result of political tensions between Japan and the United States. After World War II, Ford did not have a presence in Japan, as the Ford facility was appropriated by the Japanese Government until 1958 when property was returned as a possession of the Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
and became a research and development location for Ford partner Mazda. In 1979, Ford acquired a 24.5% ownership stake in Mazda, and in 1982, Ford and Mazda
Mazda
jointly established a sales channel to sell Ford products in Japan, including vehicles manufactured in North America, at a dealership called Autorama (Japanese). The Autorama sales channel was renamed Ford Sales of Japan in 1997.[82] Vehicles sold at Autorama locations were the North American assembled Ford Explorer, Probe (1989–1998), Mustang, Taurus (1989–1997), Thunderbird (1990–1993), Lincoln Continental, and Lincoln LS. Ford products manufactured in Europe that were sold in Japan were the Ford Mondeo, Ka, Focus, Focus C-MAX, Fiesta, and the Galaxy. Mazda manufactured Ford vehicles in Japan and sold them as Fords at the Autorama locations. They were the Ford Telstar
Ford Telstar
( Mazda
Mazda
Capella), Laser, Festiva, Festiva Mini Wagon, Ixion ( Mazda
Mazda
Premacy), Freda ( Mazda
Mazda
Bongo Friendee), Spectron ( Mazda
Mazda
Bongo), and commercial trucks J80 and the J100 ( Mazda
Mazda
Bongo truck). Ford increased its shareholding in Mazda
Mazda
to 33.4% in 1996, but as of July 2016[update], it is listed at 11%.[83] Ford did sell a small range of vehicles in Japan; as of October 2010, the Ford Mustang, Escape, Explorer (and Explorer truck), Ford Kuga, Lincoln Navigator, Lincoln MKX, and more recently, the Ford Ecosport
Ford Ecosport
were available in Japan. As of February 2016, Ford no longer maintains a regional office in Minato, Tokyo, Japan, and sales of new cars in Japan have ended.[84][85] Oceania

Ford FG X Falcon (Australia) (2014–2016)

The Ford stamping plant in Geelong, Australia (Closed 2016)

In Australia and New Zealand, the popular Ford Falcon (1960–2016) had long been considered the average family car and is considerably larger than the Mondeo, Ford's largest car sold in Europe. Between 1960 and 1972, the Falcon was based on a U.S. model of the same name, but since then has been entirely designed and manufactured in Australia until 2016, occasionally being manufactured in New Zealand. Like its General Motors
General Motors
rival, the Holden Commodore, the Falcon used a rear wheel drive layout. High-performance variants of the Falcon running locally built engines produce up to 362 hp (270 kW). A ute (short for "utility", known in the US as pickup truck) version is also available with the same range of drivetrains. In addition, Ford Australia
Ford Australia
sells highly tuned limited-production Falcon sedans and utes through its performance car division, Ford Performance
Ford Performance
Vehicles until it closed in 2014. In Australia, the Commodore and Falcon had traditionally outsold all other cars and comprise over 20% of the new car market. In New Zealand, Ford was second in market share in the first eight months of 2006 with 14.4%.[86] More recently, Ford has axed its Falcon-based LWB variant of its lineup– the Fairlane and LTD ranges. Ford discontinued the Fairlane in 2007 and LTD in 2008. Ford had announced that their Geelong engine manufacturing plant would be shut down between 2013 and 2016. They have also announced local manufacturing of the Focus small car starting from 2011, nothing came of that plan. In Australia, the Laser was one of Ford Australia's most successful models and was manufactured in Ford's Homebush plant from 1981 until the plant's closure in September 1994. It outsold the Mazda
Mazda
323, despite being almost identical to it because the Laser was manufactured in Australia and Ford was perceived as a local brand.[87] According to research carried out by Ford Australia
Ford Australia
in 1984, a third of Laser buyers were unaware that the Ford model was based on the Mazda
Mazda
323.[88] In New Zealand, the Ford Laser
Ford Laser
and Telstar were assembled alongside the Mazda
Mazda
323 and 626 until 1997, at the Vehicle Assemblers of New Zealand (VANZ) plant in Wiri, Auckland. The Sierra wagon was also assembled in New Zealand, owing to the popularity of station wagons in that market. The scheduled closure of Ford's Australian manufacturing base in 2016 was confirmed on May 23, 2013. Headquartered in the Victorian suburb of Broadmeadows, the company had registered losses worth AU$600 million over the five years prior to the announcement. It was noted that the corporate fleet and government sales that account for two-thirds of large, local car sales in Australia are insufficient to keep Ford's products profitable and viable in Australia. The decision will affect 1200 Ford workers—over 600 employees in Geelong and more than 500 in Broadmeadows—who will lose their jobs by October 2016. The closure of Fords plants in Norlane Geelong and Broadmeadows Melbourne occurred on October 7, 2016.[89] Products and services Automobiles See also: List of Ford vehicles, List of Lincoln vehicles, and List of Mercury vehicles

The 2013 model year Lincoln MKS

Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
sells a broad range of automobiles under the Ford marque worldwide, and an additional range of luxury automobiles under the Lincoln marque in the United States. The company has sold vehicles under a number of other marques during its history. The Mercury brand was introduced by Ford in 1939, continuing in production until 2011 when poor sales led to its discontinuation.[90] In 1958, Ford introduced the Edsel
Edsel
brand, but poor sales led to its discontinuation in 1960. In 1985, the Merkur
Merkur
brand was introduced in the United States to market products produced by Ford of Europe; it was discontinued in 1989. Ford acquired the British sports car maker Aston Martin
Aston Martin
in 1989, later selling it on March 12, 2007,[91] although retaining an 8% stake.[92][93] Ford purchased Volvo Cars
Volvo Cars
of Sweden in 1999,[94] selling it to Zhejiang Geely Holding Group
Zhejiang Geely Holding Group
in 2010. In November 2008, it reduced its 33.4% controlling interest in Mazda
Mazda
of Japan to a 13.4% non-controlling interest.[95][96] On November 18, 2010, Ford reduced their stake further to just 3%, citing the reduction of ownership would allow greater flexibility to pursue growth in emerging markets. Ford and Mazda
Mazda
remain strategic partners through exchanges of technological information and joint ventures, including an American joint venture plant in Flat Rock, Michigan
Michigan
called Auto Alliance.[97] Ford sold the United Kingdom-based Jaguar and Land Rover
Land Rover
companies and brands to Tata Motors
Tata Motors
of India in March 2008. In 2015, Ford sold its remaining 3% stake in Mazda.[98] Current Marques

Marque Country of origin Years used/owned Markets

Ford United States 1903–present Global

Lincoln United States 1922–present North America, Middle East

Troller Brazil 2007–present Brazil

Former Marques

Marque Country of origin Years used/owned Markets

Mercury United States 1939–2011 North America, Middle East

Continental United States 1956–1961 North America

Edsel United States 1957–1960 North America

Merkur United States 1985–1989 North America

Jaguar United Kingdom 1989–2008 Global

Aston Martin United Kingdom 1989–2007 Global

Volvo Sweden 1999–2010 Global

Land Rover United Kingdom 2000–2008 Global

Mazda Japan 1974–2015 Global

FPV Australia 2002–2014 Australia

Trucks

An advertisement for the 1939 Ford V-8 pick-up truck

An advertisement for the 1961 Ford H-Series truck

Ford has produced trucks since 1908, beginning with the Ford Model TT, followed by the Model AA, and the Model BB. Countries where Ford commercial vehicles are or were formerly produced include Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada (also badged as Mercury), France, Germany, India, Netherlands, Philippines, Spain (badged Ebro too), Turkey, UK (badged also Fordson
Fordson
and Thames), and USA. From the 1940s to late 1970s, Ford's Ford F-Series
Ford F-Series
were used as the base for light trucks for the North American market. Most of these ventures are now extinct. The European one that lasted longest was the lorries arm of Ford of Britain, which became part of the Iveco
Iveco
group in 1986. Ford had a minority share in the new company and Iveco
Iveco
took over sales and production of the Ford Cargo
Ford Cargo
range.[99] Ford's last significant European truck models were the Transcontinental and the Cargo. In the United States, Ford's heavy trucks division (Classes 7 and 8) was sold in 1997 to Freightliner Trucks, which rebranded the lineup as Sterling.[100] Freightliner is in the process of discontinuing this line. Line of heavy trucks made by Ford for the North American market:

Ford F-650
Ford F-650
– joint venture model from 2000 to present Ford L9000 – last model year 1999 Ford LNT9000 – short nose tandem axle from 1970s to 1997 Ford LT9000 – tandem axle with last model year 1997 Ford FT900 – until 1998 Ford LT8000 – last model year 1998 Ford L7000 – last model year 1996

Ford continues to manufacture medium duty trucks under the F-650
F-650
and F-750 badges. In 2001, the company entered into a joint venture with Navistar International
Navistar International
to produce medium and heavy duty commercial trucks.[101] The first new model from the new corporation, known as Blue Diamond Truck Company
Blue Diamond Truck Company
LLC,[101] was the 2006 model year LCF.[102] The LCF was discontinued in 2009[103] and Ford's 2011 medium and heavy-duty commercial offerings are limited to the two F-Series.[104] In Europe, Ford manufactures the Ford Transit
Ford Transit
jumbo van which is classed as a Large Goods Vehicle and has a payload of up to 2,265 kg, there are options of a panel van, pickup or chassis cab. The Ford Transit
Ford Transit
is also available as a light van called the Ford Transit Connect and the Ford Ranger
Ford Ranger
pickup is available.[105] Buses

A Ford B700 bus chassis, with a body by Thomas Built

Ford manufactured complete buses in the company's early history, but today the role of the company has changed to that of a second stage manufacturer. In North America, the E-Series is still used as a chassis for small school buses and the F-650
F-650
is used in commercial bus markets. In the 1980s and 1990s, the medium-duty B700 was a popular chassis used by school bus body manufacturers including Thomas Built, Ward, and Blue Bird, but Ford lost its market share due to industry contraction and agreements between body manufacturers. Older bus models included: Prior to 1936, Ford buses were based on truck bodies:

Model B – 1930s Model T
Model T
– 1920s F-105 school bus

A 1937 Ford Transit
Ford Transit
Bus
Bus
in Seattle

In 1936, Ford introduced the Ford Transit
Ford Transit
Bus, a series of small transit buses with bodies built by a second party. Originally a front-engine design, it was modified to a rear-engine design in 1939. About 1,000 to 1,200 of the original design were built, and around 12,500 of the rear-engine design, which was in production until 1947[106] (rebranded as the Universal Bus
Bus
in 1946). Rear-engine Transit Bus
Bus
chassis model numbers:[107]

09-B/19-B City transit bus – 1939–1941 19-B/29-B City transit bus – 1941–1942 49-B/79-B City transit bus – 1944–1947 69-B City transit bus – 1946–1947 29-B City transit bus – 1946–1947 72-T transit bus – 1944–1945

After 1946 the Transit City bus was sold as the Universal Bus
Bus
with the roof changed from fabric/wood to all-metal:

79-B Universal transit bus – 1946–1947

Succeeding the Ford Transit
Ford Transit
Bus
Bus
was the Ford 8M buses:

8MB transit bus – with Wayne Works 1948–?

Following World War II and from 1950s onwards, Ford lost out to General Motors.[107] This led to the end of transit buses for Ford in North America.

B500 or B-series – 1950-1990s based on Ford F-series truck chassis used by school bus body manufacturers

In Europe, Ford manufactures the Ford Transit
Ford Transit
Minibus
Minibus
which is classed in Europe as a Passenger Carrying Vehicle and there are options of 12, 15, or 17 seaters.[108] In the past, European models included:

EM N-138 D series buses (Australia)

Tractors

A Ford N series tractor

The " Henry Ford
Henry Ford
and Son Company" began making Fordson
Fordson
tractors in Henry's hometown of Springwells (later part of Dearborn), Michigan from 1907 to 1928, from 1919 to 1932, at Cork, Ireland, and 1933–1964 at Dagenham, England, later transferred to Basildon. They were also produced in Leningrad
Leningrad
beginning in 1924. In 1986, Ford expanded its tractor business when it purchased the Sperry-New Holland skid-steer loader and hay baler, hay tools and implement company from Sperry Corporation
Sperry Corporation
and formed Ford-New Holland which bought out Versatile tractors in 1988. This company was bought by Fiat
Fiat
in 1993 and the name changed from Ford New Holland to New Holland. New Holland is now part of CNH Global. Financial services Ford offers automotive finance through Ford Motor Credit Company. Automotive components Ford's FoMoCo parts division sells aftermarket parts under the Motorcraft
Motorcraft
brand name. It has spun off its parts division under the name Visteon. Motorsport Main article: Ford Racing Along with Shelby and Chevrolet, Ford is one of only three American constructors to win titles on the international scene at the FIA World Championships. As a constructor, Ford won the World Sportscar Championship three times in 1966, 1967, and 1968, and the World Rally Championship three times in 1979, 2006 and 2007. Stock car racing

Ryan Blaney
Ryan Blaney
driving the iconic No. 21 Wood Brothers Ford in 2016 at Michigan
Michigan
International Speedway

Ford is one of three manufacturers in NASCAR's three major series: Monster Energy NASCAR
NASCAR
Cup Series, Xfinity Series, and Camping World Truck Series. Major teams include Roush Fenway Racing, Team Penske, Stewart-Haas Racing, and Wood Brothers Racing. Ford is represented by the mid-size Fusion in the Monster Energy NASCAR
NASCAR
Cup Series, the Mustang in the Xfinity Series, and by the F-150
F-150
in the Camping World Truck Series. Some of the most successful NASCAR
NASCAR
Fords were the aerodynamic fastback Ford Torino, Ford Torino
Ford Torino
Talladega, Mercury Cyclone Spoiler II, and Mercury Montegos, and the aero-era Ford Thunderbirds. The Ford nameplate has won eight manufacturer's championships in Sprint Cup while Mercury has won one. In the Sprint Cup Series, Ford earned its 1,000th victory in the 2013 Quicken Loans 400.[109] The Ford Fusion is also used in the ARCA Racing Series. Ford had last won a drivers' championship in the Cup Series with Kurt Busch in 2004. Formula One Ford was heavily involved in Formula One
Formula One
for many years and supplied engines to a large number of teams from 1967 until 2004. These engines were designed and manufactured by Cosworth, the racing division that was owned by Ford from 1998 to 2004. Ford-badged engines won 176 Grands Prix between 1967 and 2003 for teams such as Team Lotus
Team Lotus
and McLaren. Ford entered Formula One
Formula One
as a constructor in 2000 under the Jaguar Racing
Jaguar Racing
name, after buying the Stewart Grand Prix
Stewart Grand Prix
team which had been its primary 'works' team in the series since 1997. Jaguar achieved little success in Formula One, and after a turbulent five seasons, Ford withdrew from the category after the 2004 season, selling both Jaguar Racing
Jaguar Racing
(which became Red Bull Racing) and Cosworth (to Gerald Forsythe and Kevin Kalkhoven).[110] Rally

Jari-Matti Latvala
Jari-Matti Latvala
driving the Ford Focus
Ford Focus
RS WRC 09 in 2010.

Main article: Ford World Rally Team Ford has a long history in rallying and has been active in the World Rally Championship since the beginning of the world championship, the 1973 season. Ford took the 1979 manufacturers' title with Hannu Mikkola, Björn Waldegård, and Ari Vatanen
Ari Vatanen
driving the Ford Escort RS1800. In the Group B
Group B
era, Ford achieved success with Ford RS200. Since the 1999 season, Ford has used various versions of the Ford Focus WRC to much success. In the 2006 season, BP-Ford World Rally Team secured Ford its second manufacturers' title, with the Focus RS WRC 06 built by M-Sport
M-Sport
and driven by "Flying Finns" Marcus Grönholm and Mikko Hirvonen.[111] Continuing with Grönholm and Hirvonen, Ford successfully defended the manufacturers' world championship in the 2007 season. Ford is the only manufacturer to score in the points for 92 consecutive races; since the 2002 season opener Monte Carlo Rally.[112] Rallycross Ford has competed in rallycross with its Ford Fiesta
Ford Fiesta
and Ford Focus. Tanner Foust
Tanner Foust
won the Global RallyCross Championship
Global RallyCross Championship
in 2011 and 2012 and was runner-up in the FIA European Rallycross Championship in 2011 and 2012. Toomas Heikkinen
Toomas Heikkinen
won the Global RallyCross Championship title in 2013 and Joni Wiman
Joni Wiman
won it in 2014. Other notable Ford drivers include Marcus Grönholm, Ken Block, and Brian Deegan. Sports cars Main article: Ford GT
Ford GT
§ Racing Ford sports cars have been visible in the world of sports car racing since 1964. Most notably the GT40 won the 24 Hours of Le Mans
24 Hours of Le Mans
four times in the 1960s and is the only American car to ever win overall at this prestigious event. Ford also won the 1968 International Championship for Makes with the GT40, which still stands today as one of the all-time greatest racing cars. Swiss team Matech GT Racing, in collaboration with Ford Racing, opened a new chapter with the Ford GT, winning the Teams title in the 2008 FIA GT3 European Championship.

A GT racing version of the Ford Mustang, competing in the Koni Challenge in 2005.

Main article: Ford Mustang
Ford Mustang
§ Racing The Ford Mustang
Ford Mustang
has arguably been Ford's most successful sports car. Jerry Titus won the 1965 SCCA Pro B National Championship with a Mustang and the model went on to earn Ford the SCCA Trans-Am Championship title in both 1966 and 1967. Ford won the Trans-Am Championship again in 1970 with Parnelli Jones
Parnelli Jones
and George Follmer driving Boss 302 Mustangs for Bud Moore Engineering. Ford took the 1985 and 1986 IMSA GTO Championship with Mustangs driven by John Jones and Scott Pruett
Scott Pruett
before returning to Trans-Am glory with a championship in 1989 with Dorsey Schroeder. Ford dominated Trans-Am in the 1990s with Tommy Kendall
Tommy Kendall
winning championships in 1993, 1995, 1996, and 1997 with Paul Gentilozzi
Paul Gentilozzi
adding yet another title in 1999. In 2005 the Ford Mustang
Ford Mustang
FR500C took the championship in the Rolex Koni Challenge Series in its first year on the circuit. In 2007, Ford added a victory in the GT4 European Championship. 2008 was the first year of the Mustang Challenge for the Miller Cup, a series which pits a full field of identical factory-built Ford Mustang
Ford Mustang
race cars against each other. Also, in 2008, Ford won the manufacturers championship in the Koni Challenge Series and HyperSport drivers Joe Foster and Steve Maxwell won the drivers title in a Mustang GT. Ford and Michelin
Michelin
teamed up to provide custom-engineered tires for Ford performance vehicle lineup. Ford performance director Dave Pericak said: "That confidence extends from our upcoming racing effort at Le Mans in 2016 with the all-new Ford GT, to the Ford Performance vehicle lineup, including Shelby GT350 and F-150
F-150
Raptor".[113] Touring cars

Ford Performance Racing
Ford Performance Racing
Ford Falcon V8 Supercar
V8 Supercar
at Eastern Creek in Australia in 2008.

Ford has campaigned touring cars such as the Focus, Falcon, and Contour/Mondeo and the Sierra Cosworth
Cosworth
in many different series throughout the years. Notably, Mondeo drivers finished 1,2,3 in the 2000 British Touring Car Championship
British Touring Car Championship
and Falcon drivers placed 1,2,3 in the 2005 V8 Supercar
V8 Supercar
Championship Series. Other In the Indianapolis 500, Ford powered IndyCars won 17 times between 1965 and 1996[citation needed]. Ford has also branched out into drifting with the introduction of the new model Mustang. Most noticeable is the Turquoise and Blue Falken Tires Mustang driven by Vaughn Gittin Jr, A.K.A. "JR" with 750 RWHP (Rear Wheel Horsepower). In drag racing, John Force Racing
John Force Racing
drivers John Force, Tony Pedregon, and Robert Hight have piloted Ford Mustang
Ford Mustang
Funny Cars to several NHRA titles in recent seasons. Teammates Tim Wilkerson
Tim Wilkerson
and Bob Tasca III also drive Mustangs in Funny Car. Formula Ford, a formula for single-seater cars without wings and originally on road tires were conceived in 1966 in the UK as an entry-level formula for racing drivers. Many of today's racing drivers started their car racing careers in this category. Environmental initiatives Compressed natural gas The alternative fossil fuel vehicles, such as some versions of the Crown Victoria
Crown Victoria
especially in fleet and taxi service, operate on compressed natural gas—or CNG. Some CNG vehicles have dual fuel tanks – one for gasoline, the other for CNG – the same engine can operate on either fuel via a selector switch. Flexible fuel
Flexible fuel
vehicles

The Ford Focus
Ford Focus
Flexifuel was the first E85
E85
flexible fuel vehicle commercially available in the European market.

Flexible fuel
Flexible fuel
vehicles are designed to operate smoothly using a wide range of available ethanol fuel mixtures—from pure gasoline to bioethanol-gasoline blends such as E85
E85
(85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) or E100 (neat hydrous ethanol) in Brazil. Part of the challenge of successful marketing alternative and flexible fuel vehicles in the U.S. is the general lack of establishment of sufficient fueling stations, which would be essential for these vehicles to be attractive to a wide range of consumers. Significant efforts to ramp up production and distribution of E85
E85
fuels are underway and expanding.[114] Current Ford E100 Flex sold in the Brazilian market are the Courier, Ford EcoSport, Ford Fiesta, Ford Focus, and Ford Ka. Electric drive vehicles Hybrid electric vehicles

Ford Escape
Ford Escape
plug-in hybrid test vehicle.

Mulally (second from left) with then- President
President
George W. Bush
George W. Bush
at the Kansas City Assembly
Kansas City Assembly
plant in Claycomo, Missouri
Claycomo, Missouri
on March 20, 2007, touting Ford's new hybrid cars.

See also: Hybrid electric vehicle In 2004, Ford and Toyota
Toyota
agreed a patent sharing accord which granted Ford access to certain hybrid technology patented by Toyota; in exchange, Ford licensed Toyota
Toyota
some of its own patents.[115][116][117] In 2004, Ford introduced the Escape Hybrid. With this vehicle, Ford was third to the automotive market with a hybrid electric vehicle and the first hybrid electric SUV
SUV
to market. This was also the first hybrid electric vehicle with a flexible fuel capability to run on E85.[118] The Escape's platform mate Mercury Mariner
Mercury Mariner
was also available with the hybrid-electric system in the 2006 model year—a full year ahead of schedule. The similar Mazda
Mazda
Tribute will also receive a hybrid-electric powertrain option, along with many other vehicles in the Ford vehicle line. In 2005, Ford announced a goal to make 250,000 hybrids a year by 2010, but by mid-2006 announced that it would not meet that goal, due to excessively high costs and the lack of sufficient supplies of the hybrid-electric batteries and drivetrain system components.[119] Instead, Ford has committed to accelerating development of next-generation hybrid-electric power plants in Britain, in collaboration with Volvo. This engineering study is expected to yield more than 100 new hybrid-electric vehicle models and derivatives. In September 2007, Ford announced a partnership with Southern California Edison (SCE) to examine how plug-in hybrids will work with the electrical grid. Under the multimillion-dollar, multi-year project, Ford will convert a demonstration fleet of Ford Escape Hybrids into plug-in hybrids, and SCE will evaluate how the vehicles might interact with the home and the utility's electrical grid. Some of the vehicles will be evaluated "in typical customer settings", according to Ford.[24][25] On June 12, 2008, USDOE
USDOE
expanded its own fleet of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles with the addition of a Ford Escape Plug-In Hybrid Flex-Fuel Vehicle. The vehicle is equipped with a 10-kilowatt (13 hp) lithium-ion battery supplied by Johnson Controls-Saft that stores enough electric energy to drive up to 30 miles (48 km) at speeds of up to 40 mph (64 km/h).[120] In March 2009, Ford launched hybrid versions of the Ford Fusion Hybrid and the Mercury Milan Hybrid
Mercury Milan Hybrid
in the United States, both as 2010 models.[121] As of November 2014[update], Ford has produced for retail sales the following hybrid electric vehicles: Ford Escape
Ford Escape
Hybrid (2004–2012), Mercury Mariner
Mercury Mariner
Hybrid (2005–2010), Mercury Milan Hybrid (2009–2010), Ford Fusion Hybrid
Ford Fusion Hybrid
(2009–present), Lincoln MKZ Hybrid (2010–present), Ford C-Max
Ford C-Max
Hybrid (2012–present), and Ford Mondeo Hybrid (2014–present). By June 2012, Ford had sold 200,000 full hybrids in the US since 2004,[122] and, as of September 2014[update], the carmaker has sold over 344 thousand hybrids in the United States.[122][123][124][125] The top selling hybrids in the U.S. market are the Fusion Hybrid with 127,572 units, followed by Escape Hybrid with 117,997 units, and the C-Max Hybrid with 54,236.[123][124][125][126][127] As of November 2014[update], Ford is the world's second largest manufacturer of hybrids after Toyota
Toyota
Motor Corporation, with 400,000 hybrid electric vehicles produced since their introduction in 2004.[128] Plug-in electric vehicles See also: Plug-in electric vehicle As of October 2014[update], Ford has produced the following plug-in electric vehicles: the all-electric Ford Ranger
Ford Ranger
EV (1997–2002), Ford TH!NK
Ford TH!NK
(1999–2003), Transit Connect (2010–2012), and Ford Focus
Ford Focus
Electric (December 2011–present); and the plug-in hybrids C-MAX Energi (October 2012–present) and the Fusion Energi (February 2013–present), sold under the Mondeo nameplate in Europe.[129][130] Since the launch of the Focus Electric in 2011, combined sales of all Ford plug-in electric models amounted to just over 56,000 through October 2015.[131]

The Azure Transit Connect Electric
Azure Transit Connect Electric
was produced between 2010 and 2012 as a collaboration between Azure Dynamics
Azure Dynamics
and Ford Motor Company

Bill Ford was one of the first top industry executives to make regular use of a battery electric vehicle, a Ford Ranger
Ford Ranger
EV, while the company contracted with the United States
United States
Postal Service to deliver electric postal vans based on the Ranger EV platform. Ford discontinued a line of electric Ranger pickup trucks and ordered them destroyed, though it reversed in January 2005, after environmentalist protest.[132] The all-electric pickup truck leased 205 units to individuals and 1,500 units to fleets in the U.S. from 1998 to 2002.[133][134] From 2009 to 2011, Ford offered the Ford TH!NK
Ford TH!NK
car. Ford ended production and ordered all the cars repossessed and destroyed, even as many of the people leasing them begged to be able to buy the cars from Ford. After outcry from the lessees and activists in the US and Norway, Ford returned the cars to Norway for sale.[135] 440 units were leased in the U.S. from 1999 until 2003.[134] In 2017, CEO of Ford Mark Fields announced that the company will invest $4.5 billion in further development of plug-in electric vehicles by 2020.[136] The Azure Transit Connect Electric
Azure Transit Connect Electric
was an all-electric van developed as a collaboration between Azure Dynamics
Azure Dynamics
and Ford Motor Company, but Azure was the official manufacturer of record.[137] The Transit Connect Electric had an official US Environmental Protection Agency all-electric range of 56 mi (90 km).[138] The EPA rated the combined city/highway fuel economy at 62 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (3.8 L/100 km equivalent).[138] Deliveries for fleet customers in the U.S. and Canada began in December 2010.[139] Production of the electric van was stopped in March 2012 as a result of Azure's bankruptcy protection filing. Ford continues to provide servicing.[140] Around 500 units were sold before Azure stopped production.[141]

The Ford Fusion Energi
Ford Fusion Energi
plug-in hybrid shares its powertrain with the Ford C-Max
Ford C-Max
Energi.

The Ford Focus
Ford Focus
Electric is based on the next generation Focus internal combustion vehicle, converted to an all-electric propulsion system as a production electric car by Magna International, and retail sales began in the U.S. in December 2011.[142][143] The Focus Electric has an EPA rated range of 76 mi (122 km) and a combined city/highway fuel economy of 105 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (2.2 L/100 km).[144] Available also in Canada and several European countries, 3,965 units have been sold in the U.S. through September 2014.[123][124][125][145] The Ford C-Max
Ford C-Max
Energi is a plug-in hybrid released in the U.S. in October 2012. The C-Max Energi has an EPA rated all-electric range of 20 mi (32 km) and a combined city/highway fuel economy in all-electric mode at 88 MPG-e (2.7 L/100 km).[146] U.S. sales totaled 33,509 units through December 2016.[123][124][147][148][149] Deliveries of the Ford Fusion Energi began in the United States
United States
in February 2013.[150][151] The Fusion Energi has an all-electric range of 20 mi (32 km) and an equivalent fuel economy EPA rating of 88 MPG-e (2.7 L/100 km).[146] As of December 2016[update], a total of 43,327 units have been delivered in the U.S. since its inception.[124][147][148][149] Both Energi models share the same powertrain technology and have the same EPA combined city/highway fuel economy in hybrid operation of 38 mpg‑US (6.2 L/100 km; 46 mpg‑imp).[146] When asked about a battery-electric vehicle with a 200-mile (320 km) range, Fields said in April 2016 "Clearly that's something we're developing for". Ford has a pending trademark application on the "Model E" name,[152] preventing the Tesla Model 3 in using the name.[153] In October 2017, Ford announced its Team Edison battery-electric vehicle group to lead the company's renewed efforts into the EV market, in which it currently offers only the Focus subcompact and has plans for a small 300-mile SUV
SUV
by 2020.[154] The new team will be headquartered in Detroit
Detroit
and have offices in Europe and Asia[155]. Hydrogen Ford also continues to study fuel cell-powered electric powertrains and has demonstrated hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine technologies, as well as developing the next-generation hybrid-electric systems. Compared with conventional vehicles, hybrid vehicles and/or fuel cell vehicles decrease air pollution emissions as well as sound levels, with favorable impacts upon respiratory health and decrease of noise health effects. Ford has launched the production of hydrogen-powered shuttle buses, using hydrogen instead of gasoline in a standard internal combustion engine, for use at airports and convention centers.[156] At the 2006 Greater Los Angeles Auto Show, Ford showcased a hydrogen fuel cell version of its Explorer SUV. The Fuel cell
Fuel cell
Explorer has a combined output of 174 hp (130 kW). It has a large hydrogen storage tank which is situated in the center of the car taking the original place of the conventional model's automatic transmission. The centered position of the tank assists the vehicle reach a notable range of 350 miles (563 km), the farthest for a fuel cell vehicle so far. The fuel cell Explorer the first in a series of prototypes partly funded by the United States
United States
Department of Energy to expand efforts to determine the feasibility of hydrogen- powered vehicles. The fuel cell Explorer is one of several vehicles with green technology being featured at the L.A. show, including the 2008 Ford Escape
Ford Escape
Hybrid, PZEV emissions compliant Fusion and Focus models and a 2008 Ford F-Series Super Duty outfitted with Ford's clean diesel technology. Increased fuel efficiency Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
announced it will accelerate its plans to produce more fuel-efficient cars, changing both its North American manufacturing plans and its lineup of vehicles available in the United States. In terms of North American manufacturing, the company will convert three existing truck and sport utility vehicle (SUV) plants for small car production, with the first conversion at its Michigan Truck Plant. In addition, Ford's assembly plants near Mexico
Mexico
City, Mexico, and in Louisville, Kentucky, will convert from pickups and SUVs to small cars, including the Ford Fiesta, by 2011. Ford will also introduce to North America six of its European small vehicles, including two versions of the Ford Fiesta, by the end of 2012. Ford of Europe
Ford of Europe
developed the ECOnetic
ECOnetic
programme to address the market and legislative need for higher fuel efficiency and lower CO2 emissions. As opposed to the hybrid engine technology used in competitor products such as the Toyota
Toyota
Prius, ECOnetic
ECOnetic
improves existing technology. Using lower consuming Duratorq TDCi diesel engines, and based on a combination of improved aerodynamics, lower resistance, and improved efficiency, the Ford Fiesta
Ford Fiesta
is currently the lowest emitting mass-produced car in Europe[157] while the 2012 Ford Focus ECOnetic
ECOnetic
will have better fuel consumption than the Prius or the Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Golf BlueMotion.[158] ECOnetic
ECOnetic
is not presently planned to be sold in North American due to current perceived lower consumer demand.[159] Ford has challenged University teams to create a vehicle that is simple, durable, lightweight, and come equipped with a base target price of only $7,000. The students from Aachen
Aachen
University created the "2015 Ford Model T".[160][161] In 2000, under the leadership of the current Ford chairman, William Clay Ford, the company announced[162] a planned 25 percent improvement in the average mileage of its light truck fleet – including its popular SUVs – to be completed by the 2005 calendar year. In 2003, Ford announced that competitive market conditions and technological and cost challenges would prevent the company from achieving this goal.[163] Researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst
University of Massachusetts Amherst
have, however, listed Ford as the seventh-worst corporate producer of air pollution, primarily because of the manganese compounds, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and glycol ethers released from its casting, truck, and assembly plants[citation needed] The United States
United States
Environmental Protection Agency has linked Ford to 54 Superfund
Superfund
toxic waste sites, twelve of which have been cleaned up and deleted from the list.[164] For the 2007 model year, Ford had thirteen U.S. models that achieve 30 miles per gallon or better (based on the highway fuel economy estimates of the EPA) and several of Ford's vehicles were recognized in the EPA and Department of Energy Fuel Economy Guide for best-in-class fuel economy. Ford claimed to have eliminated nearly three million pounds of smog-forming emissions from their U.S. cars and light trucks over the 2004 to 2006 model years.[165] PC power management On March 2010, Ford announced its PC power management system which it developed with NightWatchman software from 1E. The company is expected to save $1.2m on power cost and reduce carbon footprint by an estimated 16,000 to 25,000 metric tons annually when the system is fully implemented. According to company, reduction in carbon footprint and power cost will be achieved by developing 'Power Profiles' for every PC in the company.[166] Sponsorships Ford sponsors numerous events and sports facilities around the US, most notably the Ford Center in downtown Evansville, Indiana, and Ford Field in downtown Detroit.[167] Ford has also been a major sponsor of the UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
for over two decades and is also a longtime sponsor of the Sky media channel's coverage of Premier League football. Senior Ford marketer Mark Jones explained in May 2013 the process behind the two sponsorship deals:

We start with a blank piece of paper and work out if the sponsorship still works for us and ask does it meet our objectives? We want to find a moment in time when people come together and have a collective experience and we achieve this through the sponsorships.[168]

Sales numbers Quantities of vehicles sold.

Calendar Year US sales Market share of US sales[169]

1997 3,877,458[170] 25.02%

1998 3,922,604[171] 24.52%

1999 4,163,369[172] 23.93%

2000 4,202,820 23.61%

2001 3,971,364 22.69%

2002 3,623,709[173] 21.19%

2003 3,483,719 20.49%

2004 3,331,676[174] 19.26%

2005 3,153,875 18.13%

2006 2,901,090[175] 16.97%

2007 2,507,366 15.20%

2008 1,988,376[176] 14.73%

2009 1,620,888[177] 15.29%

2010 1,935,462[178] 16.40%

2011 2,143,101[179] 16.49%

2012 2,250,165[180] 15.20%

2013 2,493,918[181] 15.69%

2014 2,480,942[182] 14.77%

2015 2,613,162[183] 14.68%

2016 2,614,697[184][185] 14.20%

See also

Cars portal Companies portal Metro Detroit
Detroit
portal

Bridj Chariot (company) Detroit
Detroit
Automobile
Automobile
Company Dodge
Dodge
v. Ford Motor Company Eugene Turenne Gregorie Firestone and Ford tire controversy List of automobile manufacturers of the United States Smith Electric Vehicles Soybean Car The Henry Ford

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Fuel Economy Gains". Prnewswire.com. July 27, 2000. Retrieved September 30, 2010.  ^ Koenig, Bill (April 9, 2008). ""Ford to Cut New-Car Greenhouse Emissions 30% by 2020" April 9, 2008 Bloomberg.com May 1, 2008". Bloomberg. Retrieved September 30, 2010.  ^ "Center for Public Integrity". Publicintegrity.org. Archived from the original on June 22, 2008. Retrieved September 30, 2010.  ^ "About Ford". Ford Motor Company. Archived from the original on March 9, 2008. Retrieved May 1, 2008.  ^ "Ford Motor rolls out PC power management". NewStatesman. March 24, 2010. Retrieved March 24, 2010.  ^ Kim, Soyoung (April 9, 2009). "Ford gets $22.5 million in NCAA Final Four exposure". Reuters. Retrieved May 25, 2012.  ^ John Reynolds (May 24, 2013). "'We never expected to be Champions League sponsor for 21 years' says Ford marketer". Marketing Magazine. Haymarket. Retrieved October 21, 2013.  ^ "Total Vehicle Sales". FRED. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. July 5, 2016. Retrieved July 26, 2016.  ^ "Ford Reports Detailed Sales Results". January 6, 1999. Retrieved June 17, 2015.  ^ " Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
Topples December and Full Year U.S. Sales Records". PRNewswire. January 5, 2000. Retrieved June 17, 2015.  ^ " Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
Sets New Full Year U.S. Sales Record". Theautochannel.com. January 3, 2001. Retrieved April 28, 2009.  ^ "Ford's F-Series Truck Caps 22nd Year in a Row as America's Best-Selling Vehicle With a December Sales Record". Theautochannel.com. November 17, 2004. Retrieved April 28, 2009.  ^ "Ford Achieves First Car Sales Increase Since 1999". Theautochannel.com. November 17, 2004. Retrieved April 28, 2009.  ^ " Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
2007 sales" (Press release). January 3, 2008. Archived from the original on February 12, 2009.  ^ "F-Series drives ford to higher market share for third consecutive month" (PDF) (Press release). USA: Ford. January 5, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 6, 2009. Retrieved May 14, 2009.  ^ "FORD CAPS 2009 WITH 33 PERCENT SALES INCREASE, FIRST FULL-YEAR MARKET SHARE GAIN SINCE 1995, Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
Newsroom". USA: Ford. January 5, 2010. Archived from the original on August 26, 2010. Retrieved September 30, 2010.  ^ "FORD'S 2010 SALES UP 19 PERCENT – LARGEST INCREASE OF ANY FULL-LINE AUTOMAKER; FOUNDATION SET FOR GROWTH IN 2011 Ford Motor Company Newsroom". USA: Ford. January 4, 2011. Archived from the original on September 2, 2011. Retrieved January 27, 2012.  ^ "Auto Sales - Markets Data Center - WSJ.com". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved January 27, 2012.  ^ "December 2012 Sales" (PDF) (Press release). USA: Ford. January 3, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 23, 2013. Retrieved March 2, 2013.  ^ " Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
Delivers Best Sales Year Since 2006; Ford Is Top Brand with Records for Fiesta, Fusion, Escape" (Press release). USA: Ford. January 3, 2014. Retrieved January 10, 2014.  ^ "Ford Posts Best U.S. December Sales Results since 2005; Ford Once Again Best-Selling Brand and Best-Selling Vehicle" (Press release). USA: Ford. January 5, 2015. Retrieved February 12, 2015.  ^ "New Products Make Ford America's Best-Selling Brand for Sixth Straight Year; F-Series No. 1 Vehicle for 34th Year" (Press release). USA: Ford. January 5, 2016. Retrieved January 16, 2016.  ^ "Ford America's Best-Selling Brand for Seventh Year" (PDF). USA: Ford. January 4, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.  ^ "U.S. Auto Sales Brand Rankings". USA: GoodCarBadCar. January 4, 2017. Retrieved June 29, 2017. 

Further reading

Bak, Richard. Henry and Edsel: The Creation of the Ford Empire (2003) Bardou; Jean-Pierre, Jean-Jacques Chanaron, Patrick Fridenson, and James M. Laux. The Automobile
Automobile
Revolution: The Impact of an Industry University of North Carolina Press, 1982 Batchelor, Ray. Henry Ford: Mass Production, Modernism and Design Manchester U. Press, 1994 Bonin, Huber et al. Ford, 1902–2003: The European History 2 vol Paris 2003. ISBN 2-914369-06-9 scholarly essays in English on Ford operations in Europe; reviewed in Len Holden, Len. "Fording the Atlantic: Ford and Fordism
Fordism
in Europe" in Business History Volume 47, #January 1, 2005 pp 122–127 Bowman, Timothy J. Spirituality at Work: An Exploratory Sociological Investigation of the Ford Motor Company. London School of Economics and Political Science, 2004 Brinkley, Douglas G. Wheels for the World: Henry Ford, His Company, and a Century of Progress (2003) Brinkley, Douglas. "Prime Mover". American Heritage 2003 54(3): 44–53. on Model T Bryan, Ford R. Henry's Lieutenants, 1993; ISBN 0-8143-2428-2 Bucci, Federico. Albert Kahn: Architect of Ford Princeton Architectural Press, 1993 Cabadas, Joseph P. River Rouge: Ford's Industrial Colossus (2004), heavily illustrated Dempsey, Mary A. "Fordlandia' Michigan
Michigan
History 1994 78(4): 24–33. Ford's rubber plantation in Brazil Flink, James. America Adopts the Automobile, 1895–1910 MIT Press, 1970 Foster, Mark S. "The Model T, The Hard Sell, and Los Angeles Urban Growth: The Decentralization of Los Angeles During the 1920s." Pacific Historical Review 44.4 (November 1975): 459–84 David Halberstam, The Reckoning (1986) detailed reporting on the crises of 1973-mid-1980s Iacocca, Lee and William Novak. Iacocca: An Autobiography (1984) Jacobson, D. S. "The Political Economy of Industrial Location: the Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
at Cork 1912–26." Irish Economic and Social History [Ireland] 1977 4: 36–55. Ford and Irish politics Lacey, Robert "Ford: The Men and the Machine" (Heinnemann, London) 0 414 401027 (1986) Levinson, William A. Henry Ford's Lean Vision: Enduring Principles from the First Ford Motor Plant, 2002; ISBN 1-56327-260-1 Kuhn, Arthur J. GM Passes Ford, 1918–1938: Designing the General Motors Performance-Control System. Pennsylvania State University Press, 1986 Magee, David. Ford Tough: Bill Ford and the Battle to Rebuild America's Automaker (2004) Maxton, Graeme P. and John Wormald, Time for a Model Change: Re-engineering the Global Automotive Industry (2004) May, George S. A Most Unique Machine: The Michigan
Michigan
Origins of the American Automobile
Automobile
Industry Eerdman's, 1975 Maynard, Micheline. The End of Detroit: How the Big Three Lost Their Grip on the American Car Market (2003) McIntyre, Stephen L. "The Failure of Fordism: Reform of the Automobile Repair Industry, 1913–1940: Technology and Culture 2000 41(2): 269–299. repair shops rejected flat rates Nevins, Allan; Frank Ernest Hill (1954). Ford: The Times, The Man, The Company. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons.  Nevins, Allan; Frank Ernest Hill (1957). Ford: Expansion and Challenge, 1915–1933. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons.  Nevins, Allan; Frank Ernest Hill (1962). Ford: Decline and Rebirth, 1933–1962. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons.  Rubenstein, James M. The Changing U.S. Auto Industry: A Geographical Analysis Routledge, 1992 Shiomi, Haruhito and Kazuo Wada. Fordism
Fordism
Transformed: The Development of Production Methods in the Automobile
Automobile
Industry Oxford University Press, 1995 Sorensen, Charles E.; with Williamson, Samuel T. (1956), My Forty Years with Ford, New York, New York, USA: Norton, LCCN 56010854 . Various republications, including ISBN 9780814332795. Studer-Noguez; Isabel. Ford and the Global Strategies of Multinationals: The North American Auto Industry Routledge, 2002 Tedlow, Richard S. "The Struggle for Dominance in the Automobile Market: the Early Years of Ford and General Motors" Business and Economic History 1988 17: 49–62. Ford stressed low price based on efficient factories but GM did better in oligopolistic competition by including investment in manufacturing, marketing, and management Thomas, Robert Paul. "The Automobile
Automobile
Industry and its Tycoon" Explorations in Entrepreneurial History 1969 6(2): 139–157. argues Ford did NOT have much influence on US industry Watts, Steven. The People's Tycoon: Henry Ford
Henry Ford
and the American Century (2005) Wik, Reynold M. Henry Ford
Henry Ford
and Grass-Roots America. University of Michigan
Michigan
Press, 1972. impact on farmers Wilkins, Mira and Frank Ernest Hill, American Business Abroad: Ford on Six Continents Wayne State University Press, 1964 Williams, Karel, Colin Haslam and John Williams, "Ford versus 'Fordism': The Beginning of Mass Production?" Work, Employment & Society, Vol. 6, No. 4, 517–555 (1992), stress on Ford's flexibility and commitment to continuous improvements.

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1900s

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1950s

1952 Ford 1955 Ford 1957 Ford C-Series Trucks Consul Country Sedan Country Squire Courier Crestline Del Rio Edsel
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1960s

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1970s

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1980s

Aerostar Bantam Bronco II Del Rey Durango Escort (North America) EXP Festiva Laser/Lynx/Meteor/Tierra LTD Crown Victoria Orion Probe Pronto Ranger (North America) RS200 Scorpio Sierra Telstar Tempo Verona

1990s

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Police Interceptor

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Automotive industry Economy of the United States Transportation in the United States

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Case CE Case IH

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of America Wanxiang America

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AAA Chicago Auto Show Interstate Highway System National Highway Traffic Safety Administration New York International Auto Show North American International Auto Show SAE International

(1)Although New Flyer
New Flyer
is Canadian, their Subsidiaries, NABI and Motor Coach Industries, are headquartered in the U.S.

(2)Former meaning the company is no longer in the automotive manufacturing business

Category Portal

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Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
vehicle timeline, North American market, 1903–1942 — next »

Type 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2

Chassis Various Model T Model A 1932 Ford 1935 Ford 1937 Ford 1941 Ford

Runabout Model A

Model AC

Model C

Touring

Model B Model F

Model K Model T

Model N

Model R

Model S

Full-size

Model T Model A Model B Model 18 Model 40 Model 48 Standard Standard

De Luxe Deluxe

Pickup Truck

Model TT Model AA Model BB Model 48 Standard Standard

Model T Model A Model B Model 18 Model 40

De Luxe Deluxe

Bus

Transit Bus

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« previous — Ford car timeline, North American market, 1946–1979 — next »

Type 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s

6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Subcompact

Fiesta

Pinto

Compact

Falcon Falcon Falcon

Maverick Fairmont

Granada

Mid-size

Falcon 70½

Fairlane Fairlane Fairlane Fairlane

Torino Torino Torino LTD II

Full-size Deluxe Ford Deluxe Mainline Mainline Custom Custom 300

Super Deluxe Custom Deluxe Customline Customline Custom 300 Fairlane Fairlane Galaxie Mainliner 300 Custom Custom Custom

Crestline Fairlane Fairlane 500 Fairlane 500 Galaxie Custom 500 Custom 500 Custom 500

Galaxie Galaxie Galaxie 500 Galaxie 500 Galaxie 500

Galaxie 500 XL Galaxie 500 XL XL XL

Galaxie 500 LTD LTD LTD LTD

Station wagon

Parklane Del Rio

Ranch Wagon Ranch Wagon Ranch Wagon Ranch Wagon Ranch Wagon Ranch Wagon

Country Sedan Country Sedan Country Sedan Country Sedan Country Sedan

Country Squire Country Squire Country Squire Country Squire Country Squire Country Squire

Personal luxury

Elite Thunderbird

Thunderbird Thunderbird Thunderbird Thunderbird Thunderbird Thunderbird

Sports

Thunderbird

Mustang Mustang Mustang

v t e

« previous — Ford car timeline, United States
United States
& Canada, 1980–present

Type 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Subcompact Fiesta

Festiva Aspire

Fiesta

Compact Pinto Escort Escort Escort

Focus Focus Focus

Fairmont Tempo Tempo Contour

Granada

Mid-size

Granada LTD

Fusion Fusion

Taurus Taurus Taurus Taurus

Full-size LTD LTD Crown Victoria Crown Victoria Crown Victoria

Country Squire

Five Hundred / Taurus Taurus

Personal luxury Thunderbird Thunderbird Thunderbird

Thunderbird

Sport compact

EXP EXP Probe Probe Escort ZX2 ZX2

Fiesta ST

Focus ST

Focus RS

Sports car Mustang Mustang Mustang Mustang

Supercar

GT

GT

v t e

« previous — Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
light truck timeline, North American market, 1946–1979 — next »

Type 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s

6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

SUV

Bronco Bronco

Coupé utility

Ranchero Ranchero Ranchero Ranchero Ranchero Ranchero Ranchero

Compact pickup

Courier Courier

Full-size pickup Standard/ Deluxe F-Series F-Series F-Series F-Series F-Series F-Series

Van

Econoline Econoline Econoline / Club Wagon

v t e

« previous — Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
light truck timeline, United States & Canada, 1980s–present

Type 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Crossover Subcompact

EcoSport

Compact

Escape Escape Escape

Mid-size

Edge Edge

Full-size

Freestyle Taurus X

Explorer

Flex

SUV Compact

Bronco II

Mid-size

Explorer Explorer Explorer Explorer

Full-size Bronco Bronco Bronco Expedition Expedition Expedition Expedition

Excursion

Expedition EL/Max Expedition Max

Pickup truck Coupé utility

Durango

Compact Courier Ranger Ranger Ranger

Mid-size

Explorer Sport Trac

Explorer Sport Trac

Full-size F-Series (all) F-Series (all) F-Series (all) F-150/F-250 F-150 F-150 F-150

SVT Lightning

SVT Lightning

SVT Raptor

Raptor

Super Duty Super Duty Super Duty Super Duty

Van Compact MPV

Transit Connect Transit Connect

C-MAX

Minivan

Aerostar Aerostar

Windstar Windstar Freestar

Full-size Econoline Econoline/E-Series

Transit

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« previous — Ford heavy truck timeline, North American market, 1946–1979— next »

Type 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s

6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Medium-Duty

F-4/F-5/F-6/F-7/F-8 F-500/F-600/F-700/F-800 F-SeriesF-Series F-Series F-Series

Conventional

F-Series "Big Job" F-Series "Big Job" F-Series "Super Duty"/"Extra Heavy Duty" N-Series L-Series

Cab-over (COE)

C-Series

H-Series

W-Series W-Series CL-Series

Bus Transit Bus B-Series B-Series B-Series B-Series B-Series

« previous—

v t e

Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
heavy truck timeline, North American market, 1980–present

Type 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Medium-Duty F-Series (F-600/700/800/8000) F-Series

F-Series Super Duty (F-650/750) Super Duty

Conventional L-Series/"Louisville" Louisville

LTL-9000

Aeromax Aeromax

Cabover (COE) C-Series

Cargo

LCF

CLT-9000

Bus B-Series (B600/B700/B800/B8000) B-Series

v t e

« previous — Ford automobile timeline, European market, 1980s–present

Type 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

City car

Ka I Ka II Ka III

Supermini Fiesta I Fiesta II

Fiesta IV Fiesta V

Fiesta III

Fiesta VI Fiesta VII

Small family car Escort III / Orion I Escort IV / Orion II Escort V / Orion III Escort Vb Escort VI Focus I Focus II Focus III

Large family car Taunus III / Cortina V Sierra I Sierra II Mondeo I Mondeo II Mondeo III Mondeo IV

Executive car Granada II Scorpio I / Granada III Scorpio II

Sports car Capri

Puma

Probe

Cougar

Mustang VI

RS200

GT

Mini SUV

EcoSport

Compact SUV

Maverick

Maverick

Kuga I Kuga II

Mid-size
Mid-size
SUV

Explorer

Edge

Mini MPV

Fusion B-MAX

Compact MPV

C-MAX I C-MAX II

Large MPV

S-MAX I S-MAX II

Galaxy I Galaxy II Galaxy III

LCV/LAV

Courier III Courier IV

Transit Courier

Transit Connect I Transit Connect II

Van

Transit Custom

Transit II Transit III Transit IV Transit V Transit VI

Pick-up

Ranger I Ranger II Ranger III

Note

Only models sold in Continental Europe are shown, most overseas territories have somewhat different offerings.

v t e

Ford Australia
Ford Australia
automobile timeline, 1980s–present

Type 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

City

Ka

Subcompact

Festiva Festiva

Fiesta Fiesta

Compact Escort Laser Laser Laser Laser Laser Focus Focus Focus

Meteor

Mid-size Cortina

Telstar Telstar Taurus

Corsair

Mondeo

Mondeo Mondeo

Full-size Falcon / Fairmont Falcon / Fairmont Falcon / Fairmont Falcon

Fairlane / LTD Fairlane / LTD Fairlane / LTD

Sports

Capri Probe

Cougar

Mustang

Mustang

Utility F-Series

F-Series

Courier Courier Courier Ranger Ranger

Falcon Ute Falcon Ute Falcon Ute

Van Falcon Van

Spectron

Econovan Econovan Econovan

Transit Custom

Transit

Transit Transit Transit Transit

Subcompact SUV

EcoSport

Compact SUV

Escape Escape

Kuga/Escape

Mid-size
Mid-size
SUV

Raider

Territory

Bronco Maverick

Explorer Explorer

Everest

v t e

Ford India, automobile timeline, 1990s–present

Type 1990s 2000s 2010s

5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3

Subcompact

Figo

Ikon

Small family car

Fiesta Classic

Escort

Fiesta

Large family car

Mondeo

Mini SUV

Fusion

Ecosport

SUV

Endeavour

v t e

British Leyland
British Leyland
– car companies and marques

Marque 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

Jaguar

SS Cars Jaguar Jaguar & Daimler BMH BLMC
BLMC
/ British Leyland Jaguar & Daimler Ford (PAG) Tata

Daimler Daimler BSA BSA

Lanchester Lanchester

Rover

Rover Company Rover Company Rover Company Austin Rover Group & Land Rover
Land Rover
Group (BL plc) Rover Group
Rover Group
(BAe) Rover Group (BMW) MG Rover Group
Rover Group
(PVH)

Land Rover

Ford (PAG)

Alvis

Alvis BAE Systems

Standard

Standard Standard Triumph Leyland Motors British Motor Heritage

Triumph

Dawson Triumph BMW

Riley Riley Nuffield Organisation BMC BMH

MG

Morris Garages (MG) Rover Group (BMW) MG Rover Group
Rover Group
(PVH) SAIC & NAC SAIC

Morris

Morris Morris

Wolseley Wolseley

Austin

Austin Austin

Vanden Plas

Vanden Plas

Mini

BMW

Princess

BMC

BLMC
BLMC
/ British Leyland

Austin-Healey

Austin (BMC) & Donald Healey

Marque 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

v t e

British car industry – companies and marques

Marque 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

Rolls-Royce

Rolls-Royce Limited Rolls-Royce Limited
Rolls-Royce Limited
& Bentley Rolls-Royce Motors Rolls-Royce Motors
Rolls-Royce Motors
(Vickers) BMW
BMW
& VW Group BMW

Bentley

Bentley Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group

Armstrong Siddeley

Siddeley-Deasy Armstrong Whitworth Armstrong Siddeley Bristol Siddeley Rolls-Royce Limited Rolls-Royce plc

Aston Martin

Aston Martin Aston Martin
Aston Martin
Lagonda Ford PAG Aston Martin
Aston Martin
Lagonda

Lagonda

Lagonda

Jaguar

SS Cars Jaguar Jaguar & Daimler BMH BLMC
BLMC
/ British Leyland Jaguar & Daimler Ford (PAG) Tata

Daimler Daimler BSA BSA

Lanchester Lanchester

Rover

Rover Company Rover Company Rover Company Austin Rover Group & Land Rover
Land Rover
Group (BL plc) Rover Group
Rover Group
(BAe) Rover Group (BMW) MG Rover Group
Rover Group
(PVH)

Land Rover

Ford (PAG)

Alvis

Alvis BAE Systems

Standard

Standard Standard Triumph Leyland Motors British Motor Heritage

Triumph

Dawson Triumph BMW

Riley Riley Nuffield Organisation BMC BMH

MG

Morris Garages (MG) Rover Group (BMW) MG Rover Group
Rover Group
(PVH) SAIC & NAC SAIC

Morris

Morris Morris

Wolseley Wolseley

Austin

Austin Austin

Vanden Plas

Vanden Plas

Mini

BMW

Princess

BMC

BLMC
BLMC
/ British Leyland

Austin-Healey

Austin (BMC) & Donald Healey

Jensen

Jensen Motors Britcar Holdings Jensen Cars

Reliant

Reliant Reliant

Bond

Bond

AC

AC Cars
AC Cars
(several ownership & company name changes)

Argyll Argyll

Argyll

Bristol Cars

Bristol Cars

Caterham

Caterham

Crossley

Crossley

Dutton

Dutton

Dutton

Ginetta

Ginetta

Gordon-Keeble

Peerless & Warwick Gordon-Keeble

Jowett

Jowett Blackburn

Lea-Francis

Lea-Francis

Lotus

Lotus General Motors
General Motors
Europe Proton

McLaren

McLaren

Marcos

Marcos

Marcos

Marcos

Morgan

Morgan

Napier Napier

Turner

Turner

TVR

TVR

Westfield

Westfield Potenza Sports Cars

GTM

GTM

Vauxhall

Vauxhall Motors General Motors General Motors
General Motors
Europe Opel

Vulcan

Vulcan

Hillman

Hillman Humber Rootes Chrysler
Chrysler
Europe (Chrysler) Peugeot
Peugeot
(PSA)

Humber Humber

Singer

Singer Rootes

Sunbeam Sunbeam S.T.D. Motors Rootes (as Sunbeam-Talbot) Rootes Rootes

Talbot

Talbot

Marque 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

v t e

Henry Ford

Life and history

Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
(History) Model T The Dearborn Independent

Residences

Fair Lane Edison and Ford Winter Estates

Family

William Ford (father) Edsel
Edsel
Ford (son) Henry Ford
Henry Ford
II (grandson) William Clay Ford, Sr.
William Clay Ford, Sr.
(grandson) Edsel Ford II
Edsel Ford II
(great-grandson) William Clay Ford, Jr.
William Clay Ford, Jr.
(great-grandson) Elena Ford
Elena Ford
(great-granddaughter)

Other

Fordism Car Entrepreneur of the Century The Henry Ford
Henry Ford
Museum and Greenfield Village

Commons Wikibooks Wikiquote Wikisource

v t e

Principal owners of the Houston Astros
Houston Astros
franchise

Houston Colt .45's (1962–1964)

Roy Hofheinz

Houston Astros
Houston Astros
(1965–present)

Roy Hofheinz General Electric
General Electric
& Ford Motor Company John McMullen Drayto

.