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The European badger
European badger
(Meles meles)[2] also known as the Eurasian badger or simply badger,[3] is a species of badger in the family Mustelidae and is native to almost all of Europe
Europe
and some parts of West Asia. Several subspecies are recognised; the nominate subspecies (Meles meles meles) predominates over most of Europe. The European badger
European badger
is classified as being of least concern by the IUCN
IUCN
as it has a wide range and a large population size which is stable, and even increasing in some areas. The European badger
European badger
is a powerfully built black, white, brown and grey animal with a small head, a stocky body, small black eyes and short tail. Its weight varies, being 7–13 kg (15–29 lb) in spring but building up to 15–17 kg (33–37 lb) in autumn before the winter sleep period. It is nocturnal and is a social, burrowing animal that sleeps during the day in one of several setts in its territorial range. These burrows, which may house several badger families, have extensive systems of underground passages and chambers and have multiple entrances. Some setts have been in use for decades. Badgers are very fussy over the cleanliness of their burrow, carrying in fresh bedding and removing soiled material, and they defecate in latrines strategically situated around their territory. Though classified as a carnivore, the European badger
European badger
feeds on a wide variety of plant and animal foods, feeding on earthworms, large insects, small mammals, carrion, cereals and root tubers. Litters of up to five cubs are produced in spring. The young are weaned a few months later but usually remain within the family group. The European badger has been known to share its burrow with other species such as rabbits, red foxes and raccoon dogs, but it can be ferocious when provoked, a trait which has been exploited in the now illegal blood sport of badger-baiting. Bovine tuberculosis
Bovine tuberculosis
can sometimes affect badgers, and therefore a controversial trial culling of 70% of the population in areas of prolific TB outbreaks has taken place. No verifiable statistical data has however been published to support claims of a resulting 16% reduction.

Contents

1 Nomenclature 2 Origin

2.1 Subspecies

3 Description

3.1 Fur

4 Behaviour

4.1 Social and territorial behaviours 4.2 Reproduction and development 4.3 Denning behaviours 4.4 Winter sleep 4.5 Diet 4.6 Relationships with other non-human predators

5 Distribution and habitat 6 Status 7 Diseases and parasites 8 Relationships with humans

8.1 In folklore and literature 8.2 Hunting 8.3 Badger-baiting 8.4 Culling 8.5 Domestication 8.6 Uses

9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Nomenclature[edit] The source of the word "badger" is uncertain. The Oxford English Dictionary states it probably derives from "badge" + -ard, referring to the white mark borne like a badge on its forehead, and may date to the early sixteenth century.[4] The French word bêcheur (digger) has also been suggested as a source.[5] A male badger is a boar, a female is a sow, and a young badger is a cub. A badger's home is called a sett.[6] Badger
Badger
colonies are often called clans. The far older name "brock" (Old English: brocc), (Scots: brock) is a Celtic loanword (cf. Gaelic broc and Welsh broch, from Proto-Celtic *brokko) meaning "grey".[4] The Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
term was *þahsu- (cf. German Dachs, Dutch das, Norwegian svin-toks; Early Modern English: dasse), probably from the PIE root *tek'- "to construct," so the badger would have been named after its digging of setts (tunnels); the Germanic term *þahsu- became taxus or taxō, -ōnis in Latin
Latin
glosses, replacing mēlēs ("marten" or "badger"),[7] and from these words the common Romance terms for the animal evolved (Italian tasso, French tesson/taisson/tasson—now blaireau is more common—, Catalan toixó, Spanish tejón, Portuguese texugo).[8] Until the mid-18th century, European badgers were variously known in English as 'brock', 'pate', 'grey' and 'bawson'. The name "bawson" is derived from "bawsened", which refers to something striped with white. "Pate" is a local name which was once popular in northern England. The name "badget" was once common, but restricted to Norfolk, while "earth dog" was used in southern Ireland.[9] The badger is commonly referred to in Welsh as a "mochyn daear" (earth pig). [10] Origin[edit] The species likely evolved from the Chinese Meles thorali of the early Pleistocene. The modern species originated during the early Middle Pleistocene, with fossil sites occurring in Episcopia, Grombasek, Süssenborn, Hundsheim, Erpfingen, Koneprusy, Mosbach
Mosbach
2, and Stránská Skála. A comparison between fossil and living specimens shows a marked progressive adaptation to omnivory, namely in the increase in the molars' surface areas and the modification of the carnassials. Occasionally, badger bones may be discovered in strata from much earlier dates, due to the burrowing habits of the animal.[11][12] Subspecies[edit] As of 2005[update],[13] eight subspecies are recognised.

Subspecies Trinomial authority Description Range Synonyms

Common badger Meles meles meles

Linnaeus, 1758 A large subspecies with a strongly developed sagittal crest, it has a soft pelage and relatively dense underfur. The back has a relatively pure silvery-grey tone, while the main tone of the head is pure white. The dark stripes are wide and black, while the white fields fully extend along the upper and lateral parts of the neck. It can weigh up to 20–24 kg in autumn, with some specimens attaining even larger sizes.[14] All Europe, save for Rhodes, Crete
Crete
and Spain. Its eastern range encompasses the European area of the former Soviet Union eastward to the Volga, Crimea, Ciscaucasia, and the northern Caucasus alba (Gmelin, 1788) britannicus (Satunin, 1905) caninus (Billberg, 1827) caucasicus (Ognev, 1926) communis (Billberg, 1827) danicus (Degerbøl, 1933) europaeus (Desmarest, 1816) maculata (Gmelin, 1788) tauricus (Ognev, 1926) taxus (Boddaert, 1785) typicus (Barrett-Hamilton, 1899) vulgaris (Tiedemann, 1808)

Cretan badger Meles meles arcalus

Miller, 1907

Crete

Trans-Caucasian badger Meles meles canascens

Blanford, 1875 A small subspecies with a dirty-greyish back with brown highlights, its head is identical to Meles m. meles, though with weaker crests, and its upper molars are elongated in a similar way to the Asian badger[15] Transcaucasia, Kopet Dag, Turkmenia, Iran, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and possibly Asia Minor minor (Satunin, 1905) ponticus (Blackler, 1916)

Kizlyar badger Meles meles heptneri Ognev, 1931 A large subspecies, it exhibits several traits of the Asian badger, namely its very pale, dull, dirty-greyish-ocherous colour and narrow head stripes.[15] Steppe region of northeastern Ciscaucasia, the Kalmytsk steppes and the Volga
Volga
delta

Iberian badger Meles meles marianensis Graells, 1897

Iberian Peninsula mediterraneus (Barrett-Hamilton, 1899)

Norwegian badger Meles meles milleri

Baryshnikov, Puzachenko and Abramov, 2003 A small subspecies South-west Norway

Rhodes
Rhodes
badger Meles meles rhodius Festa, 1914

Rhodes

Fergana badger Meles meles severzovi Heptner, 1940 A small subspecies with a relatively pure, silvery-grey back with no yellow sheen. The head stripes are wide and occupy the whole ear. Its skull exhibits several features which are transitory between the Asian and European badger[15] Right tributary region of the Panj River, the upper Amu Darya, Pamiro-Alay
Pamiro-Alay
system, the Fergana Valley
Fergana Valley
and its adjoining southern and mountains bokharensis (Petrov,1953)

Description[edit]

A European badger
European badger
skeleton at the Royal Veterinary College

Dentition

Skull

European badgers are powerfully built animals with small heads, thick, short necks, stocky, wedge-shaped bodies and short tails. Their feet are plantigrade[16] or semidigitigrade[17] and short, with five toes on each foot.[18] The limbs are short and massive, with naked lower surfaces on the feet. The claws are strong, elongated and have an obtuse end, which assists in digging.[19] The claws are not retractable, and the hind claws wear with age. Old badgers sometimes have their hind claws almost completely worn away from constant use.[20] Their snouts, which are used for digging and probing, are muscular and flexible. The eyes are small and the ears short and tipped with white. Whiskers are present on the snout and above the eyes. Boars typically have broader heads, thicker necks and narrower tails than sows, which are sleeker, have narrower, less domed heads and fluffier tails. The guts of badgers are longer than those of red foxes, reflecting their omnivorous diet. The small intestine has a mean length of 5.36 metres (17.6 ft) and lacks a cecum. Both sexes have three pairs of nipples but these are more developed in females.[18] European badgers cannot flex their backs as martens, polecats and wolverines can, nor can they stand fully erect like honey badgers, though they can move quickly at full gallop.[19] Adults measure 25–30 cm (9.8–11.8 in) in shoulder height,[21] 60–90 cm (24–35 in) in body length, 12–24 cm (4.7–9.4 in) in tail length, 7.5–13 cm (3.0–5.1 in) in hind foot length and 3.5–7 cm (1.4–2.8 in) in ear height. Males (or boars) slightly exceed females (or sows) in measurements, but can weigh considerably more. Their weights vary seasonally, growing from spring to autumn and reaching a peak just before the winter. During the summer, European badgers commonly weigh 7–13 kg (15–29 lb) and 15–17 kg (33–37 lb) in autumn.[22][23] The average weight of adults in Białowieża Forest, Poland
Poland
were 10.2 kg (22 lb) in spring but weighed up to 19 kg (42 lb) in autumn, 46% higher than their spring low mass.[24] In Woodchester Park, England, adults in spring weighed on average 7.9 kg (17 lb) and in fall average 9.5 kg (21 lb).[25] In Doñana National Park, average weight of adult badgers is reported as 6 to 7.95 kg (13.2 to 17.5 lb), perhaps in accordance with Bergmann's rule, that its size decreases in relatively warmer climates closer to the equator.[26][27] Sows can attain a top autumn weight of around 17.2 kg (38 lb), while exceptionally large boars have been reported in autumn. The heaviest verified was 27.2 kg (60 lb), though unverified specimens have been reported to 30.8 kg (68 lb) and even 34 kg (75 lb) (if so, the heaviest weight for any terrestrial mustelid). If average weights are used, the European badger
European badger
ranks as the second largest terrestrial mustelid, behind only the wolverine.[22][23][28] Although their sense of smell is acute, their eyesight is monochromatic as has been shown by their lack of reaction to red lanterns. Only moving objects attract their attention. Their hearing is no better than that of humans.[29]

Badger
Badger
skin - the contrasting markings of the fur serve to warn off attackers rather than camouflage, as they are conspicuous at night.[30]

European badger
European badger
skulls are quite massive, heavy and elongated. Their braincases are oval in outline, while the facial part of their skulls is elongated and narrow.[31] Adults have prominent sagittal crests which can reach 15 mm tall in old males,[32] and are more strongly developed than those of honey badgers.[33] Aside from anchoring the jaw muscles, the thickness of the crests protect their skulls from hard blows.[34] Similar to martens,[35] the dentition of European badgers is well-suited for their omnivorous diets. Their incisors are small and chisel-shaped, their canine teeth are prominent and their carnassials are not overly specialised. Their molars are flattened and adapted for grinding.[32] Their jaws are powerful enough to crush most bones; a provoked badger was once reported as biting down on a man's wrist so severely that his hand had to be amputated.[36] The dental formula is:

Dentition

3.1.3.1

3.1.4.2

Scent glands are present below the base of the tail and on the anus. The subcaudal gland secretes a musky-smelling, cream-coloured fatty substance, while the anal glands secrete a stronger-smelling, yellowish-brown fluid.[32] Fur[edit]

Mounted erythristic badger

In winter, the fur on the back and flanks is long and coarse, consisting of bristly guard hairs with a sparse, soft undercoat. The belly fur consists of short, sparse hairs, with skin being visible in the inguinal region. Guard hair length on the middle of the back is 75–80 mm (3.0–3.1 in) in winter. Prior to the winter, the throat, lower neck, chest and legs are black. The belly is of a lighter, brownish tint, while the inguinal region is brownish-grey. The general colour of the back and sides is light silvery-grey, with straw-coloured highlights on the sides. The tail has long and coarse hairs, and is generally the same colour as the back. Two black bands pass along the head, starting from the upper lip and passing upwards to the whole base of the ears. The bands sometimes extend along the neck and merge with the colour of the upper body. The front parts of the bands are 15 mm (0.6 in), and widen to 45–55 mm (1.8–2.2 in) in the ear region. A wide, white band extends from the nose tip through the forehead and crown. White markings occur on the lower part of the head, and extend backwards to a great part of the neck's length. The summer fur is much coarser, shorter and sparser, and is deeper in colour, with the black tones becoming brownish, sometimes with yellowish tinges.[19] Partial melanism in badgers is known, and albinos are not uncommon. Albino
Albino
badgers can be pure white or yellowish with pink eyes. Erythristic badgers are more common than the former, being characterised by having a sandy-red colour on the usually black parts of the body. Yellow badgers are also known.[37] Behaviour[edit] Social and territorial behaviours[edit]

Badgers' scratching-tree

Play media

Two European badgers mutually grooming

A badger's claws

European badgers are the most social of badgers,[38] forming groups of six adults on average, though larger associations of up to 23 individuals have been recorded. Group size may be related to habitat composition. Under optimal conditions, badger territories can be as small as 30 ha, but may be as large as 150 ha in marginal areas. Badger
Badger
territories can be identified by the presence of communal latrines and well-worn paths.[39] It is mainly males that are involved in territorial aggression. A hierarchical social system is thought to exist among badgers and large powerful boars seem to assert dominance over smaller males. Large boars sometimes intrude into neighbouring territories during the main mating season in early spring. Sparring and more vicious fights generally result from territorial defence in the breeding season.[40] However, in general, animals within and outside a group show considerable tolerance of each other. Boars tend to mark their territories more actively than sows, with their territorial activity increasing during the mating season in early spring.[39] Badgers groom each other very thoroughly with their claws and teeth. Grooming may have a social function.[41] They are crepuscular and nocturnal in habits.[41] Aggression among badgers is largely associated with territorial defence and mating. When fighting, they bite each other on the neck and rump, while running and chasing each other and injuries incurred in such fights can be severe and sometimes fatal. When attacked by dogs or sexually excited, badgers may raise their tails and fluff up their fur.[42]

Grunting and snuffling sounds

European badgers have an extensive vocal repertoire. When threatened they emit deep growls and when fighting make low kekkering noises. They bark when surprised, whicker when playing or in distress,[42] and emit a piercing scream when alarmed or frightened.[43] Reproduction and development[edit]

Play media

Badger
Badger
with cubs

Estrus in European badgers lasts four to six days and may occur throughout the year, though there is a peak in spring. Sexual maturity in boars is usually attained at the age of twelve to fifteen months but this can range from nine months to two years. Males are normally fecund during January–May, with spermatogenesis declining in summer. Sows usually begin ovulating in their second year, though some exceptionally begin at nine months. They can mate at any time of the year, though the main peak occurs in February–May, when mature sows are in postpartal estrus and young animals experience their first estrus. Matings occurring outside this period typically occur in sows which either failed to mate earlier in the year or matured slowly.[44] Badgers are usually monogamous; boars typically mate with one female for life, whereas sows have been known to mate with more than one male.[45] Mating lasts for fifteen to sixty minutes, though the pair may briefly copulate for a minute or two when the sow is not in estrus. A delay of two to nine months precedes the fertilised eggs implanting into the wall of the uterus, though matings in December can result in immediate implantation. Ordinarily, implantation happens in December, with a gestation period lasting seven weeks. Cubs are usually born in mid-January to mid-March within underground chambers containing bedding. In areas where the countryside is waterlogged, cubs may be born above ground in buildings. Typically, only dominant sows can breed, as they suppress the reproduction of subordinate females.[44] The average litter consists of one to five cubs.[44] Although many cubs are sired by resident males, up to 54% can be fathered by boars from different colonies.[39] Dominant sows may kill the cubs of subordinates.[42] Cubs are born pink, with greyish, silvery fur and fused eyelids. Neonatal badgers are 12 cm (5 in) in body length on average and weigh 75 to 132 grams (2.6 to 4.7 oz), with cubs from large litters being smaller.[44] By three to five days, their claws become pigmented, and individual dark hairs begin to appear.[45] Their eyes open at four to five weeks and their milk teeth erupt about the same time. They emerge from their setts at eight weeks of age, and begin to be weaned at twelve weeks, though they may still suckle until they are four to five months old. Subordinate females assist the mother in guarding, feeding and grooming the cubs.[44] Cubs fully develop their adult coats at six to nine weeks.[45] In areas with medium to high badger populations, dispersal from the natal group is uncommon, though badgers may temporarily visit other colonies.[41] Badgers can live for up to about fifteen years in the wild.[43] Denning behaviours[edit]

Entrance to a badger sett

A sett shown in an engraving.

Like other badger species, European badgers are burrowing animals. However, the dens they construct (called setts) are the most complex, and are passed on from generation to generation.[46] The number of exits in one sett can vary from a few to fifty. These setts can be vast, and can sometimes accommodate multiple families. When this happens, each family occupies its own passages and nesting chambers. Some setts may have exits which are only used in times of danger or play. A typical passage has a 22–63 cm (8.7–24.8 in) wide base and a 14–32 cm (5.5–12.6 in) height. Three sleeping chambers occur in a family unit, some of which are open at both ends. The nesting chamber is located 5–10 m (5.5–10.9 yd) from the opening, and is situated more than a 1 m (1.1 yd) underground, in some cases 2.3 m (2.5 yd). Generally, the passages are 35–81 m (38–89 yd) long. The nesting chamber is on average 74 cm × 76 cm (29 in × 30 in), and are 38 cm (15 in) high.[47] Badgers dig and collect bedding throughout the year, particularly in autumn and spring. Sett
Sett
maintenance is usually carried out by subordinate sows and dominant boars. The chambers are frequently lined with bedding, brought in on dry nights, which consists of grass, bracken, straw, leaves and moss. Up to 30 bundles can be carried to the sett on a single night. European badgers are fastidiously clean animals which regularly clear out and discard old bedding. During the winter, they may take their bedding outside on sunny mornings and retrieve it later in the day.[39] Spring cleaning is connected with the birth of cubs, and may occur several times during the summer to prevent parasite levels building up.[47] If a badger dies within the sett, its conspecifics will seal off the chamber and dig a new one. Some badgers will drag their dead out of the sett and bury them outside.[48] A sett is almost invariably located near a tree, which is used by badgers for stretching or claw scraping.[49] Badgers defecate in latrines, which are located near the sett and at strategic locations on territorial boundaries or near places with abundant food supplies.[41] In extreme cases, when there is a lack of suitable burrowing grounds, badgers may move into haystacks in winter.[47] They may share their setts with red foxes or European rabbits. The badgers may provide protection for the rabbits against other predators. The rabbits usually avoid predation by the badgers by inhabiting smaller, hard to reach chambers.[50] Winter sleep[edit] Badgers begin to prepare for winter sleep during late summer by accumulating fat reserves, which reach a peak in October. During this period, the sett is cleaned and the nesting chamber is filled with bedding. Upon retiring to sleep, badgers block their sett entrances with dry leaves and earth. They typically stop leaving their setts once snow has fallen. In Russia, badgers retire for their winter sleep from late October to mid-November and emerge from their setts in March and early April.[51] In areas such as England
England
and Transcaucasia, where winters are less harsh, badgers either forgo winter sleep entirely or spend long periods underground, emerging in mild spells.[43] Diet[edit] Along with brown bears, European badgers are among the least carnivorous members of the Carnivora;[52] they are highly adaptable and opportunistic omnivores, whose diet encompasses a wide range of animals and plants. Earthworms are their most important food source, followed by large insects, carrion, cereals, fruit and small mammals including rabbits, mice, shrews, moles and hedgehogs. Insect
Insect
prey includes chafers, dung and ground beetles, caterpillars, leatherjackets, and the nests of wasps and bumblebees. They are able to destroy wasp nests, consuming the occupants, combs, and envelope, such as that of Vespula rufa
Vespula rufa
nests, since thick skin and body hair protect the badgers from stings.[53] Cereal food includes wheat, oats, maize and occasionally barley. Fruits include windfall apples, pears, plums, blackberries, bilberries, raspberries, strawberries, acorns, beechmast, pignuts and wild arum corms. Occasionally, they feed on medium to large birds, amphibians, small reptiles, including tortoises, snails, slugs, fungi, and green food such as clover and grass, particularly in winter and during droughts.[54] Badgers characteristically capture large numbers of one food type in each hunt. Generally, they do not eat more than 0.5 kg (1.1 lb) of food per day, with young specimens yet to attain one year of age eating more than adults. An adult badger weighing 15 kg (33 lb) eats a quantity of food equal to 3.4% of its body weight.[52] Badgers typically eat prey on the spot, and rarely transport it to their setts. Surplus killing
Surplus killing
has been observed in chicken coops.[41]

A badger in England
England
scavenging food

Badgers prey on rabbits throughout the year, especially during times when their young are available. They catch young rabbits by locating their position in their nest by scent, then dig vertically downwards to it. In mountainous or hilly districts, where vegetable food is scarce, badgers rely on rabbits as a principal food source. Adult rabbits are usually avoided, unless they are wounded or caught in traps.[55] They consume them by turning them inside out and eating the meat, leaving the inverted skin uneaten.[56] Hedgehogs are eaten in a similar manner.[55] In areas where badgers are common, hedgehogs are scarce.[38] Some rogue badgers may kill lambs, though this is very rare; they may be erroneously implicated in lamb killings through the presence of discarded wool and bones near their setts, though foxes, which occasionally live alongside badgers, are often the culprits, as badgers do not transport food to their earths. They typically kill lambs by biting them behind the shoulder. Poultry
Poultry
and game birds are also taken only rarely. Some badgers may build their setts in close proximity to poultry or game farms without ever causing damage. In the rare instances in which badgers do kill reared birds, the killings usually occur in February–March, when food is scarce due to harsh weather and increases in badger populations. Badgers can easily breach bee hives with their jaws, and are mostly indifferent to bee stings, even when set upon by swarms.[55] Relationships with other non-human predators[edit]

A red fox challenging two badgers moving towards a bird feeder at night.

European badgers have few natural enemies. Grey wolves
Grey wolves
( Canis
Canis
lupus), Eurasian lynxes ( Lynx
Lynx
lynx) and brown bears (Ursus arctos), Europe's three largest remaining land predators, and large domestic dogs (C. l. familiaris) can pose a threat to adult badgers, though deaths caused by them are quantitatively rare as these predators are often limited in population due to human persecution and usually prefer easier, larger prey like ungulates, while badgers may fight viciously if aware of a predator and cornered without an escape route.[57][58][59][60] They may live alongside red foxes ( Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes) in isolated sections of large burrows.[48] The two species possibly tolerate each other out of commensalism; foxes provide badgers with food scraps, while badgers maintain the shared burrow's cleanliness.[61] However, cases are known of badgers driving vixens from their dens and destroying their litters without eating them.[48] In turn, very large male red foxes are known to have killed badgers in spring.[62] Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are known predators of European badgers and attacks by them on badger cubs are not infrequent, including cases where they've been pulled out directly from below the legs of their mothers, and even adult badgers may be attacked by this eagle when emerging weak and hungry from hibernation.[63][64] Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo) may also take an occasion cub and other large raptors such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) and greater spotted eagle (Clanga clanga) are considered potential badger cub predators.[57][60][65] Raccoon
Raccoon
dogs may extensively use badger setts for shelter. There are many known cases of badgers and raccoon dogs wintering in the same hole, possibly because badgers enter hibernation two weeks earlier than the latter, and leave two weeks later. In exceptional cases, badger and raccoon dog cubs may coexist in the same burrow. Badgers may drive out or kill raccoon dogs if they overstay their welcome.[66] Distribution and habitat[edit] The European badger
European badger
is native to most of Europe
Europe
and parts of western Asia. In Europe
Europe
its range includes Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Crete, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Ukraine. In Asia it occurs in Afghanistan, China (Xinjiang), Iran, Iraq and Israel.[1] The distributional boundary between the ranges of European and Asian badgers is the Volga
Volga
River, the European species being situated on the western bank. They are common in European Russia, with 30,000 individuals having been recorded there in 1990. They are abundant and increasing throughout their range, partly due to a reduction in rabies in Central Europe. In the UK, badgers experienced a 77% increase in numbers during the 1980s and 1990s.[1] The badger population in Great Britain in 2012 is estimated to be 300,000.[67] The European badger
European badger
is found in deciduous and mixed woodlands, clearings, spinneys, pastureland and scrub, including Mediterranean maquis shrubland. It has adapted to life in suburban areas and urban parks, although not to the extent of red foxes. In mountainous areas it occurs up to an altitude of 2,000 metres (6,600 ft).[1][43] Badger
Badger
tracking to study their behavior and territories has been done in Ireland using Global Positioning Systems.[68] Status[edit] The International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
rates the European badger as being of least concern. This is because it is a relatively common species with a wide range and populations are generally stable. In Central Europe
Europe
it has become more abundant in recent decades due to a reduction in the incidence of rabies. In other areas it has also fared well, with increases in numbers in Western Europe
Europe
and the United Kingdom. However, in some areas of intensive agriculture it has reduced in numbers due to loss of habitat and in others it is hunted as a pest.[1] Diseases and parasites[edit] Bovine tuberculosis
Bovine tuberculosis
(bovine TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis
Mycobacterium bovis
is a major mortality factor in badgers, though infected badgers can live and successfully breed for years before succumbing. The disease was first observed in badgers in 1951 in Switzerland where they were believed to have contracted it from chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) or roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).[69] It was detected in the United Kingdom in 1971 where it was linked to an outbreak of bovine TB in cows. The evidence appears to indicate that the badger is the primary reservoir of infection for cattle in the south west of England, Wales and Ireland. Since then there has been considerable controversy as to whether culling badgers will effectively reduce or eliminate bovine TB in cattle.[70] Badgers are vulnerable to the mustelid herpesvirus-1, as well as rabies and canine distemper, though the latter two are absent in Great Britain. Other diseases found in European badgers include arteriosclerosis, pneumonia, pleurisy, nephritis, enteritis, polyarthritis and lymphosarcoma.[71] Internal parasites of badgers include trematodes, nematodes and several species of tapeworm.[71] Ectoparasites carried by them include the fleas Paraceras melis (the badger flea), Chaetopsylla trichosa and Pulex irritans, the lice Trichodectes melis and the ticks Ixodes ricinus, I. canisuga, I. hexagonus, I. reduvius and I. melicula. They also suffer from mange.[71] They spend much time grooming, individuals concentrating on their own ventral areas, alternating one side with the other, while social grooming occurs with one individual grooming another on its dorsal surface. Fleas tried to avoid the scratching, retreating rapidly downwards and backwards through the fur. This was in contrast to fleas away from their host which ran upwards and jumped when disturbed. The grooming seems to disadvantage fleas rather than merely having a social function.[72] Relationships with humans[edit] In folklore and literature[edit]

Mr. Badger, as portrayed in an illustrated edition of Kenneth Graham's The Wind in the Willows

Tommy Brock, as illustrated by Beatrix Potter
Beatrix Potter
in The Tale of Mr. Tod

Main article: List of fictional badgers Badgers play a part in European folklore and are featured in modern literature. In Irish mythology, badgers are portrayed as shape-shifters and kinsmen to Tadg, the king of Tara and foster father of Cormac mac Airt. In one story, Tadg berates his adopted son for having killed and prepared some badgers for dinner.[73] In German folklore, the badger is portrayed as a cautious, peace-loving Philistine, who loves more than anything his home, family and comfort, though he can become aggressive if surprised. He is a cousin of Reynard the Fox, whom he uselessly tries to convince to return to the path of righteousness.[9] In Kenneth Graham's The Wind in the Willows, Mr. Badger
Badger
is depicted as a gruff, solitary figure who "simply hates society", yet is a good friend to Mole and Ratty. As a friend of Toad's now-deceased father, he is often firm and serious with Toad, but at the same time generally patient and well-meaning towards him. He can be seen as a wise hermit, a good leader and gentleman, embodying common sense. He is also brave and a skilled fighter, and helps rid Toad Hall of invaders from the wild wood.[74] The "Frances" series of children's books by Russell and Lillian Hoban depicts an anthropomorphic badger family. In T.H. White's Arthurian series The Once and Future King, the young King Arthur
King Arthur
is transformed into a badger by Merlin
Merlin
as part of his education. He meets with an older badger who tells him "I can only teach you two things - to dig, and love your home." [75] A villainous badger named Tommy Brock appears in Beatrix Potter's 1912 book The Tale of Mr. Tod. He is shown kidnapping the children of Benjamin Bunny and his wife Flopsy, and hiding them in an oven at the home of Mr. Tod the fox, whom he fights at the end of the book. The portrayal of the badger as a filthy animal which appropriates fox dens was criticised from a naturalistic viewpoint, though the inconsistencies are few and employed to create individual characters rather than evoke an archetypical fox and badger.[76] A wise old badger named Trufflehunter appears in C. S. Lewis' Prince Caspian, where he aids Caspian X
Caspian X
in his struggle against King Miraz.[77] A badger takes a prominent role in Colin Dann's The Animals of Farthing Wood series as second in command to Fox.[78] The badger is also the house symbol for Hufflepuff in the Harry Potter
Harry Potter
book series.[79] The Redwall
Redwall
series also has the Badger
Badger
Lords, who rule the extinct volcano fortress of Salamandastron and are renowned as fierce warriors.[80] The children's television series Bodger & Badger
Badger
was popular on CBBC
CBBC
during the 1990s and was set around the mishaps of a mashed potato-loving badger and his human companion.[81] Hunting[edit]

Illustration of a badger brought to bay by a Dachshund
Dachshund
( Dachshund
Dachshund
is German for "badger-dog")

European badgers are of little significance to hunting economies, though they may be actively hunted locally. Methods used for hunting badgers include catching them in jaw traps, ambushing them at their setts with guns, smoking them out of their earths and through the use of specially bred dogs such as Fox
Fox
Terriers and Dachshunds to dig them out.[82] Badgers are, however, notoriously durable animals; their skins are thick, loose and covered in long hair which acts as protection, and their heavily ossified skulls allow them to shrug off most blunt traumas, as well as shotgun pellets.[83] Badger-baiting[edit] Main article: Badger-baiting Badger-baiting
Badger-baiting
was once a popular blood sport,[84] in which badgers were captured alive, placed in boxes, and attacked with dogs.[85] In the UK, this was outlawed by the Cruelty to Animals Act of 1835[85] and again by the Protection of Animals Act of 1911.[86] Moreover, the cruelty towards and death of the badger constitute offences under the Protection of Badgers Act 1992,[87] and further offences under this act are inevitably committed to facilitate badger-baiting (such as interfering with a sett, or the taking or the very possession of a badger for purposes other than nursing an injured animal to health). If convicted, badger-baiters may face a sentence of up to six months in jail, a fine of up to £5,000, and other punitive measures, such as community service or a ban from owning dogs.[88] Culling[edit] See also: Badger
Badger
culling in the United Kingdom Many badgers in Europe
Europe
were gassed during the 1960s and 1970s to control rabies.[89] Until the 1980s, badger culling in the United Kingdom was undertaken in the form of gassing, to control the spread of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). Limited culling resumed in 1998 as part of a 10-year randomised trial cull which was considered by John Krebs and others to show that culling was ineffective. Some groups called for a selective cull,[90] while others favoured a programme of vaccination, and vets support the cull on compassionate grounds as they say that the illness causes much suffering in badgers.[90] Wales and Northern Ireland are currently (2013) conducting field trials of a badger vaccination programme.[91] In 2012, the government authorised a limited cull[92] led by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), however, this was later deferred with a wide range of reasons given.[93] In August 2013, a full culling programme began where it is expected about 5,000 badgers will be killed over six weeks in West Somerset
Somerset
and Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
by marksmen with high-velocity rifles using a mixture of controlled shooting and free shooting (some badgers will be trapped in cages first). The cull has caused many protests with emotional, economic and scientific reasons being cited. The badger is considered an iconic species of the British countryside, it has been claimed by shadow ministers that "The government's own figures show it will cost more than it saves...", and Lord Krebs, who led the Randomised Badger
Badger
Culling Trial in the 1990s, said the two pilots "will not yield any useful information".[91] Domestication[edit]

A tame orphan badger with keeper.

There are several accounts of European badgers being tamed. Tame badgers can be affectionate pets, and can be trained to come to their owners when their names are called. They are easily fed, as they are not fussy eaters, and will instinctively unearth rats, moles and young rabbits without training, though they do have a weakness for pork. Although there is one record of a tame badger befriending a fox, they generally do not tolerate the presence of cats and dogs, and will chase them.[94] Uses[edit]

A shaving brush using badger hair.

Badger
Badger
meat is eaten in some districts of the former Soviet Union, though in most cases it is discarded.[82] Smoked hams made from badgers were once highly esteemed in England, Wales and Ireland.[95] Some badger products have been used for medical purposes; badger expert Ernest Neal, quoting from an 1810 edition of The Sporting Magazine, wrote;

'The flesh, blood and grease of the badger are very useful for oils, ointments, salves and powders, for shortness of breath, the cough of the lungs, for the stone, sprained sinews, collachs etc. The skin being well dressed is very warm and comfortable for ancient people who are troubled with paralytic disorders.'[95]

The hair of the European badger
European badger
has been used for centuries for making sporrans[95] and shaving brushes.[84][96] Sporrans are traditionally worn as part of male Scottish highland dress. They form a bag or pocket made from a pelt and a badger or other animal's mask may be used as a flap.[97] The pelt was also formerly used for pistol furniture.[84] Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e Kranz, A.; Tikhonov, A.; Conroy, J.; Cavallini, P.; Herrero, J.; Stubbe, M.; Maran, T.; Fernades, M.; Abramov, A. & Wozencraft, C. (2008). "Meles meles". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2009-03-21.  Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of least concern ^ The European badger
European badger
was formerly classified as Meles taxus (EB 1911). ^ "Definition of a badger". merriam-webster.  ^ a b Weiner, E. S. C.; Simpson, J. R. (1989). The Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-861186-2. Retrieved 30 August 2008.  ^ Neal, Ernest G. and Cheeseman, C. L. (1996) Badgers, p. 2, T. & A.D. Poyser ISBN 0-85661-082-8 ^ http://www.snh.org.uk/pdfs/publications/wildlife/badger.pdf ^ Ernout, Alfred; Meillet, Antoine (1979) [1932]. Dictionnaire étimologique de la langue latine (in French) (4th ed.). Paris: Klincksieck.  ^ Devoto, Giacomo (1989) [1979]. Avviamento all'etimologia italiana (in Italian) (6th ed.). Milano: Mondadori.  ^ a b Neal 1958, pp. 150–152 ^ "Badger". Geiriadur: Welsh-English / English-Welsh On-line Dictionary. University of Wales: Trinity Saint David. Retrieved 2013-10-05.  ^ Kurtén 1968, pp. 103–105 ^ Spagnesi & De Marina Marinis 2002, pp. 226–227 ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1253–1254 ^ a b c Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1254–1255 ^ Raichev, E. (2010). "Adaptability to locomotion in snow conditions of fox, gackal, wild cat, badger in the region of Sredna Gora, Bulgaria". Trakia Journal of Sciences. 8 (2): 499–505.  ^ Polly, P.D. & MacLeod, N. (2008). "Locomotion in fossil Carnivora: an application of eigensurface analysis for morphometric comparison of 3D surfaces". Palaeontologia Electronica. 11 (2): 10–13.  ^ a b Harris & Yalden 2008, p. 427 ^ a b c Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1234–1237 ^ Neal 1958, p. 23 ^ Pease 1898, p. 24 ^ a b Wood, The Guinness Book of Animal
Animal
Facts and Feats. Sterling Pub Co Inc. (1983), ISBN 978-0-85112-235-9 ^ a b Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1241–1242 ^ Kowalczyk, R., Jȩdrzejewska, B., & Zalewski, A. (2003). Annual and circadian activity patterns of badgers (Meles meles) in Białowieża Primeval Forest (eastern Poland) compared with other Palaearctic populations. Journal of Biogeography, 30(3), 463-472. ^ Delahay, R. J., Carter, S. P., Forrester, G. J., Mitchell, A., & Cheeseman, C. L. (2006). Habitat correlates of group size, bodyweight and reproductive performance in a high‐density Eurasian badger (Meles meles) population. Journal of Zoology, 270(3), 437-447. ^ Rodriguez, A., Martin, R., & Delibes, M. (1996). Space use and activity in a Mediterranean population of badgers Meles meles. Acta Theriologica, 41(1), 59-72. ^ Revilla, E., Palomares, F., & Delibes, M. (2001). Edge‐core effects and the effectiveness of traditional reserves in conservation: Eurasian badgers in Doñana National Park. Conservation Biology, 15(1), 148-158. ^ "The Virtual Sett
Sett
- The data". www.badgers.org. Retrieved 20 March 2018.  ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, p. 1272 ^ Neal 1958, p. 25 ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, p. 1238 ^ a b c Harris & Yalden 2008, p. 428 ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, p. 1214 ^ Neal 1958, p. 29 ^ Pease 1898, p. 29 ^ Pease 1898, p. 35 ^ Neal 1958, p. 27 ^ a b Macdonald 2001, p. 117 ^ a b c d Harris & Yalden 2008, pp. 430–431 ^ Gallagher, J.; Clifton-Hadley, R. S. (2005). "Tuberculosis in badgers; a review of the disease and its significance for other animals" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-07-06.  ^ a b c d e Harris & Yalden 2008, p. 432 ^ a b c Harris & Yalden 2008, p. 431 ^ a b c d König 1973, pp. 162–163 ^ a b c d e Harris & Yalden 2008, pp. 433–434 ^ a b c Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1278–1279 ^ Macdonald 2001, p. 116 ^ a b c Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1269–1272 ^ a b c Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1279–1281 ^ Neal 1958, p. 83 ^ Pease 1898, p. 45 ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1272-1233 ^ a b Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1265–1268 ^ Edwards, Robin. (1980). Social Wasps: Their Biology and Control. W. Sussex, Great Britain: Rentokil Limited. ^ Harris & Yalden 2008, pp. 432–433 ^ a b c Neal 1958, pp. 70–80 ^ Pease 1898, p. 62 ^ a b Sidorovich, V. E., Rotenko, I. I., & Krasko, D. A. (2011, March). Badger
Badger
Meles meles spatial structure and diet in an area of low earthworm biomass and high predation risk. In Annales Zoologici Fennici (Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 1-16). Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing. ^ Olsson, O., Wirtberg, J., Andersson, M., & Wirtberg, I. (1997). Wolf Canis
Canis
lupus predation on moose Alces alces and roe deer Capreolus capreolus in south-central Scandinavia. Wildlife biology, 3(1), 13-25. ^ Naves, J., Fernández-Gil, A., Rodríguez, C., & Delibes, M. (2006). "Brown Bear
Bear
Food Habits at the Border of Its Range: A Long-Term Study". Journal of Mammalogy. 87 (5): 899. doi:10.1644/05-MAMM-A-318R2.1. hdl:10261/50290. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b Butler, J. M., & Roper, T. J. (1995). Escape tactics and alarm responses in badgers Meles meles: a field experiment. Ethology, 99(4), 313-322. ^ Dale, Thomas Francis, The fox, Longmans, Green, and Co., 1906 ^ Palomares, F., & Caro, T. M. (1999). Interspecific killing among mammalian carnivores. The American Naturalist, 153(5), 492-508. ^ Watson, J. (2010). The golden eagle. Poyser Monographs; A&C Black. ^ Sørensen, O. J., Totsås, M., Solstad, T., & Rigg, R. (2008). Predation by a golden eagle on a brown bear cub. Ursus, 19(2), 190-193. ^ Korpimäki, E., & Norrdahl, K. (1989). Avian predation on mustelids in Europe
Europe
1: occurrence and effects on body size variation and life traits. Oikos, 205-215. ^ Heptner, V. G. ; Naumov, N. P., Mammals of the Soviet Union Vol.II Part 1a, SIRENIA AND CARNIVORA (Sea cows; Wolves and Bears), p. 107, Science Publishers, Inc. USA. 1998, ISBN 1-886106-81-9 ^ "Badger: Meles meles". British Wildlife Centre. 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-07.  ^ MacWhite, T., Maher, P., Mullen, E., Marples, N. and Good, M. 2013. Ir Nat. J. 32: 99 - 105 ^ Bouvier, G.; Burgisser, H; Sweitzer, R. (1951). "Tuberculose chez un chamois". Schweizer Arch Tierheil. 93: 689–695.  ^ Gallagher, J.; Clifton-Hadley, R. S. (2000). "Tuberculosis in badgers; a review of the disease and its significance for other animals" (PDF). Research in Veterinary Science. 69 (3): 203–217. doi:10.1053/rvsc.2000.0422. PMID 11124091.  ^ a b c Harris & Yalden 2008, p. 435 ^ Stewart, Paul D.; Macdonald, David W. (2003). "Badgers and Badger Fleas: Strategies and Counter-Strategies". Ethology. 109 (9): 751–763. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0310.2003.00910.x.  ^ Monaghan, Patricia, The encyclopedia of Celtic mythology and folklore, p.436, Infobase Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8160-4524-0 ^ Grahame, Kenneth (1908). The Wind in the Willows. Wordsworth Editions Ltd. ISBN 978-1853260179.  ^ White, T.H. (1939) 'The Once And Future King.' 200 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016. ^ MacDonald, Ruth K., Beatrix Potter, p.47, Twayne Publishers, 1986, ISBN 0-8057-6917-X ^ C.S., Lewis (1951). Prince Caspian. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0006716792.  ^ Dann, Colin (1979). The Animals of Farthing Wood. Egmont Publishing. ISBN 1-4052-2552-1.  ^ Rowling, J. K. (1997). Harry Potter
Harry Potter
and the Philosopher's Stone. Bloomsbury. ISBN 0-7475-3269-9.  ^ Jacques, Brian (2001). Tribes of Redwall: Badgers. Red Fox. ISBN 0-09-941714-6.  ^ "Comedy: Bodger and Badger". BBC. Retrieved 2013-06-20.  ^ a b Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1281–1282 ^ Pease 1898, p. 36 ^ a b c EB (1878). ^ a b EB (1911). ^ " Protection of Animals Act 1911
Protection of Animals Act 1911
(revised)". OPSI website. Archived from the original on 2009-05-01. Retrieved 2009-06-16.  ^ UK Government. "Protection of Badgers Act 1992". Retrieved October 7, 2015.  ^ "Protection of Badgers Act 1992". OPSI website. Archived from the original on 2009-08-14. Retrieved 2009-06-16.  ^ The European badger
European badger
(Meles meles) Archived 2012-09-01 at the Wayback Machine.. badger.org.uk ^ a b Moody, Oliver (2013-04-27). " Badger
Badger
cull is necessary to stop them suffering, say vets". The Times: Wildlife. Retrieved 2013-08-30.  ^ a b " Badger
Badger
cull begins in Somerset
Somerset
in attempt to tackle TB". BBC. 2013. Retrieved August 30, 2013.  ^ Carrington, D. (2011-12-11). " Badger
Badger
culling will go ahead in 2012". The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-08-30.  ^ Carrington, D. (2012). " Badger
Badger
cull postponed until 2013". The Guardian. Retrieved August 30, 2013.  ^ Pease 1898, pp. 58–61 ^ a b c Neal 1958, pp. 152–154 ^ Griffiths, H.I.; Thomas, D.H. (1997). The Conservation and Management of the European Badger
Badger
(Meles Meles). Strasbourg: Council of Europe. p. 53. ISBN 978-9-28-713447-9.  ^ " Sporran
Sporran
wearers may need licence". BBC News. 2007-06-24. Retrieved 2013-07-11. 

References[edit]

 Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878), "Badger", Encyclopædia Britannica, 3 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 227   Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Badger", Encyclopædia Britannica, 3 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 188  Harris, Stephen; Yalden, Derek (2008). Mammals of the British Isles (4th Revised ed.). Mammal
Mammal
Society. ISBN 0-906282-65-9.  Kurtén, Björn (1968). " Pleistocene
Pleistocene
mammals of Europe". Weidenfeld and Nicolson.  Heptner, V. G.; Sludskii, A. A. (2002). Mammals of the Soviet Union. Vol. II, part 1b, Carnivores ( Mustelidae
Mustelidae
and Procyonidae). Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation. ISBN 90-04-08876-8.  König, Claus (1973). Mammals. William Collins. ISBN 0-00-212080-1.  Macdonald, David (2001). "The New Encyclopedia of Mammals". ISBN 0-19-850823-9.  Neal, Ernest (1958). "The Badger". Penguin Books.  Pease, Alfred Edward (1898). "The badger; a monograph". London : Lawrence and Bullen.  Spagnesi, Mario; De Marina Marinis, Maria (2002). Mammiferi d'Italia (PDF) (in Italian). Quaderni di Conservazione della Natura. ISSN 1592-2901. [permanent dead link]

Further reading[edit]

Ernest Neal & Chris Cheeseman. Badgers (Poyser, 2002) Richard Meyer. The Fate of the Badger
Badger
(Batsford 1986)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Meles meles.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Meles meles

ARKive
ARKive
Photographs and video The Badger
Badger
Trust - representing over 80 British badger groups Steve Jackson's Badger
Badger
Pages - Facts about and photos of the badgers of the world Badgerland - The Definitive On-Line Guide to Badgers (Meles meles) in the UK Badgerwatcher.com - A guide to watching badgers in the UK Wildlifeonline - Natural History of the European Badger http://durhambadgers.org.uk/page.php?pageid=1 Lancashire Badger
Badger
Group. Dublin and Wicklow Badger
Badger
Group Science & Nature: Animals, BBC. Badgers in the Netherlands, Badgergroup Brabant Foundation. Badger
Badger
Survey in the Netherlands 2000-2001, The Census Foundation. Waarneming.nl Originally a Dutch site, but you can change language at the top of the page. Sightings, pictures and distribution maps of European badgers in the Netherlands. Badgers in France, L’assiociation Meles. A video of an adult european badger. This is a close up video showing their behaviour Video of a European Badger
Badger
feeding on peanuts by its sett Video of an evening's badger-watching in mid-Wales, U.K.

Badgers and TB in the UK

DEFRA (UK government department) position on badgers and TB Executive summary of the Krebs Report Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle and Badgers 1997 The Randomised Badger
Badger
Culling Trial Godfray Report, Independent Scientific Review of the Randomised Badger Culling Trial and Associated Epidemiological Research, March 2004. PDF format National Farmers Union proposals to control badgers (would involve repeal of the 1992 act) July 2005[permanent dead link] NFBG (now Badger
Badger
Trust) response to the National Farmers Union proposals, August 2005

Claims of continued badger-hunting in the UK

Allegations of lamping (among other practices) were made in the appendix to the NFBG (now Badger
Badger
Trust) response to the Krebs Report

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon dog
Raccoon dog
(N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Authority control

GND: 4148726-6 NDL: 00560243

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q27066 ADW: Meles_meles ARKive: meles-meles EoL: 328046 EPPO: MLESME Fauna Europaea: 305312 Fossilworks: 157470 GBIF: 2433875 iNaturalist: 41841 ITIS: 621922 IUCN: 29673 MSW: 1

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