HOME
The Info List - Europa (mythology)



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

<

In Greek mythology , EUROPA (/jʊərˈroʊpə, jə-/ ; Greek : Εὐρώπη, Eurṓpē, Attic Greek pronunciation: ) was the mother of King Minos of Crete
Crete
, a woman with Phoenician origin of high lineage, and after whom the continent Europe
Europe
was named. The story of her abduction by Zeus
Zeus
in the form of a white bull was a Cretan story; as classicist Károly Kerényi points out, "most of the love-stories concerning Zeus
Zeus
originated from more ancient tales describing his marriages with goddesses. This can especially be said of the story of Europa."

Europa's earliest literary reference is in the Iliad , which is commonly dated to the 8th century BC. Another early reference to her is in a fragment of the Hesiodic Catalogue of Women , discovered at Oxyrhynchus . The earliest vase-painting securely identifiable as Europa dates from mid-7th century BC.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Astarte and Europa * 3 Family * 4 Abduction * 5 In art and literature

* 6 Adoptions of the name

* 6.1 Continent

* 6.1.1 Chemical element

* 6.2 Moon of Jupiter
Jupiter

* 7 Notes

* 8 References

* 8.1 Primary sources * 8.2 Secondary sources

* 9 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Terracotta figurine from Athens
Athens
, c. 460–480 BC Further information: Europe
Europe
§ Name

Greek Εὐρώπη Eurṓpē contains the elements εὐρύς (eurus), "wide, broad" and ὤψ/ὠπ-/ὀπτ- (ōps/ōp-/opt-) "eye, face, countenance". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion .

It is common in ancient Greek mythology and geography to identify lands or rivers with female figures. Thus, Europa is first used in a geographic context in the Homeric Hymn to Delian Apollo , in reference to the western shore of the Aegean Sea . As a name for a part of the known world, it is first used in the 6th century BC by Anaximander
Anaximander
and Hecataeus .

An alternative suggestion due to Ernest Klein and Giovanni Semerano (1966) attempted to connect a Semitic term for "west", Akkadian
Akkadian
erebu meaning "to go down, set" (in reference to the sun), Phoenician 'ereb "evening; west", which would parallel occident (the resemblance to Erebus
Erebus
, from PIE *h1regʷos, "darkness", is accidental, however). Barry (1999) adduces the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night", " sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia (Anatolia coming equally from Ἀνατολή, "(sun)rise", "east"). This proposal is mostly considered unlikely or untenable.

ASTARTE AND EUROPA

In the territory of Phoenician Sidon
Sidon
, Lucian of Samosata (2nd century AD) was informed that the temple of Astarte , whom Lucian equated with the moon goddess, was sacred to Europa:

There is likewise in Phœnicia a temple of great size owned by the Sidonians. They call it the temple of Astarte. I hold this Astarte to be no other than the moon-goddess. But according to the story of one of the priests this temple is sacred to Europa, the sister of Cadmus. She was the daughter of Agenor, and on her disappearance from Earth the Phœnicians honoured her with a temple and told a sacred legend about her; how that Zeus
Zeus
was enamoured of her for her beauty, and changing his form into that of a bull carried her off into Crete. This legend I heard from other Phœnicians as well; and the coinage current among the Sidonians bears upon it the effigy of Europa sitting upon a bull, none other than Zeus. Thus they do not agree that the temple in question is sacred to Europa.

The paradox, as it seemed to Lucian, would be solved if Europa is Astarte in her guise as the full, "broad-faced" moon.

FAMILY

The birthplace of Europa, Tyre, Lebanon
Tyre, Lebanon

Sources differ in details regarding Europa's family, but agree that she is Phoenician , and from a lineage that descended from Io , the mythical nymph beloved of Zeus, who was transformed into a heifer. She is generally said to be the daughter of Agenor , the Phoenician King of Tyre ; the Syracusan poet Moschus makes her mother Queen Telephassa ("far-shining") but elsewhere her mother is Argiope ("white-faced"). Other sources, such as the Iliad , claim that she is the daughter of Agenor's son, the "sun-red" Phoenix . It is generally agreed that she had two brothers, Cadmus , who brought the alphabet to mainland Greece, and Cilix who gave his name to Cilicia in Asia Minor , with the author of Bibliotheke including Phoenix as a third. So some interpret this as her brother Phoenix (when he is assumed to be son of Agenor) gave his siblings' name to his three children and this Europa (by this case, niece of former) is also loved by Zeus, but because of the same name, gave some confusions to others. After arriving in Crete, Europa had three sons fathered by Zeus: Minos , Rhadamanthus , and Sarpedon , the three of whom became the three judges of the Underworld when they died. In Crete
Crete
she married Asterion also rendered Asterius and became mother (or step-mother) of his daughter Crete
Crete
. The Abduction of Europa by Rembrandt
Rembrandt
, 1632

There were two competing myths relating how Europa came into the Hellenic world, but they agreed that she came to Crete
Crete
(Kríti), where the sacred bull was paramount. In the more familiar telling she was seduced by the god Zeus
Zeus
in the form of a bull, who breathed from his mouth a saffron crocus and carried her away to Crete
Crete
on his back—to be welcomed by Asterion , but according to the more literal, euhemerist version that begins the account of Persian-Hellene confrontations of Herodotus , she was kidnapped by Cretans , who likewise were said to have taken her to Crete. The mythical Europa cannot be separated from the mythology of the sacred bull , which had been worshipped in the Levant
Levant
. In 2012, an archaeological mission of the British Museum
British Museum
led by Lebanese archaeologist, Claude Doumet Serhal, discovered at the site of the old American school in Sidon
Sidon
, Lebanon
Lebanon
currency that depicts Europa riding the bull with her veil flying all over like a bow, further proof of Europa's Phoenician origin.

Europa does not seem to have been venerated directly in cult anywhere in classical Greece, but at Lebadaea in Boeotia , Pausanias noted in the 2nd century AD that Europa was the epithet of Demeter —"Demeter whom they surname Europa and say was the nurse of Trophonios"—among the Olympians who were addressed by seekers at the cave sanctuary of Trophonios of Orchomenus , to whom a chthonic cult and oracle were dedicated: "the grove of Trophonios by the river Herkyna ... there is also a sanctuary of Demeter Europa ... the nurse of Trophonios."

ARGIVE GENEALOGY IN GREEK MYTHOLOGY

* v * t * e

Inachus

Melia

Zeus
Zeus

Io

Phoroneus

Epaphus

Memphis

Libya

Poseidon
Poseidon

Belus

Achiroë

Agenor

Telephassa

Danaus

Pieria

Aegyptus

Cadmus

Cilix

Europa

Phoenix

Mantineus

Hypermnestra

Lynceus
Lynceus

Harmonia

Zeus
Zeus

Polydorus

Sparta

Lacedaemon

Ocalea

Abas

Agave

Sarpedon

Rhadamanthus

Autonoë

Eurydice

Acrisius

Ino

Minos

Zeus
Zeus

Danaë

Semele

Zeus
Zeus

Perseus

Dionysus

Colour key:

Male Female Deity

ABDUCTION

Statue of Europa representing Europe
Europe
at Palazzo Ferreria

The mythographers tell that Zeus
Zeus
was enamored of Europa and decided to seduce or ravish her, the two being near-equivalent in Greek myth. He transformed himself into a tame white bull and mixed in with her father's herds. While Europa and her helpers were gathering flowers, she saw the bull, caressed his flanks, and eventually got onto his back. Zeus
Zeus
took that opportunity and ran to the sea and swam, with her on his back, to the island of Crete
Crete
. He then revealed his true identity, and Europa became the first queen of Crete. Zeus
Zeus
gave her a necklace made by Hephaestus and three additional gifts: Talos , Laelaps and a javelin that never missed. Zeus
Zeus
later re-created the shape of the white bull in the stars, which is now known as the constellation Taurus . Some readers interpret as manifestations of this same bull the Cretan beast that was encountered by Heracles
Heracles
, the Marathonian Bull slain by Theseus (and that fathered the Minotaur ). Roman mythology adopted the tale of the Raptus, also known as "The Abduction of Europa" and "The Seduction
Seduction
of Europa", substituting the god Jupiter
Jupiter
for Zeus
Zeus
.

The myth of Europa and Zeus
Zeus
may have its origin in a sacred union between the Phoenician deities `Aštar and `Aštart (Astarte), in bovine form. Having given birth to three sons by Zeus, Europa married a king Asterios , this being also the name of the Minotaur and an epithet of Zeus, likely derived from the name `Aštar.

According to Herodotus ' rationalizing approach, Europa was kidnapped by Greeks (probably Cretans) who were seeking to avenge the kidnapping of Io , a princess from Argos
Argos
. His variant story may have been an attempt to rationalize the earlier myth; or the present myth may be a garbled version of facts—the abduction of a Phoenician aristocrat—later enunciated without gloss by Herodotus. The rape of Europa (El rapto de Europa), 1772, Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes

*

The Rape of Europa by Titian
Titian
(1562) *

Europa in a fresco at Pompeii
Pompeii
, contemporary with Ovid. *

Europa velificans , "her fluttering tunic… in the breeze" (mosaic, Zeugma Mosaic Museum ) *

The Rape of Europa by Jean-Baptiste Marie Pierre (1750) *

The Rape of Europa by Joan Tuset Suau (1999)

IN ART AND LITERATURE

Europa and bull on a Greek vase. Tarquinia Museum, circa 480 BCE

Europa provided the substance of a brief Hellenistic epic written in the mid-2nd century BCE by Moschus , a bucolic poet and friend of the Alexandrian grammarian Aristarchus of Samothrace
Aristarchus of Samothrace
, born at Syracuse.

In Metamorphoses , the poet Ovid wrote the following depiction of Jupiter's seduction: And gradually she lost her fear, and he Offered his breast for her virgin caresses, His horns for her to wind with chains of flowers Until the princess dared to mount his back Her pet bull's back, unwitting whom she rode. Then—slowly, slowly down the broad, dry beach— First in the shallow waves the great god set His spurious hooves, then sauntered further out 'til in the open sea he bore his prize Fear filled her heart as, gazing back, she saw The fast receding sands. Her right hand grasped A horn, the other lent upon his back Her fluttering tunic floated in the breeze.

His picturesque details belong to anecdote and fable: in all the depictions, whether she straddles the bull, as in archaic vase-paintings or the ruined metope fragment from Sikyon , or sits gracefully sidesaddle as in a mosaic from North Africa, there is no trace of fear. Often Europa steadies herself by touching one of the bull's horns, acquiescing.

Her tale is also mentioned in Nathaniel Hawthorne
Nathaniel Hawthorne
's Tanglewood Tales . Though his story titled "Dragon's teeth" is largely about Cadmus, it begins with an elaborate albeit toned down version of Europa's abduction by the beautiful bull.

ADOPTIONS OF THE NAME

Europa and the bull, depicted as the continent's personification in Nova et accurata totius Europæ descriptio by Fredericus de Wit (1700)

CONTINENT

Further information: European symbols § Europa

The name Europe
Europe
, as a geographical term, was used by Ancient Greek geographers such as Strabo
Strabo
to refer to part of Thrace
Thrace
below the Balkan mountains . Later, under the Roman Empire the name was given to a Thracian province .

It is derived from the Greek word Eurōpē (Εὐρώπη) in all Romance languages
Romance languages
, Germanic languages
Germanic languages
, Slavic languages , Baltic languages , Celtic languages , Iranian languages , Uralic languages (Hungarian Európa, Finnish Eurooppa, Estonian Euroopa). Europa seen on the 2013 Europa Series of euro banknotes

Jürgen Fischer, in Oriens-Occidens-Europa summarized how the name came into use, supplanting the oriens –occidens dichotomy of the later Roman Empire , which was expressive of a divided empire, Latin in the West, Greek in the East.

In the 8th century, ecclesiastical uses of "Europa" for the imperium of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
provide the source for the modern geographical term. The first use of the term Europenses, to describe peoples of the Christian, western portion of the continent, appeared in the Hispanic Latin Chronicle of 754 , sometimes attributed to an author called Isidore Pacensis in reference to the Battle of Tours
Battle of Tours
fought against Muslim forces.

The European Union has also used Europa as a symbol of pan-Europeanism , notably by naming its web portal after her and depicting her on the Greek €2 coin and on several gold and silver commemorative coins (e.g. the Belgian €10 European Expansion coin ). Her name appeared on postage stamps celebrating the Council of Europe , which were first issued in 1956. The second series of euro banknotes is known as the Europa Series and bears her likeness in the watermark and hologram.

Chemical Element

The metal europium , a rare-earth element , was named in 1901 after the continent.

MOON OF JUPITER

Europa , a moon of Jupiter
Jupiter
Further information: Europa (moon)

The invention of the telescope revealed that the planet Jupiter
Jupiter
, clearly visible to the naked eye and known to humanity since prehistoric times, has an attendant family of moons. These were named for male and female lovers of the god and other mythological persons associated with him. The smallest of Jupiter's Galilean moons was named after Europa.

NOTES

* ^ Kerenyi 1951, p. 108 * ^ Pierre Vidal-Naquet , Le monde d'Homère, Perrin 2000:19; M.I. Finley, The World of Odysseus, (1954) 1978:16 gives "the years between 750 and 700 BC, or a bit later". * ^ The papyrus fragment itself dates from the third century AD: see Hesiodic fragments 19 and 19A. * ^ Walter Burkert , Greek Religion (1985) I.3.2, note 20, referring to Schefold, plate 11B. References in myth and art have been assembled by W. Bühler, Europa: eine Sammlung der Zeugnisse des Mythos in der antiken Litteratur und Kunst (1967). * ^ εὐρύς, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus * ^ ὤψ, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus * ^ M. L. West (2007). Indo-European poetry and myth. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 178–179. ISBN 0-19-928075-4 . . Compare also glaukōPis (γλαυκῶπις \'grey-eyed\') Athena or boōPis (βοὠπις \'ox-eyed\') Hera
Hera
). * ^ Τελφοῦσ᾽, ἐνθάδε δὴ φρονέω περικαλλέα νηὸν / ἀνθρώπων τεῦξαι χρηστήριον, οἵτε μοι αἰεὶ ἐνθάδ᾽ ἀγινήσουσι τεληέσσας ἑκατόμβας, / ἠμὲν ὅσοι Πελοπόννησον πίειραν ἔχουσιν / ἠδ᾽ ὅσοι Εὐρώπην τε καὶ ἀμφιρύτας κατὰ νήσους "Telphusa, here I am minded to make a glorious temple, an oracle for men, and hither they will always bring perfect hecatombs, both those who live in rich Peloponnesus and THOSE OF EUROPE and all the wave-washed isles, coming to seek oracles." (verses 247–251, trans. Hugh G. Evelyn-White). * ^ Histories 4.38. C.f. James Rennell, The geographical system of Herodotus examined and explained, Volume 1, Rivington 1830, p. 244 * ^ M.A. Barry (1999): « L’ Europe
Europe
et son mythe : à la poursuite du couchant ». Revue des deux Mondes. p. 110. ISBN 978-2-7103-0937-6 * ^ Martin Litchfield West states that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor". M. L. West (1997). The east face of Helicon: west Asiatic elements in Greek poetry and myth. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 451. ISBN 0-19-815221-3 . . * ^ Klein, Etymological Dictionary of the English Language (Barking: Elsevier) vol. I A-K, 1966; Klein's etymology of Europa is singled out among his "optimistic" conclusions by G. W. S. Friedrichsen reviewing the Dictionary in The Review of English Studies New Series, 18.71 (August 1967:295. * ^ Gilman, D. C. ; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Europa". New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead. * ^ Lucian, De Dea Syria 4 (On-line text). * ^ A B "Europa (mythology)". Encarta. Microsoft Corporation. 2008.

* ^ Moschus, Europa (on-line text at Theoi Project). * ^ Kerenyi points out that these names are attributes of the moon, as is Europa's broad countenance. * ^ Pseudo-Apollonius, Bibliotheke 3.1.1. * ^ Bibliotheke 3.1.1. * ^ Hesiodic fragment 19, a scholium on Iliad XII.292 (which does not mention Europa) * ^ According to the scholium on Iliad XII.292, noted in Karl Kerenyi, Dionysus: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life p105. Pausanias rendered the name Asterion (2.31.1); in Bibliotheke (3.1.4) it is Asterion. * ^ Herodotus, Histories I.1; the act is made out to be a revenge for the previous "kidnapping" of Io . * ^ "The Designer: And if Europe
Europe
was Sidonian?". Lorientjour.com. Retrieved 2012-11-28. * ^ No public statue of Europa is mentioned by Pausanias or any other Classical writer, but a headless statuette, closely draped in a cloak over a peplos , of the type called "Amelung's Goddess", but inscribed "Europa", at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, seems to be a Roman copy of a lost Greek original, of c. 460 BC; an uninscribed statuette of the same type, from Hama, Syria, is in the Damascus Museum, and a full-size copy has been found in Baiae
Baiae
(Martin Robertson, "Europa" Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 20.1/2 (1957:1-3, figs b, c); I. E. S. Edwards, ed. The Cambridge Ancient History, plates to vols. V and VI 1970:illus. fig. 24. * ^ Pausanias, Guide to Greece 9.39.2–5. * ^ Hesiodic fragment. * ^ M. L. West (23 October 1997). The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth. Oxford University Press. pp. 452–. ISBN 978-0-19-159104-4 . * ^ The poem was published with voluminous notes and critical apparatus: Winfried Bühler, Die Europa des Moschos (Wiesbaden: Steiner) 1960. * ^ Strabo, Geography 8.1.1. * ^ Jürgen Fischer, Oriens–Occidens–Europa (Wiesbaden: Steiner) 1957. * ^ David Levering Lewis, God's Crucible: Islam and the Making of Europe, 570 to 1215, New York: W. W. Norton, 2008. * ^ "Periodic Table: Europium". Royal Society of Chemistry. Missing or empty url= (help )

REFERENCES

PRIMARY SOURCES

* Isidore, Etymologiae xiv.4.1 * Herodotus , The Histories , Book 1.2 * Eusebius, Chronicon , 47.7–10, 25, 53.16–17, 55.4–5 * Ovid , Metamorphoses , 862, translation by A.D. Melville (1986), p. 50

Metamorphoses , ii.833-iii.2, vi.103–107

SECONDARY SOURCES

* Pseudo-Apollodorus , Bibliotheke , III, i, 1–2 * Apollodorus, The Library of Greek Mythology (Oxford World's Classics), translated by Robin Hard, Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-283924-1 * Kerenyi, Karl , 1951. The Gods of the Greeks (Thames and Hudson) * Graves, Robert , (1955) 1960. The Greek Myths * D' Europe
Europe
à l'Europe, I. Le mythe d' Europe
Europe
dans l'art et la culture de l'antiquité au XVIIIe s. (colloque de Paris, ENS – Ulm, 24-26.04.1997), éd. R. Poignault et O. Wattel — de Croizant, coll. Caesarodunum, n° XXXI bis, 1998. * D' Europe
Europe
à l'Europe, II. Mythe et identité du XIXe s. à nos jours (colloque de Caen, 30.09-02.10.1999), éd. R. Poignault, F. Lecocq et O. Wattel – de Croizant, coll. Caesarodunum, n° XXXIII bis, 2000. * D’ Europe
Europe
à l’Europe, III. La dimension politique et religieuse du mythe d’ Europe
Europe
de l‘Antiquité à nos jours (colloque de Paris, ENS-Ulm, 29-30.11.2001), éd. O. Wattel — De Croizant, coll. Caesarodunum, n° hors-série, 2002. * D’ Europe
Europe
à l’Europe, IV. Entre Orient
Orient
et Occident, du mythe à la géopolitique (colloque de Paris, ENS-Ulm, 18-20.05.2006), dir. O. Wattel — de Croizant & G. de Montifroy, Editions de l’Age d’Homme, Lausanne – Paris, 2007. * D’ Europe
Europe
à l’Europe, V. État des connaissances (colloque de Bruxelles, 21-22.10.2010), dir. O. Wattel - de Croizant ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Symbols of Europe
Europe

PAN-EUROPEAN

* Flag * Anthem * Europa * Europe
Europe
Day

* Euro
Euro

* Sign

* EU Motto * Pater Europae * Europa regina

SOVEREIGN STATES

* Albania * Andorra * Armenia * Austria * Azerbaijan * Belarus * Belgium * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Bulgaria * Croatia * Cyprus * Czech Republic * Denmark * Estonia * Finland * France * Georgia * Germany * Greece * Hungary * Iceland * Ireland * Italy * Kazakhstan * Latvia * Liechtenstein * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Macedonia * Malta * Moldova * Monaco * Montenegro * Netherlands * Norway * Poland * Portugal * Romania * Russia * San Marino * Serbia * Slovakia * Slovenia * Spain * Sweden * Switzerland * Turkey * Ukraine * United Kingdom * Vatican City

States with limited recognition

* Abkhazia * Kosovo * Nagorno-Karabakh * Northern Cyprus * South Ossetia * Transnistria

Dependencies and other territories

* Åland * Faroe Islands * Gibraltar * Guernsey * Jersey * Isle of Man * Svalbard

OTHER ENTITIES

* Sovereign Military Order of Malta

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 22932833 * LCCN : sh85045629 * GND : 118531409 * NKC : ph584472

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Europa_(mythology) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.

* Privacy policy * About * Disclaimers * Contact * Developers * Cookie statement * Mobile view

* *

Links: ------ /wiki/Greek_mythology /wiki/Help:IPA/English /wiki/Greek_language /wiki/Attic_Greek /wiki/Help:IPA/Greek /wiki/Basileus /wiki/Minos /wiki/Crete /wiki/Phoenicia /wiki/Continent /wiki/Europe /wiki/Zeus /wiki/Crete /wiki/K%C3%A1roly_Ker%C3%A9nyi /wiki/Zeus /#cite_note-1 /wiki/Iliad /#cite_note-2 /wiki/Hesiod /wiki/Catalogue_of_Women /wiki/Oxyrhynchus /#cite_note-3 /#cite_note-4