Greek mythology , EUROPA (/jʊərˈroʊpə, jə-/ ; Greek :
Attic Greek pronunciation: ) was the mother
Europa's earliest literary reference is in the Iliad , which is commonly dated to the 8th century BC. Another early reference to her is in a fragment of the Hesiodic Catalogue of Women , discovered at Oxyrhynchus . The earliest vase-painting securely identifiable as Europa dates from mid-7th century BC.
* 1 Etymology * 2 Astarte and Europa * 3 Family * 4 Abduction * 5 In art and literature
* 6 Adoptions of the name
* 6.1 Continent
* 6.1.1 Chemical element
* 6.2 Moon of
* 7 Notes
* 8 References
* 8.1 Primary sources * 8.2 Secondary sources
* 9 External links
Greek Εὐρώπη Eurṓpē contains the elements εὐρύς (eurus), "wide, broad" and ὤψ/ὠπ-/ὀπτ- (ōps/ōp-/opt-) "eye, face, countenance". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion .
It is common in ancient
Greek mythology and geography to identify
lands or rivers with female figures. Thus, Europa is first used in a
geographic context in the
Homeric Hymn to
Delian Apollo , in reference
to the western shore of the
Aegean Sea . As a name for a part of the
known world, it is first used in the 6th century BC by
An alternative suggestion due to
Ernest Klein and Giovanni Semerano
(1966) attempted to connect a Semitic term for "west",
ASTARTE AND EUROPA
There is likewise in Phœnicia a temple of great size owned by the
Sidonians. They call it the temple of Astarte. I hold this
be no other than the moon-goddess. But according to the story of one
of the priests this temple is sacred to Europa, the sister of Cadmus.
She was the daughter of Agenor, and on her disappearance from Earth
the Phœnicians honoured her with a temple and told a sacred legend
about her; how that
The paradox, as it seemed to Lucian, would be solved if Europa is Astarte in her guise as the full, "broad-faced" moon.
The birthplace of Europa,
Sources differ in details regarding Europa's family, but agree that
she is Phoenician , and from a lineage that descended from Io , the
mythical nymph beloved of Zeus, who was transformed into a heifer. She
is generally said to be the daughter of
Agenor , the Phoenician King
of Tyre ; the Syracusan poet
Moschus makes her mother Queen
Telephassa ("far-shining") but elsewhere her mother is Argiope
("white-faced"). Other sources, such as the
Iliad , claim that she is
the daughter of Agenor's son, the "sun-red" Phoenix . It is generally
agreed that she had two brothers,
Cadmus , who brought the alphabet to
mainland Greece, and
Cilix who gave his name to
Cilicia in Asia Minor
, with the author of
Bibliotheke including Phoenix as a third. So some
interpret this as her brother Phoenix (when he is assumed to be son of
Agenor) gave his siblings' name to his three children and this Europa
(by this case, niece of former) is also loved by Zeus, but because of
the same name, gave some confusions to others. After arriving in
Crete, Europa had three sons fathered by Zeus:
Sarpedon , the three of whom became the three judges of the
Underworld when they died. In
There were two competing myths relating how Europa came into the
Hellenic world, but they agreed that she came to
Europa does not seem to have been venerated directly in cult anywhere in classical Greece, but at Lebadaea in Boeotia , Pausanias noted in the 2nd century AD that Europa was the epithet of Demeter —"Demeter whom they surname Europa and say was the nurse of Trophonios"—among the Olympians who were addressed by seekers at the cave sanctuary of Trophonios of Orchomenus , to whom a chthonic cult and oracle were dedicated: "the grove of Trophonios by the river Herkyna ... there is also a sanctuary of Demeter Europa ... the nurse of Trophonios."
ARGIVE GENEALOGY IN GREEK MYTHOLOGY
* v * t * e
Male Female Deity
The mythographers tell that
The myth of Europa and
Herodotus ' rationalizing approach, Europa was kidnapped
by Greeks (probably Cretans) who were seeking to avenge the kidnapping
of Io , a princess from
The Rape of Europa by
Europa in a fresco at
Europa velificans , "her fluttering tunic… in the breeze" (mosaic, Zeugma Mosaic Museum ) *
The Rape of Europa by Jean-Baptiste Marie Pierre (1750) *
The Rape of Europa by Joan Tuset Suau (1999)
IN ART AND LITERATURE
Europa and bull on a Greek vase. Tarquinia Museum, circa 480 BCE
Europa provided the substance of a brief
Hellenistic epic written in
the mid-2nd century BCE by
Moschus , a bucolic poet and friend of the
Aristarchus of Samothrace
In Metamorphoses , the poet Ovid wrote the following depiction of Jupiter's seduction: And gradually she lost her fear, and he Offered his breast for her virgin caresses, His horns for her to wind with chains of flowers Until the princess dared to mount his back Her pet bull's back, unwitting whom she rode. Then—slowly, slowly down the broad, dry beach— First in the shallow waves the great god set His spurious hooves, then sauntered further out 'til in the open sea he bore his prize Fear filled her heart as, gazing back, she saw The fast receding sands. Her right hand grasped A horn, the other lent upon his back Her fluttering tunic floated in the breeze.
His picturesque details belong to anecdote and fable: in all the depictions, whether she straddles the bull, as in archaic vase-paintings or the ruined metope fragment from Sikyon , or sits gracefully sidesaddle as in a mosaic from North Africa, there is no trace of fear. Often Europa steadies herself by touching one of the bull's horns, acquiescing.
Her tale is also mentioned in
ADOPTIONS OF THE NAME
Europa and the bull, depicted as the continent's personification in Nova et accurata totius Europæ descriptio by Fredericus de Wit (1700)
Further information: European symbols § Europa
It is derived from the Greek word Eurōpē (Εὐρώπη) in all
Jürgen Fischer, in Oriens-Occidens-Europa summarized how the name came into use, supplanting the oriens –occidens dichotomy of the later Roman Empire , which was expressive of a divided empire, Latin in the West, Greek in the East.
In the 8th century, ecclesiastical uses of "Europa" for the imperium
The European Union has also used Europa as a symbol of pan-Europeanism , notably by naming its web portal after her and depicting her on the Greek €2 coin and on several gold and silver commemorative coins (e.g. the Belgian €10 European Expansion coin ). Her name appeared on postage stamps celebrating the Council of Europe , which were first issued in 1956. The second series of euro banknotes is known as the Europa Series and bears her likeness in the watermark and hologram.
The metal europium , a rare-earth element , was named in 1901 after the continent.
MOON OF JUPITER
Europa , a moon of
The invention of the telescope revealed that the planet
* ^ Kerenyi 1951, p. 108
Pierre Vidal-Naquet , Le monde d'Homère, Perrin 2000:19; M.I.
Finley, The World of Odysseus, (1954) 1978:16 gives "the years between
750 and 700 BC, or a bit later".
* ^ The papyrus fragment itself dates from the third century AD:
see Hesiodic fragments 19 and 19A.
Walter Burkert , Greek Religion (1985) I.3.2, note 20,
referring to Schefold, plate 11B. References in myth and art have been
assembled by W. Bühler, Europa: eine Sammlung der Zeugnisse des
Mythos in der antiken Litteratur und Kunst (1967).
* ^ εὐρύς, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A
Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
* ^ ὤψ, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English
Lexicon, on Perseus
* ^ M. L. West (2007). Indo-European poetry and myth. Oxford:
Oxford University Press. pp. 178–179. ISBN 0-19-928075-4 . . Compare
also glaukōPis (γλαυκῶπις \'grey-eyed\') Athena or boōPis
* ^ Moschus, Europa (on-line text at Theoi Project).
* ^ Kerenyi points out that these names are attributes of the moon,
as is Europa's broad countenance.
* ^ Pseudo-Apollonius,
* ^ Hesiodic fragment 19, a scholium on
Iliad XII.292 (which does
not mention Europa)
* ^ According to the scholium on
Iliad XII.292, noted in Karl
Kerenyi, Dionysus: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life p105.
Pausanias rendered the name
Asterion (2.31.1); in
it is Asterion.
* ^ Herodotus, Histories I.1; the act is made out to be a revenge
for the previous "kidnapping" of Io .
* ^ "The Designer: And if
Metamorphoses , ii.833-iii.2, vi.103–107
Bibliotheke , III, i, 1–2
* Apollodorus, The Library of Greek Mythology (Oxford World's
Classics), translated by Robin Hard, Oxford University Press, 1999.
* Kerenyi, Karl , 1951. The Gods of the Greeks (Thames and Hudson)
* Graves, Robert , (1955) 1960. The Greek Myths
* t * e
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* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 22932833 * LCCN : sh85045629 * GND : 118531409 * NKC : ph584472
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