ESTONIANS (Estonian : _eestlased_) are a Finnic ethnic group related to the Finns that mainly inhabit Estonia , a country located south of Finland and the Finnish Gulf . Their national language belongs to Finnic branch and is known as Estonian (Estonian : _eesti keel_).
Although Estonia is often geopolitically categorized as one of the Baltics , Estonians are linguistically, culturally and historically related to the neighboring Finns—both belonging to the Finnic people —differing from the non-Finnic Indo-European speaking Baltic peoples of Latvia and Lithuania .
* 1 History
* 1.1 Prehistoric roots * 1.2 National consciousness
* 2 Emigration
* 3 See also * 4 Notes and references * 5 Further reading * 6 External links
Estonia was first inhabited about 10,000 years ago, just after the Baltic ice lake had retreated from Estonia. While it is not certain what languages were spoken by the first settlers, it is often maintained that speakers of early Uralic languages related to modern Estonian had arrived in what is now Estonia by about 5,000 years ago. Living in the same area for more than 5,000 years would put the ancestors of Estonians among the oldest permanent inhabitants in Europe. On the other hand, some recent linguistic estimations suggest that Fenno-Ugrian language arrived around the Baltic Sea considerably later, perhaps during the Early Bronze Age (ca. 1800 BCE).
The oldest known endonym of the Estonians is _Maarahvas_. _Eesti_, the modern endonym of Estonia, is thought to be derived from the word _ Aestii _, the name given by the ancient Germanic people to the Baltic people living northeast of the Vistula River . The Roman historian Tacitus in 98 AD was the first to mention the "_Aestii_" people, and early Scandinavians called the land south of the Gulf of Finland "_Eistland_" ("_Eistland_" is also the current word in Icelandic for Estonia), and the people "_eistr_". Proto- Estonians (as well as other speakers of the Finnish language group) were also called _Chuds _ (чудь) in Old East Slavic chronicles .
The Estonian language belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic family of languages, as does the Finnish language . The first known book in Estonian was printed in 1525, while the oldest known examples of written Estonian originate in 13th-century chronicles. Estonians are genetically closest to their neighbouring Tver region Russians and Latvians . However, Estonians are still the nearest genetic relatives of Finns .
Although Estonian national consciousness spread in the course of the 19th century during the Estonian national awakening , some degree of ethnic awareness preceded this development. By the 18th century the self-denomination _eestlane_ spread among Estonians along with the older _maarahvas_. Anton thor Helle 's translation of the Bible into Estonian appeared in 1739, and the number of books and brochures published in Estonian increased from 18 in the 1750s to 54 in the 1790s. By the end of the century more than a half of adult peasants could read. The first university-educated intellectuals identifying themselves as Estonians, including Friedrich Robert Faehlmann (1798–1850), Kristjan Jaak Peterson (1801–1822) and Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald (1803–1882), appeared in the 1820s. The ruling elites had remained predominantly German in language and culture since the conquest of the early 13th century. Garlieb Merkel (1769–1850), a Baltic-German Estophile , became the first author to treat the Estonians as a nationality equal to others; he became a source of inspiration for the Estonian national movement, modelled on Baltic German cultural world before the middle of the 19th century. However, in the middle of the century, the Estonians became more ambitious and started leaning toward the Finns as a successful model of national movement and, to some extent, toward the neighbouring Latvian national movement . By the end of 1860 the Estonians became unwilling to reconcile with German cultural and political hegemony. Before the attempts at Russification in the 1880s, their view of Imperial Russia remained positive.
Estonians have strong ties to the Nordic countries stemming from important cultural and religious influences gained over centuries during Scandinavian and German rule and settlement. Indeed, Estonians consider themselves Nordic rather than Baltic , in particular because of close ethnic and linguistic affinities with the Finns.
After the Treaty of Tartu (1920) recognised Estonia's 1918
independence from Russia, ethnic
Estonians residing in
World War II , when
Estonia was invaded by the Soviet Army in
1944, large numbers of
Estonians fled their homeland on ships or
smaller boats over the
Baltic Sea . Many refugees who survived the
risky sea voyage to
Germany later moved from there to Canada
United Kingdom , the
United States or
Over the years of independence, increasing numbers of Estonians have chosen to work abroad, primarily in Finland, but also in other European countries, making Estonia the country with the highest emigration rate in Europe. This is at least partly due to the easy access to oscillating migration to Finland.
Recognising the problems arising from both low birth rate and high emigration, the country has launched various measures to both increase the birth rate and to lure migrant Estonians back to Estonia. Former president Toomas Hendrik Ilves has lent his support to the campaign _Talendid koju! (Bringing talents home)_ which aims to coordinate and promote the return of Estonians who have particular skills needed in Estonia.
ESTONIANS IN CANADA
The largest permanent Estonian community outside Estonia is in Canada with about 24,000 people (according to some sources up to 50,000 people). In the late 1940s and early 1950s, about 17,000 arrived in Canada. Toronto is the city with the largest population of Estonians outside of Estonia. The first Estonian World Festival was held in Toronto in 1972. Some famous Estonian Canadians include Endel Tulving and Elmar Tampõld .
NOTES AND REFERENCES
* ^ "Population by ethnic nationality". Statistics
Retrieved 30 March 2016.
* ^ "Tilastokeskus - Population". Retrieved 4 May 2015.
* ^ "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more
ancestry categories reported 2013 American Community Survey 1-Year
United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2 September 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Canada-
Estonia Relations". Retrieved 17 March 2015.
* ^ "Eestlased Rootsis".
* ^ Об итогах Всероссийской переписи
населения 2010 года (IN RUSSIAN). RUSSIAN FEDERAL STATE
STATISTICS SERVICE. ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL (PPT) ON 18 JANUARY
2012. RETRIEVED 17 MARCH 2015.
* ^ "2054.0 Australian Census Analytic Program: Australians\'
Ancestries (2001 (Corrigendum))" (PDF). Australian Bureau of
Statistics . 2001. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
* ^ "Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents, 1 January
Norway . Accessed 01 May 2016.
* ^ "United Kingdom". _Ethnologue_. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
* ^ "The distribution of the population by nationality and mother
tongue". State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. 2001.
* ^ "Persons usually resident and present in the State on Census
Night, classified by place of birth and age group". _Central
Statistics Office Ireland_. Archived from the original on 6 August
* ^ "Estemb in
* Petersoo, Pille (January 2007). "Reconsidering otherness: constructing Estonian identity". _Nations and Nationalism _. 13 (1): 117–133. doi :10.1111/j.1469-8129.2007.00276.x .
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