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ESTONIANS (Estonian : eestlased) are a Finnic ethnic group related to the Finns
Finns
that mainly inhabit Estonia
Estonia
, a country located south of Finland
Finland
and the Finnish Gulf . Their national language belongs to Finnic branch and is known as Estonian (Estonian : eesti keel).

Although Estonia
Estonia
is often geopolitically categorized as one of the Baltics , Estonians
Estonians
are linguistically, culturally and historically related to the neighboring Finns—both belonging to the Finnic people —differing from the non-Finnic Indo-European speaking Baltic peoples of Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania
Lithuania
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Prehistoric roots * 1.2 National consciousness

* 2 Emigration

* 2.1 Estonians
Estonians
in Canada
Canada

* 3 See also * 4 Notes and references * 5 Further reading * 6 External links

HISTORY

PREHISTORIC ROOTS

Estonia
Estonia
was first inhabited about 10,000 years ago, just after the Baltic ice lake had retreated from Estonia. While it is not certain what languages were spoken by the first settlers, it is often maintained that speakers of early Uralic languages related to modern Estonian had arrived in what is now Estonia
Estonia
by about 5,000 years ago. Living in the same area for more than 5,000 years would put the ancestors of Estonians
Estonians
among the oldest permanent inhabitants in Europe. On the other hand, some recent linguistic estimations suggest that Fenno-Ugrian language arrived around the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
considerably later, perhaps during the Early Bronze Age (ca. 1800 BCE).

The oldest known endonym of the Estonians
Estonians
is Maarahvas. Eesti, the modern endonym of Estonia, is thought to be derived from the word Aestii , the name given by the ancient Germanic people to the Baltic people living northeast of the Vistula River . The Roman historian Tacitus in 98 AD was the first to mention the "Aestii" people, and early Scandinavians called the land south of the Gulf of Finland "Eistland" ("Eistland" is also the current word in Icelandic for Estonia), and the people "eistr". Proto- Estonians
Estonians
(as well as other speakers of the Finnish language
Finnish language
group) were also called Chuds (чудь) in Old East Slavic chronicles .

The Estonian language
Estonian language
belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic family of languages, as does the Finnish language
Finnish language
. The first known book in Estonian was printed in 1525, while the oldest known examples of written Estonian originate in 13th-century chronicles. Estonians are genetically closest to their neighbouring Tver region Russians and Latvians . However, Estonians
Estonians
are still the nearest genetic relatives of Finns
Finns
.

NATIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS

Although Estonian national consciousness spread in the course of the 19th century during the Estonian national awakening , some degree of ethnic awareness preceded this development. By the 18th century the self-denomination eestlane spread among Estonians
Estonians
along with the older maarahvas. Anton thor Helle 's translation of the Bible into Estonian appeared in 1739, and the number of books and brochures published in Estonian increased from 18 in the 1750s to 54 in the 1790s. By the end of the century more than a half of adult peasants could read. The first university-educated intellectuals identifying themselves as Estonians, including Friedrich Robert Faehlmann (1798–1850), Kristjan Jaak Peterson (1801–1822) and Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald (1803–1882), appeared in the 1820s. The ruling elites had remained predominantly German in language and culture since the conquest of the early 13th century. Garlieb Merkel (1769–1850), a Baltic-German Estophile , became the first author to treat the Estonians
Estonians
as a nationality equal to others; he became a source of inspiration for the Estonian national movement, modelled on Baltic German cultural world before the middle of the 19th century. However, in the middle of the century, the Estonians
Estonians
became more ambitious and started leaning toward the Finns
Finns
as a successful model of national movement and, to some extent, toward the neighbouring Latvian national movement . By the end of 1860 the Estonians
Estonians
became unwilling to reconcile with German cultural and political hegemony. Before the attempts at Russification in the 1880s, their view of Imperial Russia
Russia
remained positive.

Estonians
Estonians
have strong ties to the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
stemming from important cultural and religious influences gained over centuries during Scandinavian and German rule and settlement. Indeed, Estonians consider themselves Nordic rather than Baltic , in particular because of close ethnic and linguistic affinities with the Finns.

After the Treaty of Tartu (1920) recognised Estonia's 1918 independence from Russia, ethnic Estonians
Estonians
residing in Russia
Russia
gained the option of opting for Estonian citizenship (those who opted were called optandid - 'optants') and returning to their fatherland. An estimated 40,000 Estonians
Estonians
lived in Russia
Russia
in 1920. In sum, 37,578 people moved from Soviet Russia
Russia
to Estonia
Estonia
(1920–1923). Estonian national costumes : 1. Kadrina 2. Mihkli 3. Seto 4. Paistu Estonian national costumes : 5. Muhu 6. Karja 7. Tõstamaa 8. Pärnu-Jaagupi

EMIGRATION

During World War II
World War II
, when Estonia
Estonia
was invaded by the Soviet Army in 1944, large numbers of Estonians
Estonians
fled their homeland on ships or smaller boats over the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. Many refugees who survived the risky sea voyage to Sweden
Sweden
or Germany
Germany
later moved from there to Canada , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, the United States
United States
or Australia
Australia
. Some of these refugees and their descendants returned to Estonia
Estonia
after the nation regained its independence in 1991.

Over the years of independence, increasing numbers of Estonians
Estonians
have chosen to work abroad, primarily in Finland, but also in other European countries, making Estonia
Estonia
the country with the highest emigration rate in Europe. This is at least partly due to the easy access to oscillating migration to Finland.

Recognising the problems arising from both low birth rate and high emigration, the country has launched various measures to both increase the birth rate and to lure migrant Estonians
Estonians
back to Estonia. Former president Toomas Hendrik Ilves has lent his support to the campaign Talendid koju! (Bringing talents home) which aims to coordinate and promote the return of Estonians
Estonians
who have particular skills needed in Estonia.

ESTONIANS IN CANADA

The largest permanent Estonian community outside Estonia
Estonia
is in Canada with about 24,000 people (according to some sources up to 50,000 people). In the late 1940s and early 1950s, about 17,000 arrived in Canada. Toronto
Toronto
is the city with the largest population of Estonians outside of Estonia. The first Estonian World Festival was held in Toronto
Toronto
in 1972. Some famous Estonian Canadians include Endel Tulving and Elmar Tampõld .

SEE ALSO

* Demographics of Estonia
Estonia
* Estonian national awakening * List of Estonian Americans * List of notable Estonians
Estonians

NOTES AND REFERENCES

* ^ "Population by ethnic nationality". Statistics Estonia
Estonia
. Retrieved 30 March 2016. * ^ "Tilastokeskus - Population". Retrieved 4 May 2015. * ^ "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported 2013 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States
United States
Census Bureau . Retrieved 2 September 2014. * ^ A B "Canada- Estonia
Estonia
Relations". Retrieved 17 March 2015. * ^ "Eestlased Rootsis". * ^ Об итогах Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года (IN RUSSIAN). RUSSIAN FEDERAL STATE STATISTICS SERVICE. ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL (PPT) ON 18 JANUARY 2012. RETRIEVED 17 MARCH 2015. * ^ "2054.0 Australian Census Analytic Program: Australians\' Ancestries (2001 (Corrigendum))" (PDF). Australian Bureau of Statistics . 2001. Retrieved 17 September 2011. * ^ https://www.destatis.de/DE/Publikationen/Thematisch/Bevoelkerung/MigrationIntegration/AuslaendBevoelkerung.html?nn=68748 * ^ "Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents, 1 January 2016". Statistics Norway
Norway
. Accessed 01 May 2016. * ^ "United Kingdom". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 May 2016. * ^ "The distribution of the population by nationality and mother tongue". State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. 2001. * ^ "Persons usually resident and present in the State on Census Night, classified by place of birth and age group". Central Statistics Office Ireland. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. * ^ "Estemb in Belgium
Belgium
and Luxembourg". Retrieved 17 March 2015. * ^ http://data.csb.gov.lv/Selection.aspx?px_path=Sociala__Ikgad%C4%93jie%20statistikas%20dati__Iedz%C4%ABvot%C4%81ji__Iedz%C4%ABvot%C4%81ji%20skaits%20un%20t%C4%81%20izmai%C5%86as&px_tableid=IS0191.px&px_language=lv&px_db=Sociala&rxid=992a0682-2c7d-4148-b242-7b48ff9fe0c2 * ^ http://www.statistikbanken.dk/FT * ^ "Dialog". rannsokn.hagstofa.is. * ^ Ivković, Sanja Kutnjak; Haberfeld, M.R. (10 June 2015). Measuring Police Integrity Across the World: Studies from Established Democracies and Countries in Transition. Springer. p. 131. ISBN 9781493922796 . Estonia
Estonia
is considered Protestant when classified by its historically predominant major religion (Norris and Inglehart 2011) and thus some authors (e.g., Davie 2003) claim Estonia
Estonia
belongs to Western (Lutheran) Europe, while others (e.g., Norris and Inglehart 2011) see Estonia
Estonia
as a Protestant ex-Communist society. * ^ Ringvee, Ringo (16 September 2011). "Is Estonia
Estonia
really the least religious country in the world?". The Guardian
The Guardian
. For this situation there are several reasons, starting from the distant past (the close connection of the churches with the Swedish or German ruling classes) up to the Soviet-period atheist policy when the chain of religious traditions was broken in most families. In Estonia, religion has never played an important role on the political or ideological battlefield. The institutional religious life was dominated by foreigners until the early 20th century. The tendencies that prevailed in the late 1930s for closer relations between the state and Lutheran church ended with the Soviet occupation in 1940. Missing or empty url= (help ); access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Virpi Laitinena; et al. (2002). "Y-Chromosomal Diversity Suggests that Baltic Males Share Common Finno-Ugric-Speaking Forefathers" (PDF). Human Heredity. pp. 68–78. * ^ Unrepresented Nations and peoples organization By Mary Kate Simmons; p141 ISBN 978-90-411-0223-2 * ^ Petri Kallio 2006: Suomalais-ugrilaisen kantakielen absoluuttisesta kronologiasta. — Virittäjä 2006. (With English summary). * ^ Häkkinen, Jaakko (2009). "Kantauralin ajoitus ja paikannus: perustelut puntarissa. – Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Aikakauskirja" (PDF). p. 92. * ^ A B Ariste, Paul (1956). "Maakeel ja eesti keel. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised 5: 117–24; Beyer, Jürgen (2007). Ist maarahvas (‚Landvolk'), die alte Selbstbezeichnung der Esten, eine Lehnübersetzung? Eine Studie zur Begriffsgeschichte des Ostseeraums". Zeitschrift für Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung . 56: 566–593. * ^ Nelis, Mari; et al. (2009). "Genetic Structure of Europeans: A View from the North–East". PLOS ONE . 5 (3). doi :10.1371/annotation/2849e182-aef5-4e2b-a5ac-0b74b30e5f48 . * ^ Gellner, Ernest (1996). "Do nations have navels?". Nations and Nationalism . 2 (2): 365–70. * ^ A B Raun, Toivo U (2003). "Nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Estonian nationalism revisited". Nations and Nationalism . 9 (1): 129–147. doi :10.1111/1469-8219.00078 . * ^ Piirimäe, Helmut. Historical heritage: the relations between Estonia
Estonia
and her Nordic neighbors. In M. Lauristin et al. (eds.), Return to the Western world: Cultural and political perspectives on the Estonian post-communist transition. Tartu: Tartu University Press, 1997. * ^ Estonian foreign ministry report, 2004 * ^ Estonian foreign ministry report, 2002 * ^ Лоткин И.В. "Оптационная кампания и эвакуация граждан прибалтийских государств на историческую родину в начале 1920-х годов" (PDF). library.krasu.ru (in Russian).

* ^ Past, E. (2015). By Land and By Sea. booklocker.com. * ^ "The CIA World Factbook Country Comparison of net migration rate". cia.gov. * ^ "Toome talendid Eestimaale tagasi - Talendid Koju!". talendidkoju.ee. * ^ "Estonian Embassy in Ottawa". Retrieved 17 March 2015. * ^ "The Estonian Presence in Toronto". Retrieved 17 March 2015.

FURTHER READING

* Petersoo, Pille (January 2007). "Reconsidering otherness: constructing Estonian identity". Nations and Nationalism . 13 (1): 117–133. doi :10.1111/j.1469-8129.2007.00276.x .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to PEOPLE OF ESTONIA .

* Office of the Minister for Population and Ethnic Affairs: Estonians
Estonians
abroad * From Estonia
Estonia
To Thirlmere

.