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Fennoman Movement
The Fennoman movement or Fennomania was a Finnish nationalist movement in the 19th-century Grand Duchy of Finland, built on the work of the ''fennophile'' interests of the 18th and early-19th centuries. History After the Crimean War, Fennomans founded the Finnish Party and intensified the language strife, yearning to raise the Finnish language and Finnic culture from peasant status to the position of a national language and a national culture. The opposition, the Svecomans, tried to defend the status of Swedish and the ties to the Germanic world. Although the notion of ''Fennomans'' was not as common after the generation of Juho Kusti Paasikivi (born 1870), their ideas have dominated the Finns' understanding of their nation. The mother tongue of many of the first generation of Fennomans, like Johan Vilhelm Snellman, was Swedish. Some of the originally Swedish-speaking Fennomans learned Finnish, and made a point of using it inside and outside the home. Several Fennoma ...
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Young Finnish Party
The Young Finnish Party or Constitutional-Fennoman Party ( fi, Nuorsuomalainen Puolue or ) was a liberal and nationalist political party in the Grand Duchy of Finland. It began as an upper-class reformist movement during the 1870s and formed as a political party in 1894. Background Industrialization and opening of the Finnish economy by Emperor Alexander II gave room for liberal economic thinking. The Young Finns opposed on constitutional basis Russification efforts that commenced during 1899-1905. During that period various political factions joined the movement and they were held together by a common opponent, the autocratic Russian Empire. The movement separated itself from the main Fennoman movement, the Finnish Party due to political competition between two political generations that had differing views on Finland's constitutional status in the Russian Empire. In 1907, after a general strike that finished the first Russification period and brought parliamentary democracy ...
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Julius Krohn
Julius Leopold Fredrik Krohn (19 April 1835 – 28 August 1888) was a Finnish folk poetry researcher, professor of Finnish literature, poet, hymn writer, translator and journalist. He was born in Viipuri and was of Baltic German origin. Krohn worked as a lecturer on Finnish language in Helsinki University from the year 1875 and as a supernumerary professor from 1885. He was one of the most notable researchers into Finnish folk poetry in the 19th century. His native language was German. Life Krohn's mother was Julie Dannenberg, a daughter of the Baltic German family at  Kiiskilä manor near Vyborg. The versatile and talented Julie spoke eight languages and played the piano brilliantly.  The other half of Julie Dannenberg's family was of Ingrian background. Works and influence Krohn mostly preferred not to write under his foreign surname, but either adopted a pen name or worked as part of a collective, such as the fennomans, of which he was a lead ...
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Hjalmar Mellin
Robert Hjalmar Mellin (19 June 1854 – 5 April 1933) was a Finnish mathematician and function theorist. Biography Mellin studied at the University of Helsinki and later in Berlin under Karl Weierstrass. He is chiefly remembered as the developer of the integral transform known as the ''Mellin transform''. He studied related gamma functions, hypergeometric functions, Dirichlet series and the Riemann ζ function. He was appointed professor at the Polytechnic Institute in Helsinki, which later became Helsinki University of Technology with Mellin as first rector. Later in his career Mellin also became known for his critical opposition to the theory of relativity; he published several papers in which he argued against the theory from a chiefly philosophical standpoint. In his private life he was known as an outspoken fennoman: a proponent of adopting Finnish as the language of state and culture in the Grand Duchy of Finland, in preference to Swedish, which had predominantly bee ...
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Agathon Meurman
Agathon Meurman (9 October 1826, Kangasala – 17 January 1909, Helsinki)Agathon Meurman
– Agathon Meurmanin sukuseura (in Finnish) was a Finnish politician and journalist. He was one of the key persons of the and since 1863 the leader of the together with

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Johannes Linnankoski
Johannes Linnankoski (originally Vihtori Johan Peltonen, 18 October 1869 – 10 August 1913) was a Finnish author and playwright, which mainly influenced writing in the Golden Age of Finnish Art. His most famous work is the romance novel, ''The Song of the Blood-Red Flower'' (1905). His primary themes were guilt, punishment, and redemption as moral questions. Life Linnankoski was born in Vakkola, Askola and was active in the cultural life of Eastern Uusimaa. He was one of the founders of the bank in Porvoo and also founded Finnish-language schools and daily newspapers such as ''Uusimaa'', the first Finnish-language newspaper situated outside of the major towns of Uusimaa. Linnankoski married Ester Drugg in 1899 and they had four children: Marjatta, Salama, Touko and Urmas. All his children were born under the surname Peltonen.
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Lauri Kivekäs (Fennoman)
Lauri Jaakko Kivekäs, titled '' Vuorineuvos'' (7 July 1903, in Muuruvesi, Finland – 12 February 1998; surname until 1926 ''Stenbäck''), was a Finnish businessman. He served as Minister of Trade and Industry from 1957 to 1958. He was the former Chairman of Confederation of Finnish Industries and the first Chairman of Nokia Corporation Nokia Corporation (natively Nokia Oyj, referred to as Nokia) is a Finnish multinational telecommunications, information technology, and consumer electronics corporation, established in 1865. Nokia's main headquarters are in Espoo, Finland, i ... after the 1967 merger of the three Finnish companies Nokia Company, Finnish Rubber Works and Finnish Cable Works. He remained Nokia Chairman until 1977 when he was replaced by Björn Westerlund. References 1903 births 1998 deaths People from Juankoski People from Kuopio Province (Grand Duchy of Finland) Ministers of Trade and Industry of Finland 20th-century Finnish businesspe ...
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Alexandra Gripenberg
Alexandra Gripenberg, also known as Alexandra van Grippenberg, (1857 – 24 December 1913) was a Finnish social activist, author, editor, newspaper publisher, and elected politician, and was a leading voice within the movement for women's rights in Finland at the turn of the 20th century. She was also known as a Fennoman. Biography Gripenberg was born in 1857, and her family were Swedish-speaking nobles. She was instrumental in the establishment of the first official women's rights organization in Finland, the Suomen Naisyhdistys (Finnish Women's Association), in Helsinki in 1884 and became one of its active members. She served as the president of the association for two terms, 1889–1904 and 1909–1913. Between 1887–1888, she traveled in England and the United States, to study lessons from the women's movements of those countries. The tour inspired her book ''A Half Year in the New World'' published in 1889. The same year she also founded one of the earliest Finnish women' ...
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Yrjö Sakari Yrjö-Koskinen
Baron Yrjö Sakari Yrjö-Koskinen (birth name Georg Zakarias Forsman, author name Yrjö Koskinen; 10 December 1830 in Vaasa – 13 November 1903 in Helsinki) was a friherre, senator, professor, historian, politician and the chairman of the Finnish Party after Johan Vilhelm Snellman. He was a central figure in the fennoman movement. His original name was Georg Zakarias Forsman and his family from his father's side originated from Sweden. He later fennicized his name to Yrjö Sakari Yrjö-Koskinen. He was the husband of Finland's first female author, Theodolinda Hahnsson. He is buried in the Hietaniemi Cemetery The Hietaniemi cemetery ( fi, Hietaniemen hautausmaa, sv, Sandudds begravningsplats) is located mainly in the Lapinlahti quarter and partly in the Etu-Töölö district of Helsinki, the capital of Finland. It is the location for Finnish state fu ... in Helsinki. References External links * * Yrjö Koskinen in 375 humanists 28.1.2015, Faculty of Arts, University o ...
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Fredrik Cygnaeus
Fredrik Cygnaeus (1 April 1807 – 7 February 1881) was a Finnish poet, art critic and collector, docent of history and university professor of aesthetics and literature. Cygnaeus was an influential figure in Finnish art and literature, contributed to Finnish nationalism and was a central person in the Fennoman movement (''Fennomani''). Biography Cygnaeus was born at Hämeenlinna, Finland. He was the son of Zacharias Cygnaeus and Margaret Karolina Aejmalaeus. He was born in wealthy aristocratic family, his grandfather and father were both bishops, and his father was invited to St. Petersburg as a bishop for the Lutheran parishes. Fredrik Cygnaeus attended schools in St. Petersburg, learned foreign languages and received European influences. In 1823 he returned to Finland and attended Imperial Alexander University in Turku. He graduated as a Master of Philosophy in 1832 and taught in schools in Hamina (1833–1837) and Helsinki (1839–1843). Cygnaeus traveled extensi ...
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Daniel Juslenius
Daniel Juslenius (10 June 1676, Mynämäki – 17 July 1752, Skara) was a Finnish writer and bishop. He was a professor of Hebrew, Greek and theology at the Royal Academy of Turku. Juslenius is considered Finland's first Fennoman and a firm advocate of Finnishness. In his works, he presented completely overblown images of the past of the Finnish people. He wrote, for example, ''Aboa vetus et Nova'' (''"Vanha ja uusi Turku"'', 1700, ''"The Old and New Turku"''), in which he claimed that the civilisations of Rome and Ancient Greece originated in Finland. He also wrote ''Vindiciae Fennorum'' (''"Suomalaisten puolustus"'', 1703, ''"The Defence of the Finns"''). Both works represent homeland images which were fashionable to write about in the late 17th century. The purpose of this depiction was to make an inventory of the possessions during Sweden's time as a great power. Juslenius' picture of Finland Juslenius derived the family roots of the Finns from the family of Magog i ...
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Matti Klinge
Matti Klinge (born August 31, 1936, Helsinki) is a Finnish historian. He studied at the University of Helsinki and gained his Ph.D. in 1969. He later served as a Visiting Professor at the University of Paris (1970–1972) and held the Swedish Professorship of History at the University of Helsinki The University of Helsinki ( fi, Helsingin yliopisto, sv, Helsingfors universitet, abbreviated UH) is a public research university located in Helsinki, Finland since 1829, but founded in the city of Turku (in Swedish ''Åbo'') in 1640 as the R ... between 1975 and 2001.Biography
at the website of the Finnish publishing company Söderströms. Klinge is one of the most prolific Finnish historians.


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