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EPPING FOREST is a 2,400 hectares (5,900 acres) area of ancient woodland between Epping in the north and Wanstead
Wanstead
in the south, straddling the border between Greater London
Greater London
and Essex
Essex
. It is a former royal forest , and is managed by the City of London Corporation . An area of 1,728 hectares (4,270 acres) is a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special
Special
Area of Conservation . It gives its name to the Epping Forest
Epping Forest
local government district , which covers part of it.

The forest is approximately 19 kilometres (12 mi) long in the north-south direction, but no more than 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from east to west at its widest point, and in most places considerably narrower. It lies on a ridge between the valleys of the rivers Lea and Roding . It contains areas of woodland, grassland, heath, rivers, bogs and ponds, and its elevation and thin gravelly soil (the result of glaciation) historically made it unsuitable for agriculture.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Early history to 17th century * 1.2 Queen Elizabeth\'s Hunting Lodge * 1.3 Fighting enclosure * 1.4 "The People\'s Forest"

* 2 Ecology * 3 Lakes and ponds * 4 Leisure activities * 5 Visitor centres * 6 Public transport

* 7 Cultural associations

* 7.1 Fine art * 7.2 Literature * 7.3 Music * 7.4 Television * 7.5 Cinema

* 8 Crime

* 8.1 Murders

* 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Sources * 12 External links

HISTORY

EARLY HISTORY TO 17TH CENTURY

The name "Epping Forest" was first recorded in the 17th century; prior to this it was known as Waltham Forest (which gives its name to the present-day London Borough of Waltham Forest , which covers part of the modern forest).

The area which became known as Waltham, and then Epping Forest
Epping Forest
has been continuously forested since Neolithic
Neolithic
times. Embankments of two Iron Age earthworks – Loughton Camp and Ambresbury Banks – can be found in the woodland, but pollen profiles show that Iron Age occupation had no significant effect on the forest ecology. The former lime/linden Tilia
Tilia
-dominated woodland was permanently altered during Saxon times by selective cutting of trees. Today's beech-birch and oak-hornbeam-dominated forest was the result of partial forest clearance in Saxon times.

The forest is thought to have been given legal status as a royal forest by Henry II in the 12th century. This status allowed commoners to use the forest to gather wood and foodstuffs, and to graze livestock and turn out pigs for mast, but only the king was allowed to hunt there. "Forest" in the historical sense of royal forest meant an area of land reserved for royal hunting, where the forest laws applied, and did not imply that it was necessarily wooded. Queen Elizabeth 's Hunting Lodge, Chingford

QUEEN ELIZABETH\'S HUNTING LODGE

In Tudor times, Henry VIII and Queen Elizabeth I may have hunted in the forest, though no documentary evidence has survived to prove it. In 1543, Henry commissioned a building, known as Great Standing, from which to view the chase at Chingford . The building was renovated in 1589 for Queen Elizabeth I and can still be seen today in Chingford. The building is now known as Queen Elizabeth\'s Hunting Lodge , and is open to the public. There is another hunt standing, which now forms the core of the Forest HQ at the Warren, Loughton .

FIGHTING ENCLOSURE

There were disputes between landowners (who enclosed land) and commoners (who had grazing and cutting rights). One group of commoners was led by Thomas Willingale (1799–1870) who on behalf of the villagers of Loughton continued to lop the trees after the Lord of the Manor (Maitland) had enclosed 550 hectares (1,400 acres) of forest in Loughton. This led to an injunction against further enclosures.

The Epping Forest
Epping Forest
Act 1878 was passed, saving the forest from enclosure, and halting the shrinkage of the forest that this had caused. Epping Forest
Epping Forest
ceased to be a royal forest and was placed in the care of the City of London Corporation who act as Conservators . In addition, the Crown's right to venison was terminated, and pollarding was no longer allowed, although grazing rights continued. This act laid down a stipulation that the Conservators "shall at all times keep Epping Forest
Epping Forest
unenclosed and unbuilt on as an open space for the recreation and enjoyment of the people". In compensation for the loss of lopping rights, Lopping Hall in Loughton was built as a community building.

Dick Turpin is alleged to have had a hideout in the forest

The forest has long standing criminal associations. In the 18th century, Epping Forest
Epping Forest
became notorious as the haunt of highwaymen , who preyed on the coaches of wealthy racegoers on the road from London to Newmarket . Dick Turpin and Tom King used the forest as a hideaway, and Jack Rann , known as "Sixteen String Jack", had a pub named after him in Theydon Bois
Theydon Bois
. Turpin had a hideout there. The tree cover and the forest's location close to London have made it notorious as a burial area for murder victims. Triple policeman murderer Harry Roberts hid out in the forest for a short time before his arrest in 1966.

MURDERS

* 1966 Marian Hartley, a 15-year-old schoolgirl was killed by Joseph Kiely, 20. Kiely dragged Hartley into the forest late at night, in the Chingford area, after she had been to a school dance, whereby he sexually assaulted her and strangled her. * 1970 The bodies of Susan Blatchford (eleven years old), and Gary Hanlon (twelve years old), were discovered in a copse on Lippitts Hill, after they went missing from their homes in Enfield , north London, in March 1970. The case was to be known as the \'Babes in the Wood\' murders . Thirty years later, Ronald Jebson, already serving a life sentence for the 1974 murder of eight-year-old Rosemary Papper, confessed to the murders. * 1981 The thin decomposed 6 ft body of a white European man aged 30–40 was found in the undergrowth in the forest. He had a money belt containing English and Spanish money and wore a watch, costing approximately £40. The body remains unidentified * 1989 Terence Gooderham, an accountant, and his girlfriend, Maxine Arnold, who were both killed in a hit-man-style slaying whereby they were both shot with a double barrelled shotgun. Although unsolved, it has been reported in the press that James Moody , described as "Britain's most notorious hitman" may have been responsible for the killings, although he was also murdered a few years later. It has been further suggested in the press that Gooderham was targeted because he creamed off £250,000 in drugs money that he was involved in laundering and that the hit was order by the Adams Family criminal organisation, which is also known as the Clerkenwell crime syndicate . * 1990 Patricia Parsons, who ran a massage parlour , was found dead in her car having been shot in the head with a cross-bow. It was suggested that she had a 'black book' of clients and was subject to a contract killing following the possibility that she was going to sell details to a newspaper. The murder remains unsolved. * 2000 Wendy Woodhouse, 31, was taken to forest in Essex, stripped, tortured and beaten to death with a snooker cue by two men who thought she had cheated them in a drugs deal. Courtney Peters, 28, an illegal immigrant from Jamaica
Jamaica
, and Ewing Thomas, 25, of Stoke Newington , north London, were jailed for life for her murder at the Old Bailey .

* 2004 The remains of Ivor Willis were found on Wanstead
Wanstead
Flats , who had been missing for two years. * 2004 The body of a person aged 40 years or more was found in the forest. Experts could not identify the person's sex as the body was believed to have been there for up to 20 years. The body remains unidentified. * 2005 Shah Afruj Ali, 40, was lured to forest and stabbed, before his body was burnt by his younger lover Joygun Nessa, 27, and her brother Azhor Khan, 18, in 2005. * 2005 Rafal Czapczyk was found, after passers-by heard gunshots, with ballistic wounds to his head at Wake Arms. He died later in hospital. The body remained unidentified for several months until his family in Poland
Poland
recognised mortuary pictures that had been released by police. It is not believed that his killers have been found. * 2015 Scotland Yard launched a murder inquiry after the body of Hidir Aksakal was found close to Hollow Ponds, Leytonstone on 9 September 2015.

SEE ALSO

* Edward Buxton , who played a part in saving the forest for public use * Epping Forest Keepers , responsible for the management and care of the forest. * List of Sites of Special
Special
Scientific Interest in Greater London
Greater London
* List of Sites of Special
Special
Scientific Interest in Essex
Essex
* Metropolitan Police Air Support Unit , is based in the forest at Lippits Hill * Stephen Pewsey , historian * Fred J Speakman , naturalist and author

REFERENCES

* ^ "Epping Forest". City of London. Retrieved 3 January 2015. * ^ A B " Epping Forest
Epping Forest
SSSI citation" (PDF). Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012. * ^ "Map of Epping Forest
Epping Forest
(SSSI)". Natural England. Retrieved 14 July 2013. * ^ " Special
Special
Areas of Conservation: Epping Forest". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 14 January 2016. * ^ ELLIS, Peter Berresford 'A Guide to Early Celtic Remains in Britain.' London. Constable. 1991 * ^ Baker, Moxey, Oxford 1978. * ^ British listed buildings – The Warren, Loughton Retrieved 10 September 2012 * ^ Walford, E (1883). A Narrative of Greater London. Its Places. Its History. Its People. 2. p. 543. ISBN 0-543-96787-5 . Retrieved 4 December 2008. * ^ "The Warren, Loughton". Retrieved 20 March 2013. * ^ "Cattle Grazing on Epping Forest" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 June 2015. Retrieved 15 August 2012. * ^ "Waltham Forest Guardian 28 October 2008". Guardian-series.co.uk. 28 October 2008. Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012. * ^ City of London Epping Forest
Epping Forest
wildlife web page Archived 16 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ " Epping Forest
Epping Forest
Bye-Laws 1980 and additional Bye-Laws 1986" (PDF). Corporation of London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 June 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2011. * ^ City of London- Butler\'s Retreat Retrieved 25 February 2013 * ^ Epping Forest
Epping Forest
Gateway Retrieved 19 July 2013 * ^ News report Retrieved 18 July 2013 * ^ "The major ecological trend in the past 100 years has been towards uniformity" (Baker, Moxey, Oxford 1978). * ^ City of London press release on extension of grazing by cattle Archived 26 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ City of London- Epping Forest
Epping Forest
Retrieved 21 November 2014 * ^ Friends of Epping Forest
Epping Forest
– The Bomb Crater Retrieved 20 November 2014 * ^ Angling information Retrieved 27 November 2013 * ^ G. B. Buckley, Fresh Light on 18th Century Cricket, p. 7. * ^ ACS, Important Matches, p. 20. * ^ " Epping Forest
Epping Forest
- Other sports". www.cityoflondon.gov.uk. The City of London. Retrieved 24 April 2017. * ^ "Epping Forest: Loughton Camp:: OS grid TQ4197 :: Geograph British Isles – photograph every grid square!". Geograph.org.uk. Retrieved 15 August 2012. * ^ Comments from the Corp. at eppingtrails.co.uk Archived 3 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ "Annual Centenary Walk". Friends of Epping Forest. 18 September 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2012. * ^ King\'s Oak speedway Retrieved 6 August 2010 * ^ " Epping Forest
Epping Forest
- Football". www.cityoflondon.gov.uk. The City of London. Retrieved 24 April 2017. * ^ " Chingford Golf Course". www.chingfordgolfcourse.co.uk. The City of London. Retrieved 24 April 2017. * ^ City of London visitor information Retrieved 27 June 2013 * ^ "London Transport – Local Bus Maps". eplates.info. Retrieved 28 August 2013. * ^ A B Epping forest in literature Retrieved 25 April 2008 * ^ Mary Wollstonecraft
Mary Wollstonecraft
retrieved 25 April 2008 * ^ Roberts, Greg (16 June 2014). "Tally Ho! – A Brief History of The Epping Hunt Part 5 – A Fond Farewell". www.wickedwilliam.com. Resources for study of the life and times of William-Pole-Tylney-Long-Wellesley (1788-1857). Retrieved 19 November 2017. * ^ Barnaby Rudge Chapter 1 Retrieved 25 April 2008 * ^ William Morris gallery Archived 6 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved 26 April 2008 * ^ Wilson, Jean Moorcroft (2015). Edward Thomas: from Adlestrop to Arras: A Biography. Bloomsbury Continuum. p. 343. ISBN 978-1408187135 . * ^ " High Beach and Paul\'s Nursery". City of London.gov.uk. Retrieved 12 March 2017. * ^ Wilson 2015, p.363 * ^ Wisniewski, Jacek (2009). Edward Thomas: A Mirror of England. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 202. ISBN 978-1443802109 . * ^ Epping Forest
Epping Forest
Field Studies Centre Retrieved 25 April 2008 * ^ Speakman F & Curtis A, A Poacher's Tale (1960) ISBN 0-7135-0969-4 George Bell & Sons * ^ Speakman, F, A Keeper's Tale (1962) ISBN 0-85115-224-4 George Bell & Sons * ^ Ranger, James (18 June 2010), "HISTORY: A look at Lawrence of Arabia in Epping Forest", Epping Forest
Epping Forest
Guardian, archived from the original on 20 October 2011, retrieved 5 June 2011 * ^ "A fond farewell in Epping Forest". Whatsonstage.com Blogs. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 26 September 2016. * ^ Sydney Carter discography Retrieved 17 April 2009 * ^ Bowler, Dave; Dray, Bryan (1992). Genesis: A Biography. Sidgwick & Jackson Ltd. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-283-06132-5 . * ^ Trilogy Retrieved 31 August 2012 * ^ Most Haunted Live Archived 20 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved 11 February 2011 * ^ East Enders Retrieved 3 April 2012 * ^ News report Retrieved 4 September 2013 * ^ Robin\'s Nest Retrieved 29 September 2015 * ^ IMDB – Epping Forest
Epping Forest
Retrieved 1 February 2013 * ^ IMDB – Monty Python and the Holy Grail Retrieved 1 February 2013 * ^ Cannon, John; Crowcroft, Robert, eds. (1997). The Oxford Companion to British History. Oxford University Press. p. 465. ISBN 978-0-19-967783-2 . * ^ Brandon, David (2001). Stand and Deliver!: A History of Highway Robbery. The History Press. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-7524-6820-4 . * ^ W Addison, Epping Forest, its Literary and Historical Associations, 1946. * ^ Marian Hartley, Gary Jones. * ^ Babes in the Wood murders * ^ "Babes in the Woods murders". News.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 5 January 2011. * ^ Appeals renewed for two unidentified bodies found in Epping Forest, Harry Kemble, Ilford
Ilford
Recorder, 29 November 2013. * ^ Maxine Arnold And Terry Gooderham – Epping Forest
Epping Forest
Archived 4 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
., True Crime Library. * ^ Moody: The Life and Crimes of Britain\'s Most Notorious Hitman, by Wensley Clarkson. * ^ The hit at the Royal Hotel, Cal McCrystal, August 1993, The Independent. * ^ Busted: The fall of Britain\'s most ruthless gangster, The Independent, 8 February 2007. * ^ Clerkenwell crime syndicate * ^ Crossbow killing of vice girl: Man held 17 YEARS ON; EXCLUSIVE DNA TESTS LEAD TO BREAKTHROUGH, The Free Library. * ^ Patricia Parsons – Epping Forest