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The East Coast Main Line
East Coast Main Line
(ECML) is a 393-mile long (632 km)[2] major railway[1] link between London
London
and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
via Peterborough, Doncaster, Wakefield, Leeds, York, Darlington, Durham and Newcastle, electrified along the whole route. Services north of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
to Aberdeen
Aberdeen
and Inverness
Inverness
use diesel trains. The main franchise on the line is operated by Virgin Trains
Virgin Trains
East Coast. The route forms a key artery on the eastern side of Great Britain
Great Britain
and is broadly paralleled by the A1 trunk road. It links London, South East England
England
and East Anglia, with Yorkshire, the North East Regions and Scotland. It also carries key commuter flows for the north side of London. It is important to the economic health of several areas of England
England
and Scotland. It also handles cross-country, commuter and local passenger services, and carries heavy tonnages of freight traffic.

Contents

1 Route definition and description 2 History

2.1 Electrification

3 Infrastructure

3.1 Tunnels, viaducts and bridges 3.2 Line-side monitoring equipment

4 Rolling stock

4.1 Commuter trains 4.2 High-speed trains 4.3 Future

5 Operators 6 Development

6.1 Capacity problems 6.2 Recent developments 6.3 Planned or proposed developments

7 Accidents 8 Passenger volume 9 Popular culture 10 References

Route definition and description[edit] The ECML forms part of Network Rail's Strategic Route G which comprises six separate lines:[3]

The main line between London
London
King's Cross and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Waverley stations, via Stevenage, Peterborough, Grantham, Newark North Gate, Retford, Doncaster, York, Northallerton, Darlington, Durham, Newcastle, Morpeth, Alnmouth, Berwick-upon-Tweed and Dunbar. The line crosses the Anglo-Scottish border
Anglo-Scottish border
at Marshall Meadows Bay; The Doncaster
Doncaster
branch of the Wakefield
Wakefield
Line, between Doncaster
Doncaster
and Leeds, via Wakefield
Wakefield
Westgate; The Northern City Line
Northern City Line
from Finsbury Park to Moorgate; and The Hertford Loop Line
Hertford Loop Line
from Alexandra Palace to Stevenage. The branch line to North Berwick The Dunbar loop

The core part of the route is the main line between King's Cross and Edinburgh, with the Hertford Loop used for local and freight services and the Northern City Line
Northern City Line
providing an inner suburban service direct to the city.[4] The route has ELRs ECM1 - ECM9. History[edit] The line was built by three railway companies, each serving their own area, but with the intention of linking up to form the through route that became the East Coast Main Line. From north to south they were

the North British Railway, from Edinburgh
Edinburgh
to Berwick-upon-Tweed, completed in 1846, the North Eastern Railway
Railway
from Berwick-upon-Tweed to Shaftholme the Great Northern Railway
Railway
from Shaftholme to King's Cross, completed in 1850.

When first completed, the GNR made an end-on connection at Askern, famously described by the GNR's chairman as, "a ploughed field four miles north of Doncaster",[5] with the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, a short section of which was used to reach the NER at Knottingley. In 1871, the route was shortened - NER opened a direct line which ran from an end-on junction with the GNR, at Shaftholme, just south of Askern to Selby
Selby
and then (once over Selby
Selby
bridge on the Leeds- Hull Line) direct to York[5] Realising that through journeys were an important part of their business, the companies established special rolling stock in 1860 on a collaborative basis; it was called the "East Coast Joint Stock". In 1923 the three companies were grouped into the London
London
and North Eastern Railway
Railway
(LNER). This later became part of British Railways
British Railways
in 1948. Numerous alterations to short sections of the original route have taken place, the most notable being the opening of the King Edward VII Bridge in Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
in 1906 and the Selby
Selby
Diversion, built to bypass anticipated mining subsidence from the Selby
Selby
coalfield and a bottleneck at Selby
Selby
station. The Selby
Selby
Diversion was opened in 1983 and diverged from the original ECML at Temple Hirst Junction, north of Doncaster, and joined the Leeds
Leeds
to York
York
Line at Colton Junction south west of York. The former line between Selby
Selby
and York
York
is now used as a cycle path.[6]

LNER Class A3
LNER Class A3
No. 2547 Doncaster
Doncaster
hauls the daily Flying Scotsman in 1928.

55012 "Crepello" enters King's Cross in May 1976. The Class 55 Deltic was the main express locomotive on the ECML between 1961 and 1981.

The ECML has been the backdrop for a number of famous rail journeys and locomotives. The line was worked for many years by Pacific locomotives designed by Gresley, including the famous steam locomotives "Flying Scotsman" and "Mallard". Mallard achieved a world record speed for a steam locomotive, at 126 miles per hour (203 km/h) and this record was never beaten. It made the run on the Grantham-to- Peterborough
Peterborough
section, on the descent of Stoke Bank. Steam locomotives were replaced by Diesel electrics in the early 1960s, when the purpose-built Deltic locomotive was developed by English Electric. The prototype was successful and a fleet of 22 locomotives was built, to handle all the important express traffic. The Class 55s were powered by two Napier Deltic
Napier Deltic
engines originally developed for fast torpedo boats, with the three crankshaft triangular configuration of the engines giving the Deltic name. Their characteristic throaty exhaust roar and chubby body outline made them unmistakable. The Class 55 was for a time the most powerful diesel locomotive in service in Britain, at 3,300 hp (2,500 kW). Just after the Deltics were introduced, the first sections of the East Coast Main Line were upgraded to allow 100 miles per hour (160 km/h) running. The first length to be cleared for the new higher speed was a 17 miles (27 km) stretch between Peterborough and Grantham
Grantham
on 15 June 1965, the second was 12 miles (19 km) between Grantham
Grantham
and Newark.[7] As the demand for higher speed intensified, the Deltics were superseded by the High Speed Train (HST), introduced between 1976 and 1981, and still in service in 2015, re-engined, with MTU engines replacing the original Paxman Valenta power units. A prototype of the HST, the Class 41 achieved 143 mph (230 km/h) on the line in 1973.[8][9] Current UK legislation requires in-cab signalling for speeds of over 125 mph which is the primary reason preventing the InterCity 225
InterCity 225
train-sets from operating at their design speed of 140 mph (225 km/h) in normal service. A secondary factor was that the signalling technology of the time was insufficient to allow detection of two broken rails on the line on which the train was operating.[10] Before the present in-cab regulations came in, British Rail experimented with 140 mph running by introducing a fifth, flashing green signalling aspect on the Down Fast line (signals P487 to P615) and Up Fast line (signals P610 to P494) between New England North and Stoke Tunnel. The fifth aspect is still shown in normal service and appears when the next signal is showing a green (or another flashing green) aspect and the signal section is clear, which ensures that there is sufficient braking distance to bring a train to a stand from 140 mph.[8] Locomotives have operated on the ECML at speeds of up to 161.7 mph (260.2 km/h) in test runs. The capability to run special test trains in excess of 125 mph is listed as being maintained in the LNE Sectional Appendix[11] Electrification[edit] The ECML was electrified using 25 kV AC overhead lines by British Rail in two phases between 1976 and 1991: The first phase between London (King's Cross) and Hitchin was carried out between 1976 and 1978 as part of the Great Northern Suburban Electrification Project using Mk.3A equipment. This included the Hertford Loop Line.[12] The second phase began in 1984, when authority was given to electrify to Edinburgh
Edinburgh
and Leeds
Leeds
using Mk.3B equipment. Construction began in 1985, and the section to Huntingdon was completed in 1986, Leeds
Leeds
was reached in 1988 and York
York
was reached in 1989, by 1991 electrification had reached Edinburgh, and full electric services began on 8 July that year, eight weeks later than originally planned at the start of the project.[13] At the peak of the electrification project during the late 1980s, it was claimed to be the "longest construction site in the world" at over 250 miles (400 km). The current InterCity 225 rolling stock was introduced in 1989 to work the electrified line.[14][15] Infrastructure[edit] The line is mainly four tracks from London
London
to Stoke Tunnel, south of Grantham. However, there are two major twin-track sections: the first of these is near Welwyn North Station as it crosses the Digswell Viaduct and passes through two tunnels; the second is a section around 'Stilton Fen', between Fletton Junction near Peterborough, and southwards towards Holme Junction; furthermore, the section between Holme Junction south to Huntingdon is mostly triple track. North of Grantham
Grantham
the route is twin track except for four-track sections at Retford around Doncaster, between Colton Junction (which is south of York), Thirsk and Northallerton, and another at Newcastle.[16] The main route is electrified along the full route and only the line between Leeds
Leeds
and York
York
(Neville Hill Depot to Colton Junction) is non-electrified.[16] This diversionary route will be electrified as part of the transpennine electrification scheme, to be completed by December 2018. With most of the line rated for 125 mph (200 km/h) operation, the ECML was the fastest main line in the UK until the opening of High Speed 1. These relatively high speeds are possible because much of the ECML travels on fairly straight track on the flatter, eastern regions of England, through Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
and Cambridgeshire, though there are significant speed restrictions (due to curvature) particularly north of Darlington
Darlington
and between Doncaster and Leeds. By contrast, the West Coast Main Line
West Coast Main Line
has to traverse the Trent Valley and the mountains of Cumbria, leading to many more curves and a lower general speed limit of 110 mph (180 km/h). Speeds on the West Coast Main Line
West Coast Main Line
(WCML) have been increased in recent years with the introduction of tilting Pendolino trains and now match the 125 mph speeds available on the ECML. Tunnels, viaducts and bridges[edit] Major civil engineering structures on the East Coast Main Line
East Coast Main Line
include the following.[17][18]

Tunnels, viaducts and major bridges on the East Coast Main Line

Railway
Railway
Structure Length Distance from Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Waverley ELR Location

Calton North Tunnel 490 yards (448 metres) 0 miles 27 chains – 0 miles 50 chains ECM8 East of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Waverley station

Calton South Tunnel 400 yards (366 metres) 0 miles 29 chains – 0 miles 47 chains

St. Margarets Tunnel 3 chains 1 miles 32 chains – 1 mile 35 chains

Dunglas Viaduct 6 chains 36 miles 02 chains – 36 miles 08 chains Between Dunbar and Berwick-upon-Tweed stations

(Former Penmanshiel Tunnel) 12 chains 39 miles 52 chains – 39 miles 64 chains

Distance from Newcastle

Royal Border Bridge 33 chains 66 miles 74 chains – 66 miles 41 chains ECM7 South of Berwick-upon-Tweed station

Viaduct 3 chains 66 miles 33 chains – 66 miles 30 chains

River Aln 10 chains 35 miles 50 chains – 35 miles 40 chains North of Alnmouth station

River Coquet 9 chains 30 miles 01 chains – 29 miles 72 chains North of Acklington station

Bothal (River Wansbeck) 9 chains 17 miles 57 chains –  17 mile 48 chains Between Pegswood and Morpeth stations

Plessey (River Blyth) 6 chains 12 miles 23 chains – 12 miles 17 chains Between Morpeth and Cramlington stations

Great Lime Road 3 chains 5 miles 53 chains – 5 miles 50 chains Between Cramlington and Chathill stations

Ouseburn Viaduct 14 chains 1 miles 18 chains – 1 mile 04 chains North of Manors station

Red Barns Tunnel 98 yards (90 metres) 0 miles 70 chains – 0 miles 65 chains

Viaduct 28 chains 0 miles 40 chains – 0 miles 11 chains East of Newcastle station

Distance from York

Viaduct 14 chains 80 miles 04 chains – 79 miles 70 chains ECM5 West and South of Newcastle station

King Edward Bridge 13 chains 79 miles 66 chains – 79 miles 53 chains

Viaduct 4 chains 79 miles 53 chains – 79 miles  49 chains

Chester-le-Street Viaduct 1 chain 72 miles 20 chains – 72 miles 19 chains North of Chester-le-Street station

Chester Moor or Dene Viaduct 10 chains 71 miles 07 chains – 70 miles 77 chains South of Chester-le-Street station

Plawsworth Viaduct 6 chains 69 miles 60 chains – 69 miles 54 chains

Durham Viaduct 12 chains 66 miles 06 chains – 65 miles 74 chains South of Durham station

Relly Mill Viaduct 6 chains 65 miles 23 chains – 65 miles 17 chains

Langley Moor Viaduct (River Dearness) 6 chains 64 miles 39 chains – 64 miles 33 chains

Croxdale Viaduct (River Wear) 9 chains 62 miles 18 chains – 62 miles 09 chains Between Durham and Darlington
Darlington
stations

Aycliffe Viaduct (River Skerne)

49 miles 17 chains

River Skerne
River Skerne
Viaduct 2 chains 47 miles 26 chains – 47 miles 24 chains

River Skerne
River Skerne
Viaduct 3 chains 45 miles 33 chains – 45 miles 30 chains

Croft Viaduct (River Tees) 6 chains 41 miles 11 chains – 41 miles 05 chains South of Darlington
Darlington
station

Skelton Bridge (River Ouse) 4 chains 3 miles 16 chains – 3 miles 12 chains Between Thirsk and York
York
stations

Distance from King’s Cross

Ryther Viaducts (River Wharfe) 25 chains 180 miles 28 chains – 180 miles 03 chains ECM3 Between York
York
and Doncaster
Doncaster
stations

Selby
Selby
Dam Viaduct 7 chains 175 miles 20 chains – 175 miles 13 chains

Selby
Selby
Canal Viaduct 2 chains 172 miles 44 chains – 172 miles 42 chains

River Aire 4 chains 169 miles 44 chains – miles 40 chains

Aire & Calder Navigation

166 miles 66 chains ECM2

Balby Bridge Tunnel 95 yards (87 metres) 155 miles 38 chains – 155 miles 34 chains ECM1 Between Doncaster
Doncaster
and Retford stations

Bawtry Viaduct 15 chains 147 miles 24 chains – 147 miles 09 chains

River Idle
River Idle
Viaduct 2 chains 138 miles 23 chains – 138 miles 21 chains Between Retford and Newark North Gate stations

Askham Tunnel 57 yards (52 metres) 134 miles 40 chains – 134 miles 37 chains

Viaduct

121 miles 40 chains

Muskham Viaduct 15 chains 121 miles 31 chains – 121 miles 16 chains

Peascliff Tunnel 968 yards (885 metres) 108 miles 29 chains – 107miles 65 chains Between Newark North Gate and Grantham
Grantham
stations

West Gate Viaduct

105 miles 54 chains North of Grantham
Grantham
station

Stoke Tunnel 880 yards (805 metres) 100 miles 79 chains – 100 miles 39 chains Between Grantham
Grantham
and Peterborough
Peterborough
stations

Bytham Viaduct 4 chains 92 miles 63 chains – 92 miles 59 chains

River Nene
River Nene
Viaduct 3 chains 75 miles 68 chains – 75 miles 65 chains South of Peterborough
Peterborough
station

Great Ouse Viaduct 3 chains 58 miles 18 chains – 58 miles 15 chains South of Huntingdon station

Robbery Lane Viaduct

23 miles 32 chains Between Knebworth and Welwyn North stations

Welwyn North Tunnel 1049 yards (959 metres) 23 miles 12 chains – 22 miles 44 chains

Welwyn South Tunnel 446 yards (408 metres) 22 miles 31 chains – 22 miles 11 chains

Welwyn or Digswell Viaduct 513 yards (469 metres) 21 miles 60 chains – 21 miles 37 chains Between Welwyn North and Welwyn Garden City stations

Potters Bar Tunnel[19] 1214 yards (1110 metres) 12 miles 00 chains – 11 miles 25 chains Between Potters Bar and Hadley Wood stations

Hadley Wood North Tunnel[19] 232 yards (212 metres) 10 miles 70 chains – 10 miles 60 chains North of Hadley Wood station

Hadley Wood South Tunnel[19] 384 yards (351 metres) 10 miles 39 chains – 10 miles 21 chains South of Hadley Wood station

Viaduct

8 miles 64 chains South of New Barnet station

Barnet Tunnel[19] 605 yards (351 metres) 7 miles 70 chains – 7 miles 42 chains Between Oakleigh Park and New Southgate stations

Wood Green Tunnels 705 yards (644 metres) 5 miles 73 chains – 5 miles 41 chains Between New Southgate and Alexandra Palace stations

Copenhagen Tunnel[19] 594 yards (543 metres) 1 mile 12 chains – 0 miles  65 chains North of King’s Cross station

Gasworks Tunnel[19] 528 yards (483 metres) 0 miles 46 chains – 0 miles 22 chains

Line-side monitoring equipment[edit] Line-side train monitoring equipment includes hot axle box detectors (HABD) and wheel impact load detectors (WILD) ‘Wheelchex’, these are located as follows.[17][18][20]

Line-side monitoring equipment on the East Cost Main Line

Name / Type Line Location Engineers Line Reference (ELR)

Stenton HABD Up Berwick 24 miles 20 chains (from Edinburgh) ECM8

Oxwellmains HABD Down Berwick 32 miles 65 chains

Innerwick Wheelchex Up Berwick, Down Berwick 33 miles 62 chains

Lamberton HABD Up Berwick 54 miles 06 chains

Goswick
Goswick
HABD Down Main 60 miles 66 chains (from Newcastle) ECM7

Newham HABD Up Main 47 miles 08 chains

Stamford HABD Up Main (was on Down Main before Sept. 2017) 40 miles 38 chains

Chevington HABD Up Main 25 miles 48 chains

Longhirst HABD Down Main 20 miles 20 chains

Dam Dykes HABD Up Main (Down Main removed Sept. 2017) 8 miles 45 chains

Plawsworth (Chester-le-Street) HABD Down Main 70 miles 20 chains (from York) ECM5

Littleburn (Durham) HABD Up Fast 63 miles 59 chains

Aycliffe HABD Down Main 49 miles 36 chains

Eryholme (East Cowton) HABD Down Main 38 miles 72 chains

Danby Wiske HABD Up Main 33 miles 50 chains

Sessay HABD Down Slow, Down Fast, Up Fast, Up Slow 16 miles 65 chains

Sessay Wheelchex Up Fast, Up Slow 16 miles 65 chains

Earfit Lane HABD Down Leeds, Down Main 184 miles 04 chains (from King’s Cross) ECM4

Daw Lane HABD Up Main 159 miles 10 chains ECM1

Bawtry HABD Down Main 148 miles 55 chains

Torworth HABD Up Main 143 miles 17 chains

Gamston (Askam) HABD Down Main 134 miles 37 chains

Cromwell HABD Up Main 124 miles 55 chains

Balderton HABD Down Main 116 miles 70 chains

Barkston HABD Up Main 109 miles 56 chains

Stoke HABD Down Main 99 miles 78 chains

Lolham HABD Up Fast, Up Slow 83 miles 33 chains

Holme HABD Down Main 69 miles 28 chains

Abbots Ripton HABD Up Main 64 miles 25 chains

Offord HABD Down Slow, Down Fast 54 miles 07 chains

Biggleswade HABD Up Fast, Up Slow 42 miles 10 chains

Wymondley HABD Up Fast, Up Slow 30 miles 60 chains

Langley HABD Down Slow, Down Fast 26 miles 62 chains

Rolling stock[edit]

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Commuter trains[edit]

Class Image Type Cars per set Top speed Number Operator Routes Built

mph km/h

Class 68

Diesel locomotive 1 100 160 2 Abellio ScotRail Fife Circle Line 2013-14

Mk2 Coach

Passenger coach 6 100 160 12 1973-75

Class 158

DMU 2 90 145 48 Abellio ScotRail Cumbernauld Line, Shotts Line, Fife Circle Line, Highland Main Line, Borders Railway, North Berwick Line
North Berwick Line
(Occasional Saturday Services to Dunbar) 1989-92

Class 170 Turbostar

DMU 3 90 145 55 Abellio ScotRail Glasgow to Edinburgh
Edinburgh
via Falkirk Line, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
to Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Line, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
to Dunblane Line, Fife Circle Line, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Crossrail, Highland Main Line, Borders Railway, North Berwick Line
North Berwick Line
(Saturday Services to Dunbar and a peak time North Berwick Service) 1998-2005

Class 185 Pennine

DMU 3 100 160 51 TransPennine Express Joining the ECML at York
York
and continuing Newcastle and Scarborough 2005–06

Class 313

EMU 3 75 120 44 Great Northern London
London
Moorgate and London
London
King's Cross to Welwyn Garden City, Hertford North, Stevenage, and Letchworth Garden City 1976–77

Class 318 (gangway removed)

EMU 3 90 145 21 Abellio ScotRail North Clyde Line 1986-87

Class 320

EMU 3 90 145 22 Abellio ScotRail North Clyde Line 1990

Class 320/4 (ex-Class 321/4)

100 161 7 1989–90

Class 334

EMU 3 90 145 21 Abellio ScotRail North Clyde Line 1999-2002

Class 350/4 Desiro

EMU 4 110 180 10 TransPennine Express Edinburgh
Edinburgh
to Manchester Airport 2013–14

Class 365

EMU 4 100 161 40 Great Northern London
London
King's Cross to Peterborough, Cambridge
Cambridge
and Ely 1994–95

Class 387/1

EMU 4 110 177 29 Great Northern London
London
King's Cross to Peterborough, Cambridge
Cambridge
and King's Lynn 2014-15

Class 380 Desiro

EMU 3 100 160 22 Abellio ScotRail North Berwick Line 2009-11

4 16

Class 700 'Desiro City'

EMU 8 100 160 60 Govia Thameslink
Thameslink
Railway Cambridge
Cambridge
to Brighton via London
London
Bridge Peterborough
Peterborough
to Horsham via London
London
Bridge

2015-18

12 55

High-speed trains[edit]

Class Image Type Cars per set Top speed Number Operator Routes Built

mph km/h

Class 43 HST InterCity 125

Diesel locomotive VTEC: 2 x 9 XC: 2 x 7 EMT: 2 x 8 125 200 58 Virgin Trains
Virgin Trains
East Coast CrossCountry East Midlands
East Midlands
Trains Virgin Trains
Virgin Trains
EC Services from London
London
King's Cross to: Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Inverness
Inverness
as well as daily services to Lincoln Central, Hull and Harrogate. CrossCountry
CrossCountry
joins the ECML at either Doncaster
Doncaster
or York
York
and continuing to Newcastle, Edinburgh, Glasgow Central, Dundee and Aberdeen East Midlands
East Midlands
operates a limited service of HSTs which joins the ECML at Doncaster
Doncaster
and continuing to Leeds 1976-82

Mark 3 Coach

Passenger coach 272 1975-88

Class 91 Intercity 225

Electric locomotive 2 x 9 140 225 31 Virgin Trains
Virgin Trains
East Coast London
London
King's Cross to: Edinburgh, Leeds, Glasgow Central, York
York
and Newcastle 1988—91

Mark 4 carriage

Passenger coach 302 1988-91

Driving Van Trailer

Driving Van Trailer 31 1988-91

Class 180 Adelante

DEMU 5 125 200 11 Grand Central Hull Trains Grand Central Services from London
London
King's Cross to: Sunderland and Bradford Interchange. Hull Trains
Hull Trains
Services from London
London
King's Cross to: Hull 2001

Class 220 Voyager

DEMU 4 125 200 34 CrossCountry Joining the ECML at either Doncaster
Doncaster
or York
York
and continuing to Newcastle, Edinburgh, Glasgow Central, Dundee and Aberdeen 2000-01

Class 221 SuperVoyager

DEMU 5 125 200 20 Virgin Trains
Virgin Trains
West Coast VTWC: Services between Edinburgh
Edinburgh
to: London
London
Euston via Birmingham and Preston 2001–2002

22 CrossCountry XC: Joining the ECML at either Doncaster
Doncaster
or York
York
and continuing to Newcastle, Edinburgh, Glasgow Central, Dundee and Aberdeen

Class 222 Meridian

DEMU 4 125 200 4 East Midlands
East Midlands
Trains East Midlands
East Midlands
operates a limited summer Saturday service which joins the ECML at Doncaster
Doncaster
and continuing to York
York
and Scarborough 2003–5

5 17

7 6

Class 390 Pendolino

EMU 9 or 11 140 (limited to 125) 225 (limited to 200) 56 Virgin Trains
Virgin Trains
West Coast Edinburgh
Edinburgh
to: London
London
Euston via Birmingham and Preston 2001-04 2009-12

Future[edit]

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Class Image Type Cars per set Top speed Number Operator Routes Enter Service

mph km/h

Class 43 HST InterCity 125

Diesel locomotive 2 x 4 2 x 5 125 200 54 Abellio ScotRail Highland Main Line, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
to Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Line 2018-

Mark 3 Coach

Passenger coach 175

Class 68

Diesel locomotive 1 100 160 19 TransPennine Express Joining the ECML at York
York
and continuing to Newcastle 2018–19

Mark 5A

Passenger coach 5 125 201 52

Driving Trailer 14

Class 385

EMU 3 100 160 46 Abellio ScotRail Glasgow to Edinburgh
Edinburgh
via Falkirk Line, Stirling / Alloa / Dunblane Lines, Shotts Line, Carstairs Line, North Berwick Line 2017-

4 24

Class 397

EMU 5 125 201 12 TransPennine Express Edinburgh
Edinburgh
to Manchester Airport and Liverpool Lime Street 2019

Class 717

EMU 6 100 161 25 Great Northern London
London
Moorgate and London
London
King's Cross to Welwyn Garden City, Hertford North, Stevenage, and Letchworth Garden City 2019-

Class 800 Azuma

Bi-Mode Multiple Unit 5 140 225 10 Virgin Trains
Virgin Trains
East Coast London
London
King's Cross to: Leeds, York, Newcastle, Edinburgh, Glasgow Central, Aberdeen
Aberdeen
and Inverness 2019-

9 13

Class 801 Azuma EMU 5 140 225 12 London
London
King's Cross to: Leeds, York, Newcastle and Glasgow Central.

9 30

Class 802 AT300

Bi-Mode Multiple Unit 5 140 225 24 TransPennine Express Hull Trains Hull Trains
Hull Trains
Services from London
London
King's Cross to: Hull TPE: Joining the ECML at York
York
and continuing to Newcastle and Edinburgh 2019-

Operators[edit]

A train operated by the former main provider of services on the line, East Coast.

Overview of the ECML (in blue) and other north-south mainlines in the UK

The line's current principal operator is Virgin Trains
Virgin Trains
East Coast, whose services include regular trains between King's Cross, the East Midlands, Yorkshire, the North East of England
East of England
and Scotland. Virgin Trains East Coast is jointly operated by Stagecoach Group
Stagecoach Group
and Virgin Group and took over from East Coast on 1 March 2015. Other operators of passenger trains on the line are:

Great Northern: long distance services between King's Cross, Peterborough, Cambridge
Cambridge
and King's Lynn and commuter services between Moorgate and Stevenage via either Welwyn Garden City or the Hertford Loop. Hull Trains: operate six trains per day between King's Cross and Hull and one per day between King's Cross and Beverley on weekdays, whilst on weekends there are seven trains a day between King's Cross and Hull. East Midlands
East Midlands
Trains: local services between Grantham
Grantham
and Peterborough, part of the service that runs between Liverpool Lime Street and Norwich, as well as infrequent services between London-York and Scarborough, extensions of services running to/from Sheffield, Leicester and London
London
St Pancras. CrossCountry: cross-country services north of Sheffield are routed via either Leeds
Leeds
or Doncaster. Leeds
Leeds
trains use the ECML between Wakefield Westgate and Leeds
Leeds
and then again north of York. Doncaster
Doncaster
trains use the ECML north of Doncaster. Services run to and beyond Edinburgh. Occasional services run from Doncaster
Doncaster
to Leeds
Leeds
before rejoining the ECML at York. TransPennine Express: between Liverpool Lime Street and Newcastle also between Manchester Airport and Middlesbrough before they divert off the ECML to Middlesbrough via Yarm. Northern: suburban services from Doncaster
Doncaster
to Leeds
Leeds
and Chathill to Newcastle via Morpeth railway station
Morpeth railway station
and infrequent services between Newcastle and Darlington
Darlington
that continue to Middlesbrough and Saltburn. Services between Selby
Selby
and York
York
also use the line from Hambleton Junction to York. Abellio ScotRail: services from Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Waverley to North Berwick and Dunbar. Grand Central: intercity operate five daily services between King's Cross and Sunderland, branching off the main line at Northallerton; and four daily services between King's Cross and Bradford, branching off at Doncaster.

Eurostar
Eurostar
previously held the rights to run five trains a day on the line for services from continental Europe to cities north of London, as part of the Regional Eurostar
Eurostar
plan, although such services have never been run.[21] The overnight Caledonian Sleeper
Caledonian Sleeper
operated by Serco
Serco
occasionally uses the ECML when engineering works prevent it from using its normal train path on the WCML. DB Cargo UK, Direct Rail Services, Freightliner and GB Railfreight operate freight services. Development[edit] Capacity problems[edit] The ECML is one of the busiest lines on the British rail network and there is currently[when?] insufficient capacity on parts of the line to satisfy all the requirements of both passenger and freight operators.[22] There are bottlenecks at the following locations:

The section of twin track within a four-line section at Welwyn North over the Digswell Viaduct
Digswell Viaduct
and through the Welwyn tunnels[23] The twin and triple-track sections located between Huntingdon and Peterborough.[24] Just north of Newark station at a flat crossing with the Nottingham
Nottingham
to Lincoln Line.[25] The section of double track between Stoke Tunnel and Doncaster.[24] Doncaster
Doncaster
station has limited facilities for terminating branch trains on the up side of the station. This has been remedied with the opening of a new platform (platform 0) on the up side so that trains to and from the Thorne direction do not conflict with high-speed trains.[26][27] The north throat of York
York
station including Skelton Bridge Junction South of Newcastle to Northallerton
Northallerton
(which is also predominately double track), leading to proposals to reopen the Leamside line
Leamside line
to passenger and freight traffic.[24][28]

Railway
Railway
operations are vulnerable during high winds and there have been several de-wirements over the years due to the unusually wide spacing (up to 75 m) between the supporting masts of the overhead lines. The other cost-reduction measure was the use of headspan catenary support systems over the quadruple track sections – as employed in the Weaver Junction to Glasgow Electrification on the WCML during the 1970s. Headspans do not have mechanically independent registration (MIR) of each electrified road and thus are more complex to set up, compared to TTC (two-track cantilever) and portal style support structures, during installation. In the event of a de-wirement of a given road, headspans result in the need to correctly set up the OLE of adjacent roads before the line can reopen to electric traction. This was a result of extreme pressure from the Department for Transport to reduce avoidable costs when the line was originally electrified between 1985 and 1990.[29] Recent developments[edit]

The Allington Chord was constructed near Grantham
Grantham
in 2006, allowing services between Nottingham
Nottingham
and Skegness
Skegness
to call at Grantham
Grantham
without having to use the ECML, trains now passing under the line. This provided sufficient extra capacity for 12 additional services between Leeds
Leeds
and London
London
each day.[30][31]

A new platform at London
London
King's Cross was opened on 20 May 2010. This was originally to be called "Platform Y".[32] Instead it has been named Platform 0 to avoid confusion of lettered and numbered platforms. Connection of the ECML to Thameslink
Thameslink
at Belle Isle Jnc. as part of the Thameslink
Thameslink
Programme (for Thameslink and Great Northern
Thameslink and Great Northern
commuter services to extend to Brighton, Horsham and Maidstone East). At the southern end of York
York
station a short length of fourth track was installed in early 2011 at Holgate Junction with accompanying OLE and signalling systems. This work helped to remove one of the bottlenecks on the East Coast Main Line. Previously, trains from Leeds
Leeds
would sometimes have to wait before entering the station. The improvement allows for better flow of trains in and out of the station.[32][33][34] Provision of a £47m grade-separated junction to the north of Hitchin (the Hitchin flyover) enabling down Cambridge
Cambridge
trains to cross the main line[32][35][36] The work was completed by 26 June 2013[37] Major remodelling of Peterborough
Peterborough
station was completed during early 2014 providing three platform faces for services in the up direction towards London
London
and two for ECML services travelling north on the down lines. An additional two platform faces are also available for Cross Country services to and from stations to the east of Peterborough.[32] A new flying junction just south of Joan Croft level crossing in South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
to allow freight trains from Immingham
Immingham
to pass over the line on their way to Eggborough and Drax power stations, was completed in very early 2014. The project, known as the North Doncaster
Doncaster
Chord, also replaced the level crossing on a minor road with a new overbridge just to the north of the original crossing point.[32][34] Renewal and gauge enhancement of the Great Northern and Great Eastern Line which runs parallel to the ECML between Peterborough
Peterborough
and Doncaster. This removes freight traffic from a heavily congested section of the ECML. A new Rail Operating Centre
Rail Operating Centre
(ROC), with training facilities, opened in early 2014 at the "Engineer's Triangle" in York. The ROC will enable signalling and day-to-day operations of the route to be undertaken in a single location. Signalling control/traffic management using ERTMS is scheduled to be introduced from 2020 on the ECML between London King's Cross and Doncaster
Doncaster
- managed from the York
York
ROC. An £8.6 million redevelopment of Newcastle station was completed in 2014 enhancing the existing station and provide a state-of-the-art station for thousands of passengers.[38] Provision of a new Up bay platform (Platform 0) at Doncaster
Doncaster
station (part of the ECML Connectivity programme). Platform extensions at Stevenage, Grantham, Newark North Gate, Northallerton, Durham and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Waverley stations for the Intercity Express Programme.

Planned or proposed developments[edit] See also: Intercity Express Programme Over the years successive infrastructure managers have developed schemes for route improvements.[16] The most recent of which is the £247 million "ECML Connectivity Fund" included in the 2012 HLOS[39] with the objective of increasing capacity and reducing journey times. Current plans include the following specific schemes:

King's Cross throat remodelling to improve capacity and introduce higher speed turnouts reducing journey times. Power supply enhancement on the diversionary Hertford Loop route Additional turnback facility at Gordon Hill (part of the ECML Connectivity programme). Additional down platform and turnback facility at Stevenage (part of the ECML Connectivity programme) - now delayed from CP5 to CP6. Re-quadrupling of the route between Huntingdon and Woodwalton (HW4T) which was rationalised in the 1980s during electrification (part of the ECML Connectivity programme). This also involves the closure and diversion of a level crossing at Abbots Ripton which was approved in November 2017.[40] Enhanced passenger access to the platforms at Peterborough
Peterborough
and Stevenage. Further remodelling at Peterborough
Peterborough
and linespeed enhancements on the down slow line in the Fletton area (part of the ECML Connectivity programme). Werrington Grade Separation: A £96 million scheme to increase capacity north of Peterborough
Peterborough
station by constructing a dive under to route rail traffic between the Stamford Lines and the GNGE line, thereby avoiding at-grade conflicts on the ECML. The scheme is under TWA application (February 2017). Replacement of the Flat Crossing at Newark with a flyover (scheme developed to GRIP Stage 2 by Jacobs)[41] Upgrading of the Down Fast line at Shaftholme Junction from 100 mph to 125 mph and higher speed associated crossovers (part of the ECML Connectivity programme). Modified north throat at York
York
Station to reduce congestion for services calling at Platforms 9 - 11 (part of the ECML Connectivity programme) Freight loops between York
York
and Darlington
Darlington
(part of the ECML Connectivity programme). Darlington
Darlington
station up fast line platform and future station remodelling as part of HS2. Fitment of TASS Balises and Gauging/Structure works proposed by the open operator GNER (Alliance Rail) to enable tilt operation of Pendolino trains north of Darlington
Darlington
station, supporting its aspirations for express 3hr43min London
London
to Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Services.

And on a more route wide basis the following projects:

Power supply upgrades (PSU) between Wood Green and Bawtry (Phase 1 - completed in September 2017) and Bawtry to Edinburgh
Edinburgh
(Phase 2), including some overhead lines (OLE) support improvements, rewiring of the contact and catenary wires, and headspan to portal conversions (HS2P) which were installed at Conington in January 2018. The line between London
London
King's Cross and Bawtry, on the approach to Doncaster, will be signalled with Level 2 ERTMS. The target date for operational ERTMS
ERTMS
services is December 2018 with completion in 2020[42] Level crossing closures between King's Cross and Doncaster: As of July 2015 this will no longer be conducted as a single closure of 73 level crossings but will be conducted on a case-by case basis (for example Abbots Ripton Level Crossing will close as part of the HW4T scheme.)[43] Increasing maximum speeds on the fast lines between Woolmer Green and Dalton-on-Tees up to 140 mph (225 km/h) in conjunction with the introduction of the Intercity Express Programme, level crossing closures, ETRMS fitments, OLE rewiring and the OLE PSU - est. to cost £1.3 billion (2014). This project is referred to as "L2E4" or London
London
to Edinburgh
Edinburgh
(in) 4 Hours. L2E4 examined the operation of the IEP at 140 mph on the ECML and the sections of track which can be upgraded to permit this, together with the engineering and operational costs.[44]

Accidents[edit] The ECML has been witness to a number of incidents resulting in death and serious injury:

Title Date Killed Injured Note

Welwyn Tunnel rail crash 000000001866-06-09-00009 June 1866 2 2 Three-train collision in tunnel, caused by guard's failure to protect train and signalling communications error

Hatfield rail crash
Hatfield rail crash
(1870) 000000001870-12-26-000026 December 1870 8 3 Wheel disintegrated causing derailment killing six passengers and two bystanders

Abbots Ripton rail disaster 000000001876-01-21-000021 January 1876 13 59 Flying Scotsman crashed during a blizzard.

Morpeth rail crash (1877) 000000001877-03-25-000025 March 1877 5 17 Derailment caused by faulty track.

Thirsk rail crash (1892) 000000001892-11-02-00002 November 1892 10 43 Signalman forgot about a goods train standing at his box and accepted the Scotch Express onto his line.

Grantham
Grantham
rail accident 000000001906-08-19-000019 August 1906 14 17 Runaway or overspeed on junction curve causing derailment - no definite cause established.

Welwyn Garden City rail crash 000000001935-06-15-000015 June 1935 14 29 Two trains collided due to a signaller's error.

King's Cross railway accident 000000001945-02-04-00004 February 1945 2 26 Train slipped on gradient and rolled back into station.

Potters Bar rail crash 000000001946-02-10-000010 February 1946 2 17 Local train hit buffers fouling main line with wreckage hit by two further trains.

Doncaster
Doncaster
rail crash (1947) 000000001947-08-09-00009 August 1947 18 188 King's Cross to Leeds
Leeds
train was incorrectly signalled into a section already occupied by a stationary train, which resulted in a rear-end collision.

Goswick
Goswick
rail crash 000000001947-10-26-000026 October 1947 28 65 Edinburgh- London
London
Flying Scotsman failed to slow down for a diversion and derailed. Signal passed at danger

Doncaster
Doncaster
rail crash 000000001951-03-16-000016 March 1951 14 12 Train derailed south of the station and struck a bridge pier.

Goswick
Goswick
Goods train derailment 000000001953-10-28-000028 October 1953

1 'Glasgow to Colchester' Goods train was derailed at Goswick.[45][46]

Connington South rail crash 000000001967-03-05-00005 March 1967 5 18 Express train was derailed.

Thirsk rail crash 000000001967-07-31-000031 July 1967 7 45 Cement train derailed and hit by North bound express hauled by prototype locomotive. DP2

Morpeth rail crash (1969) 000000001969-05-07-00007 May 1969 6 46 Excessive speed on curve.

Penmanshiel Tunnel
Penmanshiel Tunnel
collapse 000000001979-03-17-000017 March 1979 2

Two workers killed when the tunnel collapsed during engineering works.

Morpeth rail crash (1984) 000000001984-06-24-000024 June 1984

35 Excessive speed on curve.

Newcastle Central railway station
Newcastle Central railway station
collision 000000001989-11-30-000030 November 1989

15 Two InterCity expresses collided.[47]

Morpeth rail crash (1992) 000000001992-11-13-000013 November 1992 1

Collision between two freight trains.

Morpeth rail crash (1994) 000000001994-06-27-000027 June 1994

1 Excessive speed led to the locomotive and the majority of carriages overturning.

Hatfield rail crash 000000002000-10-17-000017 October 2000 4 70 InterCity 225
InterCity 225
derailed due to a failure to replace a fractured rail. The accident highlighted poor management at Railtrack
Railtrack
and led to its partial re-nationalisation.

Great Heck rail crash 000000002001-02-28-000028 February 2001 10 82 A Land Rover Defender
Land Rover Defender
swerved down an embankment off the M62 motorway into the path of a southbound GNER Intercity 225, which then was struck by a freight train led by a Class 66

Potters Bar rail crash
Potters Bar rail crash
(2002) 000000002002-05-10-000010 May 2002 7 70 Derailment caused by a badly maintained set of points. Resulted in the end of the use of external contractors for routine maintenance.

Passenger volume[edit]

Station usage

Station name 2002–03 2004–05 2005–06 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 2010–11 2011–12 2012–13 2013–14 2014–15 2015–16 2016–17

Edinburgh
Edinburgh
to Doncaster

Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Waverley 12,470,767 14,219,772 14,645,022 15,285,837 16,169,294 17,571,392 19,312,458 19,957,346

Musselburgh 161,121 170,852 193,386 202,895 306,185 385,274 389,240 364,690

Wallyford 90,351 110,686 126,719 135,819 159,949 209,260 227,874 221,772

Prestonpans 91,789 108,398 129,192 142,604 170,388 192,574 202,296 206,808

Longniddry 117,121 122,678 135,040 140,490 161,410 165,716 157,908 154,040

Drem 73,871 78,009 80,563 84,905 99,735 109,418 107,844 100,208

Dunbar 224,552 266,142 288,282 299,172 332,377 339,094 318,976 333,916

Berwick-upon-Tweed 331,108 378,727 395,000 380,555 391,772 405,828 419,454 454,568

Chathill 1,482 1,503 2,279 1,037 1,847 1,864 2,612 2,642

Alnmouth 86,436 134,902 165,049 172,170 181,912 197,222 192,380 214,230

Acklington 727 917 1,137 985 948 778 268 108

Widdrington 5,481 7,740 6,618 5,523 4,707 6,314 6,398 5,124

Pegswood 2,417 3,564 2,940 2,281 2,332 2,788 2,688 1,102

Morpeth 123,142 163,627 177,497 188,798 206,458 226,652 228,252 243,982

Cramlington 40,886 68,472 77,304 83,314 87,737 89,828 87,374 85,454

Manors 1,409 1,882 1,390 1,002 1,406 2,574 2,998 2,976

Newcastle Central 4,869,662 5,728,348 6,108,240 6,230,498 6,447,267 7,098,624 7,163,284 7,500,338

Chester-le-Street 86,686 126,033 151,486 160,799 192,519 186,930 197,398 205,572

Durham 1,359,425 1,649,935 1,739,801 1,774,271 1,858,078 1,996,852 2,051,432 2,180,044

Darlington 1,509,282 1,795,683 1,906,131 2,013,516 2,099,480 2,184,436 2,164,428 2,209,274

Northallerton 293,137 380,622 413,038 453,459 488,647 531,676 544,070 556,990

Thirsk 124,877 142,359 147,333 148,260 161,474 173,944 174,826 189,288

York 4,985,396 5,795,978 6,148,333 6,363,387 6,534,388 6,802,004 6,855,682 7,173,016

Leeds
Leeds
to Doncaster

Leeds 11,285,693 14,733,503 16,059,517 17,356,732 18,121,572 22,421,732 21,978,372 24,491,616

Outwood 108,221 166,801 187,314 208,174 211,079 301,388 299,434 354,792

Wakefield
Wakefield
Westgate 1,451,587 1,760,373 1,846,988 1,877,981 1,610,947 2,017,854 1,866,320 2,148,410

Sandal and Agbrigg 86,415 97,328 107,190 118,718 123,387 162,448 158,610 180,046

Fitzwilliam 79,428 105,216 116,088 126,419 142,144 180,606 178,518 195,542

South Elmsall 209,839 253,244 265,547 281,906 304,642 353,696 351,194 351,140

Adwick 115,496 176,479 175,754 156,826 160,541 253,986 244,904 247,964

Bentley (South Yorkshire) 81,494 114,419 123,292 98,641 95,264 159,788 153,550 152,994

Doncaster
Doncaster
to London
London
King's Cross

Doncaster 2,347,584 2,772,500 2,837,400 2,790,811 2,903,339 3,780,314 3,676,152 3,784,752

Retford 252,113 298,398 320,410 363,084 357,812 376,066 374,322 399,996

Newark North Gate 335,126 377,172 400,286 1,187,545 923,070 960,948 924,528 976,526

Grantham 806,299 917,447 935,848 999,186 1,032,641 1,054,634 1,033,374 1,071,320

Peterborough 3,386,580 3,689,729 3,720,034 3,960,429 4,070,725 4,099,754 3,930,704 4,076,724

Huntingdon 1,277,164 1,360,288 1,373,378 1,448,338 1,564,270 1,592,696 1,542,100 1,629,780

St Neots 715,993 768,708 822,064 888,971 979,356 1,029,338 1,001,248 1,091,388

Sandy 344,127 391,673 400,416 424,161 449,698 446,186 424,906 444,122

Biggleswade 582,318 638,358 653,872 689,369 751,155 734,458 703,386 739,632

Arlesey 256,882 327,106 349,725 369,425 398,128 413,870 411,056 444,680

Hitchin 1,806,889 1,948,003 2,049,217 2,368,121 2,543,526 2,569,494 2,478,832 2,594,012

Stevenage 3,267,031 3,495,795 3,539,052 3,968,033 4,206,418 4,257,732 4,093,020 4,222,776

Knebworth 328,011 344,003 343,752 392,409 457,813 480,706 471,564 494,182

Welwyn North 368,789 406,270 395,304 428,164 455,322 468,312 454,296 485,856

Welwyn Garden City 1,717,434 2,002,197 2,020,502 2,322,204 2,502,240 2,522,398 2,385,014 2,431,948

Hatfield 1,130,146 1,407,219 1,429,839 1,642,091 1,768,214 1,904,588 1,836,546 1,928,032

Welham Green 114,701 125,769 120,413 134,934 147,553 153,116 145,220 160,884

Brookmans Park 136,394 143,537 150,325 167,346 185,759 198,784 191,500 203,654

Potters Bar 1,382,046 1,440,036 1,445,179 1,604,056 1,681,137 1,649,420 1,569,258 1,599,666

Hadley Wood 181,811 206,767 244,961 344,989 393,690 402,194 353,224 343,208

New Barnet 658,099 673,521 674,532 1,057,667 1,126,244 1,013,310 1,029,964 1,069,706

Oakleigh Park 571,227 601,453 623,602 993,003 993,011 909,208 917,232 952,304

New Southgate 291,538 291,290 299,461 476,100 550,758 498,252 512,446 553,174

Alexandra Palace 592,357 609,875 692,845 1,042,833 1,310,940 1,057,712 1,063,484 1,114,960

Hornsey 391,655 362,488 381,659 737,369 1,031,000 896,096 942,828 1,068,740

Harringay 387,794 328,145 317,815 775,050 1,102,321 901,968 963,282 1,039,098

Finsbury Park 3,006,865 5,021,634 5,041,828 5,875,109 5,545,881 5,492,164 6,566,019 7,337,297

London
London
Kings Cross 19,137,693 20,805,979 20,301,663 22,503,777 23,945,017 24,641,427 24,817,616 26,254,644

The annual passenger usage is based on sales of tickets in stated financial years from Office of Rail Regulation statistics. The statistics are for passengers arriving and departing from each station and cover twelve month periods that start in April. Please note that methodology may vary year on year.

East Coast train at London
London
King's Cross railway station

Popular culture[edit] The cuttings and tunnel entrances just north of King's Cross make a memorable smoky appearance in the 1955 Ealing comedy
Ealing comedy
film The Ladykillers. Also during the 1950s, the line featured in the 1954 documentary short Elizabethan Express. Later, the 1971 British gangster film Get Carter
Get Carter
features a journey from London
London
King's Cross to Newcastle in the opening credits. The motoring show Top Gear featured a race including LNER A1 60163 Tornado running up this line from London
London
to Edinburgh. The route has been featured in several train simulator games. Trainz Simulator 2010 features the route between London
London
and York, Trainz Simulator 12 extends the route to Newcastle, and Trainz: A New Era brings it all the way to Edinburgh, allowing the entire 393-mile route to be driven. All three routes take place during the 1970s, around the time the InterCity 125
InterCity 125
was introduced. This is reinforced by instructions in the "HST Southbound Express" session not to move until the guard has locked the doors, since the trains did not have pneumatic locks initially; doing so will lead to an automatic failure. Other rolling stock includes Class 37s, Class 47s, and Class 105s, plus Mark 2 coaches. TS12's version added Class 55 Deltics and Class 313s, as well as additional pre-made, pre-scripted sessions. King's Cross is also known as the starting point of the Hogwarts Express from the books and films in the Harry Potter
Harry Potter
series. Within the station concourse there is a tourist attraction of the Platform 9¾ sign and a luggage trolley partially embedded in the station wall with an owl cage and suitcases on it. References[edit]

^ a b "Route 5 - West Anglia" (PDF). Network Rail. Retrieved 22 May 2009.  ^ East Coast Main Line
East Coast Main Line
Rail Route Upgrading, United Kingdom ^ Network Rail
Network Rail
(31 March 2010). "Route Plans 2010: Route Plan G East Coast & North East" (PDF). p.5. Retrieved 1 August 2012.  ^ Govia Thameslink
Thameslink
Railway
Railway
(21 May 2017). "Hertford Loop Time Table" (PDF). Retrieved 16 August 2017.  ^ a b Joy, David (1978). A Regional History of the Railways of Great Britain - Volume 8: South and West Yorkshire. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. p. 304. ISBN 0 7153 7783 3.  ^ " York
York
to Selby". Sustrans. Retrieved 27 June 2017.  ^ " Railway
Railway
Magazine". November 1965: 858.  ^ a b Barnett, Roger (June 1992). "British Rail's InterCity 125
InterCity 125
and 225" (PDF). UCTC Working Paper No. 114. University of California Transportation Center; University of California, Berkeley: 32. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 May 2008. Retrieved 27 May 2008.  ^ Testing the prototype HST in 1973 - Welcome to my testing site. Retrieved 22 September 2012. ^ Heath, Don (August 1994). "Electrification of British Rail's East Coast Main Line". Paper No. 105. Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers (Transportation): 232.  ^ Keating, Oliver. "The Inter-city 225". High Speed Rail. Retrieved 29 May 2008.  ^ "Your NEW Electric Railway, The Great Northern Suburban Electrification" (PDF). British Railways. 1973. Retrieved 18 March 2014.  ^ Shirres, David. "ECML: Electrification as it used to be". Rail Engineer. Retrieved 10 January 2018.  ^ Semmens, P.W.B. (March 1991). Electrifying the East Coast Route: Making of Britain's First 140m.p.h. Railway. Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-0850599299.  ^ "Back to the future as history made with east coast rail icons". National Railway
Railway
Museum. Retrieved 10 January 2018.  ^ a b c "Route Business Plan" (PDF). Network Rail. 2008.  ^ a b Brrailsford, Martyn (2017). Railway
Railway
Track Diagrams Book 1: Scotland
Scotland
& Isle of Man. Frome: Trackmaps. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-9549866-9-8.  ^ a b Brailsford, Martyn (2016). Railway
Railway
Track Diagrams Book 2: Eastern. Frome: Trackmaps. pp. 14–23. ISBN 978-0-9549866-8-1.  ^ a b c d e f " London
London
North Eastern Route Sectional Appendix; LOR LN101 Seq001 to 007" (PDF). Network Rail. Retrieved 2017-12-30.  ^ " Railway
Railway
Codes: HABD and WILD equipment".  ^ Millward, David (10 April 2006). "'Phantom trains' haunt drive to improve East Coast line". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 17 June 2008.  ^ "East Coast Capacity Review" (PDF). Network Rail. Network Rail. December 2010. p. 4. Retrieved 12 November 2015.  ^ "Misery line cheers up". BBC Track Record. November 1999. Retrieved 28 July 2009.  ^ a b c " East Coast Main Line
East Coast Main Line
2016 Capacity Review". Railway Development Society. February 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2014.  ^ "ECML Route Utilisation Strategy: Railfuture Response" (PDF). Railway
Railway
Development Society. 13 September 2007. Retrieved 28 July 2009.  ^ "Notification of proposed G1 network change" (PDF). Network Rail. Network Rail. Retrieved 8 November 2015.  ^ "On Track for £21 million Doncaster
Doncaster
Rail Upgrade". Doncaster
Doncaster
Star. 17 April 2015. Retrieved 8 November 2015.  ^ "ECML Route Utilisation Strategy" (PDF). Network Rail. pp. 66, 134. Retrieved 29 July 2009.  ^ Wolmar, Christian (2005). On the wrong line: How ideology and incompetence wrecked Britain's railways. London: Aurum. ISBN 978-1-85410-998-9.  ^ "New services are just the ticket". BBC News. 13 October 2005. Retrieved 17 December 2007.  ^ "Trains get 6,000 more seats a day". BBC News. 21 May 2007. Retrieved 17 December 2007.  ^ a b c d e Pigott, Nick, ed. (March 2010). "Flyovers to go ahead at Hitchin, Ipswich, Shaftholme". The Railway
Railway
Magazine. London. 156 (1307): 9. ISSN 0033-8923.  ^ "Faster trains and more services at York" (Press release). Network Rail. 3 January 2012.  ^ a b Broadbent, Steve (10 February 2010). "Moving Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Forward". Rail (637). Peterborough. p. 62.  ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rOZWyzAOTp8 ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RhMR9lgsrjs ^ http://www.networkrail.co.uk/news/2013/june/Passenger-services-start-using-Hitchin-flyover/ ^ "Newcastle Central Station in line for Rail Station of the Year award". 2015.  ^ " London
London
North Eastern Route" (PDF). Network Rail. Network rail. p. 7. Retrieved 12 November 2015.  ^ Harris, Nigel, ed. (22 November 2017). "Abbots Ripton crossing to close". Rail Magazine. No. 380. Peterborough: Bauer Media. p. 20. ISSN 0953-4563.  ^ " East Midlands
East Midlands
Route Utilisation Strategy Draft for Consultation" (PDF). Network Rail. 2009.  ^ " ERTMS
ERTMS
Deployment in the UK: Re-signalling as a Key Measure to Enhance Rail Operations" (PDF). ERTMS. 2012.  ^ " Network Rail
Network Rail
backtracks on crossings closures". The Times. 2015.  ^ "Office of Rail and Road, Transcript of Track Access Applications, 12th June 2015" (PDF). ORR. 2015.  ^ Northumberland Railways - Goswick
Goswick
station Archived 16 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Railways Archive - Ministry report. ^ "Chronology of rail crashes". BBC News. 10 May 2002. Retrieved 28 December 2009. 

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v t e

Main inter-regional railway lines in Great Britain

High Speed 1 Cross Country Route East Coast Main Line Great Eastern Main Line Great Western main line Midland Main Line West Coast Main Line

v t e

Railway
Railway
lines in the East of England

Primary

North–South

East Coast Main Line

Stevenage Peterborough

Midland Main Line

Luton Airport Parkway Luton Bedford

West Coast Main Line

Watford Junction

London–Norwich

Great Eastern Main Line

Shenfield Chelmsford Witham Marks Tey Colchester Manningtree Ipswich Norwich

Secondary

Hertford Loop Line Lea Valley lines London, Tilbury and Southend Line Thameslink Watford DC line West Anglia Main Line

Cambridge

West London
London
Route

Others

Abbey line Birmingham– Peterborough
Peterborough
line Bittern Line Braintree branch line Breckland line Crouch Valley line East Suffolk line Ely– Peterborough
Peterborough
line Felixstowe branch line Fen line Gainsborough line Hertford East branch line Hitchin– Cambridge
Cambridge
line Ipswich–Ely line Marston Vale line Mayflower line Peterborough–Lincoln line Shenfield–Southend line Sunshine Coast Line Wherry Lines

Heritage

Colne Valley Railway Epping Ongar Railway Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
Wolds Railway Mid-Norfolk Railway North Norfolk Railway Mangapps Farm Railway Mid-Suffolk Light Railway

v t e

Railway
Railway
lines in the East Midlands

Primary

Chiltern Main Line Cross Country Route East Coast Main Line Midland Main Line West Coast Main Line

Local

Birmingham– Peterborough
Peterborough
line Buxton line Crewe–Derby line Derwent Valley line Doncaster–Lincoln line Glossop line Ivanhoe line Northampton loop Nottingham– Grantham
Grantham
line Nottingham–Lincoln line Oakham–Kettering line Poacher Line Robin Hood Line Sheffield–Lincoln line South Humberside Main Line

Freight only

Leicester–Burton upon Trent line Shirebrook to High Marnham

Heritage

Battlefield Line Railway Chasewater Railway Churnet Valley Railway Ecclesbourne Valley Railway Foxfield Railway Great Central Railway
Railway
(Leicester) Great Central Railway
Railway
(Nottingham) Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
Wolds Railway Midland Railway
Railway
– Butterley Nene Valley Railway Northampton and Lamport Railway Peak Rail Rushden, Higham & Wellingborough Railway Rutland Railway
Railway
(Cottesmore)

v t e

Railway
Railway
lines in London

Main lines

Primary

High Speed 1 East Coast Main Line Great Eastern Main Line Great Western Main Line Midland Main Line West Coast Main Line

Secondary

Chatham main line Chiltern Main Line Crossrail
Crossrail
(under construction) South Eastern main line South Western main line West Anglia Main Line West London
London
Route Thameslink London, Tilbury and Southend Line

Branch

Regional

Aylesbury Line Bexleyheath line Caterham line Dartford Loop Line Epsom Downs Branch Hampton Court branch line Hertford Loop Line Lea Valley lines North Kent Line Oxted line Shepperton branch line Staines–Windsor line Sutton and Mole Valley lines Tattenham Corner line Watford DC line

Intra-London

Acton–Northolt line Bromley North Line Catford Loop Line Chessington branch line Chingford branch line Crystal Palace line Dudding Hill Line East London
London
line Gospel Oak to Barking line Greenford branch line Greenwich line Hayes line Hounslow Loop Line Kingston loop line North London
London
line Northern City Line Nunhead to Lewisham Link Romford–Upminster line South London
London
line West London
London
line

Disused

Addiscombe Line City Widened Lines Croxley Green Line Crystal Palace High Level branch line Greenwich Park branch line North London
London
Line (City Branch) Palace Gates Line Staines & West Drayton Line Stanmore branch line Uxbridge (Vine Street) branch line Watford to Rickmansworth Line West Croydon to Wimbledon Line Woodside & Sanderstead Line

London
London
Transport portal

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Railway
Railway
lines in the North East

Primary to London

East Coast Main Line

Others

Durham Coast Line Esk Valley line Tyne Valley line Northallerton–Eaglescliffe line Tees Valley line

Heritage

Aln Valley Railway Bowes Railway North Tyneside Steam Railway Tanfield Railway Weardale Railway

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Railway
Railway
lines in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber

Primary

To London

East Coast Main Line Midland Main Line

To Exeter

Cross Country Route

Others

Inter-regional

Hallam Line Hope Valley line Leeds–Morecambe line Doncaster–Lincoln line Sheffield–Lincoln line Settle–Carlisle line

Intra-regional

Airedale line Askern branch line Barton line Calder Valley line Dearne Valley line Esk Valley line Harrogate line Huddersfield line Hull–Scarborough Leeds–Bradford lines Leeds– Northallerton
Northallerton
Railway Northallerton–Eaglescliffe line Penistone Line Pontefract line Selby
Selby
Diversion Selby
Selby
Line South Humberside Main Line Swinton–Doncaster Wakefield
Wakefield
line Wharfedale line York–Scarborough

Defunct

Barnsley–Doncaster Bradford– Leeds
Leeds
& Wakefield Brockholes–Holmfirth Dearne Valley Railway Gilling and Pickering Harrogate–Church Fenton Hull–Barnsley (Cudworth) Hull and Holderness Hull and Hornsea Knaresborough–York Leeds–Harrogate Malton–Driffield Middlesbrough–Guisborough Middlesbrough–Guisborough–Normanby Huddersfield–Bradford Lockwood–Meltham Nunthorpe–Battersby Otley–Ilkley Pilmoor–Knaresborough Queensbury lines Rosedale Railway Scarborough–Whitby Seamer–Pickering Selby–Driffield Selby–Goole Shipley Windhill Line Sowerby Bridge–Rishworth Skipton–Grassington Skipton–Ilkley Thirsk and Malton line Wetherby–Cross Gates (Leeds) Whitby–Loftus Woodhead line York–Market Weighton–Beverley York– York
York
(Foss Island)

Heritage

Derwent Valley Light Railway Elsecar Heritage Railway Embsay and Bolton Abbey Steam Railway Keighley & Worth Valley Railway Middleton Railway North Bay Railway North Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Moors Railway Wensleydale Railway

Light railways

Kirklees Light Railway Nidd Valley Light Railway North Holderness Light Railway Sand Hutton Light Railway

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Railway
Railway
lines in Scotland

Cross-border lines and services

East Coast Main Line

CrossCountry Virgin Trains
Virgin Trains
East Coast

West Coast Main Line

Caledonian Sleeper TransPennine Express Virgin Trains

Glasgow South Western Line

Abellio ScotRail

ScotRail intercity lines

Glasgow– Edinburgh
Edinburgh
(via Falkirk) Edinburgh–Aberdeen Glasgow–Aberdeen Highland Aberdeen–Inverness

Glasgow commuter lines

      Argyle       Ayrshire Coast       Carstairs       Cathcart Circle       Croy (and Alloa)       Cumbernauld (and Falkirk)       Inverclyde       Maryhill       Motherwell–Cumbernauld       North Clyde       Paisley Canal       Shotts       South Western       Whifflet

Edinburgh
Edinburgh
commuter lines

      Borders       Carstairs       Dunblane       Fife Circle       North Berwick       North Clyde       Shotts

Rural lines and Great Scenic Railways

Borders Railway Far North Glasgow South Western Kyle of Lochalsh West Highland

Current projects

Edinburgh
Edinburgh
to Glasgow Improvement Programme

Completed projects

Airdrie–Bathgate Stirling–Alloa–Kincardine rail link Borders Railway

Heritage railways

Bo'ness and Kinneil Railway Caledonian Railway
Railway
(Brechin) Keith and Dufftown Railway Royal Deeside Railway

.