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East Asia
Asia
or Northeast Asia
Northeast Asia
is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical[3] or pan-ethno-cultural[4] terms.[5][6] Geographically and geopolitically, the region constitutes Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan.[7][8][9][10][11][3][12][13][14][15] The region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as Ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, and the Mongol Empire.[16][17] East Asia
Asia
was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history. For thousands of years, China
China
largely influenced East Asia
Asia
as it was principally the leading civilization in the region exerting its enormous prestige and influence on its neighbors.[18][19][20] Historically, societies in East Asia
Asia
have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere, and East Asian vocabulary and scripts are often derived from Classical Chinese
Classical Chinese
and Chinese script. The Chinese calendar preserves traditional East Asian culture and serves as the root to which many other East Asian calendars are derived from. Major religions in East Asia
Asia
include Buddhism (mostly Mahayana[21]), Confucianism
Confucianism
and Neo-Confucianism, Taoism, Ancestral worship, and Chinese folk religion
Chinese folk religion
in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau
Macau
and Taiwan, Buddhism and Shintoism
Shintoism
in Japan, and Christianity, Buddhism and Sindoism in Korea.[22] Shamanism
Shamanism
is also prevalent among Mongols
Mongols
and other indigenous populations of northern East Asia
Asia
such as the Manchus.[23][24] East Asians comprise around 1.6 billion people, making up about 38% of the population in Continental Asia
Asia
and 22% of the global population. The region is to home to major world metropolises such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Seoul, Shanghai, Taipei, and Tokyo. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia
Mongolia
and Western China, both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia
Mongolia
having the lowest population density of a sovereign state. The overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre (340/sq mi), about three times the world average of 45/km2 (120/sq mi).

Contents

1 History 2 Definitions

2.1 Alternative definitions

3 Economy 4 Territorial and regional data

4.1 Etymology 4.2 Demographics 4.3 Ethnic groups

5 Culture

5.1 Overview 5.2 Religions 5.3 Festivals

6 Collaboration

6.1 East Asian Youth Games 6.2 Free trade agreements 6.3 Military alliances

7 Cities and towns 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of East Asia In comparison with the profound influence of the Ancient Greeks and Romans on Europe and the Western World, China
China
would already possess an advanced civilization nearly half a millennia before Japan
Japan
and Korea.[25] As Chinese civilization existed for about 1500 years before other East Asian civilizations emerged into history, Imperial China would exert much of its cultural, economic, technological, and political muscle onto its neighbors.[26][27][28] Succeeding Chinese dynasties exerted enormous influence across East Asia
Asia
culturally, economically, politically and militarily for over two millennia.[28][29] Imperial China's cultural preeminence not only led the country to become East Asia's first literate nation in the entire region, it also supplied Japan
Japan
and Korea
Korea
with Chinese loanwords and linguistic influences rooted in their writing systems.[30] In addition, the Chinese Han dynasty
Han dynasty
hosted the largest unified population in East Asia, the most literate and urbanized as well as being the most technologically and culturally advanced civilization in the region.[31] Cultural
Cultural
and religious interaction between the Chinese and other regional East Asian dynasties and kingdoms occurred. China's impact and influence on Korea
Korea
began with the Han dynasty's northeastern expansion in 108 BC when the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
conquered the northern part of the Korean peninsula and established a province called Lelang. Chinese influence would soon take root in Korea
Korea
through the inclusion of the Chinese writing system, monetary system, rice culture, and Confucian political institutions.[32] Jomon society in ancient Japan
Japan
incorporated wet-rice cultivation and metallurgy through its contact with Korea. As full fledged medieval East Asian states were established, Korea
Korea
by the fourth century AD and Japan
Japan
by the seventh century AD, Korea
Korea
and Japan
Japan
actively began to incorporate Chinese influences such as Confucianism, the use of written Han characters, Chinese style architecture, state institutions, political philosophies, religion, urban planning, and various scientific and technological methods into their culture and society through direct contacts with succeeding Chinese dynasties.[33] For many centuries, most notably from the 7th to the 14th centuries, China
China
stood as East Asia's most advanced civilization, commanding influence across the region up until the early modern period.[34] The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's history for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural influence over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia
Asia
in particular.[35][36][27] The transmission of advanced Chinese cultural practices and ways of thinking greatly shaped the region up until the 19th century.[25] As East Asia's connections with Europe and the Western world strengthened during the late 19th century, China's power began to decline. U.S.Commodore Matthew C. Perry
Matthew C. Perry
would open Japan
Japan
to Western ways, and the country would expand in earnest after the 1860s.[37][38] Around the same time, Japan
Japan
with its rush to modernity transformed itself from an isolated feudal samurai state into East Asia's first industrialized nation.[39][13][40] The modern and powerful Japan
Japan
would galvanize its position in the Orient as East Asia's greatest power with a global mission poised to advance to lead the entire world.[39] By the early 1900s, the Japanese empire
Japanese empire
succeeded in asserting itself as East Asia's first modern power. With its newly found international status, Japan
Japan
would begin to inextricably take a more active position in East Asia
Asia
and leading role in world affairs at large. Flexing its nascent political and military might, Japan
Japan
soundly defeated the stagnant Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
during the First Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War
as well as vanquishing imperial rival Russia
Russia
in 1905; the first major military victory in the modern era of an East Asian power over a European one.[41][37] Its hegemony was the heart of an empire that would include Taiwan
Taiwan
and Korea.[39] During World War II, Japanese expansionism with its imperialist aspirations through the Greater East Asia
Asia
Co-Prosperity Sphere would incorporate Korea, Taiwan, much of eastern China
China
and Manchuria, Hong Kong, and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
under its control establishing itself as a maritime colonial power in East Asia.[42] After a century of exploitation by the European and Japanese colonialists, post-colonial East Asia
Asia
saw the defeat and occupation of Japan
Japan
by the victorious Allies as well as the division of China
China
and Korea
Korea
during the Cold War. The Korean peninsula became independent but then it was divided into two rival states, while Taiwan
Taiwan
became the main territory of de facto state Republic of China
China
after the latter lost Mainland China
China
to the People's Republic of China
China
in the Chinese Civil War. During the latter half of the twentieth century, the region would see the post war economic miracle of Japan, the economic rise of South Korea
South Korea
and Taiwan, and the integration of Mainland China
China
into the global economy through its entry in the World Trade Organization while enhancing its emerging international status as a potential world power.[8][43] Definitions[edit] In common usage, the term East Asia
Asia
typically refers to a region including Mainland China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan.[44][45][46][47][48] China, Japan, and Korea
Korea
represent the three core countries and civilizations of traditional East Asia
Asia
- as they once shared a common written language, culture, as well as sharing Confucian philosophical tenets and the Confucian societal value system once instituted by Imperial China.[49][50][51][52][53] Other usages define Mainland China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan
Taiwan
as countries that constitute East Asia
Asia
based on their geographic proximity as well as historical and modern cultural and economic ties, particularly with Japan
Japan
and Korea
Korea
having strong cultural influences that originated from China.[54][55][56][57][58][59] Some scholars include Vietnam as part of East Asia
Asia
as it has been considered part of the greater sphere of Chinese influence. Though Confucianism
Confucianism
continues to play an important role in Vietnamese culture, Chinese characters are no longer used in its written language and many scholarly organizations classify Vietnam as a Southeast Asian country.[60][61] Mongolia
Mongolia
is geographically north of Mainland China
China
yet Confucianism
Confucianism
and the Chinese writing system and culture had no impact in Mongolian society. Thus, Mongolia
Mongolia
is sometimes grouped with Central Asian countries such as Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan.[62][63] Broader and looser definitions by international organizations such as the World Bank
World Bank
refer to the "three major Northeast Asian economies, i.e. Mainland China, Japan, and South Korea", as well as Mongolia, North Korea, the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
and Siberia.[64] The Council on Foreign Relations includes the Russia
Russia
Far East, Mongolia, and Nepal.[65] The World Bank
World Bank
also acknowledges the roles of sub-national or de facto states, such as Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. The Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia
Northeast Asia
defines the region as "China, Japan, the Koreas, Nepal, Mongolia, and eastern regions of the Russian Federation".[66]

The countries of East Asia
Asia
also form the core of Northeast Asia, which itself is a broader region.

East Asia
Asia
map of Köppen climate classification.

UNSD geoscheme for Asia
Asia
based on statistic convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories:[67]   North Asia   Central Asia   Western Asia   South Asia   East Asia   Southeast Asia

The UNSD definition of East Asia
Asia
is based on statistical convenience,[67] but also other common definitions of East Asia contain the entirety of China
China
(including Mainland, Hong Kong, Macau), Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Japan
Japan
and Taiwan.[3][68] Culturally, China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan
Taiwan
and Vietnam are commonly seen as being encompassed by cultural East Asia
Asia
(East Asian cultural sphere).[4][69][70][71] Alternative definitions[edit] There are mixed debates around the world whether these countries or regions should be considered in East Asia
Asia
or not.

Vietnam (officially part of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
geographically, although culturally it is a part of the East Asian cultural sphere, politically, it is related to both Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and East Asia) Far Eastern Federal District
Far Eastern Federal District
in Russia
Russia
(often described as North Asia due to its location, although this part of Russia
Russia
is often seen as more closely related to its East Asian neighbours) Sovereignty issues exist over some territories in the South China
China
Sea.

In business and economics, "East Asia" is sometimes used to refer to a wide geographical area covering ten Southeast Asian countries in ASEAN, People's Republic of China, Taiwan, Japan
Japan
and South Korea. However, in this context, the term "Far East" is used by the Europeans to cover ASEAN
ASEAN
countries and the countries in East Asia. However, being a Eurocentric term, Far East
Far East
describes the region's geographical position in relation to Europe rather than its location within Asia. Alternatively, the term " Asia
Asia
Pacific Region" is often used in describing East Asia, Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
as well as Oceania. Observers preferring a broader definition of "East Asia" often use the term Northeast Asia
Northeast Asia
to refer to the greater China
China
area, Taiwan, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan, with Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
covering the ten ASEAN
ASEAN
countries. This usage, which is seen in economic and diplomatic discussions, is at odds with the historical meanings of both "East Asia" and "Northeast Asia".[72][73][74] The Council on Foreign Relations defines Northeast Asia
Northeast Asia
as Japan
Japan
and Korea.[65] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of East Asia

State/Territory GDP nominal billions of USD (2017)[75] GDP nominal per capita USD (2017)[75] GDP PPP billions of USD (2017)[75] GDP PPP per capita USD (2017)[75]

 China 11,937.562 8,583 23,122.027 16,624

 Hong Kong 334.104 44,999 453.019 61,015

 Macau 51.160 79,563 73.579 114,430

 Japan 4,884.489 38,550 5,405.072 42,659

 North Korea N/A N/A N/A N/A

 South Korea 1,529.743 29,730 2,026.651 39,387

 Mongolia 10.869 3,553 38.395 12,551

 Taiwan 571.453 24,227 1,175.308 49,827

Territorial and regional data[edit] Etymology[edit]

Flag Common Name Official Name

Exonym Endonym Exonym Endonym

China 中国 People’s Republic of China 中华人民共和国

Hong Kong 香港 Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Special
Special
Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China 中華人民共和國香港特別行政區

Macau 澳門 Macao Special
Special
Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China 中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區 Região Administrativa Especial de Macau da República Popular da China

Japan 日本 State of Japan 日本国

Mongolia Монгол улс Mongolia Монгол Улс(ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ )

North Korea 조선 Democratic People’s Republic of Korea 조선민주주의인민공화국 (朝鮮民主主義人民共和國)

South Korea 한국 Republic of Korea 대한민국 (大韓民國)

Taiwan[76] 臺灣 / 台灣 Republic of China 中華民國

Demographics[edit]

State/Territory Area km2 Population[77] (2016) Population density per km2 HDI Capital

 China 9,640,011[78] 1,403,500,365 138 0.727 Beijing

 Hong Kong 1,104 7,302,843 6,390 0.912 Hong Kong

 Macau 30 612,167 18,662 0.892 Macau

 Japan 377,930 127,748,513 337 0.891 Tokyo

 North Korea 120,538 25,368,620 198 0.595 Pyongyang[79]

 South Korea 100,210 50,791,919 500 0.898 Seoul

 Mongolia 1,564,100 3,027,398 2 0.698 Ulaanbaatar

 Taiwan 36,188 23,556,706 639 0.884 Taipei[80]

Ethnic groups[edit] Main articles: East Asians and Ethnic groups of East Asia

Ethnicity Native name Population Language(s) Writing system(s) Major states/territories* Physical Appearance

Han/Chinese 漢人 or 汉人, 漢族 or 汉族 1,260,000,000[81] Chinese, Mandarin, Cantonese, Shanghainese, Hokkien, Hakka, Gan, Hsiang, etc. Simplified Han characters, Traditional Han characters ()

Yamato/Japanese 日本族 (にほんぞく) 大和民族 (やまとみんぞく) 125,117,000[82] Japanese Han characters
Han characters
(Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana

Joseon/Korean 한민족 (韓民族) 조선족 (朝鮮族) 79,432,225[83] Korean Hangul, Han characters
Han characters
(Hanja)

Bai 白族 1,858,063 Bai, Southwestern Mandarin Latin script, Simplified Han characters

Hui 回族/回回 10,586,087[84] Northwestern Mandarin, other Chinese Dialects, Huihui language, etc. Simplified Han characters

Mongols Монголчууд/ᠮᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ Монгол/ᠮᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠯ 8,942,528 Mongolian Mongol
Mongol
script, Cyrillic script

Zhuang 壮族/Bouxcuengh 18,000,000[85] Zhuang, Cantonese, Southwestern Mandarin, etc. Simplified Han characters, Latin script

Manchus 满族/ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ 10,422,873[86] Northeastern Mandarin, Manchurian (endangered), etc. Simplified Han characters, Mongol
Mongol
script

Hmong/Miao Ghaob Xongb/Hmub/Mongb 9,426,007[87] Hmong, Southwestern Mandarin Latin script, Simplified Han characters

Tibetans བོད་པ་ 6,500,000 Tibetan, Rgyal Rong, Rgu, etc. Tibetan script

Yi ꆈꌠ/彝族 8,714,393 Various Loloish, Southwestern Mandarin Yi script, Simplified Han characters

Tujia 土家族 8,353,912 Northern Tujia, Southern Tujia Simplified Han characters

Kam Gaeml 2,879,974 Gaeml Simplified Han characters, Latin script

Tu 土族/Monguor 289,565 Tu, Northwestern Mandarin Simplified Han characters

Daur 达斡尔族/ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ 131,992 Daur, Northeastern Mandarin Mongol
Mongol
script, Simplified Han characters

Taiwanese Aborigines Pangcah, etc. 533,600 Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
(Amis, Yami), etc. Latin script, Traditional Han characters

Ryukyuan (琉球民族(りゅうきゅうみんぞく) 沖縄人 (おきなわじん) 1,900,000 Japanese Ryukyuan Han characters
Han characters
(Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana ()

Ainu アイヌ 200,000 Japanese Ainu[88] Han characters
Han characters
(Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana

*Note: The order of states/territories follows the population ranking of each ethnicity, within East Asia
Asia
only. Culture[edit] Main pages: Category:East Asian culture and Culture of East Asia Overview[edit] The culture of East Asia
Asia
has largely been influenced by China, as it was the civilization that had the most dominant influence in the region throughout the ages that ultimately laid the foundation for East Asian civilization.[89] The vast knowledge and ingenuity of Chinese civilization and the classics of Chinese literature and culture were seen as the foundations for a civilized life in East Asia. Imperial China
China
served as a vehicle through which the adoption of Confucian ethical philosophy, Chinese calendar
Chinese calendar
system, political and legal systems, architectural style, diet, terminology, institutions, religious beliefs, imperial examinations that emphasized a knowledge of Chinese classics, political philosophy and cultural value systems, as well as historically sharing a common writing system reflected in the histories of Japan
Japan
and Korea.[90][28][91][92][93][94][95][96][97] The Imperial Chinese tributary system was the bedrock of network of trade and foreign relations between China
China
and its East Asian tributaries, which helped to shape much of East Asian affairs during the ancient and medieval eras. Through the tributary system, the various dynasties of Imperial China
China
facilitated frequent economic and cultural exchange that influenced the cultures of Japan
Japan
and Korea
Korea
and drew them into a Chinese international order.[98][99] The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's foreign policy and trade for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural dominance over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia
Asia
in particular.[36][99] The relationship between China
China
and its cultural influence on East Asia
Asia
has been compared to the historical influence of Greco-Roman civilization
Greco-Roman civilization
on Europe and the Western World.[94][92][99][90] Religions[edit] Main article: East Asian religions

Religion Native name Denomination Major book Type Est. Followers Ethnic groups States/territories

Chinese religion none, various classifications including 民間信仰, 神教/神道, etc. Taoism, Confucianism, folk salvationist sects, Wuism, Nuo Chinese classics, Huangdi Sijing, precious scrolls, etc. Pantheism/polytheism ~900,000,000[100][101] Han, Hmong, Qiang, Tujia (worship of the same ancestor-gods) ( )

Taoism 道教 Zhengyi, Quanzhen Tao Te Ching Pantheism/polytheism ~20,000,000[101] Han, Zhuang, Hmong, Yao, Qiang, Tujia ( )

Confucianism 儒教 Cheng-Zhu, Lu-Wang Four Books and Five Classics Immanent transcendence/pantheism N/A Han, Joseon, Yamato ( )

East Asian Buddhism 漢傳佛教 or 汉传佛教 Mahayana Diamond Sutra Non-God ~300,000,000 Han, Joseon, Yamato ( )

Tibetan Buddhism བོད་བརྒྱུད་ནང་བསྟན། Mahayana Anuttarayoga Tantra Non-God ~10,000,000 Tibetans, Manchus, Mongols

Shamanism[102] and Bon, etc. Бөө мөргөл , བོན N/A N/A Polytheism/pantheism N/A Tibetans, Manchus, Mongols, Oroqen

Shintoism 神道 Shinto sects Kojiki, Nihon Shoki Polytheism/pantheism N/A Ainu, Ryukyuan, Yamato

Sindo/Muism 신도 or 무교 Sindo sects N/A Polytheism/pantheism N/A Joseon

Ryukyuan religion 琉球神道 or ニライカナイ信仰 N/A N/A Polytheism/pantheism N/A Ryukyuan ()

Festivals[edit]

Festival Native Name Other name Calendar Date Gregorian date Activity Religious practices Food Major ethnicities Major states/territories

Chinese New Year 春節 or 春节 Spring Festival Chinese Month 1 Day 1 21 Jan–20 Feb Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Fireworks Worship the King of Gods Jiaozi Han, Joseon, Manchus etc.

New Year 元旦 Yuan Dan Gregorian 1 Jan 1 Jan Fireworks N/A N/A N/A

Losar
Losar
or Tsagaan Sar ལོ་གསར་ or Цагаан сар White Moon Tibetan, Mongolian Month 1 Day 1 25 Jan–2 Mar Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Fireworks N/A Chhaang
Chhaang
or Buuz Tibetans, Mongols, Tu etc.

Lantern Festival 元宵節 or 元宵节 Upper Yuan Festival (上元节) Chinese Month 1 Day 15 4 Feb–6 Mar Lanterns Expo, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Birthdate of the God of Sky-officer Yuanxiao Han, Joseon, Yamato *

Qingming Festival 清明節 or 清明节 Tomb Sweeping Day Solar 15th day since March equinox 4 Apr–6 April Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Burning Hell money Cold Food Han, Joseon, Mongols

Dragon Boat Festival 端午節 or 端午节 Duanwu Festival Chinese Month 5 Day 5

Driving poisons & plague away, Dragon Boat Race, Wearing colored lines, Hanging felon herb on the front door. Worship various Gods Zongzi Han, Joseon, Yamato *

Ghost Festival 中元節 or 中元节 Mid Yuan Festival Chinese Month 7 Day 15

Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Birthdate of the God of Earth-officer

Han, Joseon, Yamato *

Mid-Autumn Festival 中秋節 or 中秋节 中秋祭 Chinese Month 8 Day 15

Family Reunion, Enjoying Moon view Worship the Moon Goddess Mooncake Han, Joseon, Yamato *

Double Ninth Festival 重陽節 or 重阳节 Double Positive Festival Chinese Month 9 Day 09

Climbing Mountain, Taking care of elderly, Wearing Cornus. Worship various Gods

Han, Joseon, Yamato *

Lower Yuan Festival 下元節 or 下元节 N/A Chinese Month 10 Day 15

Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Birthdate of the God of Water-officer Ciba Han, Joseon

Small New Year 小年 Jizao (祭灶) Chinese Month 12 Day 23

Cleaning Houses Worship the God of Hearth tanggua Han, Mongols

International Labor Day N/A N/A Gregorian 1 May 1 May N/A N/A N/A N/A

International Women's Day N/A N/A Gregorian 8 Mar 8 Mar Taking care of women N/A N/A N/A

* Japan
Japan
switched the date to the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
after the Meiji Restoration. *Not always on that Gregorian date, sometimes April 4. Collaboration[edit] East Asian Youth Games[edit] Formerly the East Asian Games is a multi-sport event organised by the East Asian Games Association (EAGA) and held every four years since 2019 among athletes from East Asian countries and territories of the Olympic Council of Asia
Olympic Council of Asia
(OCA), as well as the Pacific island of Guam, which is a member of the Oceania
Oceania
National Olympic Committees. The East Asian Games is 1 of 5 Regional Games of the OCA. The others are the East Asian Games, the Central Asian Games, the South Asian Games, the Southeast Asian Games
Southeast Asian Games
(SEA Games), and the West Asian Games. Free trade agreements[edit]

Name of agreement Parties Leaders at the time Negotiation begins Signing date Starting time Current status

China– South Korea
South Korea
FTA

Xi Jinping, Park Geun-hye May, 2012 Jun 01, 2015 Dec 30, 2015 Enforced

China–Japan– South Korea
South Korea
FTA

Xi Jinping, Shinzō Abe, Park Geun-hye Mar 26, 2013 N/A N/A 10 round negotiation

Japan- Mongolia
Mongolia
EPA

Shinzō Abe, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj - Feb 10, 2015 - Enforced

China- Mongolia
Mongolia
FTA

Xi Jinping, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj N/A N/A N/A Officially proposed

China-HK CEPA

Jiang Zemin, Tung Chee-hwa - Jun 29, 2003 - Enforced

China- Macau
Macau
CEPA

Jiang Zemin, Edmund Ho
Edmund Ho
Hau-wah - Oct 18, 2003 - Enforced

Hong Kong- Macau
Macau
CEPA

Carrie Lam, Fernando Chui Oct 09, 2015 N/A N/A Negotiating

ECFA

Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou Jan 26, 2010 Jun 29, 2010 Aug 17, 2010 Enforced

CSSTA (Based on ECFA)

Xi Jinping, Ma Ying-jeou Mar, 2011 Jun 21, 2013 N/A Abolished

CSGTA (Based on ECFA)

Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou Feb 22, 2011 N/A N/A Suspended

Military alliances[edit]

Name Abbr. Parties within the region

Shanghai
Shanghai
Cooperation Organisation SCO

General Security of Military Information Agreement GSOMIA

Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty -

Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan -

Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States
United States
and the Republic of Korea -

Taiwan
Taiwan
Relations Act ( Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty
Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty
before 1980) TRA (SAMDT)

Major non-NATO ally
Major non-NATO ally
(Global Partners of NATO) - [103]

Cities and towns[edit] Main article: Cities of East Asia

Beijing
Beijing
is the capital of China
China
and the largest metropolis in northern China.

Shanghai
Shanghai
is the largest city in China
China
and one of the largest in the world, and is a global financial centre and transport hub with the world's busiest container port.

Guangzhou
Guangzhou
is one of the most important cities in southern China. It has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road
Silk Road
and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub today.

Xi'an
Xi'an
or Chang'an
Chang'an
is the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties. It has a significant cultural influence in East Asia.

Hong Kong
Hong Kong
is one of the world's leading global financial centres and is known as a cosmopolitan metropolis.

Taipei
Taipei
is the capital of the Republic of China
China
(Taiwan).

Tokyo
Tokyo
is the capital of Japan
Japan
and one of the largest cities in the world, both in metropolitan population and economy.

Osaka
Osaka
is the second largest metropolitan area in Japan

Kyoto
Kyoto
was the Imperial capital of Japan
Japan
for more than one thousand years.

Seoul
Seoul
is the capital of South Korea, one of the largest cities in the world and a leading global technology hub.

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is the capital of North Korea, and is a significant metropolis on the Korean Peninsula.

Ulaanbaatar
Ulaanbaatar
is the capital of Mongolia
Mongolia
with a population of 1 million as of 2008.

Play media

Pass of the ISS over Mongolia, looking out west towards the Pacific Ocean, China, and Japan. As the video progresses, you can see major cities along the coast and the Japanese islands on the Philippine Sea. The island of Guam
Guam
can be seen further down the pass into the Philippine Sea, and the pass ends just to the east of New Zealand. A lightning storm can be seen as light pulses near the end of the video.

See also[edit]

Geography
Geography
portal Asia
Asia
portal

China–Japan– South Korea
South Korea
trilateral summit East Asia
Asia
Summit East Asian Community East Asian languages East Asian studies Four Asian Tigers

Notes[edit]

^ The area figure is based on the combined areas of China
China
(including Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau), Mongolia, North Korea
North Korea
& South Korea, Chinese Taiwan
Taiwan
and Japan
Japan
as listed at List of countries and outlying territories by total area. ^ The population figure is the combined populations of China (including Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau), Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Japan
Japan
and Republic of China
China
(Taiwan) as listed at the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects

References[edit]

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