List of Gnostic sects
_SAMARITAN BAPTIST SECTS_
Simon Magus (
* Valentinus (
* Marcion (
* Modern schools
Nag Hammadi library
Nag Hammadi library
Gnosticism and the New Testament
* Cologne Mani-
John the Baptist
John the Baptist
Gnosticism in modern times
Play media Video clips from the archive of Israel's channel 2
news company showing
Israeli Druze in traditional clothing. The flags
shown are the
Druze flags . Sixth caliph of the
Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah
The DRUZE (/druːz/ ;
Arabic : درزي _derzī_ or _durzī_,
plural دروز _durūz_; Hebrew : דרוזי _drūzī_ plural
דרוזים, _druzim_) are an esoteric ethnoreligious group
Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians
Muwahhidun _). Jethro of
Midian is considered
an ancestor of all
Mandaeans and Mahra (extinct Arabs عرب
بادئه) (Marsh Arab) from
Druze Mountain, who revere him as their
spiritual founder and chief prophet.
Druze faith is a monotheistic and
Abrahamic religion based on the
teachings of high Islamic figures like Hamza ibn-\'
Ali Ibn Ahmad ,
Al-Hakim bi Amr Allah and global philosophers like
Akhenaten . The
Epistles of Wisdom is the foundational
text of the
Druze faith. The
Druze faith incorporates elements of
Hinduism according to some, and
other philosophies and beliefs, creating a distinct and secretive
theology known to esoterically interpret religious scriptures and to
highlight the role of the mind and truthfulness. The
theophany , and believe in reincarnation or the transmigration of the
soul . At the end of the cycle of rebirth, which is achieved through
successive reincarnations, the soul is united with the Cosmic Mind
(_Al Aaqal Al Kulli_).
Although dwarfed by other, larger communities, the
played an important role in shaping the history of the
Levant , and
continues to play a large political role there. As an ethnic and
religious minority in every country they live in, they have frequently
experienced persecution , except in
Israel where Druze
judges, parliamentarians, diplomats, and doctors occupy the highest
echelons of society. Even though the faith originally developed out of
Druze are not considered
Muslims , although Al Azhar
of Egypt recognizes them as one of the Islamic sects akin to Shiite
Ali az-Zahir , whose father al-Hakim is a
key figure in the
Druze faith, was particularly harsh, causing the
death of many
Aleppo , and northern Syria.
Persecution flared up during the rule of the
Druze were targeted by the Islamic State of Iraq and
Al-Qaeda in order to cleanse
Syria and neighboring
countries of non-Islamic influence.
Druze faith is one of the major religious groups in the Levant,
with between 800,000 to a million adherents. They are found primarily
Israel , with small communities in
outside Southwestern Asia. The oldest and most densely-populated Druze
communities exist in Mount
Lebanon and in the south of
Jabal al-Druze (literally the "Mountain of the Druzes"). The Druze's
social customs differ markedly from those of
Muslims or Christians,
and they are known to form a close-knit, cohesive community that does
not allow anyone into, but also integrate fully in their adopted
homelands. If an individual marries someone outside of their religion,
they are no longer Druze.
* 1 Location
* 2 History
* 2.1 Origin of the name
* 2.2 Early history
* 2.3 Closing of the faith
* 2.4 During the
Persecution during the
Mamluk and Ottoman period
* 2.6 Ma\'an dynasty
* 2.7 Shihab Dynasty
* 2.8 Qaysites and the Yemenites
* 2.9 Civil War of 1860
* 2.10 Rebellion in Hauran
* 3 Modern history
* 3.1 In
* 3.2 In
* 3.3 In
* 3.4 In
* 4 Beliefs
* 4.2 Scriptures
* 4.4 Pact of Time Custodian
* 4.5 Sanctuaries
* 4.7 Seven
* 4.9 Other beliefs
* 5 Religious symbol
Prayer houses and holy places
* 7 Initiates and "ignorant" members
* 8 Culture
* 8.1 Cuisine
* 9 Origins
* 9.1 Ethnic origins
* 9.1.1 Arabian hypothesis
Druze as a mixture of Middle Eastern tribes
* 9.1.3 Iturean hypothesis
* 9.2 Genetics
* 10 See also
* 11 Notes
* 12 References
* 12.1 Citations
* 12.2 Bibliography
* 13 Further reading
* 14 External links
Druze people reside primarily in Syria, Lebanon,
Israel and Jordan.
The Institute of
Druze Studies estimates that forty to fifty percent
Druze live in Syria, thirty to forty percent in Lebanon, six to
seven percent in Israel, and one or two percent in Jordan. About two
percent of the
Druze population are also scattered within other
countries in the Middle East.
Large communities of
Druze also live outside the
Middle East , in
Australia, Canada, Europe, Latin America (mainly
Colombia and Brazil),
the United States, and West Africa. They use the
Arabic language and
follow a social pattern very similar to those of the other peoples of
Levant (eastern Mediterranean).
The number of
Druze people worldwide is between 800,000 and one
million, with the vast majority residing in the Levant.
ORIGIN OF THE NAME
Druze is derived from the name of
Muhammad bin Ismail
Nashtakin ad-Darazī (from Persian _darzi_, "seamster") who was an
early preacher . Although the
Druze consider ad-Darazī a heretic ,
the name has been used to identify them.
Before becoming public, the movement was secretive and held closed
meetings in what was known as Sessions of Wisdom . During this stage a
dispute occurred between ad-Darazi and
Hamza bin Ali mainly concerning
ad-Darazi's _ghuluww _ ("exaggeration"), which refers to the belief
God was incarnated in human beings (especially '
Ali and his
Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah , who was the caliph at
the time) and to ad-Darazi naming himself "The Sword of the Faith",
which led Hamza to write an epistle refuting the need for the sword to
spread the faith and several epistles refuting the beliefs of the
In 1016 ad-Darazi and his followers openly proclaimed their beliefs
and called people to join them, causing riots in Cairo against the
Unitarian movement including
Hamza bin Ali and his followers. This led
to the suspension of the movement for one year and the expulsion of
ad-Darazi and his supporters.
Druze religious books describe ad-Darazi as the
"insolent one" and as the "calf" who is narrow-minded and hasty, the
name "Druze" is still used for identification and for historical
reasons. In 1018 ad-Darazi was assassinated for his teachings; some
sources claim that he was executed by Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah.
Some authorities see in the name "Druze" a descriptive epithet,
Arabic _dāresah_ ("those who study"). Others have
speculated that the word comes from the Persian word _Darazo_ (درز
"bliss") or from
Shaykh Hussayn ad-Darazī, who was one of the early
converts to the faith. In the early stages of the movement, the word
"Druze" is rarely mentioned by historians, and in
texts only the word _Muwaḥḥidūn_ ("Unitarian") appears. The only
Arab historian who mentions the
Druze is the eleventh century
Christian scholar Yahya of
Antioch , who clearly refers to the
heretical group created by ad-Darazī rather than the followers of
Hamza ibn 'Alī. As for Western sources,
Benjamin of Tudela , the
Jewish traveler who passed through
Lebanon in or around 1165, was one
of the first European writers to refer to the
Druzes by name. The word
_Dogziyin_ ("Druzes") occurs in an early Hebrew edition of his
travels, but it is clear that this is a scribal error. Be that as it
may, he described the
Druze as "mountain dwellers, monotheists, who
believe in 'soul eternity' and reincarnation ." He also stated that
"they loved the Jews."
Druze faith began as a movement in
Ismailism that was heavily
Greek philosophy and
Gnosticism and opposed certain
religious and philosophical ideologies that were present during that
The faith was preached by Hamza ibn \'Alī ibn Ahmad , an Ismaili
mystic and scholar. He came to Egypt in 1014 and assembled a group of
scholars and leaders from across the world to establish the Unitarian
movement. The order's meetings were held in the Raydan Mosque, near
Al-Hakim Mosque .
In 1017, Hamza officially revealed the
Druze faith and began to
preach the Unitarian doctrine. Hamza gained the support of the
Fātimid caliph al-Hakim , who issued a decree promoting religious
freedom prior to the declaration of the divine call .
Remove ye the causes of fear and estrangement from yourselves. Do
away with the corruption of delusion and conformity. Be ye certain
that the Prince of Believers hath given unto you free will, and hath
spared you the trouble of disguising and concealing your true beliefs,
so that when ye work ye may keep your deeds pure for God. He hath done
thus so that when you relinquish your previous beliefs and doctrines
ye shall not indeed lean on such causes of impediments and
pretensions. By conveying to you the reality of his intention, the
Prince of Believers hath spared you any excuse for doing so. He hath
urged you to declare your belief openly. Ye are now safe from any hand
which may bring harm unto you. Ye now may find rest in his assurance
ye shall not be wronged. Let those who are present convey this message
unto the absent so that it may be known by both the distinguished and
the common people. It shall thus become a rule to mankind; and Divine
Wisdom shall prevail for all the days to come.
Al-Hakim became a central figure in the
Druze faith even though his
own religious position was disputed among scholars. John Esposito
states that al-Hakim believed that "he was not only the divinely
appointed religio-political leader but also the cosmic intellect
God with creation", while others like Nissim Dana and
Mordechai Nisan state that he is perceived as the manifestation and
the reincarnation of
God or presumably the image of God.
Druze and non-
Druze scholars like Samy Swayd and Sami Makarem
state that this confusion is due to confusion about the role of the
early preacher ad-Darazi, whose teachings the
Druze rejected as
heretical. These sources assert that al-Hakim rejected ad-Darazi's
claims of divinity, and ordered the elimination of his movement
while supporting that of Hamza ibn Ali.
Al-Hakim disappeared one night while out on his evening ride –
presumably assassinated, perhaps at the behest of his formidable elder
Sitt al-Mulk . The
Druze believe he went into Occultation with
Ali and three other prominent preachers, leaving the care of
the "Unitarian missionary movement" to a new leader, Al-Muqtana
Baha\'uddin (also spelled Baha' ad-Din).
CLOSING OF THE FAITH
Al-Hakim was replaced by his underage son, \'Alī az-Zahir . The
Druze movement, which existed in the
Fatimid Caliphate ,
acknowledged az-Zahir as the caliph, but followed Hamzah as its Imam .
The young caliph's regent,
Sitt al-Mulk , ordered the army to destroy
the movement in 1021. At the same time, Bahā'a ad-Dīn as-Samuki was
assigned the leadership of the Unitarian Movement by Hamza Bin Ali.
The chart below shows bifurcation point from where
started. Chart indicate relative position held by
Druze amongst other
Islam mainly other
SHIA ISLAM CHART
Ali al Murtaza
Ali zayn ul Abedin
Isma\'il ibn Jafar
Musa al-Kadhim .
Muhammad ibn Isma\'il
Ahmad al-Wafi (Abadullah)
Ahmad _(al-Taqī Muhammad)_
Ali al Hadi
Ḥusayn _(ar-Raḍī ʿAbdillāh)_
hasan al Askari
al-Mustanṣir bi l-Lāh
For the next seven years, the
Druze faced extreme persecution by the
new caliph, al-Zahir, who wanted to eradicate the faith. This was the
result of a power struggle inside of the
Fatimid empire in which the
Druze were viewed with suspicion because of their refusal to recognize
the new caliph,
Ali az-Zahir , as their Imam. Many spies, mainly the
followers of Ad-Darazi, joined the Unitarian movement in order to
Druze community. The spies set about agitating trouble
and soiling the reputation of the Druze. This resulted in friction
with the new caliph who clashed militarily with the
The clashes ranged from
Alexandria , where tens of
Druze were slaughtered by the
Fatimid army. The largest
massacre was at Antioch, where 5,000
Druze religious leaders were
killed, followed by that of
Aleppo . As a result, the faith went
underground in hope of survival, as those captured were either forced
to renounce their faith or be killed.
Druze survivors "were found
principally in southern
Lebanon and Syria." In 1038, two years after
the death of al-Zahir, the
Druze movement was able to resume because
the new leadership that replaced him had friendly political ties with
at least one prominent
In 1043 Baha\' ad-Din declared that the sect would no longer accept
new adherents, and since that time proselytization has been
DURING THE CRUSADES
It was during the period of Crusader rule in
Syria (1099–1291) that
Druze first emerged into the full light of history in the Gharb
region of the
Chouf Mountains. As powerful warriors serving the Muslim
Damascus against the
Crusades , the
Druze were given the
task of keeping watch over the crusaders in the seaport of Beirut,
with the aim of preventing them from making any encroachments inland.
Druze chiefs of the Gharb placed their considerable
military experience at the disposal of the
Mamluk rulers of Egypt
(1250–1516); first, to assist them in putting an end to what
remained of Crusader rule in coastal Syria, and later to help them
Syrian coast against Crusader retaliation by sea.
In the early period of the Crusader era, the
Druze feudal power was
in the hands of two families, the Tanukhs and the Arslans . From their
fortresses in the Gharb area (now in
Aley District ) of southern Mount
Lebanon Governorate , the Tanukhs led their incursions into the
Phoenician coast and finally succeeded in holding
Beirut and the
marine plain against the
Franks . Because of their fierce battles with
Crusaders , the
Druzes earned the respect of the
caliphs and thus gained important political powers. After the middle
of the twelfth century, the Ma\'an family superseded the Tanukhs in
Druze leadership. The origin of the family goes back to a Prince Ma'an
who made his appearance in the
Lebanon in the days of the 'Abbasid
caliph al-Mustarshid (1118–35 AD). The
Ma'ans chose for their abode
Chouf District in south-western
Lebanon (southern Mount Lebanon
Governorate ), overlooking the maritime plain between
Beirut and Sidon
, and made their headquarters in
Baaqlin , which is still a leading
Druze village. They were invested with feudal authority by Sultan Nur
ad-Din and furnished respectable contingents to the Muslim ranks in
their struggle against the Crusaders.
PERSECUTION DURING THE MAMLUK AND OTTOMAN PERIOD
Syria of the Franks, the
Mamluk sultans of Egypt
turned their attention to the schismatic
Muslims of Syria. In 1305,
after the issuing of a fatwa by the scholar
Ibn Taymiyyah calling for
jihad against all non-
Muslims like the Druze,
Alawites , Ismaili
Shia Muslims, al-Malik al-Nasir inflicted a disastrous
defeat on the
Druze at Keserwan and forced outward compliance on their
part to orthodox
Sunni Islam. Later, under the Ottoman , they were
severely attacked at
Saoufar in 1585 after the
Ottomans claimed that
they assaulted their caravans near Tripoli . As a result of the
Ottoman experience with the rebellious Druze, the word _Durzi_ in
Turkish came, and continues, to mean someone who is the ultimate thug.
One influential Islamic sage of that time labeled them as _infidels_
and argued that, even though they might behave like
Muslims on the
outside, this is no more than a pretense. He also declared that
Druze property and even the death sentence would
conform to the laws of Islam.
Consequently, the 16th and 17th centuries were to witness a
succession of armed
Druze rebellions against the Ottomans, countered
by repeated Ottoman punitive expeditions against the Chouf, in which
Druze population of the area was severely depleted and many
villages destroyed. These military measures, severe as they were, did
not succeed in reducing the local
Druze to the required degree of
subordination. This led the Ottoman government to agree to an
arrangement whereby the different nahiyes (districts) of the Chouf
would be granted in _iltizam _ ("fiscal concession") to one of the
region's amirs , or leading chiefs, leaving the maintenance of law and
order and the collection of its taxes in the area in the hands of the
appointed amir. This arrangement was to provide the cornerstone for
the privileged status which ultimately came to be enjoyed by the whole
of Mount Lebanon,
Druze and Christian areas alike.
Maan family Fakhreddin Castle in
With the advent of the Ottoman Turks and the conquest of
Selim I in 1516, the Ma\'ans were acknowledged by the new
rulers as the feudal lords of southern Lebanon.
Druze villages spread
and prospered in that region, which under
Ma'an leadership so
flourished that it acquired the generic term of _Jabal Bayt-Ma'an_
(the mountain home of the Ma'an) or _Jabal al-Druze_. The latter title
has since been usurped by the
Hawran region, which since the middle of
the 19th century has proven a haven of refuge to
Druze emigrants from
Lebanon and has become the headquarters of
Under Fakhr-al-Dīn II (Fakhreddin II), the
Druze dominion increased
until it included Lebanon-Phoenicia and almost all Syria, extending
from the edge of the
Antioch plain in the north to
Safad in the south,
with a part of the
Syrian desert dominated by Fakhr-al-Din\'s castle
at Tadmur (
Palmyra ), the ancient capital of
Zenobia . The ruins of
this castle still stand on a steep hill overlooking the town.
Fakhr-al-Din became too strong for his Turkish sovereign in
Constantinople . He went so far in 1608 as to sign a commercial treaty
with Duke Ferdinand I of
Tuscany containing secret military clauses.
The Sultan then sent a force against him, and he was compelled to flee
the land and seek refuge in the courts of
Naples in 1613
and 1615 respectively.
In 1618 political changes in the Ottoman sultanate had resulted in
the removal of many enemies of Fakhr-al-Din from power, signaling the
prince's triumphant return to
Lebanon soon afterwards. Through a
clever policy of bribery and warfare, he extended his domains to cover
all of modern Lebanon, some of
Syria and northern Galilee.
In 1632 Küçük Ahmet Pasha was named Lord of
Damascus . Küçük
Ahmet Pasha was a rival of Fakhr-al-Din and a friend of the sultan
Murad IV , who ordered the pasha and the sultanate's navy to attack
Lebanon and depose Fakhr-al-Din.
This time the prince decided to remain in
Lebanon and resist the
offensive, but the death of his son
Wadi al-Taym was the
beginning of his defeat. He later took refuge in
Jezzine 's grotto,
closely followed by Küçük Ahmet Pasha who eventually caught up with
him and his family.
Fakhr-al-Din was captured, taken to
Istanbul , and imprisoned with
two of his sons in the infamous Yedi Kule prison. The Sultan had
Fakhr-al-Din and his sons killed on 13 April 1635 in
bringing an end to an era in the history of Lebanon, which would not
regain its current boundaries until it was proclaimed a mandate state
and republic in 1920. One version recounts that the younger son was
spared, raised in the harem and went on to become Ottoman Ambassador
Fakhr-al-Din II was the first ruler in modern
Lebanon to open the
doors of his country to foreign Western influences. Under his auspices
the French established a khān (hostel) in Sidon, the Florentines a
consulate, and Christian missionaries were admitted into the country.
Beirut and Sidon, which
Fakhr-al-Din II beautified, still bear traces
of his benign rule. See the new biography of this Prince, based on
original sources, by TJ Gorton: _Renaissance Emir: a
Druze Warlord at
the Court of the Medici_ (London, Quartet Books, 2013), for an updated
view of his life.
Fakhr ad Din II was succeeded in 1635 by his nephew Ahmed Ma\'an ,
who ruled through his death in 1658. (Fakhr ad Din's only surviving
son, Husayn, lived the rest of his life as a court official in
Constantinople.) Emir Mulhim exercised
Iltizam taxation rights in the
Shuf, Gharb, Jurd, Matn, and Kisrawan districts of Lebanon. Mulhim's
forces battled and defeated those of Mustafa Pasha,
Damascus, in 1642, but he is reported by historians to have been
otherwise loyal to Ottoman rule.
Following Mulhim's death, his sons Ahmad and Korkmaz entered into a
power struggle with other Ottoman-backed
Druze leaders. In 1660, the
Ottoman Empire moved to reorganize the region, placing the sanjaks
(districts) of Sidon-
Beirut and Safed in a newly formed province of
Sidon , a move seen by local
Druze as an attempt to assert control.
Contemporary historian Istifan al-Duwayhi reports that Korkmaz was
killed in act of treachery by the
Damascus in 1662.
Ahmad however emerged victorious in the power struggle among the Druze
in 1667, but the Maʿnīs lost control of
Safad and retreated to
controlling the iltizam of the Shuf mountains and Kisrawan. Ahmad
continued as local ruler through his death from natural causes,
without heir, in 1697.
During the Ottoman-Habsburg war of 1683 to 1699 , Ahmad Ma'n
collaborated in a rebellion against the
Ottomans which extended beyond
Iltizam rights in Shuf and Kisrawan passed to the rising
Shihab family through female-line inheritance.
Druze woman wearing a tantour
during the 1870s in
As early as the days of
Saladin , and while the
Ma'ans were still in
complete control over southern Lebanon, the Shihab tribe, originally
Hijaz Arabs but later settled in Ḥawran, advanced from Ḥawran, in
1172, and settled in
Wadi al-Taym at the foot of mount
Hermon . They
soon made an alliance with the
Ma'ans and were acknowledged as the
Druze chiefs in _Wadi al-Taym_. At the end of the 17th century (1697)
the Shihabs succeeded the
Ma'ans in the feudal leadership of Druze
southern Lebanon, although they reportedly professed
Sunni Islam, they
showed sympathy with Druzism, the religion of the majority of their
The Shihab leadership continued until the middle of the 19th century
and culminated in the illustrious governorship of
Amir Bashir Shihab
II (1788–1840) who, after Fakhr-al-Din, was the most powerful feudal
Lebanon produced. Though governor of the
Druze Mountain, Bashir
was a crypto-Christian , and it was he whose aid
Napoleon solicited in
1799 during his campaign against Syria.
Having consolidated his conquests in
Syria (1831–1838), Ibrahim
Pasha , son of the viceroy of Egypt,
Ali Pasha , made the
fatal mistake of trying to disarm the Christians and
Druzes of the
Lebanon and to draft the latter into his army. This was contrary to
the principles of the life of independence which these mountaineers
had always lived, and resulted in a general uprising against Egyptian
rule. The uprising was encouraged, for political reasons, by the
Wadi al-Taym and Ḥawran, under the leadership
of Shibli al-Aryan, distinguished themselves in their stubborn
resistance at their inaccessible headquarters, _al-Laja_, lying
southeast of Damascus.
QAYSITES AND THE YEMENITES
Battle of Ain Darra Meeting of
Druze and Ottoman
Damascus , about the control of Jebel
The conquest of
Syria by the Muslim Arabs in the middle of the
seventh century introduced into the land two political factions later
called the Qaysites and the Yemenites . The Qaysite party represented
Bedouin Arabs who were regarded as inferior by the Yemenites who
were earlier and more cultured emigrants into
Syria from southern
Druzes and Christians grouped in political rather than
religious parties so the party lines in
Lebanon obliterated racial and
religious lines and the people grouped themselves regardless of their
religious affiliations, into one or the other of these two parties.
The sanguinary feuds between these two factions depleted, in course of
time, the manhood of the
Lebanon and ended in the decisive battle of
Ain Dara in 1711, which resulted in the utter defeat of the Yemenite
party. Many Yemenite
Druzes thereupon immigrated to the
and thus laid the foundation of
Druze power there.
CIVIL WAR OF 1860
Main article: 1860
Druzes and their Christian
Maronite neighbors, who had thus far
lived as religious communities on friendly terms, entered a period of
social disturbance in 1840, which culminated in the civil war of 1860
Shehab dynasty converted to Christianity, the Druze
community and feudal leaders came under attack from the regime with
the collaboration of the Catholic Church, and the
Druze lost most of
their political and feudal powers. Also, the
Druze formed an alliance
with Britain and allowed Protestant missionaries to enter Mount
Lebanon, creating tension between them and the Catholic Maronites.
Druze conflict in 1840–60 was an outgrowth of the
Maronite Christian independence movement, directed against the Druze,
Druze feudalism, and the Ottoman-Turks. The civil war was not
therefore a religious war, except in Damascus, where it spread and
where the vastly non-
Druze population was anti-Christian. The movement
culminated with the 1859–60 massacre and defeat of the Christians by
the Druzes. The civil war of 1860 cost the Christians some ten
thousand lives in
Deir al-Qamar ,
Hasbaya , and
other towns of Lebanon.
The European powers then determined to intervene, and authorized the
Beirut of a body of French troops under General Beaufort
d\'Hautpoul , whose inscription can still be seen on the historic rock
at the mouth of
Nahr al-Kalb . French intervention on behalf of the
Maronites did not help the
Maronite national movement, since France
was restricted in 1860 by Britain, which did not want the Ottoman
Empire dismembered. But European intervention pressured the Turks to
treat the Maronites more justly. Following the recommendations of the
powers, the Ottoman Porte granted
Lebanon local autonomy, guaranteed
by the powers, under a Christian governor. This autonomy was
maintained until World War I.
REBELLION IN HAURAN
Hauran Druze Rebellion
The Hauran rebellion was a violent
Druze uprising against Ottoman
authority in the
Syrian province, which erupted in May 1909. The
rebellion was led by al-Atrash family, originated in local disputes
Druze unwillingness to pay taxes and conscript into the Ottoman
Army. The rebellion ended in brutal suppression of the
General Sami Pasha al-Farouqi, significant depopulation of the Hauran
region and execution of the
Druze leaders in 1910. In the outcome of
the revolt, 2,000
Druze were killed, a similar number wounded and
Druze fighters imprisoned. Al-Farouqi also disarmed the
population, extracted significant taxes and launched a census of the
In Lebanon, Syria,
Israel and Jordan, the
Druze have official
recognition as a separate religious community with its own religious
Druze are known for their loyalty to the countries they
reside in, though they have a strong community feeling, in which they
identify themselves as related even across borders of countries.
Despite their practice of blending with dominant groups to avoid
persecution, and because the
Druze religion does not endorse
separatist sentiments but urges blending with the communities they
reside in, the
Druze have had a history of resistance to occupying
powers, and they have at times enjoyed more freedom than most other
groups living in the Levant.
Druze warriors preparing to go to
Sultan Pasha al-Atrash in 1925
In Syria, most
Druze live in the
Jebel al-Druze , a rugged and
mountainous region in the southwest of the country, which is more than
Druze inhabited; some 120 villages are exclusively so.
Other notable communities live in the
Harim Mountains , the Damascus
Jaramana , and on the southeast slopes of Mount
Hermon . A
Druze community historically lived in the Golan Heights,
but following wars with
Israel in 1967 and 1973 , many of these Druze
fled to other parts of Syria; most of those who remained live in a
handful of villages in the disputed zone, while only a few live in the
narrow remnant of
Quneitra Governorate that is still under effective
Druze celebrating their independence in 1925.
Druze always played a far more important role in
than its comparatively small population would suggest. With a
community of little more than 100,000 in 1949, or roughly three
percent of the
Syrian population, the
Druze of Syria's southwestern
mountains constituted a potent force in
Syrian politics and played a
leading role in the nationalist struggle against the French. Under the
military leadership of
Sultan Pasha al-Atrash , the
much of the military force behind the
Syrian Revolution of 1925–27.
Amir Hasan al-Atrash, the paramount political leader of the
Jebel al-Druze , led the
Druze military units in a successful revolt
against the French, making the
Jebel al-Druze the first and only
Syria to liberate itself from French rule without British
assistance. At independence the Druze, made confident by their
successes, expected that
Damascus would reward them for their many
sacrifices on the battlefield. They demanded to keep their autonomous
administration and many political privileges accorded them by the
French and sought generous economic assistance from the newly
Druze leaders meeting in Jebel al-Druze
, Syria, 1926
When a local paper in 1945 reported that President Shukri al-Quwatli
(1943–49) had called the
Druzes a "dangerous minority", Sultan Pasha
al-Atrash flew into a rage and demanded a public retraction. If it
were not forthcoming, he announced, the
Druzes would indeed become
"dangerous" and a force of 4,000
Druze warriors would "occupy the city
of Damascus." Quwwatli could not dismiss Sultan Pasha's threat. The
military balance of power in
Syria was tilted in favor of the Druzes,
at least until the military build up during the 1948 War in Palestine.
One advisor to the
Syrian Defense Department warned in 1946 that the
Syrian army was "useless", and that the
Druzes could "take Damascus
and capture the present leaders in a breeze."
During the four years of
Adib Shishakli 's rule in
1949 to February 1954) (on 25 August 1952:
Adib al-Shishakli created
Arab Liberation Movement (ALM), a progressive party with
pan-Arabist and socialist views), the
Druze community was subjected
to a heavy attack by the
Syrian government. Shishakli believed that
among his many opponents in Syria, the
Druzes were the most
potentially dangerous, and he was determined to crush them. He
frequently proclaimed: "My enemies are like a serpent: the head is the
Jebel al-Druze, the stomach
Homs , and the tail Aleppo. If I crush the
head the serpent will die." Shishakli dispatched 10,000 regular troops
to occupy the Jebel al-Druze. Several towns were bombarded with heavy
weapons, killing scores of civilians and destroying many houses.
Druze accounts, Shishakli encouraged neighboring bedouin
tribes to plunder the defenseless population and allowed his own
troops to run amok.
Shishakli launched a brutal campaign to defame the
Druzes for their
religion and politics. He accused the entire community of treason, at
times claiming they were agents of the British and Hashimites , at
others that they were fighting for
Israel against the Arabs. He even
produced a cache of Israeli weapons allegedly discovered in the Jabal.
Even more painful for the
Druze community was his publication of
Druze religious texts" and false testimonials ascribed to
Druze sheikhs designed to stir up sectarian hatred. This
propaganda also was broadcast in the
Arab world, mainly Egypt.
Shishakli was assassinated in Brazil on 27 September 1964 by a Druze
seeking revenge for Shishakli's bombardment of the Jebel al-Druze.
He forcibly integrated minorities into the national
structure, his "Syrianization" of
Druze territories had to
be accomplished in part using violence, he declared: "My enemies are
like serpent. The head is the
Jabal Druze , if I crush the head the
serpent will die" (Seale 1963:132). To this end, al-Shishakli
encouraged the stigmatization of minorities. He saw minority demands
as tantamount to treason. His increasingly chauvinistic notions of
Arab nationalism were predicated on the denial that "minorities"
existed in Syria.
After the Shishakli's military campaign, the
Druze community lost
much of its political influence, but many
Druze military officers
played important roles in the Ba\'ath government currently ruling
In 1967, a community of
Druze in the
Golan Heights came under Israeli
control, today about 20,000 strong.
Lebanon Prophet Job shrine in Lebanon
Druze community in
Lebanon played an important role in the
formation of the modern state of Lebanon, and even though they are a
minority they play an important role in the Lebanese political scene.
Before and during the
Lebanese Civil War (1975–90), the
in favor of
Pan-Arabism and Palestinian resistance represented by the
PLO . Most of the community supported the Progressive Socialist Party
formed by their leader
Kamal Jumblatt and they fought alongside other
leftist and Palestinian parties against the
Lebanese Front that was
mainly constituted of Christians. After the assassination of Kamal
Jumblatt on 16 March 1977, his son
Walid Jumblatt took the leadership
of the party and played an important role in preserving his father's
legacy after winning the
Mountain War and sustained the existence of
Druze community during the sectarian bloodshed that lasted until
In August 2001,
Maronite Catholic Patriarch Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir
toured the predominantly
Chouf region of Mount
Mukhtara , the ancestral stronghold of
Druze leader Walid
Jumblatt. The tumultuous reception that Sfeir received not only
signified a historic reconciliation between Maronites and Druze, who
fought a bloody war in 1983–84, but underscored the fact that the
banner of Lebanese sovereignty had broad multi-confessional appeal
and was a cornerstone for the
Cedar Revolution in 2005. Jumblatt's
post-2005 position diverged sharply from the tradition of his family.
He also accused
Damascus of being behind the 1977 assassination of his
father, Kamal Jumblatt, expressing for the first time what many knew
he privately suspected. The BBC describes
Jumblatt as "the leader of
Lebanon's most powerful
Druze clan and heir to a leftist political
dynasty". The second largest political party supported by
Lebanese Democratic Party led by Prince
Talal Arslan , the son of
Lebanese independence hero Emir Majid Arslan .
Israeli Druze Scouts march to
Jethro's tomb. Today, thousands of
Israeli Druze belong to such 'Druze
Druze form a religious minority in
Israel of more than 100,000,
mostly residing in the north of the country. In 2004, there were
Druze living in the country. In 2010, the population of
Israeli Druze citizens grew to over 125,000. At the end of 2014 there
were 140,000. Today, thousands of
Israeli Druze belong to 'Druze
In 1957, the Israeli government designated the
Druze a distinct
ethnic community at the request of its communal leaders. The
Arabic -speaking citizens of
Israel and serve in the
Forces just as most citizens do in Israel. Members of the community
have attained top positions in Israeli politics and public service.
The number of
Druze parliament members usually exceeds their
proportion in the Israeli population, and they are integrated within
several political parties.
Druze form a religious minority in
Jordan of around 32,000,
mostly residing in the northwestern part of the country.
Druze conception of the deity is declared by them to be one of
strict and uncompromising unity. The main
Druze doctrine states that
God is both transcendent and immanent , in which he is above all
attributes but at the same time he is present.
In their desire to maintain a rigid confession of unity, they
God all attributes (_tanzīh _). In God, there are no
attributes distinct from his essence. He is wise, mighty, and just,
not by wisdom, might and justice, but by his own essence.
God is "the
whole of existence", rather than "above existence" or on his throne,
which would make him "limited". There is neither "how", "when", nor
"where" about him; he is incomprehensible.
In this dogma, they are similar to the semi-philosophical,
semi-religious body which flourished under Al-Ma\'mun and was known by
the name of Mu\'tazila and the fraternal order of the Brethren of
Purity (_Ikhwan al-Ṣafa_).
Unlike the _Mu'tazila_, however, and similar to some branches of
Sufism , the
Druze believe in the concept of _Tajalli_ (meaning
"theophany "). _Tajalli_ is often misunderstood by scholars and
writers and is usually confused with the concept of incarnation .
is the core spiritual beliefs in the
Druze and some other
intellectual and spiritual traditions ... In a mystical sense, it
refers to the light of
God experienced by certain mystics who have
reached a high level of purity in their spiritual journey. Thus, God
is perceived as the
Lahut who manifests His Light in the Station
Maqaam ) of the
Nasut without the
Nasut becoming Lahut. This is like
one's image in the mirror: one is in the mirror but does not become
the mirror. The
Druze manuscripts are emphatic and warn against the
belief that the
God ... Neglecting this warning, individual
seekers, scholars, and other spectators have considered al-Hakim and
other figures divine.
... In the
Druze scriptural view, Tajalli takes a central stage. One
author comments that Tajalli occurs when the seeker's humanity is
annihilated so that divine attributes and light are experienced by the
Druze dignitaries celebrating the Nabi Shu\'ayb
festival at the tomb of the prophet in
Druze Sacred texts include the
Kitab Al Hikma (Epistles of Wisdom).
Druze writings include the _Rasa'il al-Hind (Epistles of
India)_ and the previously lost (or hidden) manuscripts such as
_al-Munfarid bi-Dhatihi_ and _al-Sharia al-Ruhaniyya_ as well as
others including didactic and polemic treatises .
Reincarnation is a paramount principle in the
Reincarnations occur instantly at one's death because there is an
eternal duality of the body and the soul and it is impossible for the
soul to exist without the body. A human soul will transfer only to a
human body, in contrast to the Hindu and Buddhist belief systems,
according to which souls can transfer to any living creature.
Furthermore, a male
Druze can be reincarnated only as another male
Druze and a female
Druze only as another female Druze. A
be reincarnated in the body of a non-Druze. Additionally, souls cannot
be divided and the number of souls existing in the universe is finite.
The cycle of rebirth is continuous and the only way to escape is
through successive reincarnations. When this occurs, the soul is
united with the Cosmic Mind and achieves the ultimate happiness.
PACT OF TIME CUSTODIAN
The Pact of Time Custodian (_Mithaq Walley El-Zaman_) is considered
the entrance to the
Druze religion, and they believe that all
their past lives have signed this Charter, and
Druze believe that this
Charter embodies with human souls after death.
I rely on our Moula Al-Hakim the lonely God, the individual, the
eternal, who is out of couples and numbers, (someone) the son of
(someone) has approved recognition enjoined on himself and on his
soul, in a healthy of his mind and his body, permissibility aversive
is obedient and not forced, to repudiate from all creeds, articles and
all religions and beliefs on the differences varieties, and he does
not know something except obedience of almighty Moulana Al-Hakim, and
obedience is worship and that it does not engage in worship anyone
ever attended or wait, and that he had handed his soul and his body
and his money and all he owns to almighty Maulana Al-Hakim.
Druze also use a similar formula, called al-'ahd, when one is
initiated into the ʻUqqāl.
The prayer-houses of the
Druze are called _khalwa_ or _khalwat_. The
primary sanctuary of the
Druze is at
Khalwat al-Bayada .
Druze believe that many teachings given by prophets, religious
leaders and holy books have esoteric meanings preserved for those of
intellect, in which some teachings are symbolic and allegorical in
nature, and divide the understanding of holy books and teachings into
These layers, according to the Druze, are as follows:
* The obvious or exoteric _(zahir )_, accessible to anyone who can
read or hear;
* The hidden or esoteric _(batin )_, accessible to those who are
willing to search and learn through the concept of exegesis ;
* And the hidden of the hidden, a concept known as _anagoge _,
inaccessible to all but a few really enlightened individuals who truly
understand the nature of the universe.
Druze do not believe that the esoteric meaning abrogates or
necessarily abolishes the exoteric one.
Hamza bin Ali refutes such
claims by stating that if the esoteric interpretation of _taharah _
(purity) is purity of the heart and soul, it doesn't mean that a
person can discard his physical purity, as _salat _ (prayer) is
useless if a person is untruthful in his speech and that the esoteric
and exoteric meanings complement each other.
SEVEN DRUZE PRECEPTS
Further information: Seven pillars of
Druze follow seven moral precepts or duties that are considered
the core of the faith. The Seven
Druze precepts are:
* Veracity in speech and the truthfulness of the tongue.
* Protection and mutual aid to the brethren in faith.
* Renunciation of all forms of former worship (specifically, invalid
creeds) and false belief.
* Repudiation of the devil (
Iblis ), and all forces of evil
Arabic _Toghyan_, meaning "despotism ").
* Confession of God's unity.
* Acquiescence in God's acts no matter what they be.
* Absolute submission and resignation to God's divine will in both
secret and public.
Complicating their identity is the custom of _taqiyya _—concealing
or disguising their beliefs when necessary—that they adopted from
Ismailism and the esoteric nature of the faith, in which many
teachings are kept secretive. This is done in order to keep the
religion from those who are not yet prepared to accept the teachings
and therefore could misunderstand it, as well as to protect the
community when it is in danger.
Druzes tend to follow the dominant
religion of the country where they reside. Some claim to be Muslim or
Christian in order to avoid persecution; some do not.
different states can have radically different lifestyles.
Divorce is not forbidden but is not encouraged. Either a woman or a
man can initiate divorce as the faith recognises men and women as
equal; circumcision is not necessary but is commonly practiced for the
sake of hygiene; they cannot be reborn as non-Druze; those who purify
and perfect their soul ascend to a higher plane or vibration in the
process of transition; there is an exoteric and an esoteric meaning to
al-Hakim. The exoteric meaning refers to the Ruler. The esoteric
meaning is quite different as it is implicit of the Ruler of Oneself.
The Hakim is he who harnesses the force of ego under the direction of
the higher consciousness within. He is what the alchemists call the
Philosopher King. So, the reference made to al-Hakim's conquest upon
his return is an allegory for when consciousness is awakened and
sweeps the earth from China to the ends of the Earth. In this, a
Perfect Unity in an alchemically transformed world would rein and
would bring forth the "Hakim" in all that have sought the path. This
is not unlike the belief by Christian traditions in the return of the
Cristos, the Christ. apostasy is forbidden; religious services
usually take place on Thursday evenings; they follow
on issues which their own faith has no particular ruling; other
influential figures of the religion include
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great and
This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this
section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material
may be challenged and removed . (July 2017)_ _(Learn how and when to
remove this template message )_
Druze strictly avoid iconography but use five colors ("Five
Limits" خمس حدود _khams ḥudūd_) as a religious symbol:
green, red, yellow, blue, and white. Each color pertains to a
metaphysical power called _ḥaad_, literally 'a limit', as in the
distinctions that separate humans from animals, or the powers that
make human the animalistic body. Each _ḥaad_ is color-coded in the
* Green for _ʻAql_ "the Universal Mind/Intelligence/
* Red for _Nafs_ "the Universal Soul/
Anima mundi ",
* Yellow for _Kalima_ "the Word/
* Blue for _Sabiq_ "the Potentiality/Cause/Precedent", and
* White for _Tali_ "the Future/Effect/
The mind generates qualia and gives consciousness. The soul embodies
the mind and is responsible for transmigration and the character of
oneself. The word which is the atom of language communicates qualia
between humans and represents the platonic forms in the sensible
world. The _Sabq_ and _Tali_ is the ability to perceive and learn from
the past and plan for the future and predict it.
The colors can be arranged in vertically descending stripes (as a
flag) or a five-pointed star . The stripes are a diagrammatic cut of
the spheres in neoplatonic philosophy, while the five-pointed star
embodies the golden ratio , phi , as a symbol of temperance and a life
PRAYER HOUSES AND HOLY PLACES
Jethro shrine and temple of
Hittin , northern
Holy places of the
Druze are archaeological sites important to the
community and associated with religious holidays – the most notable
example being Nabi Shu\'ayb , dedicated to Jethro , who is a central
figure of the
Druze make pilgrimages to this site on
the holiday of Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu\'ayb .
Prayer house in
Daliat al-Karmel ,
One of the most important features of the
Druze village having a
central role in social life is the _khalwat _—a house of prayer,
retreat and religious unity. The _khalwat_ may be known as _majlis _
in local languages.
The second type of religious shrine is one associated with the
anniversary of a historic event or death of a prophet. If it is a
Druze call it _mazar_ and if it is a shrine they call it
_maqam_. The holy places become more important to the community in
times of adversity and calamity. The holy places and shrines of the
Druze are scattered in various villages, in places where they are
protected and cared for. They are found in
Lebanon and Israel
INITIATES AND "IGNORANT" MEMBERS
This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this
section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material
may be challenged and removed . (September 2016)_ _(Learn how and when
to remove this template message )_
Druze sheikh (ʻuqqāl_) wearing religious dress
Druzes do not recognize any religious hierarchy. As such, there
is no "
Druze clergy". Those few initiated in the
Druze holy books are
called ʿUQQāL, while the "ignorant", regular members of the group
are called JUHHāL.
Given the strict religious, intellectual and spiritual requirements,
most of the
Druzes are not initiated and might be referred to as
_al-Juhhāl_ (جهال), literally "the Ignorant", but in practice
referring to the non-initiated Druzes; however, that term is seldom
used by the Druzes. Those are not granted access to the
literature or allowed to attend the initiated religious meetings of
the _ʻuqqāl_. The cohesiveness and frequent inter-community social
interaction however makes it in sort that that most
Druzes have an
idea about their broad ethical requirements and have some sense of
what their theology consists of (albeit often flawed).
The initiated religious group, which includes both men and women
(less than 10% of the population), is called _al-ʻUqqāl_ (عقال
"the Knowledgeable Initiates"). They might or might not dress
differently, although most wear a costume that was characteristic of
mountain people in previous centuries. Women can opt to wear
_al-mandīl_, a loose white veil , especially in the presence of other
people. They wear _al-mandīl_ on their heads to cover their hair and
wrap it around their mouths. They wear black shirts and long skirts
covering their legs to their ankles. Male _ʻuqqāl_ often grow
mustaches, and wear dark Levantine-Turkish traditional dresses, called
the _shirwal_, with white turbans that vary according to the seniority
of the _ʻuqqāl_. Traditionally the
Druze women have played an
important role both socially and religiously inside the community.
_Al-ʻuqqāl_ have equal rights to _al-Juhhāl_, but establish a
hierarchy of respect based on religious service. The most influential
of _al-ʻuqqāl_ become _Ajawīd_, recognized religious leaders, and
from this group the spiritual leaders of the
Druze are assigned. While
Shaykh al-ʻAql_, which is an official position in Syria,
Lebanon, and Israel, is elected by the local community and serves as
the head of the
Druze religious council, judges from the Druze
religious courts are usually elected for this position. Unlike the
spiritual leaders, the authority of the _
Shaykh al-ʻAql_ is limited
to the country he is elected in, though in some instances spiritual
leaders are elected to this position.
Druze believe in the unity of God, and are often known as the
"People of Monotheism" or simply "Monotheists". Their theology has a
Neo-Platonic view about how
God interacts with the world through
emanations and is similar to some gnostic and other esoteric sects.
Druze philosophy also shows
Druze principles focus on honesty, loyalty, filial piety , altruism ,
patriotic sacrifice, and monotheism . They reject nicotine , alcohol ,
and other drugs , and often the consumption of pork (to those Uqqāl
and not necessarily to be required by the Juhhāl).
polygamy , believe in reincarnation , and are not obliged to observe
most of the religious rituals. The
Druze believe that rituals are
symbolic and have an individualistic effect on the person, for which
Druze are free to perform them, or not. The community does
Eid al-Adha , however, considered their most significant
Matè is a popular drink consumed by the
Druze brought to the Levant
from Lebanese migrants from
Argentina in the 19th century. Mate is
made by steeping dried leaves of yerba mate in hot water and is served
with a metal straw (_bambija_ or _masassa_) from a gourd (_finjan_).
Mate is often the first item served when entering a
Druze home. It is
a social drink and can be shared between multiple participants. After
each drinker, the metal straw is cleaned with a lemon rind.
Traditional snacks eaten with mate include raisins, nuts, dried figs,
biscuits, and chips.
This section's FACTUAL ACCURACY IS DISPUTED . Relevant discussion
may be found on Talk:
Druze . Please help to ensure that disputed
statements are reliably sourced . (May 2014)_ _(Learn how and when to
remove this template message )_
Druze faith extended to many areas in the Middle East, but most
of the modern
Druze can trace their origin to the _Wadi al-Taym_ in
Lebanon , which is named after an
Arab tribe _Taymour-Allah
(formerly Taymour-Allat)_ which, according to Islamic historian,
al-Tabari , first came from
Arabia into the valley of the Euphrates
where they had been Christianized prior to their migration into the
Lebanon. Many of the
Druze feudal families whose genealogies have been
preserved by the two modern
Syrian chroniclers Haydar al-Shihabi and
al-Shidyaq seem also to point in the direction of this origin. Arabian
tribes emigrated via the
Persian Gulf and stopped in Iraq on the route
that was later to lead them to Syria. The first feudal
Tanukh family, which made for itself a name in fighting the
Crusaders, was, according to Haydar al-Shihabi, an
Arab tribe from
Mesopotamia where it occupied the position of a ruling family and
apparently was Christianized.
Niebuhr , and scholars like von Oppenheim ,
undoubtedly echoing the popular
Druze belief regarding their own
origin, have classified them as Arabs. The prevailing idea among the
Druzes themselves today is that they are of
Druze As A Mixture Of Middle Eastern Tribes
The 1911 edition of
Encyclopædia Britannica states that the Druzes
are "a mixture of refugee stocks, in which the
predominates, grafted on to an original mountain population of Aramaic
The Tanukhs must have left
Arabia as early as the second or third
century AD. The Ma\'an tribe, which superseded the Tanukhs and
produced the greatest
Druze hero, Fakhr-al-Din , had the same
traditional origin. The _Talhuq_ family and _'Abd-al-Malik_, who
supplied the later
Druze leadership, have the same record as the
Imad family is named for _al-Imadiyyah_ — the Kurdish
Amadiya , northeast of
Kurdistan , and, like the
Jumblatts , is thought to be of Kurdish tribal origin, the Janpulad
("soul of steel") are still found east of
Adana in Turkey, across the
borders from Syria. The leading "Atrash" family also can trace its
background to the Kurdish tribe, the Hartush/Atrush, found in northern
Iraq and southeastern Turkey today. The Arsalan family claims descent
Arab kings, but the name _Arsalan_ (Persian and Turkish
for lion) suggests Persian influence, if not origin.
During the 18th century, there were two branches of
Druze living in
Lebanon: the Yemeni Druze, headed by the Harmouche and Alamuddine
families; and the Kaysi Druze, headed by the
Jumblatt and Arslan
families. The Harmouche family was banished from Mount Lebanon
following the battle of Ain Dara in 1711. The battle was fought
Druze factions: the Yemeni and the Kaysi. Following their
dramatic defeat, the Yemeni faction migrated to
Syria in the
Jebel-Druze region and its capital,
Soueida . However, it has been
argued that these two factions were of political nature rather than
ethnic, and had both Christian and
According to Jewish contemporary literature, the Druze, who were
visited and described in 1165 by
Benjamin of Tudela , were pictured as
descendants of the
Itureans , an
Arab tribe, which used to
reside in the northern parts of the Golan plateau through Hellenistic
and Roman periods. The word Druzes, in an early Hebrew edition of his
travels, occurs as "Dogziyin", but it is clear that this is a scribal
Archaeological assessments of the
Druze region have also proposed the
Druze descending from Itureans, who had inhabited
Golan Heights in late classic antiquity, but their
traces fade in the Middle Ages.
In a 2005 study of ASPM gene variants , Mekel-Bobrov et al. found
Israeli Druze people of the Carmel region have among the
highest rate of the newly evolved ASPM- Haplogroup D, at 52.2%
occurrence of the approximately 6,000-year-old allele. While it is
not yet known exactly what selective advantage is provided by this
gene variant, the Haplogroup D allele is thought to be positively
selected in populations and to confer some substantial advantage that
has caused its frequency to rapidly increase.
DNA study has shown that
Israeli Druze are remarkable for
the high frequency (35%) of males who carry the Y-chromosomal
haplogroup L (though some Afshar village and the
Raqqa Syrians have
even more), which is otherwise uncommon in the Mideast (Shen et al.
2004). This haplogroup originates from prehistoric
South Asia and has
Pakistan into southern
Iran . However, studies done on
larger samples showed that L-M20 averages 5% in Israeli Druze, 8% in
Lebanese Druze, and it was not found in a sample of 59
Cruciani in 2007 found E1b1b1a2 (E-V13) in high levels (>10% of the
male population) in Turkish Cypriot and
Arab lineages. Recent
genetic clustering analyses of ethnic groups are consistent with the
close ancestral relationship between the
Druze and Cypriots, and also
identified similarity to the general
Syrian and Lebanese populations,
as well as a variety of Jewish groups (Ashkenazi, Sephardi, Iraqi, and
Moroccan) (Behar et al. 2010).
Also, a new study concluded that the
Druze harbor a remarkable
diversity of mitochondrial
DNA lineages that appear to have separated
from each other thousands of years ago. But instead of dispersing
throughout the world after their separation, the full range of
lineages can still be found within the
The researchers noted that the
Druze villages contained a striking
range of high frequency and high diversity of the X haplogroup ,
suggesting that this population provides a glimpse into the past
genetic landscape of the
Near East at a time when the X haplogroup was
These findings are consistent with the
Druze oral tradition , that
claims that the adherents of the faith came from diverse ancestral
lineages stretching back tens of thousands of years. The Shroud of
Turin analysis shows significant traces of mitochondrial
DNA unique to
A 2008 study published on the genetic background of
Israel showed highly heterogeneous parental origins. A total of 311
Israeli Druze were sampled: 37 from the
Golan Heights , 183 from the
Galilee , and 35 from
Mount Carmel , as well as 27
Syria and 29 from Lebanon. The researchers found the following
frequencies of Y-chromosomal haplogroups:
* Mount Carmel: L 27%, R 27%, J 18%, E 15%, G 12%.
* Galilee: J 31%, R 20%, E 18%, G 14%, K 11%, Q 4%, L 2%.
* Golan Heights: J 54%, E 29%, I 8%, G 4%, C 4%.
* Lebanon: J 31%, E 22%, K 21%, R 14%, L 10%.
* Syria: J 39%, E 29%, R 14%, G 14%, K 4%.
List of Druze
Jabal Druze State
IDF Sword Battalion
* ^ 12/222 Shlush et al. 2008
* ^ 1/25 Shlush et al. 2008
* ^ Carl Skutsch (7 Nov 2013). Skutsch, Carl, ed. _Encyclopedia of
the World's Minorities_. Routledge. p. 410. ISBN 9781135193881 . Total
* ^ Robert Brenton Betts (1 Jan 1990). _The Druze_ (illustrated,
reprint, revised ed.). Yale University Press. p. 55. ISBN
9780300048100 . The total population of
Druze throughout the world
probably approaches one million.
* ^ Donna Marsh (11 May 2015). _Doing Business in the Middle East:
A cultural and practical guide for all Business Professionals_
(revised ed.). Hachette UK. ISBN 9781472135674 . It is believed there
are no more than 1 million
Druze worldwide; most live in the Levant.
* ^ Samy Swayd (10 Mar 2015). _Historical Dictionary of the Druzes_
(2 ed.). Rowman ...
* ^ Daftary , Ferhad . "ḤĀKEM BE-AMR-ALLĀH". Encyclopædia
Iranica. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
* ^ http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-33166043
Lebanon – International Religious Freedom Report 2008 U.S.
Department of State. Retrieved on 2013-06-13.
* ^ "Palestinians say they number 12.1 million worldwide". Times of
* ^ _A_ _B_ _International Religious Freedom Report_, US State
Department , 2005
* ^ "Tariq Alaiseme vice-president of Venezuela" (in Arabic).
Aamama. 2013. : Referring governor
Tareck El Aissami
Tareck El Aissami .
* ^ _
Druze Traditions_, Institute of
Druze Studies, archived from
the original on 14 January 2009
* ^ "
Druze Population of
Australia by Place of Usual Residence
(2006)". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 27 July 2010.
* ^ European
Druze Society - EDS e.V.
* ^ Berdichevsky, Norman. _Nations, Language and Citizenship_.
McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-2700-0 .
* ^ "Druze". _Random House Webster\'s Unabridged Dictionary _.
* ^ Chatty, Dawn. _Displacement and Dispossession in the Modern
Middle East_. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81792-7 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Doniger, Wendy. _Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia
of World Religions_. Merriam-Webster, Inc. ISBN 0-87779-044-2 .
* ^ Corduan, Winfried (2013). _Neighboring Faiths: A Christian
Introduction to World Religions_. p. 107. ISBN 0-8308-7197-7 .
* ^ Mackey, Sandra (2009). _Mirror of the
Conflict_. p. 28. ISBN 0-393-33374-4 .
* ^ Lev, David (25 October 2010). "MK Kara:
Druze are Descended
from Jews". _
Israel National News_. Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 13 April
* ^ Blumberg, Arnold (1985). _Zion Before Zionism: 1838–1880_.
Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press. p. 201. ISBN 0-8156-2336-4 .
* ^ Rosenfeld, Judy (1952). _Ticket to Israel: An Informative
Guide_. p. 290.
* ^ Léo-Paul Dana (1 Jan 2010). _Entrepreneurship and Religion_.
Edward Elgar Publishing . p. 314. ISBN 978-1-84980-632-9 .
* ^ Terri Morrison; Wayne A. Conaway (24 Jul 2006). _Kiss, Bow, Or
Shake Hands: The Bestselling Guide to Doing Business in More Than 60
Countries_ (illustrated ed.).
Adams Media . p. 259. ISBN
* ^ Nejla M. Abu Izzeddin (1993). _The Druzes: a new study of their
history, faith, and society_. BRILL. pp. 108–. ISBN
978-90-04-09705-6 . Retrieved 17 March 2011.
* ^ Daftary, Farhad. _A History of Shi'i Islam_. I.B.Tauris. ISBN
* ^ The Israelis: Ordinary People in an Extraordinary Land, Donna
Rosenthal, Simon and Schuster, 2003, p.296
* ^ _A_ _B_ Kapur, Kamlesh. _History Of Ancient India_. Sterling
Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-207-4910-3 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Nisan 2002 , p. 95.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Druze". druze.org.au. 2015.
* ^ Nisan, Mordechai. _Minorities in the Middle East: A History of
Struggle and Self-Expression_. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-5133-5 .
* ^ Kayyali, Randa. _The
Arab Americans_. Greenwood Publishing
Group. ISBN 0-313-33219-3 .
* ^ Sorenson, David. _Global Security Watch-Lebanon: A Reference
Handbook: A Reference Handbook_. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 0-313-36579-2 .
* ^ Abdul-Rahman, Muhammed Saed. _Islam: Questions And Answers —
Schools of Thought, Religions and Sects_. AMSA Publication Limited.
ISBN 5-551-29049-2 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ Hitti 1924 .
* ^ Al-Khalidi, Suleiman. "Calls for aid to Syria\'s
Druze after al
Qaeda kills 20". Reuters.
* ^ "Syria: ISIS Imposes \'Sharia\' on Idlib\'s Druze".
* ^ Radwan, Chad K. (June 2009). "Assessing
Druze identity and
strategies for preserving
Druze heritage in North America". _Scholar
* ^ _A_ _B_ _Druzes_, Institute of
Druze Studies, archived from the
original on 17 June 2006
* ^ Jordanian
Druze can be found in
Zarka ; about 50%
live in the town of
Azraq , and a smaller number in
Irbid and Aqaba
."Localities and Population, by District, Sub-District,
Population Group" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June
* ^ Dana 2003 , p. 99.
* ^ Halabi, Rabah, _Citizens of equal duties—
Druze identity and
the Jewish State_ (in Hebrew), p. 55
* ^ "
Druze set to visit Syria". _News Online_. BBC. 30 August 2004.
Retrieved 8 September 2006. The worldwide population of
Druze is put
at up to one million, with most living in mountainous regions in
Jordan and Israel.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Moukarim, Moustafa F, _About the
The Mo\'wa\'he\'doon Druze_, archived from the original on 26 April
* ^ Hodgson, Marshall G. S. (1962). "Al-Darazî and Ḥamza in the
Origin of the
Druze Religion". _Journal of the American Oriental
American Oriental Society . 82 (1): 5–20. ISSN 0003-0279
JSTOR 595974 . doi :10.2307/595974 – via
JSTOR . (Registration
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Swayd, Samy (1998). _The Druzes: An
Annotated Bibliography_. Kirkland, WA, USA: ISES Publications. ISBN
* ^ _A_ _B_ Chisholm 1911 , p. 605.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Al-Najjar, 'Abdullāh (1965). _Madhhab ad-Durūz wa
Druze Sect and Unism)_ (in Arabic). Egypt: Dār
* ^ Hitti, Philip K (2007) . _Origins of the
Druze People and
Religion, with Extracts from their Sacred Writings_. Columbia
University Oriental Studies. 28 (new ed.). London: Saqi. pp. 13–14.
ISBN 0-86356-690-1 .
Mordechai Nisan (1 Jan 2002). _Minorities in the Middle East: A
History of Struggle and Self-Expression, 2d ed_. McFarland. p. 283.
ISBN 978-0-7864-5133-3 .
* ^ _Luminaries: Al Hakim_ (PDF), Druze, archived from the original
PDF ) on 20 August 2008
* ^ _Ismaili_,
Islam Heritage Field
* ^ Potter, William, _Melville\'s Clarel and the Intersympathy of
Creeds_, p. 156
* ^ Dana .
* ^ Meri, Josef W; Bacharach, Jere L (2006), _Medieval Islamic
Civilization: An Encyclopedia_, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-96690-6
* ^ Westheimer, Dr Ruth; Sedan, Gil, _The Olive and the Tree: The
Secret Strength of the Druze_
* ^ Swayd 2006 .
* ^ M. Th. Houtsma; EJ Brill (1913–36), _First encyclopaedia of
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Rebecca Erickson. "The Druze" (PDF). _Encyclopedia
of New Religious Movements_. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18
* ^ _A_ _B_ _History_,
Druze Heritage, archived from the original
on 3 March 2016
* ^ Stefan Winter (11 Mar 2010). _The Shiites of
Ottoman Rule, 1516–1788_. Cambridge University Press. p. 37. ISBN
* ^ _
Religion — Tradition and Apostasy_ (PDF),
shaanan, May 2015
* ^ TJ Gorton, _Renaissance Emir: a
Druze Warlord at the court of
the Medici_ (London: Quartet Books, 2013), pp 167–75.
* ^ Abu-Husayn, Abdul-Rahim (2004). _The view from Istanbul:
Lebanon and the
Druze Emirate in the Ottoman chancery documents,
1546–1711_. I.B.Tauris. pp. 21–22. ISBN 978-1-86064-856-4 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Abu-Husayn, Abdul-Rahim (2004). _The view from
Lebanon and the
Druze Emirate in the Ottoman chancery
documents, 1546–1711_. I.B.Tauris. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-86064-856-4 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Abu-Husayn, Abdul-Rahim (2004). _The view from
Lebanon and the
Druze Emirate in the Ottoman chancery
documents, 1546–1711_. I.B.Tauris. pp. 22–23. ISBN
* ^ _A_ _B_ Salibi, Kamal S. (2005). _A house of many mansions: the
Lebanon reconsidered_. I.B.Tauris. p. 66. ISBN
* ^ Abraham, Antoine (1977). "Lebanese Communal Relations". _Muslim
World_. 67 (2): 91–105. doi :10.1111/j.1478-1913.1977.tb03313.x .
* ^ Churchill, Charles (1862), _The
Druzes and the Maronites under
the Turkish Rule from 1840 to 1860_
* ^ Totten, Michael J. (2014). _Tower of the Sun: Stories from the
Middle East and North Africa_. Belmont Estate Books. ISBN
* ^ _A_ _B_ Kjeilen, Tore. "Druze".
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Landis, Joshua (1998). Philipp, T;
Schäbler, B, eds. "Shishakli and the Druzes: Integration and
Syrian Land: Processes of Integration and
Fragmentation_. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. pp. 369–96.
* ^ _
* ^ _Books_, Google
* ^ _Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir_, Meib, May 2003, archived from the
original (dossier) on 11 June 2003
* ^ "Who\'s who in Lebanon". _BBC News_. 14 March 2005. Retrieved
13 August 2011.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Eli Ashkenazi (3 November 2005). הרצל
והתקווה בחגיגות 30 לתנועה הדרוזית
הציונית . _HAARETZ _ (IN HEBREW). RETRIEVED 14 OCTOBER 2014.
* ^ "The Druze", _Jewish virtual library_, retrieved 23 January
* ^ Amara, Muhammad; Schnell, Izhak (2004), "Identity Repertoires
among Arabs in Israel", _Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies_, 30
* ^ "Palestinians say they number 12.1 million worldwid".
* ^ _Religious Freedoms: Druze_, The
Israel project, retrieved 23
* ^ Makarem , Sami Nasib , _The
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Swayd, SDSU, Dr. Samy, _
Asceticism_ (an abridged rough draft; RTF ), Eial
* ^ _Religion_, AU:
* ^ Grolier Incorporated (1996). _The Encyclopedia Americana_.
Grolier Incorporated. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
* ^ Seabrook, W. B., _Adventures in Arabia_, Harrap and Sons 1928,
* ^ Dwairy, Marwan (2006) "The Psychosocial Function Of
Druze In Israel" _Culture, Medicine and
Psychiatry,_ page 29 – 53
* ^ Ḥamza ibn ʻ
Ali ibn Aḥmad and Baha'a El-Din. _The Druze
Epistles of Wisdom – page.47 "Elmithaq"_ (PDF). Christoph
Heger. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
* ^ Hanna Batatu (17 Sep 2012). _Syria's Peasantry, the Descendants
of Its Lesser Rural Notables, and Their Politics_. Princeton
University Press. pp. 15–16. ISBN 978-1-4008-4584-2 . I ... son of
... being sane of spirit and body and duly qualified, attest on my
soul, without compulsion or constraint, that I renounce all the
different cults, religions, and creeds and acknowledge nothing other
than obedience to our Lord al-Hakim, revered be his name, and
obedience is worship; that in his worship I associate no past,
present, or future being; that I commit my soul, my body, my property,
and my offspring ... to our Lord al-Hakim ... and accept all his
decrees, be they in my favour or against me ... He who attests that
there is in heaven no adored god and on the earth no living imam other
than our Lord al-Hakim ... belongs to the triumphant muwahhidin .
Signed ... in the year ... of the slave of our Lord ... Hamzah bin
Ali bin Ahmad, the guide of those who respond and the avenger on the
polytheists with the sword of our Lord.
* ^ Nissîm Dānā (2003). _The
Druze in the Middle East: Their
Faith, Leadership, Identity and Status_. Sussex Academic Press. pp.
38–. ISBN 978-1-903900-36-9 . Retrieved 11 September 2012.
* ^ "The Druze", _h2g2_, UK: BBC
* ^ "The Epistle Answering the People of
_Epistles of Wisdom_ (a rough translation from the Arabic)format=
requires url= (help ), Second
* ^ Hitti 1924 , p. 51.
* ^ Firro, Kais. _A History of the Druzes, Volume 1_. BRILL. ISBN
* ^ Dana , p. 18.
* ^ Gananath Obeyesekere (2006). _Karma and Rebirth: A Cross
Cultural Study_ (illustrated ed.).
Motilal Banarsidass Publishe . pp.
311, 313–14. ISBN 9788120826090 . access-date= requires url=
Farhad Daftary (20 Sep 2007). _The Isma'ilis: Their History and
Doctrines_ (2, illustrated, revised ed.). Cambridge University Press.
p. 189. ISBN 9781139465786 . access-date= requires url= (help )
* ^ Samy S. Swayd (2009). _The A to Z of the Druzes_. Rowman &
Littlefield . p. xxxix. ISBN 9780810868366 . access-date= requires
url= (help )
* ^ Morgan Clarke (15 Jan 2013). _
Islam And New Kinship:
Reproductive Technology and the Shariah in Lebanon_.
Berghahn Books .
p. 17. ISBN 9780857453822 . access-date= requires url= (help )
* ^ Samy S. Swayd (2009). _The A to Z of the Druzes_. Rowman &
Littlefield . pp. 44, 61, 147. ISBN 9780810868366 . access-date=
requires url= (help )
* ^ Léo-Paul Dana (1 Jan 2010). _Entrepreneurship and Religion_.
Edward Elgar Publishing . p. 314. ISBN 9781849806329 . access-date=
requires url= (help )
* ^ Terri Morrison; Wayne A. Conaway (24 Jul 2006). _Kiss, Bow, Or
Shake Hands: The Bestselling Guide to Doing Business in More Than 60
Countries_ (illustrated ed.).
Adams Media . p. 259. ISBN 9781593373689
. access-date= requires url= (help )
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Holy places of the Druze". Aamama.
* ^ "Khalwah the prayer place of the Druze".
Druze sect site.
* ^ "Druze", in Encyclopædia Britannica
* ^ Barceloux, Donald. _Medical Toxicology of
Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants_. John Wiley & Sons.
ISBN 1-118-10605-9 .
* ^ "South American \'mate\' tea a long-time Lebanese hit". Middle
East Online. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
* ^ Hitti, P. K. (1966). _The Origins of the
Druze People and
Religion: With Extracts from Their Sacred Writings_. _Library of
* ^ Religious and Theological Abstracts. Vol 34–35. "Heretofore
studies of the Ituraeans have been based on historical sources and
written history. Archaeological surveys from 1968 to ... Proposes the
possibility that the
Druze descended from the Ituraeans. RVR 4493
Demsky, Aaron (Bar-Ilan."
* ^ "Ongoing Adaptive Evolution of ASPM, a Brain Size Determinant
in Homo sapiens", _Science _, 309 (5741): 1720–22, 9 September 2005,
PMID 16151010 , doi :10.1126/science.1116815
* ^ Peidong Shen; et al. (2004). "Reconstruction of Patrilineages
and Matrilineages of Samaritans and Other Israeli Populations From
Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial
DNA Sequence Variation" (PDF). _Human
Mutation_. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Liss. 24: 248–260. Retrieved 2
December 2016. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link )
* ^ Doron M. Behar; Bayazit Yunusbayev; Mait Metspalu; Ene
Metspalu; Saharon Rosset; Jüri Parik; Siiri Rootsi; Gyaneshwer
Chaubey; Ildus Kutuev; Guennady Yudkovsky; Elza K. Khusnutdinova; Oleg
Balanovsky; Olga Balaganskaya; Ornella Semino; Luisa Pereira; David
Comas; David Gurwitz; Batsheva Bonne-Tamir; Tudor Parfitt; Michael F.
Hammer; Karl Skorecki; Richard Villems (July 2010). "The genome-wide
structure of the Jewish people" (PDF). _Nature_. 466 (7303): 238–42.
PMID 20531471 . doi :10.1038/nature09103 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Genetics Confirm Oral Traditions of
Israel", _ScienceDaily_, American Technion Society, 12 May 2008
* ^ https://www.nature.com/articles/srep14484
* ^ "The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East",
Israel Science Foundation, Canadian and American Technion
Societies, 3: e2105, 2008, PMC 2324201 , PMID 18461126 , doi
* Dana, Nissim (2003), _The
Druze in the Middle East: Their Faith,
Leadership, Identity and Status_, Sussex University Press, ISBN
* Hitti, Philip Khūri (1924), _Origins of the
Druze People and
Religion_, Forgotten Books, ISBN 1-60506-068-2 , retrieved 4 April
* Nisan, Mordechai (2002), _Minorities in the Middle East: a history
of struggle and self-expression_ (2nd, illustrated ed.), McFarland,
ISBN 0-7864-1375-1 , retrieved 4 April 2012
* Swayd, Samy S (2006), _Historical dictionary of the Druzes_, 3
(illustrated ed.), Scarecrow Press, ISBN 0-8108-5332-9 , retrieved 4
* Jean-Marc Aractingi, « Les
Druzes et la Franc-maçonnerie », in
Les Cahiers de l'Orient, no 69, 1er trimestre 2003, Paris : L'Équerre
et le Croissant, éditions Les Cahiers de l'Orient
* Jean-Marc Aractingi, « Points de convergence dans les rituels et
symboles chez les
Druzes et chez les francs-maçons », in Les
Cahiers, Jean Scot Erigène, no 8, Franc-maçonnerie et Islamité,
Paris: la Grande Loge de France.
* Pinhas Inabri "
Pan-Arabism versus Pan-
Islam – Where Do the Druze
* Abu Fakhr, Sakr (2000). "Voices from the Golan". _Journal of
Palestine Studies_. 29 (4): 5–36. doi
* Aractingi, Jean-Marc; Lochon, Christian (2008), _Secrets
Islam et rituels maçonniques-Ismaéliens, Druzes,
Alaouites, Confréries soufies_, Paris: L'Harmattan, ISBN
* Rabih Alameddine _I, the Divine: A Novel in First Chapters_,
Norton (2002). ISBN 0-393-32356-0 .
* B. Destani, ed. _Minorities in the Middle East:
1840–1974_, 4 volumes, Slough: Archive Editions (2006). ISBN
* R. Scott Kennedy "The
Druze of the Golan: A Case of Non-Violent
Resistance" _Journal of Palestine Studies,_ Vol. 13, No. 2 (Winter,
1984), pp. 48–6.
* Dr. Anis Obeid: _The
Druze & Their
Faith in Tawhid_, Syracuse
University Press (July 2006). ISBN 0-8156-3097-2 .
* Shamai, Shmuel (1990). "Critical Sociology of Education Theory in
Druze Education in the Golan". _British Journal of
Sociology of Education_. 11 (4): 449–463. doi
* Samy Swayd _The Druzes: An Annotated Bibliography_, Kirkland,
Washington: ISES Publications (1998). ISBN 0-9662932-0-7 .
* Bashar Tarabieh "Education, Control and Resistance in the Golan
Middle East Report,_ No. 194/195, Odds against Peace
(May–Aug., 1995), pp. 43–47.
* _ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Druses". Encyclopædia Britannica
_. 8 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 603–606.
_ Media related to
Druze at Wikimedia Commons
Look up DRUZE _ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia
_ article _DRUSES _.
Theology : Outline
* Conceptions of