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The Drina
Drina
(Serbian Cyrillic: Дрина, pronounced [drǐːna]) is a 346 km (215 mi) long international river, which forms a large portion of the border between Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Serbia. It is the longest tributary of the Sava
Sava
River and the longest karst river in the Dinaric Alps
Dinaric Alps
which belongs to the Danube
Danube
river watershed. Its name is derived from the Latin
Latin
name of the river (Latin: Drinus) which in turn is derived from Greek (Ancient Greek: Dreinos).

Contents

1 Length 2 Navigation

2.1 Jelav
Jelav
monoxyl

3 Course

3.1 Origin and gorges 3.2 Border river

3.2.1 Upper Drina 3.2.2 Lower Drina 3.2.3 Lowest section

4 Characteristics 5 Tributaries 6 Power 7 Population 8 In popular culture 9 See also 10 References 11 Sources 12 External links

Length[edit] The Drina
Drina
is formed by the confluence of the Tara and the Piva rivers, both of which flow from Montenegro
Montenegro
and converge on the border of Bosnia and Herzegovina, at Hum and Šćepan Polje
Šćepan Polje
villages. The total length of the Tara river is 144 km (89 mi), of which 104 km (65 mi) are in Montenegro, while the final 40 km (25 mi) are in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
along which form the border between the two countries in several places. The Drina
Drina
flows through Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
northward for 346 km (215 mi), of which 206 km (128 mi) is along the border of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia, and finally spills out into the Sava
Sava
river near Bosanska Rača village in northeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina. Measured from the source of the Tara, its longer headwater, the Drina is 487 kilometers (303 miles) long. Navigation[edit] The river is not navigable today, but together with the Tara it represents the main kayaking and rafting attraction in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro. However, during history, the small boats' traffic on the Drina
Drina
was quite developed. Earliest written sources of the Drina
Drina
boats date from the early 17th century. Traversing through this area in the second half of the 17th century, Ottoman traveler Evliya Çelebi
Evliya Çelebi
noted that people in the Drina
Drina
valley cut 40 m (130 ft) tall oak trees and use their trunks to make boats, by hollowing them with primitive tools and controlled fire. This type of boat is called monoxyl or dugout canoe. He writes that there were thousands of such boats at Zvornik, which navigated all the way to Belgrade, downstream the Drina and the Sava. Upstream from Zvornik, the boats didn't navigate.[1] Jelav
Jelav
monoxyl[edit] Main article: Jelav In September 2011, after local floods, an ancient boat was discovered, buried under the gravel in the Drina
Drina
river, near Jelav, some 10 km (6.2 mi) north of Loznica. It is the first one in the Drina
Drina
valley which was discovered in one piece and in such a good shape. The boat is 7.1 m (23 ft) long, 1.3 m (4 ft 3 in) wide and with the circumference of the back section of 4 m (13 ft). When dug out, it weighted 2 tons, but after drying out for two years in natural conditions, it was reduced to 1.3 tons. After being dried, it went through the conservation process in 2013. As the local museum in Loznica
Loznica
had no space to exhibit such a big item, a special annex was built especially for the monoxyl. It is estimated that it was made between 1740 and 1760 from the trunk of an oak that was 230 to 300 years old when cut. Based on the marks on it, this particular boat was most likely used for the transportation of the bulk cargo from one side of the river to another, as it seems to be too massive to be operated by the oars. Cuts and marks on it indicate that it was probably pulled over the river by the horses. It is possible that later, when it went out of service, it was used as the foundation of a watermill.[1] Course[edit] Origin and gorges[edit]

Map showing the Drina
Drina
within the Sava
Sava
River watershed.

The Drina
Drina
originates between the slopes of the Maglić and Pivska planina mountains, between the villages of Šćepan Polje
Šćepan Polje
(in Montenegro) and Hum (Bosnia and Herzegovina). At its origin, it flows west, then makes a large curve to the northeast, around the Maluša mountains. Next, it flows through the villages of Kosman, Prijedjel, Dučeli, Čelikovo Polje, Kopilovi, Trbušće, Brod and the town of Foča. It receives the Sutjeska, Bjelava and Bistrica rivers from the left and the Ćehotina
Ćehotina
at Foča
Foča
from the right. Here the Drina
Drina
carved the longest one of the several gorges on its course, the 45 km (28 mi)-long Suhi Dol-Biserovina gorge between the southernmost slopes of the Jahorina
Jahorina
mountains from the north and the Kovač mountains from the south. The villages of Zlatari, Jošanica, Ustikolina, Cvilin, Zebina Šuma, Osanica, Kolovarice, Vranići, Mravinjac, Biljin, Vitkovići and Zupčići are located in the gorge, as well as the town of Goražde. The river receives the Kolunska rijeka and the Osanica as tributaries from the left. The Drina
Drina
continues to the northeast, flowing close to the villages of Žuželo, Odžak, Kopači and Ustiprača, entering the 26 km (16 mi) long Međeđa gorge carved between the Vučevica mountains from the south and the southern slopes of the Devetak mountains from the north. The narrowest part of the Međeđa gorge is Tijesno, the 8 km (5.0 mi)-long section of the gorge where the river is at its narrowest (only 12 m (39 ft) wide), but also at its deepest (12 m). Here it receives the Prača river from the left and the Janjina and Lim rivers from the right. The villages of Trbosilje, Međeđa and Orahovci are located in the gorge, which is for the most part flooded by the artificial Višegrad
Višegrad
lake, created by the Višegrad
Višegrad
hydroelectric power plant.

Drina
Drina
at Višegrad
Višegrad
around 1900, Bosnia and Herzegovina

At the town of Višegrad, the Drina
Drina
receives the Rzav River from the right and turns northwest at the Suva Gora mountain into the Klotijevac gorge. The gorge is 38 km (24 mi) long and up to 1 km (3,200 ft) deep, carved between the mountains of Bokšanica (from the west) and Zvijezda (from the east). The villages of Sase, Resnik, Đurevići and Gornje Štitarevo lie in the gorge and the Kukal river flows into the Drina
Drina
from the right. At the Slap village, the Drina
Drina
receives the Žepa
Žepa
river from the right and turns sharply to the west, becoming a border river between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia
Serbia
near the village of Jagoštica. Border river[edit] The Drina
Drina
flows between the mountains of Zvijezda and Sušica and it is flooded by the artificial Lake Perućac
Lake Perućac
on the northern slopes of the Tara mountain, created by the Bajina Bašta
Bajina Bašta
power plant. The villages of Prohići and Osatica (in Bosnia and Herzegovina) are located on the lake, as well as the ruins of the medieval town of Đurđevac. The river is dammed at the village of Perućac, where a strong well springs out from the Tara mountain, flowing into the Drina as a waterfall. In addition, the waters of Drina
Drina
are used for several fish ponds for the rainbow trout spawning. The river continues to the villages of Peći, Dobrak, Skelani
Skelani
(in Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Zaguline (in Serbia), reaching the town of Bajina Bašta. At the villages of Donja Crvica and Rogačica, the Drina
Drina
makes a large turn, completely changing its direction from the northeast to the northwest. This distinct geographical feature forms the Osat
Osat
and Ludmer regions of Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina, which are separated by the river from the Azbukovica part of the Podrinje
Podrinje
region of Serbia. Upper Drina[edit] Flowing on the western slopes of the Bukovica
Bukovica
mountain, the Drina passes next to the villages of Gvozdac, Okletac, Strmovo, Bačevci, Donje Košlje, Drlače, Vrhpolje, Donja Bukovica
Bukovica
(in Serbia), Boljevići, Fakovići, Tegare, Sikirići and Voljevica (in Bosnia and Herzegovina), before it reaches the towns of Ljubovija
Ljubovija
in Serbia, the centre of the Azbukovica (or Upper Podrinje) region, and Bratunac, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Ludmer region. Here the Drina
Drina
receives the right tributary of Ljuboviđa and continues between the mountains of Jagodnja
Jagodnja
and Boranja
Boranja
(in Serbia), and Glogova (in Bosnia and Herzegovina). After the ruins of the medieval town of Mikuljak and the villages of Mičići, Uzovnica, Crnča, Voljevci (in Serbia), Krasanovići, Dubravice, Polom and Zelinje (in Bosnia and Herzegovina), the Drina
Drina
is flooded again, this time by the artificial Zvornik
Zvornik
Lake, as a result of the Zvornik
Zvornik
power plant. The villages of Amajic, Culine (in Serbia), Sopotnik, Drinjača and Djevanje (in Bosnia and Herzegovina) are located on the lake. This is also where the Drinjača river flows into the Drina
Drina
(now the Zvornik
Zvornik
lake) from the left, flowing from the Bosnian region of Gornji Birač. Lower Drina[edit]

River island on Drina
Drina
close to Loznica

After the dual town of Zvornik
Zvornik
(Bosnia and Herzegovina)-Mali Zvornik (Serbia), the Drina
Drina
flows between the Bosnian mountain of Majevica
Majevica
and the Serbian mountain of Gučevo, and enters the Lower Podrinje
Podrinje
region. For the rest of its flow after the village of Kozluk, it has no major settlements on the Bosnian side (except for the town of Janja, which is several km away from the river, and some smaller settlements, like Branjevo and Glavičice). On the Serbian side, the Drina
Drina
passes next to the villages of Brasina and Rečane, the ruins of the medieval town of Koviljkin grad, the spa and town of Banja Koviljača, the industrial town and center of the Podrinje
Podrinje
region, Loznica, and its largest suburb, Lozničko Polje. Lowest section[edit] The Drina
Drina
enters the lowest section of its course, the southern Pannonian plain, including the Serbian regions of Jadar (where it receives the Jadar river) and Iverak (where it receives the Lešnica). This is where the rivers spills in many arms and flows, creating the largest flood plain in former Yugoslavia, which the river divides in half. The east side, Mačva, is in Serbia, and the west side, Semberija, in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(where it receives the Janja river). The Drina
Drina
spills over and meanders, forming shallows, islands and sandbars, before emptying into the Sava
Sava
river between the Serbian village of Crna Bara and the Bosnian Bosanska Rača. The variability of the water flow and low altitude resulted in several course changes during history. The Drina
Drina
previously flowed into the Sava
Sava
river near Šabac, 30 km (19 mi) to the east of the present mouth. Characteristics[edit] Like the Velika Morava, the Drina
Drina
is also a meandering river, with a very high meandering ratio (175:346), still slightly less than that of Velika Morava. The Drina
Drina
is a very fast river with cold and greenish water, which is from the limestone that underlays the area in which the river carved its bed. Its average depth is 3 to 5 m (9.8 to 16.4 ft), the deepest being 12 m (39 ft) at Tijesno. On average, the Drina
Drina
is 50–60 m (160–200 ft) wide, but it ranges from only 12–20 m (39–66 ft) at Tijesno
Tijesno
to up to 200 m (660 ft) at Bajina Bašta
Bajina Bašta
and Ljubovija. The drainage basin covers 19,570 square km (4.8 million acres), branching into Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Albania. The Drina
Drina
belongs to the Black Sea
Black Sea
drainage basin. Before it was regulated by the several power stations, the Drina
Drina
used to flood its valley. The most disastrous flood occurred in 1896, which destroyed the town of Ljubovija. Tributaries[edit] Major left tributaries: Sutjeska (at Kosman), Bjelava (at Trbušće), Bistrica (at Brod), Kolunska rijeka (at Ustikolina), Osanica (at Osanica), Prača (at Ustiprača), Žepa
Žepa
(at Slap), Drinjača (at Drinjača), Kamenica (at Djevanje), Sapna (at Karakaja) and Janja
Janja
(at Janja). Major right tributaries: Ćehotina
Ćehotina
(at Foča), Janjina (at Samobor), Lim (the longest one, 220 km, at Brodar), Rzav (at Višegrad), Kukal (at Đurevići), Rogačica (at Rogačica), Trešnjica (south of Ljubovija), Ljuboviđa (at Ljubovija), Jadar (at Straža) and Lešnica (at Lešnica). Power[edit] The Drina
Drina
originates at an altitude of 432 meters (1,417 feet) and flows into the Sava
Sava
at 75 meters (246 feet). The large inclination is not constant because of many gorges and bends, but still more than enough to generate an estimated 6 billion kilowatt-hours of potential electrical power. Also, the discharge steadily grows: 125 cubic metres per second (4,400 cu.ft./s) at the Ćehotina's mouth, and 370 cubic metres per second (13,000 cu.ft./s) on the Drina's mouth into the Sava. However, power capacity is not fully used since only three hydro electrical power stations (HE) have been constructed so far: HE Zvornik, HE Bajina Bašta, and HE Višegrad. Population[edit] As a result of the inhospitable terrain and the lack of good railways and major roads, the surrounding territory is sparsely populated. Apart from many small villages, the major settlements on or near the river are:

in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Foča, Goražde, Višegrad, Srebrenica, Bratunac, Zvornik, and Janja. in Serbia: Bajina Basta, Ljubovija, Mali Zvornik, Banja Koviljača, Loznica, Lozničko Polje, and Badovinci.

The Drina
Drina
is crossed by several bridges: at Višegrad, Skelani, Bratunac
Bratunac
and Zvornik
Zvornik
(in Bosnia and Herzegovina), and Loznica
Loznica
and Badovinci
Badovinci
in Serbia. The most recent bridge is the one at Badovinci, the Pavlovića ćuprija. In popular culture[edit]

World Heritage-listed Mehmed Paša Sokolović Bridge
Mehmed Paša Sokolović Bridge
in Višegrad, Bosnia and Herzegovina

In its lower, meandering course, the Drina
Drina
is referred to as the kriva Drina
Drina
("bent Drina"). This has entered the Bosnian and Serbian languages as a phrase used when someone wants to resolve an unsolvable situation; it is said that he or she wants to "straighten the bent Drina". During World War I, from September 8 to September 16, 1914, the Drina was the battlefield of bloody battles between the Serbian and Austro-Hungarian army, the Battle of Cer
Battle of Cer
and Battle of Drina. In honor of the former battle, the Serbian composer Stanislav Binički (1872–1942) composed the famous March on the Drina, and in 1964 a movie of the same title was shot by director Žika Mitrović. The movie was later banned for a period of time by the Communist government, because of its portrayal of a true-to-life, bloody battle, and its use of Binički's march (banned at that time) as part of the soundtrack. The Slovenian band Laibach did a cover version of the March on the Drina
Drina
titled Mars on the River Drina
Drina
in their album NATO, released in 1994 during the Yugoslav Wars. The largest impact the river has had in culture probably is the 1945 novel "Na Drini ćuprija" (The Bridge on the Drina) by the Nobel Prize laureate, Ivo Andrić; the book is about the building of a bridge near Višegrad
Višegrad
by the Ottomans in the 16th century. See also[edit]

Tara (Drina) Piva (river) Neretva Mehmed Paša Sokolović Bridge Sutjeska National Park Drina
Drina
Regatta List of national parks of Bosnia and Herzegovina

References[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

^ a b S.Simić (21 May 2017), "Monoksil izronio iz Drine", Politika-Magazin No 1025 (in Serbian), pp. 26–27 

Sources[edit]

Mala Prosvetina Enciklopedija, Third edition (1985); Prosveta; ISBN 86-07-00001-2 Jovan Đ. Marković (1990): Enciklopedijski geografski leksikon Jugoslavije; Svjetlost-Sarajevo; ISBN 86-01-02651-6 Slobodan Ristanović: "Prvenac na Drini"

External links[edit]

Commission to Preserve National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina Sutjeska National Park
Sutjeska National Park
- Official website Sutjeska National Park
Sutjeska National Park
- BH Tourism Official website Cultural and Historical information Hydroelectric Power Plant BUK BIJELA Hydroelectric Power Plant FOČA Hydroelectric Power Plaint ZVORNIK Battle of the Drina

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Drina
Drina
River.

Coordinates: 44°53′24″N 19°21′14″E / 44.890°N 19.354°E / 44.890; 19.354

v t e

Hydrography of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Rivers

Danube/Black Sea watershed

Bila Bioštica Bistrica (Drina) Bliha Bobovica Bosanka Bosna Brka Crkvenica Crna rijeka Crna rijeka Crna rijeka Cvrcka Čudnić Ćehotina Ćorkovac Dabar Demićka Devetero vrela Drina Drinjača Duboka Fojnica Glina Glinica Gomjenica Gostović Grabovička rijeka Ilomska Jadar Jakotina Janj Japra Jezerka Klokot Korana Kreševka Krivaja Krka Kruševica Krušnica Lašva Lepenica Lim Miljacka Mala Ilomska Misoča Piva Pliva Prača Rakitnica
Rakitnica
(Prača) Ribnik Rzav Sava Sana Sanica Spreča Stavnja Stupčanica Sutjeska Tara Ugar Ukrina Una Unac Usora Uvac Vrbanja Vrbas Zdena Zujevina Željeznica Žepa

Adriatic watershed

Bistrica (Livanjsko Polje) Bregava Buna Bunica Doljanka Drežanka Krupa Lištica Mostarska Bijela Neretva Neretvica Pljačkovac Radobolja Rakitnica Rama Sturba Šuica Trebišnjica Trebižat Zalomka

Lakes

Mountain Lakes (natural/glacial)

Bijelo Bijelo Blatačko Blidinje Boračko Busija Crno Crvenjak Donje Bare Glamočko Gornje Bare Gvozno Hrast Idovačko Jugovo Kladopoljsko Kotlaničko Kukavičko Orlovačko Platno Prokoško Rastičevsko Šatorsko Štirinsko Turjača Uloško / Crvanjsko Velež Veliko

Ponds (natural & artificial)

Aligovac Balkana Bara Bardača Bašigovaćko Bistarac Breštica Bukvensko Busača Bužimsko Deransko Drenova Drijen Vrelo Gubinsko Hazna Humci Ispod Pržića Malo Lake Ispod Pržića Veliko Lake Jelim Jelovac Kalemovo Krenica Kvrkulja Laminci Malo Malo Plivsko Mezgraja Mijino Orah Orlovo Oličko Opačićko Panonsko Pasje Paučko Pelagićevo Pijavičko Popovača Prekajsko Radovan Ramičko Sniježnica Starača Šićki Brod Škrka Smreka Veliko Plivsko Vidara Vijenac Zanasovići Ždrimačko Župica

Artificial reservoirs

Bilećko Bočac Buško Blato Grabovičko Grahovčići Grajseljići Jablaničko Klinje Lipsko Mali Lug Mandek Modračko Mostarsko Nuga Peručaćko Ramsko Salakovačko Trebinjsko Tribistovo Veliki Lug Višegradsko Vrtliško Zvorničko Župica

Valleys & canyons

Bioštica Bistrica (Drina) Bregava Doljanka Drežnica Drina Drinjača Krivaja Lim Miljacka Misoča Mostarska Bijela Neretva Neretvica Piva Prača Rakitnica Sana Stupčanica Sutjeska Sutjeska Tara Tara River Canyon Ugar Una Unac
Unac
River Upper Neretva Vrbas Željeznica Žepa

Wetlands

Bardača Hutovo Blato Sava
Sava
marshes

Waterfalls

Bliha Bobaš Dušćica falls Ilomska falls Kočuša Kozica Kravica Marina Pećina falls Una falls Pliva Skakavac 1 Skakavac 2 Skakavac 3 Štrbački buk Ugar falls Vrbanja falls Ždrimački slap

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 235618

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