Donald Ervin Knuth (/kəˈnuːθ/[4] kə-NOOTH; born January 10, 1938)
is an American computer scientist, mathematician, and professor
emeritus at Stanford University.
He is the author of the multi-volume work The Art of Computer
Programming. He contributed to the development of the rigorous
analysis of the computational complexity of algorithms and
systematized formal mathematical techniques for it. In the process he
also popularized the asymptotic notation. In addition to fundamental
contributions in several branches of theoretical computer science,
Knuth is the creator of the
TeX
TeX computer typesetting system, the
related
METAFONT
METAFONT font definition language and rendering system, and
the
Computer Modern
Computer Modern family of typefaces.
As a writer and scholar, Knuth created the
WEB
WEB and C
WEB
WEB computer
programming systems designed to encourage and facilitate literate
programming, and designed the MIX/
MMIX
MMIX instruction set architectures.
Knuth strongly opposes granting software patents, having expressed his
opinion to the
United States Patent and Trademark Office
United States Patent and Trademark Office and European
Patent Organisation.
Contents
1 Biography
1.1 Early life
1.2 Education
1.3 Early work
2 Writings
2.1
The Art of Computer Programming
The Art of Computer Programming (TAOCP)
2.2 Other works
2.3 Works regarding Knuth's religious beliefs
2.4 Opinion on software patents
3 Computer Musings
4 Personal life
4.1 Chinese name
4.2 Health concerns
4.3 Humor
5 Awards and honors
6 Gallery
7 Publications
8 See also
9 References
10 Bibliography
11 External links
Biography[edit]
Early life[edit]
Knuth was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to German-Americans Ervin
Henry Knuth and Louise Marie Bohning.[5] His father had two jobs:
running a small printing company and teaching bookkeeping at Milwaukee
Lutheran High School.[6] Donald, a student at
Milwaukee
Milwaukee Lutheran High
School, received academic accolades there, especially because of the
ingenious ways that he thought of solving problems.[6] For example, in
eighth grade, he entered a contest to find the number of words that
the letters in "Ziegler's Giant Bar" could be rearranged to create.
Although the judges only had 2,500 words on their list, Donald found
4,500 words, winning the contest. As prizes, the school received a new
television and enough candy bars for all of his schoolmates to
eat.[7][6]
Education[edit]
Knuth had a difficult time choosing physics over music as his major at
Case Institute of Technology (now part of Case Western Reserve
University). He also joined Beta Nu Chapter of the Theta Chi
fraternity. While studying physics at the Case Institute of
Technology, Knuth was introduced to the IBM 650, one of the early
mainframes. After reading the computer's manual, Knuth decided to
rewrite the assembly and compiler code for the machine used in his
school, because he believed he could do it better.[8]
In 1958, Knuth created a program to help his school's basketball team
win their games. He assigned "values" to players in order to gauge
their probability of getting points, a novel approach that Newsweek
and
CBS Evening News
CBS Evening News later reported on.[8]
Knuth was one of the founding editors of the Engineering and Science
Review, which won a national award as best technical magazine in
1959.[9] He then switched from physics to mathematics, and in 1960 he
received his bachelor of science degree, simultaneously being given a
master of science degree by a special award of the faculty who
considered his work exceptionally outstanding.[8][10]
In 1963, with mathematician Marshall Hall as his adviser,[3] he earned
a PhD in mathematics from the
California
California Institute of Technology.[11]
Early work[edit]
After receiving his PhD, Knuth joined Caltech's faculty as an
associate professor.
He accepted a commission to write a book on computer programming
language compilers. While working on this project, Knuth decided that
he could not adequately treat the topic without first developing a
fundamental theory of computer programming, which became The Art of
Computer Programming. He originally planned to publish this as a
single book. As Knuth developed his outline for the book, he concluded
that he required six volumes, and then seven, to thoroughly cover the
subject. He published the first volume in 1968.[12]
Just before publishing the first volume of The Art of Computer
Programming, Knuth left Caltech to accept employment with the
Institute for Defense Analyses' Communications Research Division, then
situated on the
Princeton University
Princeton University campus, which was performing
mathematical research in cryptography to support the National Security
Agency.
Knuth then left this position to join the
Stanford University
Stanford University faculty,
where he is now professor emeritus.[13]
Writings[edit]
Knuth is a writer as well as a computer scientist.[14] Knuth has been
called the "father of the analysis of algorithms."[15]
The Art of Computer Programming
The Art of Computer Programming (TAOCP)[edit]
Main article: The Art of Computer Programming
In the 1970s, Knuth described computer science as "a totally new field
with no real identity. And the standard of available publications was
not that high. A lot of the papers coming out were quite simply
wrong. ... So one of my motivations was to put straight a story
that had been very badly told."[16] After producing the third volume
of his series in 1976, he expressed such frustration with the nascent
state of the then newly developed electronic publishing tools
(especially those that provided input to phototypesetters) that he
took time out to work on typesetting and created the
TeX
TeX and Metafont
tools. By 2011, the first three volumes and part one of volume four of
his series had been published.[17] Concrete Mathematics: A Foundation
for Computer Science 2nd ed., which originated with an expansion of
the mathematical preliminaries section of Volume 1 of TAoCP, has also
been published.
Bill Gates
Bill Gates has praised the difficulty of the subject matter in The Art
of Computer Programming, stating, "If you think you're a really good
programmer ... You should definitely send me a résumé if you
can read the whole thing."[18]
Other works[edit]
Knuth is also the author of Surreal Numbers,[19] a mathematical
novelette on John Conway's set theory construction of an alternate
system of numbers. Instead of simply explaining the subject, the book
seeks to show the development of the mathematics. Knuth wanted the
book to prepare students for doing original, creative research.
In 1995, Knuth wrote the foreword to the book A=B by Marko Petkovšek,
Herbert Wilf
Herbert Wilf and Doron Zeilberger.[20] Knuth is also an occasional
contributor of language puzzles to Word Ways: The Journal of
Recreational Linguistics.
Knuth has also delved into recreational mathematics. He contributed
articles to the Journal of Recreational
Mathematics
Mathematics beginning in the
1960s, and was acknowledged as a major contributor in Joseph Madachy's
Mathematics
Mathematics on Vacation.[21]
Knuth has also appeared in a number of Numberphile[22] and
Computerphile videos on
YouTube
YouTube where he has discussed topics from
writing Surreal Numbers to why he doesn't use email.
Works regarding Knuth's religious beliefs[edit]
In addition to his writings on computer science, Knuth, a
Lutheran,[23] is also the author of 3:16 Bible Texts Illuminated,[24]
in which he examines the Bible by a process of systematic sampling,
namely an analysis of chapter 3, verse 16 of each book. Each verse is
accompanied by a rendering in calligraphic art, contributed by a group
of calligraphers under the leadership of Hermann Zapf. Subsequently,
he was invited to give a set of lectures on his 3:16 project,
resulting in another book, Things a Computer Scientist Rarely Talks
About, where he published the lectures "God and Computer Science".
Opinion on software patents[edit]
As a member of the academic and scientific community, Knuth is
strongly opposed to the policy of granting software patents for
trivial solutions that should be obvious, but has expressed more
nuanced views for nontrivial solutions such as the interior point
method of linear programming.[25] He has expressed his disagreement
directly to both the
United States Patent and Trademark Office
United States Patent and Trademark Office and
European Patent Organisation.[26]
Computer Musings[edit]
Knuth gives informal lectures a few times a year at Stanford
University, which he titled "Computer Musings". He is a visiting
professor at the
Oxford University Department of Computer Science
Oxford University Department of Computer Science in
the United Kingdom and an Honorary Fellow of Magdalen College.[27][28]
Personal life[edit]
Donald Knuth
Donald Knuth married Nancy Jill Carter on 24 June 1961, while he was a
graduate student at the
California
California Institute of Technology. They have
two children, John Martin Knuth and Jennifer Sierra Knuth.[29]
Chinese name[edit]
Knuth's
Chinese name is Gao Dena (simplified Chinese: 高德纳;
traditional Chinese: 高德納; pinyin: Gāo dé nà).[30][4] In 1977,
he was given this name by Frances Yao, shortly before making a 3-week
trip to China.[4][31] In his 1980 volume of The Art of Computer
Programming (simplified Chinese: 计算机程序设计艺术;
traditional Chinese: 電腦程式設計藝術; pinyin: Jìsuànjī
chéngxù shèjì yìshù), Knuth explains that he embraced his
Chinese name because he wanted to be known by the growing numbers of
computer programmers in
China
China at the time. In 1989, his Chinese name
was placed atop the Journal of Computer Science and Technology's
header, which Knuth says "makes me feel close to all Chinese people
although I cannot speak your language".[31]
Health concerns[edit]
In 2006, Knuth was diagnosed with prostate cancer. He underwent
surgery in December that year and started "a little bit of radiation
therapy... as a precaution but the prognosis looks pretty good", as he
reported in his video autobiography.[32]
Humor[edit]
One of Knuth's reward checks
"Nested parens"—
Donald Knuth
Donald Knuth (on Jacob Appelbaum's shirt within the
two parentheses), Jacob Appelbaum, and Donald Knuth
Knuth used to pay a finder's fee of $2.56 for any typographical errors
or mistakes discovered in his books, because "256 pennies is one
hexadecimal dollar", and $0.32 for "valuable suggestions". According
to an article in the
Massachusetts
Massachusetts Institute of Technology's
Technology Review, these Knuth reward checks are "among computerdom's
most prized trophies". Knuth had to stop sending real checks in 2008
due to bank fraud, and instead now gives each error finder a
"certificate of deposit" from a publicly listed balance in his
fictitious "Bank of San Serriffe".[33]
He once warned a correspondent, "Beware of bugs in the above code; I
have only proved it correct, not tried it."[34]
Knuth published his first "scientific" article in a school magazine in
1957 under the title "The
Potrzebie
Potrzebie System of Weights and Measures."
In it, he defined the fundamental unit of length as the thickness of
Mad No. 26, and named the fundamental unit of force "whatmeworry." Mad
published the article in issue No. 33 (June 1957).[35][36]
To demonstrate the concept of recursion, Knuth intentionally referred
"Circular definition" and "Definition, circular" to each other in the
index of The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 1.
At the TUG 2010 Conference, Knuth announced a satirical XML-based
successor to TeX, titled "iTeX" (pronounced [iː˨˩˦tɛks˧˥],
performed with a bell ringing), which would support features such as
arbitrarily scaled irrational units, 3D printing, input from
seismographs and heart monitors, animation, and stereophonic
sound.[37][38][39]
Awards and honors[edit]
In 1971, Knuth was the recipient of the first ACM Grace Murray Hopper
Award. He has received various other awards including the Turing
Award, the National Medal of Science, the John von Neumann Medal, and
the Kyoto Prize.
Knuth was elected a Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer
Society (DFBCS) in 1980 in recognition of Knuth's contributions to the
field of computer science.
In 1990 he was awarded the one-of-a-kind academic title of Professor
of The Art of Computer Programming, which has since been revised to
Professor
Emeritus of The Art of Computer Programming.
Knuth was elected to the
National Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Sciences in 1975. In
1992, he became an associate of the French Academy of Sciences. Also
that year, he retired from regular research and teaching at Stanford
University in order to finish The Art of Computer Programming. He was
elected a Foreign Member of the
Royal Society
Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 2003.[2]
Knuth was elected as a Fellow (first class of Fellows) of the Society
for Industrial and Applied
Mathematics
Mathematics in 2009 for his outstanding
contributions to mathematics.[40] He is a member of the Norwegian
Academy of Science and Letters.[41] In 2012, he became a fellow of the
American Mathematical Society.[42] Other awards and honors include:
First ACM Grace Murray Hopper Award, 1971
Turing Award, 1974
Lester R. Ford Award, 1975[43] and 1993[44]
Josiah Willard Gibbs Lecturer, 1978[45][46]
National Medal of Science, 1979
Franklin Medal, 1988
John von Neumann Medal, 1995
Harvey Prize from the Technion, 1995[47]
Kyoto Prize, 1996
Fellow of the
Computer History Museum
Computer History Museum "for his fundamental early work
in the history of computing algorithms, development of the TeX
typesetting language, and for major contributions to mathematics and
computer science." 1998[1]
Katayanagi Prize, 2010[48]
BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in the category of
Information and Communication Technologies, 2010[49]
Turing Lecture, 2011
Stanford University
Stanford University School of Engineering Hero Award, 2011[50]
Gallery[edit]
Knuth, March 4, 2005
Knuth in front of statue St. Mesrop Mashtots, Matenadaran, Yerevan,
Armenia, June 9, 2006
Shustek, Russell, Alcorn, Knuth, Wozniak, Mathews, Allen, CHM 2011
Knuth and Steve Wozniak, CHM 2011
Publications[edit]
A short list of his publications include:[51]
The Art of Computer Programming:
——— (1997). "The Art of Computer Programming". 1: Fundamental
Algorithms (3rd ed.). Addison-Wesley Professional.
ISBN 0-201-89683-4.
——— (1997). "The Art of Computer Programming". 2: Seminumerical
Algorithms (3rd ed.). Addison-Wesley Professional.
ISBN 0-201-89684-2.
——— (1998). "The Art of Computer Programming". 3: Sorting and
Searching (2nd ed.). Addison-Wesley Professional.
ISBN 0-201-89685-0.
——— (2011). "The Art of Computer Programming". 4A: Combinatorial
Algorithms. Addison-Wesley Professional.
ISBN 0-201-03804-8.
——— (2005). "MMIX—A RISC Computer for the New Millennium". 1,
Fascicle 1. ISBN 0-201-85392-2.
——— (2008). "The Art of Computer Programming". 4, Fascicle 0:
Introduction to Combinatorial Algorithms and Boolean Functions.
ISBN 0-321-53496-4.
——— (2009). "The Art of Computer Programming". 4, Fascicle 1:
Bitwise Tricks & Techniques; Binary Decision Diagrams.
ISBN 0-321-58050-8.
——— (2005). "The Art of Computer Programming". 4, Fascicle 2:
Generating All Tuples and Permutations. ISBN 0-201-85393-0.
——— (2005). "The Art of Computer Programming". 4, Fascicle 3:
Generating All Combinations and Partitions.
ISBN 0-201-85394-9.
——— (2006). "The Art of Computer Programming". 4, Fascicle 4:
Generating All Trees—History of Combinatorial Generation.
ISBN 0-321-33570-8.
——— (2018). "The Art of Computer Programming". 4, Fascicle 5:
Mathematical Preliminaries Redux; Backtracking; Dancing Links.
ISBN 0-134-67179-1.
——— (2015). "The Art of Computer Programming". 4, Fascicle 6:
Satisfiability. ISBN 0-134-39760-6.
Computers and Typesetting (all books are hardcover unless otherwise
noted):
——— (1984). Computers & Typesetting. A, The TeXbook.
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-13447-0. , x+483pp.
——— (1984). Computers & Typesetting. A, The TeXbook.
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-13448-9.
(softcover).
——— (1986). Computers & Typesetting. B, TeX: The Program.
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-13437-3. ,
xviii+600pp.
——— (1986). Computers & Typesetting. C, The METAFONTbook.
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-13445-4. ,
xii+361pp.
——— (1986). Computers & Typesetting. C, The METAFONTbook.
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-13444-6.
(softcover).
——— (1986). Computers & Typesetting. D, METAFONT: The
Program. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-13438-1. ,
xviii+566pp.
——— (1986). Computers & Typesetting. E, Computer Modern
Typefaces. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
ISBN 0-201-13446-2. , xvi+588pp.
——— (2000). Computers & Typesetting. A-E Boxed Set. Reading,
MA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-73416-8.
Books of collected papers:
——— (1992). "Literate Programming". Lecture Notes (27).
Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI.
ISBN 0-937073-80-6. [52]
——— (1996). "Selected Papers on Computer Science". Lecture Notes
(59). Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and
Information—CSLI. ISBN 1-881526-91-7. [53]
——— (1999). "Digital Typography". Lecture Notes (78). Stanford,
CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI.
ISBN 1-57586-010-4. [54]
——— (2000). "Selected Papers on Analysis of Algorithms". Lecture
Notes (102). Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and
Information—CSLI. ISBN 1-57586-212-3. [55]
——— (2003). "Selected Papers on Computer Languages"
(cloth)format= requires url= (help). Lecture Notes (139). Stanford,
CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI.
ISBN 1-57586-381-2. , ISBN 1-57586-382-0
(paperback)[56]
——— (2003). "Selected Papers on Discrete Mathematics"
(cloth)format= requires url= (help). Lecture Notes (106). Stanford,
CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI.
ISBN 1-57586-249-2. , ISBN 1-57586-248-4
(paperback)[57]
Donald E. Knuth, Selected Papers on Design of Algorithms (Stanford,
California: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI
Lecture Notes, no. 191), 2010. ISBN 1-57586-583-1 (cloth),
ISBN 1-57586-582-3 (paperback)[58]
Donald E. Knuth, Selected Papers on Fun and Games (Stanford,
California: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI
Lecture Notes, no. 192), 2011. ISBN 978-1-57586-585-0 (cloth),
ISBN 978-1-57586-584-3 (paperback)[59]
Donald E. Knuth, Companion to the Papers of
Donald Knuth
Donald Knuth (Stanford,
California: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI
Lecture Notes, no. 202), 2011. ISBN 978-1-57586-635-2 (cloth),
ISBN 978-1-57586-634-5 (paperback)[60]
Other books:
Graham, Ronald L; Knuth, Donald E.; Patashnik, Oren (1994). "Concrete
mathematics: A foundation for computer science" (Second ed.). Reading,
MA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-55802-5. MR 1397498.
xiv+657 pp.
Knuth, Donald Ervin (1974). "Surreal numbers: how two ex-students
turned on to pure mathematics and found total happiness: a
mathematical novelette". Addison-Wesley.
ISBN 978-0-201-03812-5. [19]
Donald E. Knuth, The Stanford GraphBase: A Platform for Combinatorial
Computing (New York, ACM Press) 1993. second paperback printing 2009.
ISBN 0-321-60632-9
Donald E. Knuth, 3:16 Bible Texts Illuminated (Madison, Wisconsin: A-R
Editions), 1990. ISBN 0-89579-252-4
Donald E. Knuth, Things a Computer Scientist Rarely Talks About
(Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI Lecture Notes
no 136), 2001. ISBN 1-57586-326-X
Donald E. Knuth, MMIXware: A RISC Computer for the Third Millennium
(Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag— Lecture Notes in Computer Science, no.
1750), 1999. viii+550pp. ISBN 978-3-540-66938-8
Donald E. Knuth and Silvio Levy, The C
WEB
WEB System of Structured
Documentation (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley), 1993.
iv+227pp. ISBN 0-201-57569-8. Third printing 2001 with hypertext
support, ii + 237 pp.
Donald E. Knuth, Tracy L. Larrabee, and Paul M. Roberts, Mathematical
Writing (Washington, D.C.: Mathematical Association of America), 1989.
ii+115pp
Daniel H. Greene and Donald E. Knuth,
Mathematics
Mathematics for the Analysis of
Algorithms (Boston: Birkhäuser), 1990. viii+132pp.
Donald E. Knuth, Mariages Stables: et leurs relations avec d'autres
problèmes combinatoires (Montréal: Les Presses de l'Université de
Montréal), 1976. 106pp.
Donald E. Knuth, Axioms and Hulls (Heidelberg:
Springer-Verlag—Lecture Notes in Computer Science, no. 606), 1992.
ix+109pp. ISBN 3-540-55611-7
See also[edit]
Asymptotic notation
Attribute grammar
Dancing Links
Knuth–Bendix completion algorithm
Knuth–Morris–Pratt algorithm
Knuth -yllion
Knuth Prize
Knuth shuffle
Knuth's up-arrow notation
Man or boy test
Robinson–Schensted–Knuth correspondence
The Complexity of Songs
Trabb Pardo–Knuth algorithm
List of pioneers in computer science
List of science and religion scholars
References[edit]
^ a b "Donald Knuth: 1998 Fellow". Computer History Museum. 2015.
Retrieved March 12, 2018.
^ a b "Professor
Donald Knuth
Donald Knuth ForMemRS". London: Royal Society.
Archived from the original on 2015-11-17.
^ a b c
Donald Knuth
Donald Knuth at the
Mathematics
Mathematics Genealogy Project
^ a b c Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Frequently Asked Questions". Home page.
Stanford University. Retrieved 2010-11-02.
^ "Donald E. Knuth". Retrieved October 15, 2016.
^ a b c Molly Knight Raskin (2013). No Better Time: The Brief,
Remarkable Life of Danny Lewin--the Genius who Transformed the
Internet. Da Capo Press, Incorporated. pp. 61–62.
ISBN 978-0-306-82166-0.
^ Shasha, Dennis Elliott; Lazere, Cathy A (1998). Out of their minds:
the lives and discoveries of 15 great computer scientists. Springer.
p. 90. ISBN 978-0-387-98269-4.
^ a b c Koshy, Thomas (2004). Discrete mathematics with applications.
Academic Press. p. 244. ISBN 978-0-12-421180-3. Retrieved
July 30, 2011.
^ History of Beta Nu Chapter. "Theta Chi". CWRU.
^ "A.M. Turing Award; Donald ("Don") Erwin Knuth". ACM. 1974.
^ Knuth, Donald Ervin (1963). "Finite Semifields and Projective
Planes" (PDF). CaltechPhD dissertation
^ "The Art of Computer Programming". Stanford University.
^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Home page". Stanford University. Retrieved
2005-03-16.
^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Curriculum vitae". Stanford University.
^ Karp, Richard M. (February 1986). "Combinatorics, Complexity, and
Randomness". Communications of the ACM. New York, NY, USA: ACM. 29
(2): 98–109. doi:10.1145/5657.5658.
^ "BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Awards". Archived from the
original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved October 15, 2016.
^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "
The Art of Computer Programming
The Art of Computer Programming (TAOCP)".
Retrieved February 6, 2018.
^ Weinberger, Matt (26 April 2016). "
Bill Gates
Bill Gates once said 'definitely
send me a résumé' if you finish this fiendishly difficult book'".
BusinessInsider.com. Retrieved 13 June 2016. "If you think you're a
really good programmer… read (Knuth's) Art of Computer
Programming… You should definitely send me a résumé if you can
read the whole thing," read a quote from
Bill Gates
Bill Gates on the cover of
the third edition of the first volume.
^ a b Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Surreal numbers". Home page.
^ Zeilberg. "DEK". Rutgers.
^ Madachy, Joseph S.,
Mathematics
Mathematics on Vacation, Thomas Nelson & Sons
Ltd. 1966
^ http://www.numberphile.com/team/index.html
^ Platoni 2006.
^ Knuth, Donald Ervin (1991). 3:16 : Bible texts illuminated.
Madison, WI: A-R Eds. ISBN 978-0-89579-252-5.
^ "All Questions Answered" (PDF). Notices (article). The American
Mathematical Society. March 2002.
^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Against software patents" (PDF)Letter to
the patent offices in the USA and Europe.
^ "Professor Donald Knuth". Magdalen College. Archived from the
original on January 4, 2011. Retrieved December 6, 2010.
^ "Notices". Oxford University Gazette. October 30, 2014. Retrieved
May 21, 2015.
^ O'Connor, J J; Robertson, E F (2015). "Donald Ervin Knuth".
University of St Andrews. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
^ Reutenauer, Arthur. "A brief history of TeX, volume II". TUGboat:
68–72. ISSN 0896-3207.
^ a b Knuth, Donald Ervin (1980). 计算机程序设计技巧 (Ji suan
ji cheng xu she ji ji qiao) [The Art of Computer Programming].
Translated by Guan, JiWen; Su, Yunlin. Beijing: Defense Industry
Publishing Co. I fondly hope that many Chinese computer programmers
will learn to recognize my
Chinese name Gao Dena, which was given to
me by Francis Yao just before I visited your country in 1977. I still
have very fond memories of that three-week visit, and I have been glad
to see Gao Dena on the masthead of the Journal of Computer Science and
Technology since 1989. This name makes me feel close to all Chinese
people although I cannot speak your language.
^ "Donald Knuth: 85 – Coping with cancer". Web of Stories. April
2006. Retrieved May 2, 2012.
^ "Rewriting the Bible in 0s and 1s". Technology Review. Massachusetts
Institute of Technology.
^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Frequently Asked Questions". Home page.
Stanford University. Retrieved November 2, 2010.
^ Knuth, Donald Ervin (June 1957). "The
Potrzebie
Potrzebie System of Weights
& Measures". Mad Magazine (33).
^ Kidder, Tracy (2016). A Truck Full of Money. Random House.
p. 68. ISBN 9780812995244.
^ Don Knuth (2010). "TUG". Zeeba TVconference
^ Knuth, Donald Ervin, An Earth‐shaking announcement, Zeeba TVvideo
recording
^ Knuth, Donald Ervin (2010). "An Earthshaking Announcement" (PDF).
TUGboat. 31 (2): 121–24. ISSN 0896-3207.
^ "Fellows". Siam. 2009.
^ "Gruppe 1: Matematiske fag" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Academy of
Science and Letters. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013.
Retrieved October 7, 2010.
^ List of Fellows of the American Mathematical Society, retrieved
2013-01-27.
^ Knuth, D. E. (1974). "
Computer science
Computer science and its relation to
mathematics". Amer. Math. Monthly. 81: 323–343.
doi:10.2307/2318994.
^ Knuth, D. E. (1992). "Two notes on notation". Amer. Math. Monthly.
99: 403–422. arXiv:math/9205211 . doi:10.2307/2325085.
^ "American Mathematical Society". Retrieved October 15, 2016.
^ Knuth, Donald E. (1979). "Mathematical typography". Bull. Amer.
Math. Soc. (N.S.). 1 (2): 337–372.
doi:10.1090/s0273-0979-1979-14598-1. MR 0520078.
^ "Harvey". IL: Technion. 1995. Archived from the original on July 21,
2011.
^ "Katayanagi". CMU.
^ Galardonados (2010). "Fronteras" (in Spanish). ES: FBBVA. Archived
from the original on August 19, 2016.
^ Myers, Andrew (June 1, 2001). "Stanford's Don Knuth, a pioneering
hero of computer programming". Stanford Report. Retrieved June 27,
2011.
^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Books". Home page (list).
^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Literate Programming". Home page.
^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Selected Papers on Computer Science". Home
page.
^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Digital Typography". Home page.
^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Selected Papers on Analysis of Algorithms".
Home page.
^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Selected Papers on Computer Languages". Home
page.
^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Selected Papers on Discrete Mathematics". Home
page.
^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Selected Papers on Design of Algorithms". Home
page.
^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Selected Papers on Fun and Games". Home
page.
^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Companion to the Papers of Donald Knuth"]".
Home page.
Bibliography[edit]
Knuth, Donald Ervin. Home page. Stanford University.
Knuth, Donald Ervin. "
The Art of Computer Programming
The Art of Computer Programming (TAOCP)".
Retrieved May 20, 2012.
Platoni, Kara; Archibald, Timothy (May–June 2006). Love at First
Byte. Stanford Magazine. Stanford Alumni.
External links[edit]
Find more aboutDonald Knuthat's sister projects
Media from Wikimedia Commons
Quotations from Wikiquote
Data from Wikidata
Donald Knuth's home page at Stanford University.
Donald Knuth
Donald Knuth at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
"Donald E. Knuth". Charles Babbage Institute, University of
Minnesotaoral history interview Knuth discusses software
patenting, structured programming, collaboration and his development
of TeX.
Donald Knuth
Donald Knuth at the
Mathematics
Mathematics Genealogy Project
O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Donald Knuth", MacTutor
History of
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Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews .
Works by or about
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and the Management Sciences
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Donald Knuth
Publications
The Art of Computer Programming
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-yllion
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A. M.
Turing Award
Turing Award laureates
1960s
Alan Perlis (1966)
Maurice Vincent Wilkes (1967)
Richard Hamming
Richard Hamming (1968)
Marvin Minsky
Marvin Minsky (1969)
1970s
James H. Wilkinson (1970)
John McCarthy (1971)
Edsger W. Dijkstra
Edsger W. Dijkstra (1972)
Charles Bachman
Charles Bachman (1973)
Donald Knuth
Donald Knuth (1974)
Allen Newell /
Herbert A. Simon
Herbert A. Simon (1975)
Michael O. Rabin
Michael O. Rabin /
Dana Scott
Dana Scott (1976)
John Backus
John Backus (1977)
Robert W. Floyd (1978)
Kenneth E. Iverson
Kenneth E. Iverson (1979)
1980s
Tony Hoare
Tony Hoare (1980)
Edgar F. Codd
Edgar F. Codd (1981)
Stephen Cook
Stephen Cook (1982)
Ken Thompson
Ken Thompson /
Dennis Ritchie
Dennis Ritchie (1983)
Niklaus Wirth
Niklaus Wirth (1984)
Richard Karp
Richard Karp (1985)
John Hopcroft
John Hopcroft /
Robert Tarjan
Robert Tarjan (1986)
John Cocke (1987)
Ivan Sutherland
Ivan Sutherland (1988)
William Kahan
William Kahan (1989)
1990s
Fernando J. Corbató
Fernando J. Corbató (1990)
Robin Milner (1991)
Butler Lampson (1992)
Juris Hartmanis
Juris Hartmanis /
Richard E. Stearns
Richard E. Stearns (1993)
Edward Feigenbaum
Edward Feigenbaum /
Raj Reddy
Raj Reddy (1994)
Manuel Blum
Manuel Blum (1995)
Amir Pnueli
Amir Pnueli (1996)
Douglas Engelbart
Douglas Engelbart (1997)
Jim Gray (1998)
Fred Brooks
Fred Brooks (1999)
2000s
Andrew Yao
Andrew Yao (2000)
Ole-Johan Dahl /
Kristen Nygaard
Kristen Nygaard (2001)
Ron Rivest
Ron Rivest /
Adi Shamir
Adi Shamir /
Leonard Adleman
Leonard Adleman (2002)
Alan Kay
Alan Kay (2003)
Vint Cerf
Vint Cerf /
Bob Kahn
Bob Kahn (2004)
Peter Naur
Peter Naur (2005)
Frances E. Allen
Frances E. Allen (2006)
Edmund M. Clarke
Edmund M. Clarke /
E. Allen Emerson /
Joseph Sifakis (2007)
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2010s
Leslie G. Valiant (2010)
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Silvio Micali
Silvio Micali (2012)
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Leslie Lamport (2013)
Michael Stonebraker
Michael Stonebraker (2014)
Martin Hellman /
Whitfield Diffie
Whitfield Diffie (2015)
Tim Berners-Lee
Tim Berners-Lee (2016)
John L. Hennessy
John L. Hennessy / David Patterson (2017)
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United States
National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science laureates
Behavioral and social science
1960s
1964: Roger Adams
Othmar H. Ammann
Theodosius Dobzhansky
Neal Elgar Miller
1980s
1986: Herbert A. Simon
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George J. Stigler
1988: Milton Friedman
1990s
1990: Leonid Hurwicz
Patrick Suppes
1991: Robert W. Kates
George A. Miller
1992: Eleanor J. Gibson
1994: Robert K. Merton
1995: Roger N. Shepard
1996: Paul Samuelson
1997: William K. Estes
1998: William Julius Wilson
1999: Robert M. Solow
2000s
2000: Gary Becker
2001: George Bass
2003: R. Duncan Luce
2004: Kenneth Arrow
2005: Gordon H. Bower
2008: Michael I. Posner
2009: Mortimer Mishkin
2010s
2011: Anne Treisman
2014: Robert Axelrod
2015: Albert Bandura
Biological sciences
1960s
1963: C. B. van Niel
1964: Marshall W. Nirenberg
1965: Francis P. Rous
George G. Simpson
Donald D. Van Slyke
1966: Edward F. Knipling
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Sewall Wright
1967: Kenneth S. Cole
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1968: Horace Barker
Bernard B. Brodie
Detlev W. Bronk
Jay Lush
Burrhus Frederic Skinner
1969: Robert Huebner
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1970s
1970: Barbara McClintock
Albert B. Sabin
1973: Daniel I. Arnon
Earl W. Sutherland Jr.
1974: Britton Chance
Erwin Chargaff
James V. Neel
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1975: Hallowell Davis
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Orville Alvin Vogel
1976: Roger Guillemin
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Efraim Racker
E. O. Wilson
1979: Robert H. Burris
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1980s
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1982: Seymour Benzer
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1983: Howard L. Bachrach
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1986: Stanley Cohen
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1987: Michael E. DeBakey
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1988: Michael S. Brown
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1995: Alexander Rich
1996: Ruth Patrick
1997: James Watson
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2000s
2000: Nancy C. Andreasen
Peter H. Raven
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2002: James E. Darnell
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2004: Norman E. Borlaug
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Thomas E. Starzl
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2007: Robert J. Lefkowitz
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2010s
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2014: May Berenbaum
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Chemistry
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Yuan Tseh Lee
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1987: William S. Johnson
Walter H. Stockmayer
Max Tishler
1988: William O. Baker
Konrad E. Bloch
Elias J. Corey
1989: Richard B. Bernstein
Melvin Calvin
Rudolph A. Marcus
Harden M. McConnell
1990s
1990: Elkan Blout
Karl Folkers
John D. Roberts
1991: Ronald Breslow
Gertrude B. Elion
Dudley R. Herschbach
Glenn T. Seaborg
1992: Howard E. Simmons Jr.
1993: Donald J. Cram
Norman Hackerman
1994: George S. Hammond
1995: Thomas Cech
Isabella L. Karle
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1997: Darleane C. Hoffman
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1998: John W. Cahn
George M. Whitesides
1999: Stuart A. Rice
John Ross
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2000s
2000: John D. Baldeschwieler
Ralph F. Hirschmann
2001: Ernest R. Davidson
Gábor A. Somorjai
2002: John I. Brauman
2004: Stephen J. Lippard
2006: Marvin H. Caruthers
Peter B. Dervan
2007: Mostafa A. El-Sayed
2008: Joanna Fowler
JoAnne Stubbe
2009: Stephen J. Benkovic
Marye Anne Fox
2010s
2010: Jacqueline K. Barton
Peter J. Stang
2011: Allen J. Bard
M. Frederick Hawthorne
2014: Judith P. Klinman
Jerrold Meinwald
2015: A. Paul Alivisatos
Geraldine L. Richmond
Engineering sciences
1960s
1962: Theodore von Kármán
1963: Vannevar Bush
John Robinson Pierce
1964: Charles S. Draper
1965: Hugh L. Dryden
Clarence L. Johnson
Warren K. Lewis
1966: Claude E. Shannon
1967: Edwin H. Land
Igor I. Sikorsky
1968: J. Presper Eckert
Nathan M. Newmark
1969: Jack St. Clair Kilby
1970s
1970: George E. Mueller
1973: Harold E. Edgerton
Richard T. Whitcomb
1974: Rudolf Kompfner
Ralph Brazelton Peck
Abel Wolman
1975: Manson Benedict
William Hayward Pickering
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Wernher von Braun
1976: Morris Cohen
Peter C. Goldmark
Erwin Wilhelm Müller
1979: Emmett N. Leith
Raymond D. Mindlin
Robert N. Noyce
Earl R. Parker
Simon Ramo
1980s
1982: Edward H. Heinemann
Donald L. Katz
1983: William Redington Hewlett
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T. Y. Lin
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H. Bolton Seed
Ernst Weber
1988: Daniel C. Drucker
Willis M. Hawkins
George W. Housner
1989: Harry George Drickamer
Herbert E. Grier
1990s
1990: Mildred Dresselhaus
Nick Holonyak Jr.
1991: George H. Heilmeier
Luna B. Leopold
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1994: Ray W. Clough
1995: Hermann A. Haus
1996: James L. Flanagan
C. Kumar N. Patel
1998: Eli Ruckenstein
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2000s
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Mathematical, statistical, and computer sciences
1960s
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H. Marston Morse
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1967: Paul Cohen
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1969: William Feller
1970s
1970: Richard Brauer
1973: John Tukey
1974: Kurt Gödel
1975: John W. Backus
Shiing-Shen Chern
George Dantzig
1976: Kurt Otto Friedrichs
Hassler Whitney
1979: Joseph L. Doob
Donald E. Knuth
1980s
1982: Marshall Harvey Stone
1983: Herman Goldstine
Isadore Singer
1986: Peter Lax
Antoni Zygmund
1987: Raoul Bott
Michael Freedman
1988: Ralph E. Gomory
Joseph B. Keller
1989: Samuel Karlin
Saunders Mac Lane
Donald C. Spencer
1990s
1990: George F. Carrier
Stephen Cole Kleene
John McCarthy
1991: Alberto Calderón
1992: Allen Newell
1993: Martin David Kruskal
1994: John Cocke
1995: Louis Nirenberg
1996: Richard Karp
Stephen Smale
1997: Shing-Tung Yau
1998: Cathleen Synge Morawetz
1999: Felix Browder
Ronald R. Coifman
2000s
2000: John Griggs Thompson
Karen K. Uhlenbeck
2001: Calyampudi R. Rao
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2002: James G. Glimm
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2007: Leonard Kleinrock
Andrew J. Viterbi
2009: David B. Mumford
2010s
2010: Richard A. Tapia
S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan
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Barry Mazur
2014: Alexandre Chorin
David Blackwell
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Physical sciences
1960s
1963: Luis W. Alvarez
1964: Julian Schwinger
Harold Clayton Urey
Robert Burns Woodward
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Henry Eyring
John H. Van Vleck
Vladimir K. Zworykin
1967: Jesse Beams
Francis Birch
Gregory Breit
Louis Hammett
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1968: Paul Bartlett
Herbert Friedman
Lars Onsager
Eugene Wigner
1969: Herbert C. Brown
Wolfgang Panofsky
1970s
1970: Robert H. Dicke
Allan R. Sandage
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1974: Nicolaas Bloembergen
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Linus Carl Pauling
Kenneth Sanborn Pitzer
1975: Hans A. Bethe
Joseph O. Hirschfelder
Lewis Sarett
Edgar Bright Wilson
Chien-Shiung Wu
1976: Samuel Goudsmit
Herbert S. Gutowsky
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Verner Suomi
Henry Taube
George Uhlenbeck
1979: Richard P. Feynman
Herman Mark
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Lyman Spitzer
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1980s
1982: Philip W. Anderson
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1983: E. Margaret Burbidge
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1986: Solomon J. Buchsbaum
H. Richard Crane
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Robert Hofstadter
Chen-Ning Yang
1987: Philip Abelson
Walter Elsasser
Paul C. Lauterbur
George Pake
James A. Van Allen
1988: D. Allan Bromley
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1990s
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1991: Arthur L. Schawlow
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2000s
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2010s
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2014: Burton Richter
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2015: Shirley Ann Jackson
v
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Grace Murray Hopper Award
Grace Murray Hopper Award recipients
Knuth (1971)
Dirksen (1972)
Cress (1972)
Breed/Lathwell/Moore (1973)
Baird (1974)
Scherr (1975)
Shortliffe (1976)
Kurzweil (1978)
Wozniak (1979)
Metcalfe (1980)
Bricklin (1981)
Reid (1982)
Ingalls (1984)
Green (1985)
Joy (1986)
Ousterhout (1987)
Steele (1988)
Hillis (1989)
Stallman (1990)
Hsu (1991)
Stroustrup (1993)
Goldwasser (1996)
Hwu (1999)
Kavraki (2000)
Necula (2001)
Srikant (2002)
Keckler (2003)
Rexford (2004)
Reingold (2005)
Klein (2006)
Paxson (2007)
Engler (2008)
Roughgarden (2009)
Gentry (2010)
Ahn (2011)
Casado and Katabi (2012)
Felzenszwalb (2013)
Ratnasamy (2014)
Waters (2015)
Heer (2016)
v
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Free and open-source typography
Software
Software and libraries
FontForge
Fontmatrix
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HarfBuzz
Metafont
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METATYPE1
Pango
TeX
Licenses
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TeX
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Other
typefaces
Allerta
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XITS
Groups and
people
Donald Knuth
Font
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Greek
Font
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Open
Font
Font Library
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List of open source typefaces
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v
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The Usual Gang Of Idiots: Contributors to Mad
Editors
Jerry DeFuccio
Al Feldstein
John Ficarra
Harvey Kurtzman
editorship
Nick Meglin
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Jack Davis
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Joe Orlando
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John Severin
Angelo Torres
Rick Tulka
Sam Viviano
James Warhola
Basil Wolverton
Monte Wolverton
Wally Wood
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Bill Wray
Photographers
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Infrequent contributors
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Donald Knuth
Ernie Kovacs
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Henry Morgan
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Bernard Shir-Cliff
Related
Alfred E. Neuman
William M. Gaines
Maria Reidelbach
v
t
e
Fellows of the
Royal Society
Royal Society elected in 2003
Fellows
John D. Barrow
Jocelyn Bell Burnell
Mariann Bienz
William Bonfield
John Milton Brown
Mark Wayne Chase
Michael Coey
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Foreign
Denis Baylor
Fotis Kafatos
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José Sarukhán
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v
t
e
John von Neumann Lecturers
Lars Ahlfors
Lars Ahlfors (1960)
Mark Kac
Mark Kac (1961)
Jean Leray
Jean Leray (1962)
Stanislaw Ulam
Stanislaw Ulam (1963)
Solomon Lefschetz
Solomon Lefschetz (1964)
Freeman Dyson
Freeman Dyson (1965)
Eugene Wigner
Eugene Wigner (1966)
Chia-Chiao Lin (1967)
Peter Lax
Peter Lax (1968)
George F. Carrier
George F. Carrier (1969)
James H. Wilkinson (1970)
Paul Samuelson
Paul Samuelson (1971)
Jule Charney (1974)
James Lighthill
James Lighthill (1975)
René Thom
René Thom (1976)
Kenneth Arrow (1977)
Peter Henrici (1978)
Kurt O. Friedrichs
Kurt O. Friedrichs (1979)
Keith Stewartson (1980)
Garrett Birkhoff (1981)
David Slepian
David Slepian (1982)
Joseph B. Keller (1983)
Jürgen Moser
Jürgen Moser (1984)
John W. Tukey (1985)
Jacques-Louis Lions
Jacques-Louis Lions (1986)
Richard M. Karp
Richard M. Karp (1987)
Germund Dahlquist (1988)
Stephen Smale
Stephen Smale (1989)
Andrew Majda
Andrew Majda (1990)
R. Tyrrell Rockafellar
R. Tyrrell Rockafellar (1992)
Martin D. Kruskal (1994)
Carl de Boor (1996)
William Kahan
William Kahan (1997)
Olga Ladyzhenskaya
Olga Ladyzhenskaya (1998)
Charles S. Peskin (1999)
Persi Diaconis
Persi Diaconis (2000)
David Donoho (2001)
Eric Lander
Eric Lander (2002)
Heinz-Otto Kreiss (2003)
Alan C. Newell (2004)
Jerrold E. Marsden
Jerrold E. Marsden (2005)
George C. Papanicolaou
George C. Papanicolaou (2006)
Nancy Kopell (2007)
David Gottlieb (2008)
Franco Brezzi
Franco Brezzi (2009)
Bernd Sturmfels
Bernd Sturmfels (2010)
Ingrid Daubechies
Ingrid Daubechies (2011)
John M. Ball
John M. Ball (2012)
Stanley J. Osher
Stanley J. Osher (2013)
Leslie Greengard (2014)
Jennifer Tour Chayes
Jennifer Tour Chayes (2015)
Donald Knuth
Donald Knuth (2016)
Bernard J. Matkowsky (2017)
Authority control
WorldCat
WorldCat Identities
VIAF: 7466303
LCCN: n79135509
ISNI: 0000 0001 2119 421X
GND: 121578437
SELIBR: 193948
SUDOC: 032581270
BNF: cb12358391w (data)
MGP: 10416
NDL: 00445973
NKC: skuk0003460
ICCU: ITICCUMILV105740
SNAC: w6988n8v
DBLP: k/DonaldEKnuth
A