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DEOBANDI (Pashto and Persian : دیو بندی, Urdu : دیو بندی, Bengali : দেওবন্দী, Hindi : देवबन्दी) is a revivalist movement within Sunni (primarily Hanafi ) Islam . It is centered in India , Pakistan , Afghanistan and Bangladesh , has recently spread to the United Kingdom , and has a presence in South Africa . The name derives from Deoband , India , where the school Darul Uloom Deoband is situated. The movement was inspired by scholar Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (1703–1762), and was founded in 1867 in the wake of the failed Sepoy Rebellion a decade earlier.
* 1 History
* 2 Presence
* 3 Beliefs
* 4 Dawah movements
* 5 Militant organizations
* 5.1 Lashkar-e-Jhangvi
* 5.2 Taliban
* 5.3 Sipah-e-Sahaba
* 6 Notable institutions
* 7 Scholars
* 7.1 Founding figures * 7.2 Patrons * 7.3 Other associated scholars * 7.4 Contemporary Deobandis
* 8 Associated political organizations * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links
The Deobandi movement developed as a reaction to the British colonialism which was seen by a group of Indian scholars — consisting of Rashid Ahmad Gangohi , Muhammad Yaqub Nanautawi , Shah Rafi al-Din, Sayyid Muhammad Abid, Zulfiqar Ali, Fadhl al-Rahman Usmani and Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi — to be corrupting Islam. The group founded an Islamic seminary known as Darul Uloom Deoband , where Islamic revivalist and anti-imperialist ideology of the Deobandis began to develop. In time, the Darul Uloom Deoband became the second largest focal point of Islamic teaching and research after the Al-Azhar University , Cairo . Through the organisations such as Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind and Tablighi Jamaat , the Deobandi ideology began to spread.
Towards the time of Indian independence, the Deobandis advocated a notion of composite nationalism by which Hindus and Muslims were seen as one nation who were asked to be united in the struggle against the British. In 1919, a large group of Deobandi scholars formed the political party Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind and opposed the Pakistan Movement . A minority group joined Muhammad Ali Jinnah 's Muslim League , forming the Jamiat Ulema-e- Islam in 1945.
The Deobandi Movement in India is controlled by the Darul Uloom Deoband and the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind . About 20% of the Indian Muslims identify as Deobandi. Even though a minority, the Deobandis form the dominant group among Indian Muslims due to their access to state resources and representation in Muslim bodies etc. The Deobandis are referred to as 'Wahhabis ' by their opponents — the Barelvis and the Shias. In reality, they are not Wahhabis, even though they share many of their beliefs. The true Wahhabis among Indian Muslims are said to be fewer than 5 percent.
Some 20 percent of Pakistan's Sunni Muslims consider themselves Deobandi. According to Heritage Online, nearly 65% of the total seminaries ( Madrasah ) in Pakistan are run by Deobandis, whereas 25% are run by Barelvis , 6% by Ahl-i Hadith and 3% by various Shia organizations. The Deobandi movement in Pakistan was a major recipient of funding from Saudi Arabia from the early 1980s up until the early 2000s, whereafter this funding was diverted to the rival Ahl al-Hadith movement. Having seen Deoband as a counterbalance to Iranian influence in the region, Saudi funding is now strictly reserved for the Ahl al-Hadith.
IN THE UNITED KINGDOM
According to a 2007 investigation by _ The Times _, about 600 of Britain's nearly 1,500 mosques were under the control of "a hardline sect", whose leading preacher loathed Western values, called on Muslims to “shed blood” for Allah and preached contempt for Jews, Christians and Hindus. The same investigative report further said that 17 of the country's 26 Islamic seminaries follow the ultra-conservative Deobandi teachings which had given birth to the Taliban. According to Times almost 80% of all domestically trained Ulema were being trained in these hardline seminaries.
In 2014 it was reported that 45 per cent of Britain’s mosques and nearly all the UK-based training of Islamic scholars are controlled by the Deobandi, the largest single Islamic group.
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THE DEOBANDI MOVEMENT
IDEOLOGY AND INFLUENCES
FOUNDERS AND KEY FIGURES
* Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi * Rashid Ahmad Gangohi * Husain A. Madani * Mahmud al-Hasan * Ashraf Ali Thanwi * Anwar Shah Kashmiri * Muhammad Ilyas Kandhlawi * Shabbir Ahmad Usmani * Muhammad Zakariya Kandhlawi
DARUL ULOOMS AND MADRASAS
CENTRES (MARKAZ) OF TABLIGH
* Nizamuddin * Raiwind * Dhaka * Dewsbury
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The Deobandi movement sees itself as a scholastic tradition, situated within orthodox Sunni Islam. It grew out of the Islamic scholastic tradition of Medieval Transoxania and Mughal India, and it considers its visionary forefather to be Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (1703-1762), the celebrated Indian Islamic scholar and thinker of the eighteenth century.
FIQH (ISLAMIC LAW)
Deobandis are strong proponents of the doctrine of _ Taqlid _. In other words, they believe that a Muslim must adhere to one of the four schools (madhhabs ) of Sunni Islamic Law and generally discourage inter-school eclecticism. They themselves are predominantly followers of the Hanafi school. Students at madrasas affiliated with the Deobandi movement study the classic books of Hanafi Law such as _Nur al-Idah_, _Mukhtasar al-Quduri_, _Sharh al-Wiqayah_, and _Kanz al-Daqa’iq_, culminating their study of the madhhab with the _Hidayah_ of _al-Marghinani_.
With regard to views on _Taqlid_, one of their main opposing reformist groups are the Ahl-i Hadis , also known as the _Ghair Muqallid _, the nonconformists, because they eschewed _taqlid_ in favor of the direct use of Quran and Hadith. They often accuse those who adhere to the rulings of one scholar or legal school of blind imitation_,_ and frequently demand scriptural evidence for every argument and legal ruling. Almost since the very beginnings of the movement, Deobandi scholars have generated a copious amount of scholarly output in an attempt to defend their adherence to a _madhhab_ in general. In particular, Deobandis have penned much literature in defense of their argument that the Hanafi _madhhab_ is in complete accordance with the Quran and Hadith.
In response to this need to defend their _madhhab_ in the light of scripture, Deobandis became particularly distinguished for their unprecedented salience to the study of Hadith in their madrasas. Their madrasa curriculum incorporates a feature unique among the global arena of Islamic scholarship, the _Daura-e Hadis_, the capstone year of a student's advanced madrasa training, in which all six canonical collections of the Sunni Hadith (the _Sihah Sittah_ ) are reviewed. In a Deobandi madrasa, the position of _Shaykh al-Hadith_, or the resident professor of Sahih Bukhari , is held in much reverence.
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Deoband's curriculum combined the study of Islamic scriptures (Qur'an, Hadith and Law) with rational subjects (logic, philosophy and science). At the same time it was Sufi in orientation and affiliated with the Chisti order. Its Sufism however, was closely integrated with Hadith scholarship and the proper legal practice of Islam.
According to Qari Muhammad Tayyib — the 8th rector or Mohtamim of the Darul Uloom Deoband who died in 1983 — "the Ulema of Deoband ... in conduct ... are Sufis, ... in Sulook they are Chisti .... They are initiates of the Chistiyyah, Naqshbandiya , Qadriyah and Suhrawardiyya Sufi orders.”
Not all agree that Deobandis are Sufi. They are considered by many to be anti-Sufis Whatever the case, the Darul Uloom Deoband's conservativism and fundamentalist theology has latterly led to a _de facto_ fusion of its teachings with wahabism in Pakistan, which "has all but shattered the mystical Sufi presence" there. :34 Recently Maulana Arshad Madani , an influential leader of Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind rejected Sufism and said, " Sufism is no sect of Islam. It is not found in the Quran or Hadith. .... So what is Sufism in itself? Sufism is nothing."
Main article: Dawah
Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind is one of the leading Islamic organizations in India. It was founded in British India in 1919 by Abdul Mohasim Sajjad, Qazi Hussain Ahmed, Ahmed Saeed Dehlvi, and Mufti Muhammad Naeem Ludhianvi and the most importantly Mufti Kifayatullah who was elected the first president of Jamiat and remained in this post for 20 years. The Jamiat has propounded a theological basis for its nationalistic philosophy. Their thesis is that Muslims and non-Muslims have entered upon a mutual contract in India since independence, to establish a secular state. The Constitution of India represents this contract.
Jamiat Ulema-e- Islam (JUI) is a Deobandi organization, part of the Deobandi movement. The JUI formed when members broke from the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind in 1945 after that organization backed the Indian National Congress against the Muslim League 's lobby for a separate Pakistan. The first president of the JUI was Shabbir Ahmad Usmani .
Majlis-e-Ahrar-e- Islam (Urdu : مجلس احرارلأسلام), also known in short as AHRAR, was a conservative Deobandi political party in the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj (prior to the independence of Pakistan ) founded December 29, 1929 at Lahore . Chaudhry Afzal Haq , Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari , Habib-ur-Rehman Ludhianvi , Mazhar Ali Azhar , Zafar Ali Khan and Dawood Ghaznavi were the founder's of the party. The Ahrar was composed of Indian Muslims disillusioned by the Khilafat Movement , which cleaved closer to the Congress Party . The party was associated with opposition to Muhammad Ali Jinnah and establishment of an independent Pakistan as well as persecution of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community . After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, Majlis-e-Ahrar divided in two parts. Now, Majlis-e-Ahrar-e- Islam is working for the sake of Muhammad, nifaaz HAKOMAT-E-ILLAHIYYA and Khidmat-e-Khalq. In Pakistan, Ahrar secretariat is in Lahore and in India it is based in Ludhiana .
Tablighi Jamaat , a Muslim missionary organisation, began as an offshoot of the Deobandi movement. Its inception is believed to be a response to Hindu reform movements, which were considered a threat to vulnerable and non-practicing Muslims. It gradually expanded from a local to a national organisation, and finally to a transnational movement with followers in over 150 countries. Although its beginnings were from the Deobandi movement, no particular interpretation of Islam has been endorsed since the beginning of the movement.
Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LJ) (English: _Army of Jhangvi _) is a militant organization. Formed in 1996, it has operated in Pakistan since Sipah-e-Sahaba (SSP). Riaz Basra broke away from the SSP over differences with his seniors. The group is considered a terrorist group by Pakistan and the United States , and continues to be involved in attacks on Shi\'a civilians and protectors of them. Lashkar-e-Jhangvi is predominantly Punjabi . The group has been labelled by intelligence officials in Pakistan as a major security threat.
The Taliban ("students"), alternative spelling Taleban, is an Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan . It spread into Afghanistan and formed a government, ruling as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan from September 1996 until December 2001, with Kandahar as the capital. While in power, it enforced its strict interpretation of Sharia law . While many leading Muslims and Islamic scholars have been highly critical of the Taliban's interpretations of Islamic law, the Darul Uloom Deoband has consistently supported the Taliban in Afghanistan, including their 2001 destruction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan , :34 and the majority of the Taliban's leaders were influenced by Deobandi fundamentalism. Pashtunwali , the Pashtun tribal code, also played a significant role in the Taliban's legislation. The Taliban were condemned internationally for their brutal treatment of women .
Tehrik-i- Taliban Pakistan
Tehrik-i- Taliban Pakistan (the TTP), alternatively referred to as the Pakistani Taliban, is an umbrella organization of various Islamist militant groups based in the northwestern Federally Administered Tribal Areas along the Afghan border in Pakistan. In December 2007 about 13 groups united under the leadership of Baitullah Mehsud to form the Tehrik-i- Taliban Pakistan. Among the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan's stated objectives are resistance against the Pakistani state, enforcement of their interpretation of sharia and a plan to unite against NATO -led forces in Afghanistan.
The TTP is not directly affiliated with the Afghan Taliban movement led by Mullah Omar , with both groups differing greatly in their histories, strategic goals and interests although they both share a primarily Deobandi interpretation of Islam and are predominantly Pashtun .
Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP) is a banned Pakistani militant organization, and a formerly registered Pakistani political party . Established in the early 1980s in Jhang by the militant leader Haq Nawaz Jhangvi , its stated goal is to primarily to deter major Shiite influence in Pakistan in the wake of the Iranian Revolution . The organization was banned by President Pervez Musharraf in 2002 as being a terrorist group under the Anti-Terrorism Act of 1997 . In October 2000 Masood Azhar , another militant leader, and founder of Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM), was quoted as saying that "Sipah-e-Sahaba stands shoulder to shoulder with Jaish-e- Muhammad in Jehad." A leaked U.S. diplomatic cable described JeM as "another SSP breakaway Deobandi organization."
* List of Deobandi universities * Darul Uloom Deoband , Uttar Pradesh, India * Darul-uloom Nadwatul Ulama , Lucknow, India * Mazahirul Uloom Saharanpur , India * Madrasa Al-Baqiyat As-Salihat , Vellore , Tamil Nadu , India * Madrasa Kashiful Huda , Poonamallee , Chennai , Tamil Nadu , India
* Jamia Uloom ul Islamia ( Binori Town ), Karachi, Pakistan * Darul Uloom Haqqania , Akora Khattak , Pakistan * Darul \'Uloom Karachi , Karachi, Pakistan * Jamia Ashrafia , Lahore, Pakistan * Jamia Binoria , Karachi, Pakistan * Ahsan-Ul-Uloom , Karachi, Pakistan * Jamiatur Rasheed, Karachi , Karachi, Pakistan
* Al-Jamiatul Ahlia Darul Ulum Moinul Islam , Chittagong, Bangladesh
* Jamiah Islamiah Yunusia Brahmanbaria , Bangladesh * Jamiah Rahmania Arabia Dhaka , Bangladesh * Jamia Qurania Arabia Lalbagh , Dhaka, Bangladesh * Jamia Lutfia Anwarul Uloom Hamidnogor Boruna Shylet Bangladesh
* Dar al-Ulum al-Arabiyyah al-Islamiyyah , Holcombe , Bury, UK - Popularly known as "Dar al-Uloom Bury," it is historically the first madrasa established in the UK, in 1975. Many of the newer madrasas are its branches, or founded by its graduates. * Jami'at Ta'lim al-Islam, Dewsbury , UK was established in 1981 by the Tablighi Jamat . * Jameah Uloomul Quran, Leicester UK - This madrasa was established in Leicester in 1977 by Adam DB. It has over 600 students and graduates of the Exegesis and Jurisprudence course.
* Darul Ulum Newcastle, Newcastle , KwaZulu-Natal - The first Deobandi madrasa in South Africa, it was founded in 1971 by Cassim Mohammed Sema . * Al- Madrasah al-Arabiyyah al-Islamiyyah, Azaadville is connected with both the teachings of Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhlawi and Ashraf Ali Thanwi . Several of its graduates are Western students especially from the UK and United States The school is also important within South Africa as a site for activities of the Tablighi Jamaat . English textbooks from this madrasa are used in English-medium Deobandi madrasas in the West to teach the Dars-e-Nizami curriculum. * Dar al-Ulum Zakariyya , Zakariyya Park, Lenasia was founded by disciples of Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhlawi , the school's namesake. The school is also important within South Africa as a site for activities of the Tablighi Jama'at. * Madrasah In\'aamiyyah , Camperdown , KwaZulu-Natal - This madrasa is recognized for its Dar al-Iftaa (Department of Fatwa Research and Training) which runs the popular online fatwa service, Askimam.org.
UNITED STATES AND CANADA
* Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi 1832-1880
OTHER ASSOCIATED SCHOLARS
* Mahmud al-Hasan (popularly known as "Shaykh al-Hind") * Husain Ahmed Madani * Ashraf Ali Thanwi * Anwar Shah Kashmiri * Muhammad Ilyas al-Kandhlawi (Founder of Tablighi Jamaat ) * Muhammad Zakariya al-Kandahlawi * Shabbir Ahmad Usmani * Muhammad Shafi Usmani (First Grand Mufti of Pakistan )
* Muhammad Taqi Usmani , Pakistan - Vice-President of Dar al-Ulum Karachi, Former judge on the Shariah Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, Deputy Chairman of the Islamic Fiqh Academy of the OIC, leading scholar of Islamic Finance, and often considered to be a leading scholar and figurehead of the Deobandi movement. * Muhammad Rafi Usmani , Pakistan - (Current Grand Mufti of Pakistan ) and President and senior lecturer of Dar al-Ulum Karachi. * Ebrahim Desai , South Africa - Mufti and senior lecturer at Madrasa Inaamiyyah in Camperdown, and head of the popular online fatwa website, askimam.org. * Haji Abdulwahab - current (Amir of Tablighi Jamaat Pakistan Chapter) * Yusuf Motala , UK - Founder and senior lecturer at Dar al-Ulum Bury, one of the oldest Deobandi Madrasas in the West; "He is a scholar's scholar - many of the United Kingdom's young Deobandi scholars have studied under his patronage." * Allama Khalid Mahmood , UK - He is the founder and Director of The Islamic Academy of Manchester which was established in 1974. He served formerly as a Professor at Murray College Sialkot and also at MAO College Lahore. He obtained a PhD in Comparative Religion from University of Birmingham in 1970. He has authored over 50 books, and has served as the Justice of Supreme court of Pakistan (Shariat Appellate Bench). * Tariq Jameel , Pakistan - Prominent scholar and preacher from the Tablighi Jama'at.
ASSOCIATED POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS
* ^ "India". Darul Uloom Deoband. Retrieved 29 April 2013. * ^ _Muslim Schools and Education in Europe and South Africa_. Waxmann. 2011. pp. 85ff. Retrieved 29 April 2013. * ^ Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch.; Schacht, J. (1991) . _Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition)_. Volume I (C-G). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 205. ISBN 9004070265 . * ^ Asthana, N.C.; Nirmal, Anjali. _Urban Terrorism: Myths and Realities_. Shashi Jain for Pointer Publishers. p. 66. Retrieved 29 April 2013. * ^ Brannon Ingram (University of North Carolina), Suﬁs, Scholars and Scapegoats: Rashid Ahmad Gangohi and the Deobandi Critique of Suﬁsm, p 478. * ^ _A_ _B_ Ira M. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, p 626. ISBN 0521779332 * ^ The Six Great Ones at Darul Uloom Deoband * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Abbas, Tahir (March 1, 2011). _Islamic Radicalism and Multicultural Politics: The British Experience_. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1136959602 . Retrieved 14 December 2015. * ^ A History of Pakistan and Its Origins By Christophe Jaffrelot page 224 * ^ Indian Islam: Deobandi- Barelvi tension changing mainstream Islam in India, US Mission in India, 2 February 2010 (published by Wikileaks); Irfan Al-Alawi, Muslims in India: Taking Back Islam from the Wahhabis, Gatestone Institute, 30 April 2010. * ^ M. J. Gohari. _The Taliban: Ascent to Power_. Oxford University Press. p. 30. ISBN 0-19-579560-1 . * ^ Sharma, Sudhindra (2006). "Lived Islam in Nepal". In Ahmad, Imtiaz; Reifeld, Helmut. _Lived Islam in South Asia: Adaptation, Accommodation, and Conflict_. Berghahn Books. p. 114. ISBN 81-87358-15-7 . * ^ N. C. Asthana; Anjali Nirmal (2009). _Urban Terrorism: Myths and Realities_. Jaipur: Aavishkar Publishers. pp. 66–67. ISBN 978-81-7132-598-6 . * ^ Alam, Arshad (2015), " Islam and religious pluralism in India", in Sonia Sikka, _Living with Religious Diversity_, Routledge, pp. 51–52, ISBN 978-1-317-37099-4 * ^ John Pike. " Barelvi Islam". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 29 April 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Sareen, Sushant (2005). _The Jihad Factory: Pakistan\'s Islamic Revolution in the Making_. New Delhi : Har Anand Publications. p. 282. * ^ "Hardline takeover of British Masjid". _ The Times _. 7 September 2007. * ^ "Who runs our mosques?". _ The Spectator _. 14 June 2014. * ^ Martin Van Bruinessen, Julia Day Howell, Sufism and the 'Modern' in Islam, p 130, ISBN 1850438544 * ^ _A_ _B_ Spevack, Aaron (2014). _The Archetypal Sunni Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of Al-Bajuri_. State University of New York Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-4384-5370-5 . * ^ Metcalf, Barabara. _"Traditionalist" Islamic Activism: Deoband, Tablighis, and Talibs_. "These orientations --"Deobandi," "Barelvi" or "Ahl-i Hadith" -- would come to define sectarian divisions among Sunni Muslims of South Asian background to the present." * ^ Haque, Ziaul (1975). "Muslim Religious Education in Indo-Pakistan". _Islamic Studies_. Islamic Research Institute, International Islamic University, Islamabad. 14 (4): 284. The following books and subjects are studied ... Fiqh: Hidayah, Quduri, Nur al-Idah, Sharh-i Waqayah, Kanz al-Daqa'iq * ^ Metcalf, Barbara Daly (2002). _Islamic revival in British India : Deoband, 1860-1900_ (3rd impression. ed.). New Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 141. ISBN 0-19-566049-8 . * ^ Khan, Fareeha (2008). _Traditionalist Approaches to Shari'ah Reform: Mawlana Ashraf ' Ali Thanawi's Fatwa on Women's Right to Divorce_ (Doctoral Dissertation -- University of Michigan)format= requires url= (help ). p. 59. Polemicists from among the Ahl-i Hadith were especially being targeted in Thanawi's explanation, since they accused those who adhered to the rulings of one scholar or legal school of "blind imitation." It was the practice of the Ahl-i Hadith to demand and provide proofs for every argument and legal ruling. * ^ Zaman, Muhammad Qasim (2002). _The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change_. Princeton University Press. p. 24. The Deobandi sensitivity to the Ahl-i Hadith challenge is indicated by the polemics they engaged in with the Ahl-i Hadith and by the large commentaries on classical works of hadith written specifically to refute them * ^ Zaman, Muhammad Qasim (2002). _The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change_. Princeton University Press. p. 39. ...gave a new and, in the Indian context, unprecedented salience to the study of hadith in their madrasas. Hadith had, of course, been studied in precolonial Indian madrasas, but the Deobandis instituted the practice of studying (or, more exactly, “reviewing”) all six of the Sunni canonical collections of hadith in the course of a single year; this practice has come to serve in Indian and Pakistani madrasas as the capstone of a student’s advanced madrasa * ^ David Emmanuel Singh, Islamization in Modern South Asia: Deobandi Reform and the Gujjar Response, p 167. * ^ _A_ _B_ ibnummabd on February 19, 2009 at 6:04 pm (2009-02-19). "About". Deoband.org. Retrieved 29 April 2013. * ^ Martin van Bruinessen, Stefano Allievi, Producing Islamic Knowledge: Transmission and Dissemination in Western Europe, p 100. ISBN 1136932860 * ^ Fatawa Rahimiyyah (Eng. Trans.), vol.1, p.58. * ^ The Deobandis are followers of Sufism ahya.org * ^ Traversing the path of Suluk January 26, 2012 * ^ Brannon Ingram (University of North Carolina), Suﬁs, Scholars and Scapegoats: Rashid Ahmad Gangohi and the Deobandi Critique of Suﬁsm, p 479. (http://www.academia.edu/282790/Sufis_Scholars_and_Scapegoats_Rashid_A%E1%B8%A5mad_Gangohi_D._1905_and_the_Deobandi_Critique_of_Sufism) * ^ "The Wahhabi (Arabia), Deobandi ( Pakistan and India) and Jamaat-i-Islami all are anti-Sufi," Barelvi Islam globalsecurity.org * ^ Deoband hits back, rejects “baseless” charge of radicalizing Muslim youth twocircles.net 19 October 2011 * ^ "Naqshbandi, the major Sufi cult in Pakistan, consists mainly of the Deobandis."Where sufism stands August 1, 2010 * ^ http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/modi-govt-trying-to-divide-muslims-says-maulana-syed-arshad-madani/1/624728.html * ^ "Why did the Pak Maulana visit Deoband". Rediff India Abroad. July 18, 2003. Retrieved 19 May 2012. * ^ Rashid, Haroon (2002-11-06). "Profile: Maulana Fazlur Rahman". _BBC News_. Retrieved 5 May 2010. * ^ John Pike. "Jamiat Ulema-e- Islam / Assembly of Islamic Clergy". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 11 December 2013. * ^ Ahmad, Syed N. _Origins of Muslim consciousness in India: a world-system perspective_. New York u.a: Greenwood Press, 1991. p. 175 * ^ Christophe Jaffrelot. _A history of Pakistan and its origins_. Anthem Press, 2004. ISBN 1-84331-149-6 , ISBN 978-1-84331-149-2 * ^ Bahadur, Kalim (1998). _Democracy in Pakistan: crises and conflicts_. Har Anand Publications. p. 176. * ^ Burton, Fred; Stewart, Scott. "Tablighi Jamaat: An Indirect Line to Terrorism". Stratfor. Retrieved 1 September 2011. * ^ Roul, Animesh (2 June 2005). "Lashkar-e-Jhangvi: Sectarian Violence in Pakistan and Ties to International Terrorism". _Terrorism Monitor_. Jamestown Foundation. 3 (11). Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2010. * ^ "Pakistani group joins US terror list". BBC News South Asia. 30 January 2003. Retrieved 30 January 2003. * ^ Ahmad, Tufail (21 March 2012). "Using Twitter, YouTube, Facebook and Other Internet Tools, Pakistani Terrorist Group Lashkar-e-Jhangvi Incites Violence against Shi\'ite Muslims and Engenders Antisemitism". The Middle East Media Research Insititue, memri.org. Retrieved 22 March 2012. * ^ "Pakistani Shi\'ites call off protests after Quetta bombing arrests". _Reuters_. 19 February 2013. * ^ " Pakistan Shias killed in Gilgit sectarian attack". BBC News. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2012. A predominantly Punjabi group, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi is linked with the 2002 murder of US reporter Daniel Pearl and other militant attacks, particularly in the southern city of Karachi. * ^ " Iran condemns terrorist attacks in Pakistan". _Tehran Times_. 17 February 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013. * ^ "Analysis: Who are the Taleban?". BBC News. 2000-12-20. * ^ Abrams, Dennis (2007). _Hamid Karzai_. Infobase Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7910-9267-5 . As soon as it took power though, the Taliban imposed its strict interpretation of Islamic law on the country * ^ Skain, Rosemarie (2002). _The women of Afghanistan under the Taliban_. McFarland. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7864-1090-3 . * ^ Maley, William (2001). _Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban_. C Hurst & Co. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-85065-360-8 . * ^ Shaffer, Brenda (2006). _The limits of culture: Islam and foreign policy_ (illustrated ed.). MIT Press. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-262-69321-9 . The Taliban's mindset is, however, equally if not more deaned by Pashtunwali * ^ James Gerstenzan; Lisa Getter (November 18, 2001). "Laura Bush Addresses State of Afghan Women". _ Los Angeles Times _. Retrieved 14 September 2012. * ^ "Women\'s Rights in the Taliban and Post- Taliban Eras". _A Woman Among Warlords_. PBS . September 11, 2007. Retrieved 14 September 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ Bajoria, Jayshree (6 February 2008). "Pakistan\'s New Generation of Terrorists". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 30 March 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ Abbas, Hassan (January 2008). "A Profile of Tehrik-I- Taliban Pakistan" (PDF). _CTC Sentinel_. West Point, NY: Combating Terrorism Center . 1 (2): 1–4. Retrieved 8 November 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ Carlotta Gall , Ismail Khan, Pir Zubair Shah and Taimoor Shah (26 March 2009). "Pakistani and Afghan Taliban Unify in Face of U.S. Influx". _New York Times_. Retrieved 27 March 2009. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Shane, Scott (2009-10-22). "Insurgents Share a Name, but Pursue Different Goals". _The New York Times_. Retrieved 26 January 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ B. Raman, "Musharraf\'s Ban: An Analysis", _South Asia Analysis Group_ , Paper no. 395, 18 January 2002 * ^ _A_ _B_ "Pakistan: The Sipah-e-Sahaba (SSP), including its activities and status", Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, 26 July 2005 * ^ " Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan". * ^ "2009: Southern Punjab extremism battle between haves and have-nots". _Dawn.com_. Dawn Media Group. 2011-05-22. Retrieved 25 May 2011. * ^ Mahmood, Hamid (2012). _The Dars-e-Nizami and the Transnational Traditionalist Madaris in Britain_ (PDF). pp. 7, 17. Retrieved 9 November 2013. In the UK the Dār al-‘Ulūm al-‘Arabiyyah al-Islāmiyyah (Bury madrasa) and Jāmi’at ta’līm al-Islām ( Dewsbury madrasa) are considered the ‘Oxbridge’ of the traditional madrasa world....The need for leadership and imams increased alongside the increasing number of Mosques and in 1975 the first madrasa was established in a village called Holcombe situated near Bury – known as Dār al-‘Ulūm Bury or Bury Madrasa. * ^ Mahmood, Hamid (2012). _The Dars-e-Nizami and the Transnational Traditionalist Madaris in Britain_ (PDF). pp. 7, 17. Retrieved 9 November 2013. In the UK the Dār al-‘Ulūm al-‘Arabiyyah al-Islāmiyyah (Bury madrasa) and Jāmi’at ta’līm al-Islām ( Dewsbury madrasa) are considered the ‘Oxbridge’ of the traditional madrasa world...The second madrasa to be established was that of the Tablīghī Jamā’at called ‘Jāmi’at Ta’līm al-Islām ( Dewsbury Madrasa) in Dewsbury in 1981 * ^ "Home". Jamemasjid.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-03-12. * ^ "Home". Jameah.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-03-12. * ^ Mohamed, Yasien (2002). "Islamic Education in South Africa" (PDF). _ISIM Newsletter_. 9: 30. Retrieved 11 December 2013. opportunities for studies were created locally when in 1971 the first Darul-Ulum was established in Newcastle, Kwazulu Natal. This Darul-Ulum was based on the Darsi-Nizami course from Deoband, India. * ^ (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... _Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa_ (PDF). Münster ; München : Waxmann. pp. 85, 91, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5 . The Islamic schools in Lenasia and Azaadville in South Africa represent prominent examples of schools that provide religious education in a format which is firmly rooted in traditions and interpretations of Islam originating outside South Africa. Established by the Muslim minority community of the country, the schools follow the Deobandi interpretation of Islam from South Asia...Mawlana Ishaq following Hamid (sic) Akhtar from Karachi (see below) adheres to the Chishtiyya Sabiriyya Imdadiyya Ashrafiyya lineage, that puts special emphasis on the legacy of Muhammad Ashraf Ali Thanwi (1863-1943). CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Mohamed, Yasien (2002). "Islamic Education in South Africa" (PDF). _ISIM Newsletter_. 9: 30. Retrieved 11 December 2013. Less indigenous to South Africa and more in keeping with the Deobandi spirit is the Azaadville seminary, near Johannesburg, which teaches all subjects in Urdu. * ^ _A_ _B_ (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... _Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa_ (PDF). Münster ; München : Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5 . It became clear through field research by the author that Deobandi schools in several countries increasingly rely on graduates from Azaadville and Lenasia. The two schools and their graduates are functioning as network multiplicators between Deobandi schools worldwide. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ _A_ _B_ (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... _Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa_ (PDF). Münster ; München : Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5 . For the Tablighi Jama’at, the two schools are important switchboards for their preaching activities in South Africa, in Africa proper and around the world. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... _Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa_ (PDF). Münster ; München : Waxmann. p. 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5 . Especially for teaching the Deobandi curriculum of the degree course to become a religious scholar (‘Alim) in the English-speaking world, books from Azaadville have become increasingly useful. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... _Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa_ (PDF). Münster ; München : Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5 . The Islamic schools in Lenasia and Azaadville in South Africa represent prominent examples of schools that provide religious education in a format which is firmly rooted in traditions and interpretations of Islam originating outside South Africa. Established by the Muslim minority community of the country, the schools follow the Deobandi interpretation of Islam from South Asia. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ _A_ _B_ S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). _The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims_. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 110. * ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). _Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century_. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 35–37. He began teaching the basic subjects and was regularly promoted until he became the head-teacher and the Shaykh al-Hadith. He served the Darul Uloom until 1914 (1333)...The Shaykh was very active politically as well. A movement known as Reshmi Roomal was formed in India to remove the British. He played a major role in advancing this movement. * ^ Abu Ghuddah, Abd al-Fattah (1997). تراجم ستة من فقهاء العالم الإِسلامي في القرن الرابع عشر وآشارهم الفقهية (IN ARABIC). BEIRUT: DAR AL-BASHA\'IR AL-ISLAMIYYAH. P. 15. وكان أكبرُ كبارِها وشيخُ شيوخِها الشيخَ محمود حَسَن الدِّيْوْبَنْدي الملقَّبَ بشيخ العالَم، والمعروفَ بشيخ الهند، وكان في الحديث الشريفِ مُسنِدَ الوقتِ ورُحلةَ الأقطار الهندية. (TRANS. AND THE GREATEST OF ITS GREAT ONES, AND THE SHAYKH OF ITS SHAYKHS WAS SHAYKH MAHMUD HASAN AL-DEOBANDI, WHO IS ENTITLED (AL-MULAQQAB) SHAYKH AL-\'AALAM, AND POPULARLY KNOWN (AL-MA\'RUF BI) AS SHAYKH AL-HIND. IN REGARDS TO THE NOBLE HADITH, HE WAS THE AUTHORITY OF HIS TIME (MUSNID AL-WAQT), WHOM STUDENTS TRAVELED FROM ALL PARTS OF INDIA . * ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). _Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century_. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 215–216. After Shaykh al-Hind's demise, he was unanimously acknowledged as his successor. ..He was the President of the Jamiat Al-Ulama-Hind for about twenty years...He taught Sahih Al-Bukhari for about thirty years. During his deanship, the strength of the students academically impred...About 4483 students graduated and obtained a continuous chain of transmission (sanad) in Hadith during his period. * ^ Metcalf, Barbara Daly (1992). _Perfecting women : Maulana Ashraf ọAlī Thanawi's Bihishti zewar : a partial translation with commentary_. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 0-520-08093-9 . The Bihishti Zewar was written by Maulana Ashraf 'Ali Thanawi (1864-1943), a leader of the Deobandi reform movement that crystallized in north India in the late nineteenth century...Maulana Thanawi was an extraordinary successful exponent of reform. * ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). _Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century_. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 68–70. This great Hafiz of Hadith, excellent Hanafi jurist, legist, historian, linguist, poet, researcher and critic, Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri...He went to the biggest Islamic University inIndia, the Darul Uloom al-Islamiyah in Deoband...He contributed greatly to the Hanafi Madhab...He wrote many books, approximately 40...Many renowned and erudite scholars praised him and acknowledged his brilliance...Many accomplished scholars benefited from his vast knowledge. * ^ Reetz, Dietrich (2004). "Keeping Busy on the Path of Allah: The Self-Organisation (Intizam) of the Tablighi Jama'at". _Oriente Moderno_. 84 (1): 295–305. In recent years, the Islamic missionary movement of the Tablighi Jama'at has attracted increasing attention, not only in South Asia, but around the globe...The Tablighi movement came into being in 1926 when Muhammad Ilyas (1885-1944) started preaching correct religious practices and observance of rituals...Starting with Ilyas' personal association with the Dar al-Ulum of Deoband, the movement has been supported by religious scholars, 'ulama', propagating the purist teachings of this seminary located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. * ^ Bashir, Aamir (2013). _Shari\'at and Tariqat: A Study of the Deobandi Understanding and Practice of Tasawwuf_ (PDF). Dar al-Sa'adah Publications. p. 117. Muhammad Zakariyya can be termed as the "Reviver of Deobandi tasawwuf." He is the last in the long line of prominent scholar Sufis who epitomized Deobandi characteristics. * ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). _Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century_. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 167–170. He completed his formal education in 1907 (1325) with specialization in Hadith. Thereafter he taught for some time at the Dar al-Uloom Deoband...He supported the resolution for the independence of Pakistan and assisted Muhammad Ali Jinnah...He was given the task of hoisting the flag of Pakistan...Due to his tremendous effort, the first constitution of Pakistan was based on the Quraan and Sunnah...Fath Al-Mulhim bi Sharh Sahih Muslim. Even though he passed away before being able to complete the book it was accepted and praised by many renowned scholars. These include Shaykh Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari and Shaykh Anwar Shah Kashmiri. * ^ Usmani, Muhammad Taqi (December 2011). "Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Shafi‘: The Grand Mufti Of Pakistan". _Deoband.org_. Translated by Rahman, Zameelur. Retrieved 6 November 2013. The scholar of great learning, Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Shafi‘ (Allah Almighty have mercy on him), is counted amongst the leading ‘ulama of India and Pakistan...He completed his studies in the year 1325 H, and because he was from the advanced students in the period of his studies, the teachers of the Dar al-‘Ulum selected him to become a teacher there...the teachers appointed him as the head of the Fatwa Department at Dar al-‘Ulum...Ma‘arif al-Qur’an. This is a valuable exegesis of the Noble Qur’an which Shaykh compiled in the Urdu language in 8 large volumes. * ^ "Mufti Taqi Usmani". _Albalagh_. Retrieved 6 November 2013. * ^ S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). _The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims_. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 89. Leading scholar for the Deobandis...Usmani is very important as a figurehead in the Deobandi movement * ^ Rahman, Azizur-. (Translated by Muhammad Shameem), ed. _Introducing Darul-\'Uloom Karachi_ (PDF). Public Information Department: Darul Uloom Karachi. p. 21. * ^ S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). _The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims_. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 69. Leader of the Pakistan chapter of the Tablighi Jamaat Hajji Abd al-Wahhab is a prominent Pakistani scholar with a significant following in South Asia and the United Kingdom...Abd al-Wahhab's work stems from the prominent Islamic institution Darul Uloom Deoband, in India, where the latter studied before establishing a following in Pakistan. * ^ S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). _The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims_. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 114. * ^ Islamic Academy of Manchester The Islamic Academy of Manchester * ^ Kamran, Mohammad (3 December 2003). "SC Shariat Bench to hear appeal on presidential remissions today". _Daily Times_. Pakistan. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2010. * ^ S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). _The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims_. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 134. He has been very effective in influencing all types of the communities ranging from businessmen and landlords to ministers and sports celebrities.
* Zaman, Muhammad Qasim (2002). _The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change_. Princeton University Press . ISBN 0-691-09680-5 . * Moj, Muhammad (2015), _The Deoband Madrassah Movement: Countercultural Trends and Tendencies_, Anthem Press, ISBN 978-1-78308-389-3 * The Beliefs of Darul Uloom Deoband Scholars * Books on Deoband Scholars
* Deoband.org * Darul-ifta Deoband * Darul-uloom Deoband * The Jamaat Tableegh and the Deobandis: A Critical Analysis of their Beliefs, Books and Dawah by Sajid Abdul-Kayum
* v * t * e
* In Islam