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Deobandi
Deobandi
(Pashto and Persian: دیو بندی‎, Urdu: دیو بندی‬‎, Bengali: দেওবন্দী, Hindi: देवबन्दी) is a revivalist movement within Sunni (primarily Hanafi) Islam.[1] It is centered in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh, has recently spread to the United Kingdom, and has a presence in South Africa.[2] The name derives from Deoband, India, where the school Darul Uloom Deoband
Deoband
is situated. The movement was inspired by scholar Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (1703–1762),[3][4] and was founded in 1867 in the wake of the failed Sepoy Rebellion in northern India
India
a decade earlier.[5]

Contents

1 History 2 Presence

2.1 In India 2.2 In Pakistan 2.3 In the United Kingdom

3 Beliefs

3.1 Fiqh
Fiqh
(Islamic law) 3.2 Theology 3.3 Sufism

4 Dawah
Dawah
(proselytizing) movements

4.1 Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind 4.2 Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam 4.3 Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam 4.4 Tablighi Jamaat

5 Associated political organizations 6 Associated militant organizations

6.1 Lashkar-e-Jhangvi 6.2 Taliban

6.2.1 Tehrik-i- Taliban
Taliban
Pakistan

6.3 Sipah-e-Sahaba

7 Notable institutions

7.1 India 7.2 Pakistan 7.3 Bangladesh 7.4 United Kingdom 7.5 South Africa 7.6 United States
United States
and Canada 7.7 Iran

8 Scholars

8.1 Founding figures 8.2 Patrons 8.3 Other associated scholars 8.4 Contemporary Deobandis

9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

History[edit] The Deobandi
Deobandi
movement developed as a reaction to the British colonialism which was seen by a group of Indian scholars — consisting of Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, Muhammad
Muhammad
Yaqub Nanautawi, Shah Rafi al-Din, Sayyid Muhammad
Muhammad
Abid, Zulfiqar Ali, Fadhl al-Rahman Usmani and Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi
Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi
— to be corrupting Islam. The group founded an Islamic seminary known as Darul Uloom Deoband,[6] where the Islamic revivalist and anti-imperialist ideology of the Deobandis began to develop.[7] In time, the Darul Uloom Deoband
Deoband
became the second largest focal point of Islamic teaching and research after the Al-Azhar University, Cairo. Through the organisations such as Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind
Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind
and Tablighi Jamaat, the Deobandi
Deobandi
ideology began to spread. Graduates of Deoband
Deoband
from countries such as Saudi Arabia, South Africa, China and Malaysia
Malaysia
opened thousands of madaaris throughout the world.[8]:33 Towards the time of Indian independence, the Deobandis advocated a notion of composite nationalism by which Hindus and Muslims were seen as one nation who were asked to be united in the struggle against the British. In 1919, a large group of Deobandi
Deobandi
scholars formed the political party Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind
Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind
and opposed the Pakistan
Pakistan
Movement. A minority group joined Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Jinnah's Muslim League, forming the Jamiat Ulema-e- Islam
Islam
in 1945.[9] Presence[edit] In India[edit] The Deobandi
Deobandi
Movement in India
India
is controlled by the Darul Uloom Deoband
Deoband
and the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind. About 20% of the Indian Muslims[10] identify as Deobandi. Even though a minority, the Deobandis form the dominant group among Indian Muslims due to their access to state resources and representation in Muslim bodies. The Deobandis are referred to as 'Wahhabis' by their opponents — the Barelvis and the Shias. In reality, they are not Wahhabis, even though they share many of their beliefs. The true Wahhabis among Indian Muslims are said to be fewer than 5 percent.[11][12][13][14] In Pakistan[edit] An estimated 15–20 percent of Pakistan's Sunni
Sunni
Muslims consider themselves Deobandi.[15] According to Heritage Online, nearly 65% of the total seminaries (Madrasah) in Pakistan
Pakistan
are run by Deobandis, whereas 25% are run by Barelvis, 6% by Ahl-i Hadith
Ahl-i Hadith
and 3% by various Shia
Shia
organizations. The Deobandi
Deobandi
movement in Pakistan
Pakistan
was a major recipient of funding from Saudi Arabia from the early 1980s up until the early 2000s, whereafter this funding was diverted to the rival Ahl al- Hadith
Hadith
movement.[16] Having seen Deoband
Deoband
as a counterbalance to Iranian influence in the region, Saudi funding is now strictly reserved for the Ahl al-Hadith.[16] In the United Kingdom[edit] According to a 2007 investigation by The Times, about 600 of Britain's nearly 1,500 mosques were under the control of "a hardline sect", whose leading preacher loathed Western values, called on Muslims to “shed blood” for Allah and preached contempt for Jews, Christians and Hindus. The same investigative report further said that 17 of the country's 26 Islamic seminaries follow the ultra-conservative Deobandi teachings which had given birth to the Taliban. According to The Times almost 80% of all domestically trained Ulema
Ulema
were being trained in these hardline seminaries.[17] In 2014 it was reported that 45 per cent of Britain’s mosques and nearly all the UK-based training of Islamic scholars are controlled by the Deobandi, the largest single Islamic group.[18] Beliefs[edit]

Part of a series on

Deobandi
Deobandi
movement

Ideology and influences

Dars-i Nizami Maturidi
Maturidi
theology Hanafi
Hanafi
fiqh

Founders and key figures

Muhammad
Muhammad
Qasim Nanotvi. Rashid Ahmad Gangohi Imdadullah Muhajir Makki Mahmud al-Hasan Husain Ahmad Madani Ashraf Ali
Ali
Thanwi Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri Anwar Shah Kashmiri Muhammad
Muhammad
Ilyas Kandhlawi Shabbir Ahmad Usmani Muhammad
Muhammad
Idris Kandhlawi Muhammad
Muhammad
Zakariya Kandhlawi

Notable institutions

Darul ulooms and madrasas

Deoband Mazahir Uloom Nadwatul Ulama Dabhel Hathazari Madrassah Ashrafia Befaqul Madarisil Arabia Bangladesh Karachi Jamia Uloom-ul-Islamia Bury In'aamiyyah List of Deobandi
Deobandi
universities

Centres (markaz) of Tabligh

Nizamuddin Raiwind Dhaka Dewsbury Taj-ul-Masajid Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta Jamek Mosque

Associated organizations

Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam Tablighi Jamaat Sipah-e-Sahaba
Sipah-e-Sahaba
Pakistan Taliban Tehrik-i- Taliban
Taliban
Pakistan Lashkar-e-Jhangvi All India
India
Muslim Personal Law Board Islamic Fiqh
Fiqh
Academy, India

v t e

The Deobandi
Deobandi
movement sees itself as a scholastic tradition, situated within orthodox Sunni
Sunni
Islam. It grew out of the Islamic scholastic tradition of Medieval Transoxania
Transoxania
and Mughal India, and it considers its visionary forefather to be Shah Waliullah Dehlawi
Shah Waliullah Dehlawi
(1703-1762), the celebrated Indian Islamic scholar and thinker of the eighteenth century. Fiqh
Fiqh
(Islamic law)[edit] Deobandis are strong proponents of the doctrine of Taqlid. In other words, they believe that a Muslim must adhere to one of the four schools (madhhabs) of Sunni
Sunni
Islamic Law and generally discourage inter-school eclecticism.[19] They themselves are predominantly followers of the Hanafi
Hanafi
school.[20][21] Students at madrasas affiliated with the Deobandi
Deobandi
movement study the classic books of Hanafi
Hanafi
Law such as Nur al-Idah, Mukhtasar al-Quduri, Sharh al-Wiqayah, and Kanz al-Daqa’iq, culminating their study of the madhhab with the Hidayah of al-Marghinani.[22] With regard to views on Taqlid, one of their main opposing reformist groups are the Ahl-i Hadis, also known as the Ghair Muqallid, the nonconformists, because they eschewed taqlid in favor of the direct use of Quran
Quran
and Hadith.[23] They often accuse those who adhere to the rulings of one scholar or legal school of blind imitation, and frequently demand scriptural evidence for every argument and legal ruling.[24] Almost since the very beginnings of the movement, Deobandi scholars have generated a copious amount of scholarly output in an attempt to defend their adherence to a madhhab in general. In particular, Deobandis have penned much literature in defense of their argument that the Hanafi
Hanafi
madhhab is in complete accordance with the Quran
Quran
and Hadith.[25] In response to this need to defend their madhhab in the light of scripture, Deobandis became particularly distinguished for their unprecedented salience to the study of Hadith
Hadith
in their madrasas. Their madrasa curriculum incorporates a feature unique among the global arena of Islamic scholarship, the Daura-e Hadis, the capstone year of a student's advanced madrasa training, in which all six canonical collections of the Sunni
Sunni
Hadith
Hadith
(the Sihah Sittah) are reviewed.[26] In a Deobandi
Deobandi
madrasa, the position of Shaykh al-Hadith, or the resident professor of Sahih Bukhari, is held in much reverence. Theology[edit]

Part of a series on Islam Aqidah

Five Pillars of Islam

Shahada Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj

Sunni Six articles of belief

God Prophets Holy books Angels The Last Judgement Predestination

Sunni
Sunni
theological traditions

Ilm al-Kalam

Ash'ari1 Maturidi

Sunni
Sunni
Murji'ah Traditionalist2

Shi'a Twelver3

Principles

Tawhid Adalah Prophecy Imamah Qiyamah

Practices

Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj Khums Jihad Commanding what is just Forbidding what is evil Tawalla Tabarra

Seven pillars of Ismailism4

Walayah Tawhid Salah Zakat Sawm Hajj Jihad

Other Shia
Shia
concepts of Aqidah

Imamate Batin Sixth Pillar of Islam

Other schools of theology

Khawarij5 Ibadi6 Murji'ah

Qadariyah Muʿtazila7 Sufism8

Including: 1Jahmi; 2Karramiyya; 3 Alawites
Alawites
& Qizilbash 4Sevener-Qarmatians, Assassins
Assassins
& Druzes 5Ajardi, Azariqa, Bayhasiyya, Najdat
Najdat
& Sūfrī 6Nūkkārī; 7 Bahshamiyya
Bahshamiyya
& Ikhshîdiyya 8Alevism, Bektashi Order
Bektashi Order
& Qalandariyya Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

In tenets of faith, the Deobandis follow the Maturidi
Maturidi
school of Islamic theology.[20][27][28] Their schools teach a short text on beliefs by the Maturidi
Maturidi
scholar Nasafi.[29] Sufism[edit]

Part of a series on Islam Sufism
Sufism
and Tariqat

Ideas

Abdal Al-Insān al-Kāmil Baqaa Dervish Dhawq Fakir Fanaa Haal Haqiqa Ihsan Irfan Ishq Keramat Kashf Lataif Manzil Marifa Nafs Nūr Qalandar Qutb Silsila Sufi cosmology Sufi metaphysics Sufi philosophy Sufi poetry Sufi psychology Salik Tazkiah Wali Yaqeen

Practices

Anasheed Dhikr Haḍra Muraqaba Qawwali Sama Whirling Ziyarat

Sufi orders

Akbari Alians Ashrafia Azeemia Ba 'Alawi Bayrami Bektashi Burhaniyya Chishti Galibi Gulshani Haqqani Anjuman Hurufi Idrisi Issawiyya Jelveti Jerrahi Khalidi

İskenderpaşa İsmailağa

Khalwati Kubrawi Madari Meivazhi Malamati Mevlevi Mouridi Noorbakshia Naqshbandi Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
Haqqani Nasuhi Ni'matullāhī Nuqtavi Qadiri Qalandari Rifa'i Safavi Saifia Shadhili Shattari Suhrawardi Sunbuli Sülaymaniyya Tijani Ussaki Uwaisi Zahedi Zikris

List of sufis

Notable early Notable modern Singers

Topics in Sufism

Tawhid Sharia Tariqa Haqiqa Ma'rifa Art History Music Shrines Texts

Portal

v t e

Deoband's curriculum combined the study of Islamic scriptures (Qur'an, Hadith
Hadith
and Law) with rational subjects (logic, philosophy and science). At the same time it was Sufi in orientation and affiliated with the Chisti order. Its Sufism
Sufism
however, was closely integrated with Hadith
Hadith
scholarship and the proper legal practice of Islam.[6] According to Qari Muhammad Tayyib
Qari Muhammad Tayyib
— the 8th rector or Mohtamim of the Darul Uloom Deoband
Deoband
who died in 1983 — "the Ulema
Ulema
of Deoband
Deoband
... in conduct ... are Sufis, ... in Sulook they are Chisti [a sufi order] .... They are initiates of the Chistiyyah, Naqshbandiya, Qadriyah and Suhrawardiyya
Suhrawardiyya
Sufi orders.”[28][30][31][32] The founders of the Deobandi
Deobandi
movement, Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
and Muhammad
Muhammad
Qasim Nanotvi, studied Sufism
Sufism
at the feet of Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki.[33] Not all agree that Deobandis are Sufi. They are considered by many to be anti-Sufis[34][35][36] Whatever the case, the Darul Uloom Deoband's conservativism and fundamentalist theology has latterly led to a de facto fusion of its teachings with wahabism in Pakistan, which "has all but shattered the mystical Sufi presence" there.[8]:34 Recently Maulana Arshad Madani, an influential leader of Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind rejected Sufism
Sufism
and said, " Sufism
Sufism
is no sect of Islam. It is not found in the Quran
Quran
or Hadith. .... So what is Sufism
Sufism
in itself? Sufism
Sufism
is nothing."[37] Dawah
Dawah
(proselytizing) movements[edit] Main article: Dawah Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind[edit] Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind
Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind
is one of the leading Islamic organizations in India. It was founded in British India
India
in 1919 by Abdul Mohasim Sajjad, Qazi Hussain Ahmed, Ahmed Saeed Dehlvi, and Mufti Muhammad Naeem Ludhianvi and the most importantly Mufti Kifayatullah who was elected the first president of Jamiat and remained in this post for 20 years.[38] The Jamiat has propounded a theological basis for its nationalistic philosophy. Their thesis is that Muslims and non-Muslims have entered upon a mutual contract in India
India
since independence, to establish a secular state. The Constitution of India
India
represents this contract.[citation needed] Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam[edit] Jamiat Ulema-e- Islam
Islam
(JUI) is a Deobandi
Deobandi
organization, part of the Deobandi
Deobandi
movement.[39] The JUI formed when members broke from the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind
Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind
in 1945 after that organization backed the Indian National Congress against the Muslim League's lobby for a separate Pakistan.[40] The first president of the JUI was Shabbir Ahmad Usmani. Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam[edit] Majlis-e-Ahrar-e- Islam
Islam
(Urdu: مجلس احرارلأسلام‎), also known in short as Ahrar, was a conservative Deobandi
Deobandi
political party in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
during the British Raj
British Raj
(prior to the independence of Pakistan) founded December 29, 1929 at Lahore. Chaudhry Afzal Haq, Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari, Habib-ur-Rehman Ludhianvi, Mazhar Ali
Ali
Azhar, Zafar Ali
Ali
Khan and Dawood Ghaznavi were the founder's of the party.[41] The Ahrar was composed of Indian Muslims disillusioned by the Khilafat Movement, which cleaved closer to the Congress Party.[42][page needed] The party was associated with opposition to Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Jinnah and establishment of an independent Pakistan
Pakistan
as well as persecution of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim Community.[43] After the independence of Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1947, Majlis-e-Ahrar divided in two parts. Now, Majlis-e-Ahrar-e- Islam
Islam
is working for the sake of Muhammad[vague], nifaaz Hakomat-e-illahiyya and Khidmat-e-Khalq. In Pakistan, Ahrar secretariat is in Lahore
Lahore
and in India
India
it is based in Ludhiana. Tablighi Jamaat[edit] Tablighi Jamaat, a non political Muslim missionary organisation, began as an offshoot of the Deobandi
Deobandi
movement.[44] Its inception is believed to be a response to Hindu reform movements, which were considered a threat to vulnerable and non-practicing Muslims. It gradually expanded from a local to a national organisation, and finally to a transnational movement with followers in over 150 countries. Although its beginnings were from the Deobandi
Deobandi
movement, no particular interpretation of Islam
Islam
has been endorsed since the beginning of the movement.[45] Associated political organizations[edit]

Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam Ahrar Party (India) Sipah-e-Sahaba
Sipah-e-Sahaba
Pakistan Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party, Malaysia

Associated militant organizations[edit] Lashkar-e-Jhangvi[edit] Lashkar-e-Jhangvi
Lashkar-e-Jhangvi
(LJ) (English: Army ofJhangvi) is a militant organization. Formed in 1996, it has operated in Pakistan
Pakistan
since Sipah-e-Sahaba
Sipah-e-Sahaba
(SSP). Riaz Basra broke away from the SSP over differences with his seniors.[46] The group is considered a terrorist group by Pakistan
Pakistan
and the United States,[47] and continues to be involved in attacks on Shi'a civilians and protectors of them.[48][49] Lashkar-e-Jhangvi
Lashkar-e-Jhangvi
is predominantly Punjabi.[50] The group has been labelled by intelligence officials in Pakistan
Pakistan
as a major security threat.[51] Taliban[edit] The Taliban
Taliban
("students"), alternative spelling Taleban,[52] is an Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan. It spread into Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and formed a government, ruling as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
from September 1996 until December 2001, with Kandahar
Kandahar
as the capital. While in power, it enforced its strict interpretation of Sharia
Sharia
law.[53] While many leading Muslims and Islamic scholars have been highly critical of the Taliban's interpretations of Islamic law,[54] the Darul Uloom Deoband
Deoband
has consistently supported the Taliban
Taliban
in Afghanistan, including their 2001 destruction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan,[8]:34 and the majority of the Taliban's leaders were influenced by Deobandi
Deobandi
fundamentalism.[55] Pashtunwali, the Pashtun tribal code, also played a significant role in the Taliban's legislation.[56] The Taliban
Taliban
were condemned internationally for their brutal treatment of women.[57][58] Tehrik-i- Taliban
Taliban
Pakistan[edit] Tehrik-i- Taliban
Taliban
Pakistan
Pakistan
(the TTP), alternatively referred to as the Pakistani Taliban, is an umbrella organization of various Islamist militant groups based in the northwestern Federally Administered Tribal Areas along the Afghan border in Pakistan. In December 2007 about 13 groups united under the leadership of Baitullah Mehsud
Baitullah Mehsud
to form the Tehrik-i- Taliban
Taliban
Pakistan.[59][60] Among the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan's stated objectives are resistance against the Pakistani state, enforcement of their interpretation of sharia and a plan to unite against NATO-led forces in Afghanistan.[59][60][61] The TTP is not directly affiliated with the Afghan Taliban
Taliban
movement led by Mullah Omar, with both groups differing greatly in their histories, strategic goals and interests although they both share a primarily Deobandi
Deobandi
interpretation of Islam
Islam
and are predominantly Pashtun.[61][62] Sipah-e-Sahaba[edit] Sipah-e-Sahaba
Sipah-e-Sahaba
Pakistan
Pakistan
(SSP) is a banned Pakistani militant organization, and a formerly registered Pakistani political party. Established in the early 1980s in Jhang
Jhang
by the militant leader Haq Nawaz Jhangvi, its stated goal is primarily to deter major Shiite influence in Pakistan
Pakistan
in the wake of the Iranian Revolution.[63][64] The organization was banned by President Pervez Musharraf
Pervez Musharraf
in 2002 as being a terrorist group under the Anti-Terrorism Act of 1997.[63][64] In October 2000 Masood Azhar, another militant leader, and founder of Jaish-e-Mohammed
Jaish-e-Mohammed
(JeM), was quoted as saying that "Sipah-e-Sahaba stands shoulder to shoulder with Jaish-e- Muhammad
Muhammad
in Jehad."[65] A leaked U.S. diplomatic cable described JeM as "another SSP breakaway Deobandi
Deobandi
organization."[66] Notable institutions[edit] India[edit]

List of Deobandi
Deobandi
universities Darul Uloom Deoband, Uttar Pradesh, India Darul-uloom Nadwatul Ulama, Lucknow, India Mazahirul Uloom Saharanpur, India Madrasa
Madrasa
Al-Baqiyat As-Salihat, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India Madrasa
Madrasa
Kashiful Huda, Poonamallee, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Madrasa
Madrasa
Mifthahul Uloom, Melvisharam, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India Jamia Islamia Ishaatul Uloom, Akkalkuwa, Nandurbar district, Maharashtra, India Jamiatul Qasim Darul Uloom Al-Islamiah, Indo-Nepal border, Bihar, India

Pakistan[edit]

Jamia Uloom ul Islamia (Binori Town), Karachi, Pakistan Darul Uloom Haqqania, Akora Khattak, Pakistan Darul 'Uloom Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan Jamia Ashrafia, Lahore, Pakistan Jamia Binoria, Karachi, Pakistan Ahsan-Ul-Uloom, Karachi, Pakistan Jamiatur Rasheed, Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

Bangladesh[edit]

Al-Jamiatul Ahlia Darul Ulum Moinul Islam, Chittagong, Bangladesh Jamiah Islamiah Yunusia Brahmanbaria, Bangladesh Jamiah Rahmania Arabia Dhaka, Bangladesh Jamia Qurania Arabia Lalbagh, Dhaka, Bangladesh

United Kingdom[edit]

Dar al-Ulum al-Arabiyyah al-Islamiyyah, Holcombe, Bury - Popularly known as "Dar al-Uloom Bury," it is historically the first madrasa established in the UK, in 1975. Many of the newer madrasas are its branches, or founded by its graduates.[67] Jami'at Ta'lim al-Islam, Dewsbury
Dewsbury
was established in 1981 by the Tablighi Jamat.[68] Jameah Uloomul Quran, Leicester
Leicester
- This madrasa was established in Leicester
Leicester
in 1977 by Adam DB. It has over 600 students and graduates of the Exegesis and Jurisprudence course.[69][70]

South Africa[edit]

Darul Ulum Newcastle, Newcastle, KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
- The first Deobandi madrasa in South Africa, it was founded in 1971 by Cassim Mohammed Sema.[71] Al- Madrasah
Madrasah
al-Arabiyyah al-Islamiyyah, Azaadville is connected with both the teachings of Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhlawi
Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhlawi
and Ashraf Ali Thanwi.[72][73] Several of its graduates are Western students especially from the UK and United States[74] The school is also important within South Africa as a site for activities of the Tablighi Jamaat.[75] English textbooks from this madrasa are used in English-medium Deobandi
Deobandi
madrasas in the West to teach the Dars-e-Nizami curriculum.[76] Dar al-Ulum Zakariyya, Zakariyya Park, Lenasia
Lenasia
was founded by disciples of Muhammad
Muhammad
Zakariyya Kandhlawi, the school's namesake.[74][77] The school is also important within South Africa as a site for activities of the Tablighi Jama'at.[75] Madrasah
Madrasah
In'aamiyyah, Camperdown, KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
- This madrasa is recognized for its Dar al-Iftaa (Department of Fatwa Research and Training) which runs the popular online fatwa service, Askimam.org.[78]

United States
United States
and Canada[edit]

Darul Uloom New York, New York City, United States Al-Rashid Islamic Institute, Ontario, Canada Darul Uloom Canada, Ontario, Canada Darul Uloom Al-Madania, Buffalo, New York

Iran[edit]

Jamiah Darul Uloom Zahedan, Zahedan, Iran

Scholars[edit] Founding figures[edit]

Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi
Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi
1832-1880

Patrons[edit]

Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi
Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi
1833-1880 Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
1827-1905 Ashraf Ali
Ali
Thanwi 1863-1943 Muhammad Mian Mansoor Ansari 1894-1946

Other associated scholars[edit]

Mahmud al-Hasan
Mahmud al-Hasan
(popularly known as "Shaykh al-Hind")[79][80] Husain Ahmed Madani[81] Ashraf Ali
Ali
Thanwi[82] Anwar Shah Kashmiri[83] Muhammad Ilyas al-Kandhlawi
Muhammad Ilyas al-Kandhlawi
(Founder of Tablighi Jamaat)[84] Muhammad
Muhammad
Zakariya al-Kandahlawi[85] Shabbir Ahmad Usmani[86] Muhammad Shafi Usmani
Muhammad Shafi Usmani
(First Grand Mufti
Grand Mufti
of Pakistan
Pakistan
)[87]

Contemporary Deobandis[edit]

Muhammad
Muhammad
Taqi Usmani, Pakistan
Pakistan
- Vice-President of Dar al-Ulum Karachi, Former judge on the Shariah Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, Deputy Chairman of the Islamic Fiqh
Fiqh
Academy of the OIC, leading scholar of Islamic Finance,[88] and often considered to be a leading scholar and figurehead of the Deobandi
Deobandi
movement.[89] Muhammad
Muhammad
Rafi Usmani, Pakistan
Pakistan
- (Current Grand Mufti
Grand Mufti
of Pakistan) and President and senior lecturer of Dar al-Ulum Karachi.[90] Ebrahim Desai, South Africa - Mufti and senior lecturer at Madrasa Inaamiyyah in Camperdown, and head of the popular online fatwa website, askimam.org.[78] Haji Abdulwahab - current (Amir of Tablighi Jamaat
Tablighi Jamaat
Pakistan Chapter)[91] Yusuf Motala, UK - Founder and senior lecturer at Dar al-Ulum Bury, one of the oldest Deobandi
Deobandi
Madrasas in the West; "He is a scholar's scholar - many of the United Kingdom's young Deobandi
Deobandi
scholars have studied under his patronage."[92] Allama Khalid Mahmood, UK - He is the founder and Director of The Islamic Academy of Manchester [93] which was established in 1974. He served formerly as a Professor at Murray College Sialkot and also at MAO College Lahore. He obtained a PhD in Comparative Religion from University of Birmingham
University of Birmingham
in 1970. He has authored over 50 books, and has served as the Justice of Supreme court of Pakistan
Pakistan
(Shariat Appellate Bench).[94] Tariq Jameel, Pakistan
Pakistan
- Prominent scholar and preacher from the Tablighi Jama'at.[95]

See also[edit]

Islam
Islam
in Afghanistan Islam
Islam
in Bangladesh Islam
Islam
in India Islam
Islam
in Pakistan Islam
Islam
in South Africa Islam
Islam
in the United Kingdom Islamic schools and branches

References[edit]

^ "India". Darul Uloom Deoband. Retrieved 29 April 2013.  ^ Muslim Schools and Education in Europe and South Africa. Waxmann. 2011. pp. 85ff. Retrieved 29 April 2013.  ^ Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch.; Schacht, J. (1991) [1st. pub. 1965]. Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
(New Edition). Volume I (C-G). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 205. ISBN 9004070265.  ^ Asthana, N.C.; Nirmal, Anjali. Urban Terrorism: Myths and Realities. Shashi Jain for Pointer Publishers. p. 66. Retrieved 29 April 2013.  ^ Brannon Ingram (University of North Carolina), Sufis, Scholars and Scapegoats: Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
and the Deobandi
Deobandi
Critique of Sufism, p 478. ^ a b Ira M. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, p 626. ISBN 0521779332 ^ The Six Great Ones at Darul Uloom Deoband ^ a b c Abbas, Tahir (March 1, 2011). Islamic Radicalism and Multicultural Politics: The British Experience. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1136959602. Retrieved 14 December 2015.  ^ A History of Pakistan
Pakistan
and Its Origins By Christophe Jaffrelot page 224 ^ Indian Islam: Deobandi- Barelvi
Barelvi
tension changing mainstream Islam
Islam
in India, US Mission in India, 2 February 2010 (published by Wikileaks); Irfan
Irfan
Al-Alawi, Muslims in India: Taking Back Islam
Islam
from the Wahhabis, Gatestone Institute, 30 April 2010. ^ M. J. Gohari. The Taliban: Ascent to Power. Oxford University Press. p. 30. ISBN 0-19-579560-1.  ^ Sharma, Sudhindra (2006). "Lived Islam
Islam
in Nepal". In Ahmad, Imtiaz; Reifeld, Helmut. Lived Islam
Islam
in South Asia: Adaptation, Accommodation, and Conflict. Berghahn Books. p. 114. ISBN 81-87358-15-7.  ^ N. C. Asthana; Anjali Nirmal (2009). Urban Terrorism: Myths and Realities. Jaipur: Aavishkar Publishers. pp. 66–67. ISBN 978-81-7132-598-6.  ^ Alam, Arshad (2015), " Islam
Islam
and religious pluralism in India", in Sonia Sikka, Living with Religious Diversity, Routledge, pp. 51–52, ISBN 978-1-317-37099-4  ^ John Pike. " Barelvi
Barelvi
Islam". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 29 April 2013.  ^ a b Sareen, Sushant (2005). The Jihad
Jihad
Factory: Pakistan's Islamic Revolution in the Making. New Delhi: Har Anand Publications. p. 282.  ^ "Hardline takeover of British Masjid". The Times. 7 September 2007.  ^ "Who runs our mosques?". The Spectator. 14 June 2014.  ^ Martin Van Bruinessen, Julia Day Howell, Sufism
Sufism
and the 'Modern' in Islam, p 130, ISBN 1850438544 ^ a b Spevack, Aaron (2014). The Archetypal Sunni
Sunni
Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of Al-Bajuri. State University of New York Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-4384-5370-5.  ^ Metcalf, Barabara. "Traditionalist" Islamic Activism: Deoband, Tablighis, and Talibs. "These orientations --"Deobandi," "Barelvi" or "Ahl-i Hadith" -- would come to define sectarian divisions among Sunni Muslims of South Asian background to the present." ^ Haque, Ziaul (1975). "Muslim Religious Education in Indo-Pakistan". Islamic Studies. Islamic Research Institute, International Islamic University, Islamabad. 14 (4): 284. The following books and subjects are studied ... Fiqh: Hidayah, Quduri, Nur al-Idah, Sharh-i Waqayah, Kanz al-Daqa'iq  ^ Metcalf, Barbara Daly (2002). Islamic revival in British India : Deoband, 1860-1900 (3rd impression. ed.). New Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 141. ISBN 0-19-566049-8.  ^ Khan, Fareeha (2008). Traditionalist Approaches to Shari'ah Reform: Mawlana Ashraf ' Ali
Ali
Thanawi's Fatwa on Women's Right to Divorce (Doctoral Dissertation -- University of Michigan)format= requires url= (help). p. 59. Polemicists from among the Ahl-i Hadith
Ahl-i Hadith
were especially being targeted in Thanawi's explanation, since they accused those who adhered to the rulings of one scholar or legal school of "blind imitation." It was the practice of the Ahl-i Hadith
Ahl-i Hadith
to demand and provide proofs for every argument and legal ruling.  ^ Zaman, Muhammad
Muhammad
Qasim (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton University Press. p. 24. The Deobandi
Deobandi
sensitivity to the Ahl-i Hadith
Ahl-i Hadith
challenge is indicated by the polemics they engaged in with the Ahl-i Hadith
Ahl-i Hadith
and by the large commentaries on classical works of hadith written specifically to refute them  ^ Zaman, Muhammad
Muhammad
Qasim (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton University Press. p. 39. ...gave a new and, in the Indian context, unprecedented salience to the study of hadith in their madrasas. Hadith
Hadith
had, of course, been studied in precolonial Indian madrasas, but the Deobandis instituted the practice of studying (or, more exactly, “reviewing”) all six of the Sunni canonical collections of hadith in the course of a single year; this practice has come to serve in Indian and Pakistani madrasas as the capstone of a student’s advanced madrasa  ^ David Emmanuel Singh, Islamization in Modern South Asia: Deobandi Reform and the Gujjar Response, p 167. ^ a b ibnummabd on February 19, 2009 at 6:04 pm (19 February 2009). "About". Deoband.org. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2013.  ^ Martin van Bruinessen, Stefano Allievi, Producing Islamic Knowledge: Transmission and Dissemination in Western Europe, p 100. ISBN 1136932860 ^ Fatawa Rahimiyyah (Eng. Trans.), vol.1, p.58. ^ The Deobandis are followers of Sufism ahya.org ^ Traversing the path of Suluk January 26, 2012 ^ Brannon Ingram (University of North Carolina), Sufis, Scholars and Scapegoats: Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
and the Deobandi
Deobandi
Critique of Sufism, p 479. (https://www.academia.edu/282790/Sufis_Scholars_and_Scapegoats_Rashid_A%E1%B8%A5mad_Gangohi_D._1905_and_the_Deobandi_Critique_of_Sufism) ^ "The Wahhabi (Arabia), Deobandi
Deobandi
( Pakistan
Pakistan
and India) and Jamaat-i-Islami all are anti-Sufi," Barelvi
Barelvi
Islam globalsecurity.org ^ Deoband
Deoband
hits back, rejects “baseless” charge of radicalizing Muslim youth twocircles.net 19 October 2011 ^ "Naqshbandi, the major Sufi cult in Pakistan, consists mainly of the Deobandis."Where sufism stands August 1, 2010 ^ http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/modi-govt-trying-to-divide-muslims-says-maulana-syed-arshad-madani/1/624728.html ^ "Why did the Pak Maulana visit Deoband". Rediff India
India
Abroad. July 18, 2003. Retrieved 19 May 2012.  ^ Rashid, Haroon (2002-11-06). "Profile: Maulana Fazlur Rahman". BBC News. Retrieved 5 May 2010.  ^ John Pike. "Jamiat Ulema-e- Islam
Islam
/ Assembly of Islamic Clergy". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 11 December 2013.  ^ Ahmad, Syed N. Origins of Muslim consciousness in India: a world-system perspective. New York u.a: Greenwood Press, 1991. p. 175 ^ Christophe Jaffrelot. A history of Pakistan
Pakistan
and its origins. Anthem Press, 2004. ISBN 1-84331-149-6, ISBN 978-1-84331-149-2 ^ Bahadur, Kalim (1998). Democracy in Pakistan: crises and conflicts. Har Anand Publications. p. 176.  ^ Volpi, Frederic (2001). Political Islam: a Critical Reader. Routledge. ISBN 9781134722075. OCLC 862611173. [page needed] ^ Burton, Fred; Stewart, Scott. "Tablighi Jamaat: An Indirect Line to Terrorism". Stratfor. Retrieved 1 September 2011.  ^ Roul, Animesh (2 June 2005). "Lashkar-e-Jhangvi: Sectarian Violence in Pakistan
Pakistan
and Ties to International Terrorism". Terrorism Monitor. Jamestown Foundation. 3 (11). Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2010.  ^ "Pakistani group joins US terror list". BBC News South Asia. 30 January 2003. Retrieved 30 January 2003.  ^ Ahmad, Tufail (21 March 2012). "Using Twitter, YouTube, Facebook and Other Internet Tools, Pakistani Terrorist Group Lashkar-e-Jhangvi Incites Violence against Shi'ite Muslims and Engenders Antisemitism". The Middle East Media Research Insititue, memri.org. Retrieved 22 March 2012.  ^ "Pakistani Shi'ites call off protests after Quetta bombing arrests". Reuters. 19 February 2013.  ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
Shias killed in Gilgit sectarian attack". BBC News. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2012. A predominantly Punjabi group, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi
Lashkar-e-Jhangvi
is linked with the 2002 murder of US reporter Daniel Pearl and other militant attacks, particularly in the southern city of Karachi.  ^ " Iran
Iran
condemns terrorist attacks in Pakistan". Tehran Times. 17 February 2013. Archived from the original on 4 September 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2013.  ^ "Analysis: Who are the Taleban?". BBC News. 2000-12-20.  ^ Abrams, Dennis (2007). Hamid Karzai. Infobase Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7910-9267-5. As soon as it took power though, the Taliban
Taliban
imposed its strict interpretation of Islamic law on the country  ^ Skain, Rosemarie (2002). The women of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
under the Taliban. McFarland. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7864-1090-3.  ^ Maley, William (2001). Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the Taliban. C Hurst & Co. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-85065-360-8.  ^ Shaffer, Brenda (2006). The limits of culture: Islam
Islam
and foreign policy (illustrated ed.). MIT Press. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-262-69321-9. The Taliban's mindset is, however, equally if not more deaned by Pashtunwali  ^ James Gerstenzan; Lisa Getter (November 18, 2001). "Laura Bush Addresses State of Afghan Women". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 14 September 2012.  ^ "Women's Rights in the Taliban
Taliban
and Post- Taliban
Taliban
Eras". A Woman Among Warlords. PBS. September 11, 2007. Retrieved 14 September 2012.  ^ a b Bajoria, Jayshree (6 February 2008). "Pakistan's New Generation of Terrorists". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 14 May 2009. Retrieved 30 March 2009.  ^ a b Abbas, Hassan (January 2008). "A Profile of Tehrik-I-Taliban Pakistan" (PDF). CTC Sentinel. West Point, NY: Combating Terrorism Center. 1 (2): 1–4. Retrieved 8 November 2008.  ^ a b Carlotta Gall, Ismail Khan, Pir Zubair Shah and Taimoor Shah (26 March 2009). "Pakistani and Afghan Taliban
Taliban
Unify in Face of U.S. Influx". New York Times. Retrieved 27 March 2009. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Shane, Scott (2009-10-22). "Insurgents Share a Name, but Pursue Different Goals". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 January 2011.  ^ a b B. Raman, "Musharraf's Ban: An Analysis", South Asia Analysis Group , Paper no. 395, 18 January 2002 ^ a b "Pakistan: The Sipah-e-Sahaba
Sipah-e-Sahaba
(SSP), including its activities and status", Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, 26 July 2005 ^ " Sipah-e-Sahaba
Sipah-e-Sahaba
Pakistan".  ^ "2009: Southern Punjab extremism battle between haves and have-nots". Dawn.com. Dawn Media Group. 2011-05-22. Retrieved 25 May 2011.  ^ Mahmood, Hamid (2012). The Dars-e-Nizami and the Transnational Traditionalist Madaris in Britain (PDF). pp. 7, 17. Retrieved 9 November 2013. In the UK the Dār al-‘Ulūm al-‘Arabiyyah al-Islāmiyyah (Bury madrasa) and Jāmi’at ta’līm al-Islām ( Dewsbury
Dewsbury
madrasa) are considered the ‘Oxbridge’ of the traditional madrasa world....The need for leadership and imams increased alongside the increasing number of Mosques and in 1975 the first madrasa was established in a village called Holcombe situated near Bury – known as Dār al-‘Ulūm Bury or Bury Madrasa.  ^ Mahmood, Hamid (2012). The Dars-e-Nizami and the Transnational Traditionalist Madaris in Britain (PDF). pp. 7, 17. Retrieved 9 November 2013. In the UK the Dār al-‘Ulūm al-‘Arabiyyah al-Islāmiyyah (Bury madrasa) and Jāmi’at ta’līm al-Islām ( Dewsbury
Dewsbury
madrasa) are considered the ‘Oxbridge’ of the traditional madrasa world...The second madrasa to be established was that of the Tablīghī Jamā’at called ‘Jāmi’at Ta’līm al-Islām ( Dewsbury
Dewsbury
Madrasa) in Dewsbury
Dewsbury
in 1981  ^ "Home". Jamemasjid.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-03-12.  ^ "Home". Jameah.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-03-12.  ^ Mohamed, Yasien (2002). "Islamic Education in South Africa" (PDF). ISIM Newsletter. 9: 30. Retrieved 11 December 2013. opportunities for studies were created locally when in 1971 the first Darul-Ulum was established in Newcastle, Kwazulu Natal. This Darul-Ulum was based on the Darsi-Nizami course from Deoband, India.  ^ (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 91, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5. The Islamic schools in Lenasia
Lenasia
and Azaadville in South Africa represent prominent examples of schools that provide religious education in a format which is firmly rooted in traditions and interpretations of Islam
Islam
originating outside South Africa. Established by the Muslim minority community of the country, the schools follow the Deobandi
Deobandi
interpretation of Islam from South Asia...Mawlana Ishaq following Hamid (sic) Akhtar from Karachi (see below) adheres to the Chishtiyya Sabiriyya Imdadiyya Ashrafiyya lineage, that puts special emphasis on the legacy of Muhammad
Muhammad
Ashraf Ali
Ali
Thanwi (1863-1943). CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Mohamed, Yasien (2002). "Islamic Education in South Africa" (PDF). ISIM Newsletter. 9: 30. Retrieved 11 December 2013. Less indigenous to South Africa and more in keeping with the Deobandi
Deobandi
spirit is the Azaadville seminary, near Johannesburg, which teaches all subjects in Urdu.  ^ a b (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5. It became clear through field research by the author that Deobandi
Deobandi
schools in several countries increasingly rely on graduates from Azaadville and Lenasia. The two schools and their graduates are functioning as network multiplicators between Deobandi
Deobandi
schools worldwide. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ a b (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5. For the Tablighi Jama’at, the two schools are important switchboards for their preaching activities in South Africa, in Africa proper and around the world. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. p. 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5. Especially for teaching the Deobandi
Deobandi
curriculum of the degree course to become a religious scholar (‘Alim) in the English-speaking world, books from Azaadville have become increasingly useful. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5. The Islamic schools in Lenasia
Lenasia
and Azaadville in South Africa represent prominent examples of schools that provide religious education in a format which is firmly rooted in traditions and interpretations of Islam
Islam
originating outside South Africa. Established by the Muslim minority community of the country, the schools follow the Deobandi
Deobandi
interpretation of Islam
Islam
from South Asia. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ a b S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 110.  ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 35–37. He began teaching the basic subjects and was regularly promoted until he became the head-teacher and the Shaykh al-Hadith. He served the Darul Uloom until 1914 (1333)...The Shaykh was very active politically as well. A movement known as Reshmi Roomal was formed in India
India
to remove the British. He played a major role in advancing this movement.  ^ Abu Ghuddah, Abd al-Fattah (1997). تراجم ستة من فقهاء العالم الإِسلامي في القرن الرابع عشر وآشارهم الفقهية (in Arabic). Beirut: Dar al-Basha'ir al-Islamiyyah. p. 15. وكان أكبرُ كبارِها وشيخُ شيوخِها الشيخَ محمود حَسَن الدِّيْوْبَنْدي الملقَّبَ بشيخ العالَم، والمعروفَ بشيخ الهند، وكان في الحديث الشريفِ مُسنِدَ الوقتِ ورُحلةَ الأقطار الهندية. (Trans. And the greatest of its [Dar al-Ulum Deoband's] great ones, and the shaykh of its shaykhs was Shaykh Mahmud Hasan al-Deobandi, who is entitled (al-mulaqqab) Shaykh al-'Aalam, and popularly known (al-ma'ruf bi) as Shaykh al-Hind. In regards to the noble Hadith, he was the authority of his time (musnid al-waqt), whom students traveled from all parts of India
India
[to study with].  ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 215–216. After Shaykh al-Hind's demise, he was unanimously acknowledged as his successor. ..He was the President of the Jamiat Al-Ulama-Hind for about twenty years...He taught Sahih Al-Bukhari for about thirty years. During his deanship, the strength of the students academically impred...About 4483 students graduated and obtained a continuous chain of transmission (sanad) in Hadith
Hadith
during his period.  ^ Metcalf, Barbara Daly (1992). Perfecting women : Maulana Ashraf ọAlī Thanawi's Bihishti zewar : a partial translation with commentary. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 0-520-08093-9. The Bihishti Zewar was written by Maulana Ashraf ' Ali
Ali
Thanawi (1864-1943), a leader of the Deobandi
Deobandi
reform movement that crystallized in north India
India
in the late nineteenth century...Maulana Thanawi was an extraordinary successful exponent of reform.  ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 68–70. This great Hafiz of Hadith, excellent Hanafi
Hanafi
jurist, legist, historian, linguist, poet, researcher and critic, Muhammad
Muhammad
Anwar Shah Kashmiri...He went to the biggest Islamic University inIndia, the Darul Uloom al-Islamiyah in Deoband...He contributed greatly to the Hanafi
Hanafi
Madhab...He wrote many books, approximately 40...Many renowned and erudite scholars praised him and acknowledged his brilliance...Many accomplished scholars benefited from his vast knowledge.  ^ Reetz, Dietrich (2004). "Keeping Busy on the Path of Allah: The Self-Organisation (Intizam) of the Tablighi Jama'at". Oriente Moderno. 84 (1): 295–305. In recent years, the Islamic missionary movement of the Tablighi Jama'at has attracted increasing attention, not only in South Asia, but around the globe...The Tablighi movement came into being in 1926 when Muhammad
Muhammad
Ilyas (1885-1944) started preaching correct religious practices and observance of rituals...Starting with Ilyas' personal association with the Dar al-Ulum of Deoband, the movement has been supported by religious scholars, 'ulama', propagating the purist teachings of this seminary located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.  ^ Bashir, Aamir (2013). Shari'at and Tariqat: A Study of the Deobandi Understanding and Practice of Tasawwuf (PDF). Dar al-Sa'adah Publications. p. 117. Muhammad
Muhammad
Zakariyya can be termed as the "Reviver of Deobandi
Deobandi
tasawwuf." He is the last in the long line of prominent scholar Sufis who epitomized Deobandi
Deobandi
characteristics.  ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 167–170. He completed his formal education [from Deoband] in 1907 (1325) with specialization in Hadith. Thereafter he taught for some time at the Dar al-Uloom Deoband...He supported the resolution for the independence of Pakistan
Pakistan
and assisted Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Jinnah...He was given the task of hoisting the flag of Pakistan...Due to his tremendous effort, the first constitution of Pakistan
Pakistan
was based on the Quraan and Sunnah...Fath Al-Mulhim bi Sharh Sahih Muslim. Even though he passed away before being able to complete the book it was accepted and praised by many renowned scholars. These include Shaykh Muhammad
Muhammad
Zahid al-Kawthari and Shaykh Anwar Shah Kashmiri.  ^ Usmani, Muhammad
Muhammad
Taqi (December 2011). "Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Shafi': The Grand Mufti
Grand Mufti
Of Pakistan". Deoband.org. Translated by Rahman, Zameelur. Retrieved 6 November 2013. The scholar of great learning, Shaykh Mufti Muhammad
Muhammad
Shafi‘ (Allah Almighty have mercy on him), is counted amongst the leading ‘ulama of India
India
and Pakistan...He completed his studies in the year 1325 H, and because he was from the advanced students in the period of his studies, the teachers of the Dar al-‘Ulum selected him to become a teacher there...the teachers appointed him as the head of the Fatwa Department at Dar al-‘Ulum...Ma‘arif al-Qur’an. This is a valuable exegesis of the Noble Qur’an which Shaykh [ Muhammad
Muhammad
Shafi‘] compiled in the Urdu language
Urdu language
in 8 large volumes.  ^ "Mufti Taqi Usmani". Albalagh. Retrieved 6 November 2013.  ^ S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 89. Leading scholar for the Deobandis...Usmani is very important as a figurehead in the Deobandi
Deobandi
movement  ^ Rahman, Azizur-. (Translated by Muhammad
Muhammad
Shameem), ed. Introducing Darul-'Uloom Karachi (PDF). Public Information Department: Darul Uloom Karachi. p. 21.  ^ S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 69. Leader of the Pakistan
Pakistan
chapter of the Tablighi Jamaat [...] Hajji Abd al-Wahhab is a prominent Pakistani scholar with a significant following in South Asia and the United Kingdom...Abd al-Wahhab's work[...] stems from the prominent Islamic institution Darul Uloom Deoband, in India, where the latter studied before establishing a following in Pakistan.  ^ S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 114.  ^ Islamic Academy of Manchester The Islamic Academy of Manchester ^ Kamran, Mohammad (3 December 2003). "SC Shariat Bench to hear appeal on presidential remissions today". Daily Times. Pakistan. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2010.  ^ S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 134. He has been very effective in influencing all types of the communities ranging from businessmen and landlords to ministers and sports celebrities. 

Further reading[edit]

Zaman, Muhammad
Muhammad
Qasim (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09680-5.  Moj, Muhammad
Muhammad
(2015), The Deoband
Deoband
Madrassah Movement: Countercultural Trends and Tendencies, Anthem Press, ISBN 978-1-78308-389-3  The Beliefs of Darul Uloom Deoband
Deoband
Scholars Books on Deoband
Deoband
Scholars

External links[edit]

Deoband.org Darul-ifta Deoband Darul-uloom Deoband The Jamaat Tableegh and the Deobandis: A Critical Analysis of their Beliefs, Books and Dawah
Dawah
by Sajid Abdul-Kayum

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Theologians

Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani Abdul Hosein Amini Abdulhakim Arvasi Abū Ḥanīfa Abu l-A‘la Mawdudi Abu Yusuf Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ahmad Sirhindi Ahmad Yasavi Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi Akhtar Raza Khan al-Ash‘ari al-Ballūṭī al-Baydawi al-Dhahabi al-Ghazali al-Hilli al-Jahiz al-Jubba'i al-Kindi al-Masudi al-Maturidi al-Mufid Al-Qasim al-Qushayri al-Razi Al-Shafi‘i al-Shahrastani al-Shirazi al-Tirmidhi Allameh Majlesi Amr ibn Ubayd Dawud al-Zahiri Fazlur Rahman Malik Hasan of Basra Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Haji Bektash Veli Hüseyin Hilmi Işık ibn ‘Arabī ibn al-Jawzi ibn ‘Aqil ibn Hazm ibn Qudamah Ibn Taymiyyah Ja’far al-Sadiq Jalal al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
Rumi Malik ibn Anas Mahmud Hudayi Morteza Motahhari Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Muhammad
Muhammad
al- Nafs
Nafs
al-Zakiyya Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir al-Sadr Muhammed Hamdi Yazır Muhammad
Muhammad
Hamidullah Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah Muhammad
Muhammad
Tahir-ul-Qadri Muhammad
Muhammad
Taqi Usmani Nasir Khusraw Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi Said Nursî Shaykh Tusi Sheikh Bedreddin Wasil ibn Ata Zayd ibn Ali Zayn al-Abidin

Key books

Crucial Sunni
Sunni
books

al-Irshad al- Aqidah
Aqidah
al-Tahawiyyah

Buyruks Kitab al Majmu Masnavi Nahj al-Balagha Epistles of Wisdom Risale-i Nur

Schools

Sunni

Ash'ari Maturidi Traditionalism

Shia

Kaysanites

Mukhtar

Abu Muslim Sunpadh Ishaq al-Turk

Muhammerah

Khurramites

Babak Mazyar Ismail I / Pir Sultan Abdal
Abdal
– Qizilbash / Safavid conversion of Iran
Iran
to Shia
Shia
Islam

al-Muqanna

Zaidiyyah

Jarudi Batriyya Alid dynasties of northern Iran

Hasan al-Utrush

List of extinct Shia
Shia
sects

Dukayniyya Khalafiyya Khashabiyya

Imami Isma'ilism

Batiniyyah

Sevener Qarmatians Hamza / al-Muqtana Baha'uddin / ad-Darazi – Druzes

Musta'li

Hafizi Taiyabi

Nizari

Assassins Nizaris

Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
Badakhshan
Badakhshan
Alevism

Imami Twelver

Theology of Twelvers

Ja'fari

Akhbari Shaykhi Usuli

Alevism

Qutb
Qutb
ad-Dīn Haydar – Qalandariyya Baba Ishak
Baba Ishak
– Babai Revolt Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
– Rifa'i-Galibi Order

Ghulat

al-Khaṣībī / ibn Nusayr – Alawites Fazlallah Astarabadi (Naimi) / Imadaddin Nasimi
Imadaddin Nasimi
– Hurufism / Bektashism and folk religion

Independent

Ibadi

ibn Ibāḍ Jābir ibn Zayd

Jabriyyah

Ibn Safwan

Murji'ah Karramiyya Qadariyah

Ma'bad al-Juhani Muʿtazila Bahshamiyya

Khawarij

Azariqa Najdat Sufri

Abu Qurra

Nakkariyyah

Abu Yazi

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