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DEOBANDI (Pashto and Persian : دیو بندی‎‎, Urdu : دیو بندی‎, Bengali : দেওবন্দী, Hindi : देवबन्दी) is a revivalist movement within Sunni (primarily Hanafi
Hanafi
) Islam
Islam
. It is centered in India
India
, Pakistan
Pakistan
, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, has recently spread to the United Kingdom , and has a presence in South Africa . The name derives from Deoband , India
India
, where the school Darul Uloom Deoband is situated. The movement was inspired by scholar Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (1703–1762), and was founded in 1867 in the wake of the failed Sepoy Rebellion a decade earlier.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Presence

* 2.1 In India
India
* 2.2 In Pakistan
Pakistan
* 2.3 In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom

* 3 Beliefs

* 3.1 Fiqh
Fiqh
(Islamic law) * 3.2 Theology * 3.3 Sufism

* 4 Dawah movements

* 4.1 Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind * 4.2 Jamiat Ulema-e- Islam
Islam
* 4.3 Majlis-e-Ahrar-e- Islam
Islam
* 4.4 Tablighi Jamaat

* 5 Militant organizations

* 5.1 Lashkar-e-Jhangvi

* 5.2 Taliban
Taliban

* 5.2.1 Tehrik-i- Taliban
Taliban
Pakistan
Pakistan

* 5.3 Sipah-e-Sahaba

* 6 Notable institutions

* 6.1 India
India
* 6.2 Pakistan
Pakistan
* 6.3 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
* 6.4 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* 6.5 South Africa * 6.6 United States
United States
and Canada * 6.7 Iran
Iran

* 7 Scholars

* 7.1 Founding figures * 7.2 Patrons * 7.3 Other associated scholars * 7.4 Contemporary Deobandis

* 8 Associated political organizations * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

HISTORY

The Deobandi
Deobandi
movement developed as a reaction to the British colonialism which was seen by a group of Indian scholars — consisting of Rashid Ahmad Gangohi , Muhammad Yaqub Nanautawi , Shah Rafi al-Din, Sayyid Muhammad
Muhammad
Abid, Zulfiqar Ali, Fadhl al-Rahman Usmani and Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi — to be corrupting Islam. The group founded an Islamic seminary known as Darul Uloom Deoband , where Islamic revivalist and anti-imperialist ideology of the Deobandis began to develop. In time, the Darul Uloom Deoband became the second largest focal point of Islamic teaching and research after the Al-Azhar University , Cairo
Cairo
. Through the organisations such as Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind and Tablighi Jamaat , the Deobandi
Deobandi
ideology began to spread.

Graduates of Deoband from countries such as Saudi Arabia, South Africa, China and Malaysia
Malaysia
opened thousands of madaaris throughout the world. :33

Towards the time of Indian independence, the Deobandis advocated a notion of composite nationalism by which Hindus and Muslims were seen as one nation who were asked to be united in the struggle against the British. In 1919, a large group of Deobandi
Deobandi
scholars formed the political party Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind and opposed the Pakistan
Pakistan
Movement . A minority group joined Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Jinnah 's Muslim League , forming the Jamiat Ulema-e- Islam
Islam
in 1945.

PRESENCE

IN INDIA

The Deobandi
Deobandi
Movement in India
India
is controlled by the Darul Uloom Deoband and the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind . About 20% of the Indian Muslims identify as Deobandi. Even though a minority, the Deobandis form the dominant group among Indian Muslims due to their access to state resources and representation in Muslim bodies etc. The Deobandis are referred to as 'Wahhabis ' by their opponents — the Barelvis and the Shias. In reality, they are not Wahhabis, even though they share many of their beliefs. The true Wahhabis among Indian Muslims are said to be fewer than 5 percent.

IN PAKISTAN

Some 20 percent of Pakistan's Sunni
Sunni
Muslims consider themselves Deobandi. According to Heritage Online, nearly 65% of the total seminaries ( Madrasah ) in Pakistan
Pakistan
are run by Deobandis, whereas 25% are run by Barelvis , 6% by Ahl-i Hadith
Ahl-i Hadith
and 3% by various Shia organizations. The Deobandi
Deobandi
movement in Pakistan
Pakistan
was a major recipient of funding from Saudi Arabia from the early 1980s up until the early 2000s, whereafter this funding was diverted to the rival Ahl al-Hadith movement. Having seen Deoband as a counterbalance to Iranian influence in the region, Saudi funding is now strictly reserved for the Ahl al-Hadith.

IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

According to a 2007 investigation by The Times
The Times
, about 600 of Britain's nearly 1,500 mosques were under the control of "a hardline sect", whose leading preacher loathed Western values, called on Muslims to “shed blood” for Allah and preached contempt for Jews, Christians and Hindus. The same investigative report further said that 17 of the country's 26 Islamic seminaries follow the ultra-conservative Deobandi
Deobandi
teachings which had given birth to the Taliban. According to Times almost 80% of all domestically trained Ulema
Ulema
were being trained in these hardline seminaries.

In 2014 it was reported that 45 per cent of Britain’s mosques and nearly all the UK-based training of Islamic scholars are controlled by the Deobandi, the largest single Islamic group.

BELIEFS

Part of a series on

THE DEOBANDI MOVEMENT

Darul Uloom Deoband , India
India

IDEOLOGY AND INFLUENCES

* Dars-i Nizami * Maturidi
Maturidi
theology * Hanafi
Hanafi
fiqh

FOUNDERS AND KEY FIGURES

* Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi * Rashid Ahmad Gangohi * Husain A. Madani * Mahmud al-Hasan * Ashraf Ali
Ali
Thanwi * Anwar Shah Kashmiri * Muhammad Ilyas Kandhlawi * Shabbir Ahmad Usmani * Muhammad Zakariya Kandhlawi

NOTABLE INSTITUTIONS

DARUL ULOOMS AND MADRASAS

* Deoband * Mazahir Uloom * Nadwatul Ulama * Dabhel * Hathazari Madrassah * Ashrafia * Karachi * Jamia Uloom-ul-Islamia * Bury * In\'aamiyyah * List of Deobandi universities

CENTRES (MARKAZ) OF TABLIGH

* Nizamuddin * Raiwind * Dhaka * Dewsbury

ASSOCIATED ORGANIZATIONS

* Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind * Jamiat Ulema-e- Islam
Islam
* Majlis-e-Ahrar-e- Islam
Islam
* Tablighi Jamaat

* v * t * e

The Deobandi
Deobandi
movement sees itself as a scholastic tradition, situated within orthodox Sunni
Sunni
Islam. It grew out of the Islamic scholastic tradition of Medieval Transoxania and Mughal India, and it considers its visionary forefather to be Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (1703-1762), the celebrated Indian Islamic scholar and thinker of the eighteenth century.

FIQH (ISLAMIC LAW)

Deobandis are strong proponents of the doctrine of Taqlid . In other words, they believe that a Muslim must adhere to one of the four schools (madhhabs ) of Sunni
Sunni
Islamic Law and generally discourage inter-school eclecticism. They themselves are predominantly followers of the Hanafi
Hanafi
school. Students at madrasas affiliated with the Deobandi
Deobandi
movement study the classic books of Hanafi
Hanafi
Law such as Nur al-Idah, Mukhtasar al-Quduri, Sharh al-Wiqayah, and Kanz al-Daqa’iq, culminating their study of the madhhab with the Hidayah of al-Marghinani.

With regard to views on Taqlid, one of their main opposing reformist groups are the Ahl-i Hadis , also known as the Ghair Muqallid , the nonconformists, because they eschewed taqlid in favor of the direct use of Quran
Quran
and Hadith. They often accuse those who adhere to the rulings of one scholar or legal school of blind imitation, and frequently demand scriptural evidence for every argument and legal ruling. Almost since the very beginnings of the movement, Deobandi scholars have generated a copious amount of scholarly output in an attempt to defend their adherence to a madhhab in general. In particular, Deobandis have penned much literature in defense of their argument that the Hanafi
Hanafi
madhhab is in complete accordance with the Quran
Quran
and Hadith.

In response to this need to defend their madhhab in the light of scripture, Deobandis became particularly distinguished for their unprecedented salience to the study of Hadith in their madrasas. Their madrasa curriculum incorporates a feature unique among the global arena of Islamic scholarship, the Daura-e Hadis, the capstone year of a student's advanced madrasa training, in which all six canonical collections of the Sunni
Sunni
Hadith (the Sihah Sittah ) are reviewed. In a Deobandi
Deobandi
madrasa, the position of Shaykh al-Hadith, or the resident professor of Sahih Bukhari , is held in much reverence.

THEOLOGY

Part of a series on Islam
Islam
Aqidah

Five Pillars of Islam

* Shahada
Shahada
* Salah
Salah
* Sawm
Sawm
* Zakat
Zakat
* Hajj
Hajj

Sunni Islam 1 SIX ARTICLES OF BELIEF

* God * Prophets * Holy books * Angels * The Last Judgement * Predestination

SUNNI THEOLOGICAL TRADITIONS

* Ilm al- Kalam
Kalam

* Ash\'ari * Maturidi
Maturidi

* Traditionalist

Shi\'a 2 TWELVER

* PRINCIPLES

* Tawhid
Tawhid
* Adalah
Adalah
* Prophecy * Imamah * Qiyamah

* PRACTICES

* Salah
Salah
* Sawm
Sawm
* Zakat
Zakat
* Hajj
Hajj
* Khums
Khums
* Jihad
Jihad
* Commanding what is just * Forbidding what is evil * Tawalla
Tawalla
* Tabarra
Tabarra

SEVEN PILLARS OF ISMAILISM

* Walayah * Tawhid
Tawhid
* Salah
Salah
* Zakat
Zakat
* Sawm
Sawm
* Hajj
Hajj
* Jihad
Jihad

OTHER SHIA CONCEPTS OF AQIDAH

* Imamate
Imamate
* Batin * Sixth Pillar of Islam
Islam

Other schools of theology

* Ibadi * Jahmi
Jahmi
* Khawarij
Khawarij
3 * Murji\'ah * Muʿtazila * Qadariyah * Sufism 4

Including: 1 Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
, Qutbism
Qutbism
top: 0.2em;">2 Alawites
Alawites
, Assassins , Druzes top: 0.2em;">3 Azariqa , Ajardi, Haruriyyah , Najdat top: 0.2em;">4 Alevism
Alevism
, Bektashi Order font-size:115%;padding-top: 0.6em;">

* v * t * e

In tenets of faith, the Deobandis follow the Maturidi
Maturidi
school of Islamic theology . Their schools teach a short text on beliefs by the Maturidi
Maturidi
scholar Nasafi .

SUFISM

Part of a series on Islam
Islam
Sufism and Tariqat

Ideas

* Abdal * Al-Insān al-Kāmil
Al-Insān al-Kāmil
* Baqaa
Baqaa
* Dervish
Dervish
* Dhawq * Fakir * Fanaa * Haal * Haqiqa
Haqiqa
* Ihsan * Irfan * Ishq
Ishq
* Keramat * Kashf * Lataif * Manzil
Manzil
* Marifa * Nafs
Nafs
* Nūr * Qalandar * Qutb
Qutb
* Silsila * Sufi cosmology * Sufi metaphysics * Sufi philosophy * Sufi poetry * Sufi psychology * Salik * Tazkiah
Tazkiah
* Wali
Wali
* Yaqeen

Practices

* Anasheed * Dhikr * Haḍra
Haḍra
* Muraqaba * Qawwali * Sama * Whirling * Ziyarat
Ziyarat

Sufi orders

* Akbari * Alians * Ashrafia * Azeemia * Ba \'Alawi * Bayrami * Bektashi * Burhaniyya * Chishti * Galibi * Gulshani * Haqqani Anjuman * Hurufi * Idrisi * Issawiyya * Jelveti * Jerrahi

* Khalidi

* İskenderpaşa * İsmailağa
İsmailağa

* Khalwati * Kubrawi * Madari * Meivazhi * Malamati * Mevlevi * Mouridi * Noorbakshia * Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
* Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
Haqqani * Nasuhi * Ni\'matullāhī * Nuqtavi * Qadiri * Qalandari * Rifa\'i * Safavi * Shadhili * Shattari * Suhrawardi * Sunbuli * Sülaymaniyya * Tijani * Ussaki * Uwaisi * Zahedi * Zikris

List of sufis

* Notable early * Notable modern * Singers

Topics in Sufism

* Tawhid
Tawhid
* Sharia
Sharia
* Tariqa
Tariqa
* Haqiqa
Haqiqa
* Ma\'rifa * Art * History * Music * Shrines * Texts

Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

Deoband's curriculum combined the study of Islamic scriptures (Qur'an, Hadith and Law) with rational subjects (logic, philosophy and science). At the same time it was Sufi in orientation and affiliated with the Chisti order. Its Sufism however, was closely integrated with Hadith scholarship and the proper legal practice of Islam.

According to Qari Muhammad Tayyib — the 8th rector or Mohtamim of the Darul Uloom Deoband who died in 1983 — "the Ulema
Ulema
of Deoband ... in conduct ... are Sufis, ... in Sulook they are Chisti .... They are initiates of the Chistiyyah, Naqshbandiya , Qadriyah and Suhrawardiyya Sufi orders.”

The founders of the Deobandi
Deobandi
movement, Rashid Ahmad Gangohi and Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi , studied Sufism at the feet of Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki .

Not all agree that Deobandis are Sufi. They are considered by many to be anti-Sufis Whatever the case, the Darul Uloom Deoband's conservativism and fundamentalist theology has latterly led to a de facto fusion of its teachings with wahabism in Pakistan, which "has all but shattered the mystical Sufi presence" there. :34 Recently Maulana Arshad Madani , an influential leader of Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind rejected Sufism and said, " Sufism is no sect of Islam. It is not found in the Quran
Quran
or Hadith. .... So what is Sufism in itself? Sufism is nothing."

DAWAH MOVEMENTS

Main article: Dawah

JAMIAT ULEMA-E-HIND

Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind is one of the leading Islamic organizations in India. It was founded in British India
India
in 1919 by Abdul Mohasim Sajjad, Qazi Hussain Ahmed, Ahmed Saeed Dehlvi, and Mufti Muhammad Naeem Ludhianvi and the most importantly Mufti Kifayatullah who was elected the first president of Jamiat and remained in this post for 20 years. The Jamiat has propounded a theological basis for its nationalistic philosophy. Their thesis is that Muslims and non-Muslims have entered upon a mutual contract in India
India
since independence, to establish a secular state. The Constitution of India
India
represents this contract.

JAMIAT ULEMA-E-ISLAM

Jamiat Ulema-e- Islam
Islam
(JUI) is a Deobandi
Deobandi
organization, part of the Deobandi
Deobandi
movement. The JUI formed when members broke from the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind in 1945 after that organization backed the Indian National Congress against the Muslim League 's lobby for a separate Pakistan. The first president of the JUI was Shabbir Ahmad Usmani .

MAJLIS-E-AHRAR-E-ISLAM

Majlis-e-Ahrar-e- Islam
Islam
(Urdu : مجلس احرارلأسلام‎), also known in short as AHRAR, was a conservative Deobandi
Deobandi
political party in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
during the British Raj
British Raj
(prior to the independence of Pakistan
Pakistan
) founded December 29, 1929 at Lahore
Lahore
. Chaudhry Afzal Haq , Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari , Habib-ur-Rehman Ludhianvi , Mazhar Ali
Ali
Azhar , Zafar Ali
Ali
Khan and Dawood Ghaznavi were the founder's of the party. The Ahrar was composed of Indian Muslims disillusioned by the Khilafat Movement
Khilafat Movement
, which cleaved closer to the Congress Party . The party was associated with opposition to Muhammad Ali
Ali
Jinnah and establishment of an independent Pakistan
Pakistan
as well as persecution of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim Community . After the independence of Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1947, Majlis-e-Ahrar divided in two parts. Now, Majlis-e-Ahrar-e- Islam
Islam
is working for the sake of Muhammad, nifaaz HAKOMAT-E-ILLAHIYYA and Khidmat-e-Khalq. In Pakistan, Ahrar secretariat is in Lahore
Lahore
and in India
India
it is based in Ludhiana .

TABLIGHI JAMAAT

Tablighi Jamaat , a Muslim missionary organisation, began as an offshoot of the Deobandi
Deobandi
movement. Its inception is believed to be a response to Hindu reform movements, which were considered a threat to vulnerable and non-practicing Muslims. It gradually expanded from a local to a national organisation, and finally to a transnational movement with followers in over 150 countries. Although its beginnings were from the Deobandi
Deobandi
movement, no particular interpretation of Islam has been endorsed since the beginning of the movement.

MILITANT ORGANIZATIONS

LASHKAR-E-JHANGVI

Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LJ) (English: Army of Jhangvi ) is a militant organization. Formed in 1996, it has operated in Pakistan
Pakistan
since Sipah-e-Sahaba (SSP). Riaz Basra broke away from the SSP over differences with his seniors. The group is considered a terrorist group by Pakistan
Pakistan
and the United States
United States
, and continues to be involved in attacks on Shi\'a civilians and protectors of them. Lashkar-e-Jhangvi is predominantly Punjabi . The group has been labelled by intelligence officials in Pakistan
Pakistan
as a major security threat.

TALIBAN

The Taliban
Taliban
("students"), alternative spelling Taleban, is an Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
. It spread into Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and formed a government, ruling as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
from September 1996 until December 2001, with Kandahar
Kandahar
as the capital. While in power, it enforced its strict interpretation of Sharia
Sharia
law . While many leading Muslims and Islamic scholars have been highly critical of the Taliban's interpretations of Islamic law, the Darul Uloom Deoband has consistently supported the Taliban
Taliban
in Afghanistan, including their 2001 destruction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan , :34 and the majority of the Taliban's leaders were influenced by Deobandi
Deobandi
fundamentalism. Pashtunwali
Pashtunwali
, the Pashtun tribal code, also played a significant role in the Taliban's legislation. The Taliban
Taliban
were condemned internationally for their brutal treatment of women .

Tehrik-i- Taliban
Taliban
Pakistan

Tehrik-i- Taliban
Taliban
Pakistan
Pakistan
(the TTP), alternatively referred to as the Pakistani Taliban, is an umbrella organization of various Islamist militant groups based in the northwestern Federally Administered Tribal Areas along the Afghan border in Pakistan. In December 2007 about 13 groups united under the leadership of Baitullah Mehsud to form the Tehrik-i- Taliban
Taliban
Pakistan. Among the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan's stated objectives are resistance against the Pakistani state, enforcement of their interpretation of sharia and a plan to unite against NATO
NATO
-led forces in Afghanistan.

The TTP is not directly affiliated with the Afghan Taliban
Taliban
movement led by Mullah Omar , with both groups differing greatly in their histories, strategic goals and interests although they both share a primarily Deobandi
Deobandi
interpretation of Islam
Islam
and are predominantly Pashtun .

SIPAH-E-SAHABA

Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan
Pakistan
(SSP) is a banned Pakistani militant organization, and a formerly registered Pakistani political party . Established in the early 1980s in Jhang by the militant leader Haq Nawaz Jhangvi , its stated goal is to primarily to deter major Shiite influence in Pakistan
Pakistan
in the wake of the Iranian Revolution . The organization was banned by President Pervez Musharraf
Pervez Musharraf
in 2002 as being a terrorist group under the Anti-Terrorism Act of 1997 . In October 2000 Masood Azhar , another militant leader, and founder of Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM), was quoted as saying that "Sipah-e-Sahaba stands shoulder to shoulder with Jaish-e- Muhammad
Muhammad
in Jehad." A leaked U.S. diplomatic cable described JeM as "another SSP breakaway Deobandi organization."

NOTABLE INSTITUTIONS

INDIA

* List of Deobandi universities * Darul Uloom Deoband , Uttar Pradesh, India
India
* Darul-uloom Nadwatul Ulama , Lucknow, India
India
* Mazahirul Uloom Saharanpur , India
India
* Madrasa
Madrasa
Al-Baqiyat As-Salihat , Vellore , Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, India
India
* Madrasa
Madrasa
Kashiful Huda , Poonamallee
Poonamallee
, Chennai
Chennai
, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, India

* Madrasa
Madrasa
Mifthahul Uloom , Melvisharam , Vellore , Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, India
India

PAKISTAN

* Jamia Uloom ul Islamia ( Binori Town ), Karachi, Pakistan
Pakistan
* Darul Uloom Haqqania , Akora Khattak , Pakistan
Pakistan
* Darul \'Uloom Karachi , Karachi, Pakistan
Pakistan
* Jamia Ashrafia , Lahore, Pakistan
Pakistan
* Jamia Binoria , Karachi, Pakistan
Pakistan
* Ahsan-Ul-Uloom , Karachi, Pakistan
Pakistan
* Jamiatur Rasheed, Karachi , Karachi, Pakistan
Pakistan

BANGLADESH

* Al-Jamiatul Ahlia Darul Ulum Moinul Islam
Islam
, Chittagong, Bangladesh

* Jamiah Islamiah Yunusia Brahmanbaria , Bangladesh
Bangladesh
* Jamiah Rahmania Arabia Dhaka , Bangladesh
Bangladesh
* Jamia Qurania Arabia Lalbagh , Dhaka, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
* Jamia Lutfia Anwarul Uloom Hamidnogor Boruna Shylet Bangladesh
Bangladesh

UNITED KINGDOM

* Dar al-Ulum al-Arabiyyah al-Islamiyyah , Holcombe , Bury, UK - Popularly known as "Dar al-Uloom Bury," it is historically the first madrasa established in the UK, in 1975. Many of the newer madrasas are its branches, or founded by its graduates. * Jami'at Ta'lim al-Islam, Dewsbury , UK was established in 1981 by the Tablighi Jamat . * Jameah Uloomul Quran, Leicester UK - This madrasa was established in Leicester in 1977 by Adam DB. It has over 600 students and graduates of the Exegesis and Jurisprudence course.

SOUTH AFRICA

* Darul Ulum Newcastle, Newcastle , KwaZulu-Natal - The first Deobandi
Deobandi
madrasa in South Africa, it was founded in 1971 by Cassim Mohammed Sema . * Al- Madrasah al-Arabiyyah al-Islamiyyah, Azaadville is connected with both the teachings of Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhlawi and Ashraf Ali Thanwi . Several of its graduates are Western students especially from the UK and United States
United States
The school is also important within South Africa as a site for activities of the Tablighi Jamaat . English textbooks from this madrasa are used in English-medium Deobandi
Deobandi
madrasas in the West to teach the Dars-e-Nizami curriculum. * Dar al-Ulum Zakariyya , Zakariyya Park, Lenasia was founded by disciples of Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhlawi , the school's namesake. The school is also important within South Africa as a site for activities of the Tablighi Jama'at. * Madrasah In\'aamiyyah , Camperdown , KwaZulu-Natal - This madrasa is recognized for its Dar al-Iftaa (Department of Fatwa Research and Training) which runs the popular online fatwa service, Askimam.org.

UNITED STATES AND CANADA

* Darul Uloom New York, New York City
New York City
, United States
United States
* Al-Rashid Islamic Institute , Ontario, Canada * Darul Uloom Canada, Ontario, Canada * Darul Uloom Al-Madania , Buffalo, New York
Buffalo, New York

IRAN

* Jamiah Darul Uloom Zahedan , Zahedan , Iran
Iran

SCHOLARS

FOUNDING FIGURES

* Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi 1832-1880

PATRONS

* Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi 1833-1880 * Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi 1827-1905 * Ashraf Ali
Ali
Thanwi 1863-1943 * Muhammad Mian Mansoor Ansari 1894-1946

OTHER ASSOCIATED SCHOLARS

* Mahmud al-Hasan (popularly known as "Shaykh al-Hind") * Husain Ahmed Madani * Ashraf Ali
Ali
Thanwi * Anwar Shah Kashmiri * Muhammad Ilyas al-Kandhlawi (Founder of Tablighi Jamaat ) * Muhammad Zakariya al-Kandahlawi * Shabbir Ahmad Usmani * Muhammad Shafi Usmani (First Grand Mufti
Grand Mufti
of Pakistan
Pakistan
)

CONTEMPORARY DEOBANDIS

* Muhammad Taqi Usmani , Pakistan
Pakistan
- Vice-President of Dar al-Ulum Karachi, Former judge on the Shariah Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, Deputy Chairman of the Islamic Fiqh
Fiqh
Academy of the OIC, leading scholar of Islamic Finance, and often considered to be a leading scholar and figurehead of the Deobandi
Deobandi
movement. * Muhammad Rafi Usmani , Pakistan
Pakistan
- (Current Grand Mufti
Grand Mufti
of Pakistan ) and President and senior lecturer of Dar al-Ulum Karachi. * Ebrahim Desai , South Africa - Mufti and senior lecturer at Madrasa
Madrasa
Inaamiyyah in Camperdown, and head of the popular online fatwa website, askimam.org. * Haji Abdulwahab - current (Amir of Tablighi Jamaat Pakistan Chapter) * Yusuf Motala , UK - Founder and senior lecturer at Dar al-Ulum Bury, one of the oldest Deobandi
Deobandi
Madrasas in the West; "He is a scholar's scholar - many of the United Kingdom's young Deobandi scholars have studied under his patronage." * Allama Khalid Mahmood , UK - He is the founder and Director of The Islamic Academy of Manchester which was established in 1974. He served formerly as a Professor at Murray College Sialkot and also at MAO College Lahore. He obtained a PhD in Comparative Religion from University of Birmingham in 1970. He has authored over 50 books, and has served as the Justice of Supreme court of Pakistan
Pakistan
(Shariat Appellate Bench). * Tariq Jameel , Pakistan
Pakistan
- Prominent scholar and preacher from the Tablighi Jama'at.

ASSOCIATED POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS

* Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind * Jamiat Ulema-e- Islam
Islam
* Majlis-e-Ahrar-e- Islam
Islam
* Ahrar Party (India) * Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan
Pakistan
* Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
, Malaysia
Malaysia

SEE ALSO

* Islam
Islam
in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* Islam
Islam
in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
* Islam
Islam
in India
India
* Islam
Islam
in Pakistan
Pakistan
* Islam
Islam
in South Africa * Islam
Islam
in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* Islamic schools and branches

REFERENCES

* ^ "India". Darul Uloom Deoband. Retrieved 29 April 2013. * ^ Muslim Schools and Education in Europe and South Africa. Waxmann. 2011. pp. 85ff. Retrieved 29 April 2013. * ^ Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch.; Schacht, J. (1991) . Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
(New Edition). Volume I (C-G). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 205. ISBN 9004070265 . * ^ Asthana, N.C.; Nirmal, Anjali. Urban Terrorism: Myths and Realities. Shashi Jain for Pointer Publishers. p. 66. Retrieved 29 April 2013. * ^ Brannon Ingram (University of North Carolina), Sufis, Scholars and Scapegoats: Rashid Ahmad Gangohi and the Deobandi
Deobandi
Critique of Sufism, p 478. * ^ A B Ira M. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, p 626. ISBN 0521779332 * ^ The Six Great Ones at Darul Uloom Deoband * ^ A B C Abbas, Tahir (March 1, 2011). Islamic Radicalism and Multicultural Politics: The British Experience. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1136959602 . Retrieved 14 December 2015. * ^ A History of Pakistan
Pakistan
and Its Origins By Christophe Jaffrelot page 224 * ^ Indian Islam: Deobandi- Barelvi tension changing mainstream Islam
Islam
in India, US Mission in India, 2 February 2010 (published by Wikileaks); Irfan Al-Alawi, Muslims in India: Taking Back Islam
Islam
from the Wahhabis, Gatestone Institute, 30 April 2010. * ^ M. J. Gohari. The Taliban: Ascent to Power. Oxford University Press. p. 30. ISBN 0-19-579560-1 . * ^ Sharma, Sudhindra (2006). "Lived Islam
Islam
in Nepal". In Ahmad, Imtiaz; Reifeld, Helmut. Lived Islam
Islam
in South Asia: Adaptation, Accommodation, and Conflict. Berghahn Books. p. 114. ISBN 81-87358-15-7 . * ^ N. C. Asthana; Anjali Nirmal (2009). Urban Terrorism: Myths and Realities. Jaipur: Aavishkar Publishers. pp. 66–67. ISBN 978-81-7132-598-6 . * ^ Alam, Arshad (2015), " Islam
Islam
and religious pluralism in India", in Sonia Sikka, Living with Religious Diversity, Routledge, pp. 51–52, ISBN 978-1-317-37099-4 * ^ John Pike. " Barelvi Islam". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 29 April 2013. * ^ A B Sareen, Sushant (2005). The Jihad
Jihad
Factory: Pakistan\'s Islamic Revolution in the Making. New Delhi
New Delhi
: Har Anand Publications. p. 282. * ^ "Hardline takeover of British Masjid". The Times
The Times
. 7 September 2007. * ^ "Who runs our mosques?". The Spectator
The Spectator
. 14 June 2014. * ^ Martin Van Bruinessen, Julia Day Howell, Sufism and the 'Modern' in Islam, p 130, ISBN 1850438544 * ^ A B Spevack, Aaron (2014). The Archetypal Sunni
Sunni
Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of Al-Bajuri. State University of New York Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-4384-5370-5 . * ^ Metcalf, Barabara. "Traditionalist" Islamic Activism: Deoband, Tablighis, and Talibs. "These orientations --"Deobandi," "Barelvi" or "Ahl-i Hadith" -- would come to define sectarian divisions among Sunni Muslims of South Asian background to the present." * ^ Haque, Ziaul (1975). "Muslim Religious Education in Indo-Pakistan". Islamic Studies. Islamic Research Institute, International Islamic University, Islamabad. 14 (4): 284. The following books and subjects are studied ... Fiqh: Hidayah, Quduri, Nur al-Idah, Sharh-i Waqayah, Kanz al-Daqa'iq * ^ Metcalf, Barbara Daly (2002). Islamic revival in British India : Deoband, 1860-1900 (3rd impression. ed.). New Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 141. ISBN 0-19-566049-8 . * ^ Khan, Fareeha (2008). Traditionalist Approaches to Shari'ah Reform: Mawlana Ashraf ' Ali
Ali
Thanawi's Fatwa on Women's Right to Divorce (Doctoral Dissertation -- University of Michigan)format= requires url= (help ). p. 59. Polemicists from among the Ahl-i Hadith were especially being targeted in Thanawi's explanation, since they accused those who adhered to the rulings of one scholar or legal school of "blind imitation." It was the practice of the Ahl-i Hadith to demand and provide proofs for every argument and legal ruling. * ^ Zaman, Muhammad
Muhammad
Qasim (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton University Press. p. 24. The Deobandi sensitivity to the Ahl-i Hadith
Ahl-i Hadith
challenge is indicated by the polemics they engaged in with the Ahl-i Hadith
Ahl-i Hadith
and by the large commentaries on classical works of hadith written specifically to refute them * ^ Zaman, Muhammad
Muhammad
Qasim (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton University Press. p. 39. ...gave a new and, in the Indian context, unprecedented salience to the study of hadith in their madrasas. Hadith had, of course, been studied in precolonial Indian madrasas, but the Deobandis instituted the practice of studying (or, more exactly, “reviewing”) all six of the Sunni canonical collections of hadith in the course of a single year; this practice has come to serve in Indian and Pakistani madrasas as the capstone of a student’s advanced madrasa * ^ David Emmanuel Singh, Islamization in Modern South Asia: Deobandi
Deobandi
Reform and the Gujjar Response, p 167. * ^ A B ibnummabd on February 19, 2009 at 6:04 pm (2009-02-19). "About". Deoband.org. Retrieved 29 April 2013. * ^ Martin van Bruinessen, Stefano Allievi, Producing Islamic Knowledge: Transmission and Dissemination in Western Europe, p 100. ISBN 1136932860 * ^ Fatawa Rahimiyyah (Eng. Trans.), vol.1, p.58. * ^ The Deobandis are followers of Sufism ahya.org * ^ Traversing the path of Suluk January 26, 2012 * ^ Brannon Ingram (University of North Carolina), Sufis, Scholars and Scapegoats: Rashid Ahmad Gangohi and the Deobandi
Deobandi
Critique of Sufism, p 479. (http://www.academia.edu/282790/Sufis_Scholars_and_Scapegoats_Rashid_A%E1%B8%A5mad_Gangohi_D._1905_and_the_Deobandi_Critique_of_Sufism) * ^ "The Wahhabi (Arabia), Deobandi
Deobandi
( Pakistan
Pakistan
and India) and Jamaat-i-Islami all are anti-Sufi," Barelvi Islam globalsecurity.org * ^ Deoband hits back, rejects “baseless” charge of radicalizing Muslim youth twocircles.net 19 October 2011 * ^ "Naqshbandi, the major Sufi cult in Pakistan, consists mainly of the Deobandis."Where sufism stands August 1, 2010 * ^ http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/modi-govt-trying-to-divide-muslims-says-maulana-syed-arshad-madani/1/624728.html * ^ "Why did the Pak Maulana visit Deoband". Rediff India
India
Abroad. July 18, 2003. Retrieved 19 May 2012. * ^ Rashid, Haroon (2002-11-06). "Profile: Maulana Fazlur Rahman". BBC News. Retrieved 5 May 2010. * ^ John Pike. "Jamiat Ulema-e- Islam
Islam
/ Assembly of Islamic Clergy". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 11 December 2013. * ^ Ahmad, Syed N. Origins of Muslim consciousness in India: a world-system perspective. New York u.a: Greenwood Press, 1991. p. 175 * ^ Christophe Jaffrelot. A history of Pakistan
Pakistan
and its origins. Anthem Press, 2004. ISBN 1-84331-149-6 , ISBN 978-1-84331-149-2 * ^ Bahadur, Kalim (1998). Democracy in Pakistan: crises and conflicts. Har Anand Publications. p. 176. * ^ Burton, Fred; Stewart, Scott. "Tablighi Jamaat: An Indirect Line to Terrorism". Stratfor. Retrieved 1 September 2011. * ^ Roul, Animesh (2 June 2005). "Lashkar-e-Jhangvi: Sectarian Violence in Pakistan
Pakistan
and Ties to International Terrorism". Terrorism Monitor. Jamestown Foundation. 3 (11). Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2010. * ^ "Pakistani group joins US terror list". BBC News South Asia. 30 January 2003. Retrieved 30 January 2003. * ^ Ahmad, Tufail (21 March 2012). "Using Twitter, YouTube, Facebook and Other Internet Tools, Pakistani Terrorist Group Lashkar-e-Jhangvi Incites Violence against Shi\'ite Muslims and Engenders Antisemitism". The Middle East Media Research Insititue, memri.org. Retrieved 22 March 2012. * ^ "Pakistani Shi\'ites call off protests after Quetta bombing arrests". Reuters. 19 February 2013. * ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
Shias killed in Gilgit sectarian attack". BBC News. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2012. A predominantly Punjabi group, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi is linked with the 2002 murder of US reporter Daniel Pearl and other militant attacks, particularly in the southern city of Karachi. * ^ " Iran
Iran
condemns terrorist attacks in Pakistan". Tehran Times. 17 February 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013. * ^ "Analysis: Who are the Taleban?". BBC News. 2000-12-20. * ^ Abrams, Dennis (2007). Hamid Karzai. Infobase Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7910-9267-5 . As soon as it took power though, the Taliban
Taliban
imposed its strict interpretation of Islamic law on the country * ^ Skain, Rosemarie (2002). The women of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
under the Taliban. McFarland. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7864-1090-3 . * ^ Maley, William (2001). Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the Taliban. C Hurst & Co. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-85065-360-8 . * ^ Shaffer, Brenda (2006). The limits of culture: Islam
Islam
and foreign policy (illustrated ed.). MIT Press. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-262-69321-9 . The Taliban's mindset is, however, equally if not more deaned by Pashtunwali
Pashtunwali
* ^ James Gerstenzan; Lisa Getter (November 18, 2001). "Laura Bush Addresses State of Afghan Women". Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
. Retrieved 14 September 2012. * ^ "Women\'s Rights in the Taliban
Taliban
and Post- Taliban
Taliban
Eras". A Woman Among Warlords. PBS
PBS
. September 11, 2007. Retrieved 14 September 2012.

* ^ A B Bajoria, Jayshree (6 February 2008). "Pakistan\'s New Generation of Terrorists". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 30 March 2009. * ^ A B Abbas, Hassan (January 2008). "A Profile of Tehrik-I- Taliban
Taliban
Pakistan" (PDF). CTC Sentinel. West Point, NY: Combating Terrorism Center
Combating Terrorism Center
. 1 (2): 1–4. Retrieved 8 November 2008. * ^ A B Carlotta Gall , Ismail Khan, Pir Zubair Shah and Taimoor Shah (26 March 2009). "Pakistani and Afghan Taliban
Taliban
Unify in Face of U.S. Influx". New York Times. Retrieved 27 March 2009. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Shane, Scott (2009-10-22). "Insurgents Share a Name, but Pursue Different Goals". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 January 2011. * ^ A B B. Raman, "Musharraf\'s Ban: An Analysis", South Asia Analysis Group , Paper no. 395, 18 January 2002 * ^ A B "Pakistan: The Sipah-e-Sahaba (SSP), including its activities and status", Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, 26 July 2005 * ^ " Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan". * ^ "2009: Southern Punjab extremism battle between haves and have-nots". Dawn.com. Dawn Media Group. 2011-05-22. Retrieved 25 May 2011. * ^ Mahmood, Hamid (2012). The Dars-e-Nizami and the Transnational Traditionalist Madaris in Britain (PDF). pp. 7, 17. Retrieved 9 November 2013. In the UK the Dār al-‘Ulūm al-‘Arabiyyah al-Islāmiyyah (Bury madrasa) and Jāmi’at ta’līm al-Islām ( Dewsbury madrasa) are considered the ‘Oxbridge’ of the traditional madrasa world....The need for leadership and imams increased alongside the increasing number of Mosques and in 1975 the first madrasa was established in a village called Holcombe situated near Bury – known as Dār al-‘Ulūm Bury or Bury Madrasa. * ^ Mahmood, Hamid (2012). The Dars-e-Nizami and the Transnational Traditionalist Madaris in Britain (PDF). pp. 7, 17. Retrieved 9 November 2013. In the UK the Dār al-‘Ulūm al-‘Arabiyyah al-Islāmiyyah (Bury madrasa) and Jāmi’at ta’līm al-Islām ( Dewsbury madrasa) are considered the ‘Oxbridge’ of the traditional madrasa world...The second madrasa to be established was that of the Tablīghī Jamā’at called ‘Jāmi’at Ta’līm al-Islām ( Dewsbury Madrasa) in Dewsbury in 1981 * ^ "Home". Jamemasjid.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-03-12. * ^ "Home". Jameah.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-03-12. * ^ Mohamed, Yasien (2002). "Islamic Education in South Africa" (PDF). ISIM Newsletter. 9: 30. Retrieved 11 December 2013. opportunities for studies were created locally when in 1971 the first Darul-Ulum was established in Newcastle, Kwazulu Natal. This Darul-Ulum was based on the Darsi-Nizami course from Deoband, India. * ^ (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München : Waxmann. pp. 85, 91, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5 . The Islamic schools in Lenasia and Azaadville in South Africa represent prominent examples of schools that provide religious education in a format which is firmly rooted in traditions and interpretations of Islam
Islam
originating outside South Africa. Established by the Muslim minority community of the country, the schools follow the Deobandi
Deobandi
interpretation of Islam
Islam
from South Asia...Mawlana Ishaq following Hamid (sic) Akhtar from Karachi (see below) adheres to the Chishtiyya Sabiriyya Imdadiyya Ashrafiyya lineage, that puts special emphasis on the legacy of Muhammad
Muhammad
Ashraf Ali
Ali
Thanwi (1863-1943). CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Mohamed, Yasien (2002). "Islamic Education in South Africa" (PDF). ISIM Newsletter. 9: 30. Retrieved 11 December 2013. Less indigenous to South Africa and more in keeping with the Deobandi spirit is the Azaadville seminary, near Johannesburg, which teaches all subjects in Urdu. * ^ A B (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München : Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5 . It became clear through field research by the author that Deobandi
Deobandi
schools in several countries increasingly rely on graduates from Azaadville and Lenasia. The two schools and their graduates are functioning as network multiplicators between Deobandi
Deobandi
schools worldwide. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ A B (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München : Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5 . For the Tablighi Jama’at, the two schools are important switchboards for their preaching activities in South Africa, in Africa proper and around the world. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München : Waxmann. p. 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5 . Especially for teaching the Deobandi curriculum of the degree course to become a religious scholar (‘Alim) in the English-speaking world, books from Azaadville have become increasingly useful. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München : Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5 . The Islamic schools in Lenasia and Azaadville in South Africa represent prominent examples of schools that provide religious education in a format which is firmly rooted in traditions and interpretations of Islam
Islam
originating outside South Africa. Established by the Muslim minority community of the country, the schools follow the Deobandi
Deobandi
interpretation of Islam
Islam
from South Asia. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ A B S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 110. * ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 35–37. He began teaching the basic subjects and was regularly promoted until he became the head-teacher and the Shaykh al-Hadith. He served the Darul Uloom until 1914 (1333)...The Shaykh was very active politically as well. A movement known as Reshmi Roomal was formed in India
India
to remove the British. He played a major role in advancing this movement. * ^ Abu Ghuddah, Abd al-Fattah (1997). تراجم ستة من فقهاء العالم الإِسلامي في القرن الرابع عشر وآشارهم الفقهية (IN ARABIC). BEIRUT: DAR AL-BASHA\'IR AL-ISLAMIYYAH. P. 15. وكان أكبرُ كبارِها وشيخُ شيوخِها الشيخَ محمود حَسَن الدِّيْوْبَنْدي الملقَّبَ بشيخ العالَم، والمعروفَ بشيخ الهند، وكان في الحديث الشريفِ مُسنِدَ الوقتِ ورُحلةَ الأقطار الهندية. (TRANS. AND THE GREATEST OF ITS GREAT ONES, AND THE SHAYKH OF ITS SHAYKHS WAS SHAYKH MAHMUD HASAN AL-DEOBANDI, WHO IS ENTITLED (AL-MULAQQAB) SHAYKH AL-\'AALAM, AND POPULARLY KNOWN (AL-MA\'RUF BI) AS SHAYKH AL-HIND. IN REGARDS TO THE NOBLE HADITH, HE WAS THE AUTHORITY OF HIS TIME (MUSNID AL-WAQT), WHOM STUDENTS TRAVELED FROM ALL PARTS OF INDIA . * ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 215–216. After Shaykh al-Hind's demise, he was unanimously acknowledged as his successor. ..He was the President of the Jamiat Al-Ulama-Hind for about twenty years...He taught Sahih Al-Bukhari for about thirty years. During his deanship, the strength of the students academically impred...About 4483 students graduated and obtained a continuous chain of transmission (sanad) in Hadith during his period. * ^ Metcalf, Barbara Daly (1992). Perfecting women : Maulana Ashraf ọAlī Thanawi's Bihishti zewar : a partial translation with commentary. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 0-520-08093-9 . The Bihishti Zewar was written by Maulana Ashraf 'Ali Thanawi (1864-1943), a leader of the Deobandi
Deobandi
reform movement that crystallized in north India
India
in the late nineteenth century...Maulana Thanawi was an extraordinary successful exponent of reform. * ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 68–70. This great Hafiz of Hadith, excellent Hanafi
Hanafi
jurist, legist, historian, linguist, poet, researcher and critic, Muhammad
Muhammad
Anwar Shah Kashmiri...He went to the biggest Islamic University inIndia, the Darul Uloom al-Islamiyah in Deoband...He contributed greatly to the Hanafi
Hanafi
Madhab...He wrote many books, approximately 40...Many renowned and erudite scholars praised him and acknowledged his brilliance...Many accomplished scholars benefited from his vast knowledge. * ^ Reetz, Dietrich (2004). "Keeping Busy on the Path of Allah: The Self-Organisation (Intizam) of the Tablighi Jama'at". Oriente Moderno. 84 (1): 295–305. In recent years, the Islamic missionary movement of the Tablighi Jama'at has attracted increasing attention, not only in South Asia, but around the globe...The Tablighi movement came into being in 1926 when Muhammad
Muhammad
Ilyas (1885-1944) started preaching correct religious practices and observance of rituals...Starting with Ilyas' personal association with the Dar al-Ulum of Deoband, the movement has been supported by religious scholars, 'ulama', propagating the purist teachings of this seminary located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. * ^ Bashir, Aamir (2013). Shari\'at and Tariqat: A Study of the Deobandi
Deobandi
Understanding and Practice of Tasawwuf (PDF). Dar al-Sa'adah Publications. p. 117. Muhammad
Muhammad
Zakariyya can be termed as the "Reviver of Deobandi
Deobandi
tasawwuf." He is the last in the long line of prominent scholar Sufis who epitomized Deobandi
Deobandi
characteristics. * ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 167–170. He completed his formal education in 1907 (1325) with specialization in Hadith. Thereafter he taught for some time at the Dar al-Uloom Deoband...He supported the resolution for the independence of Pakistan
Pakistan
and assisted Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali Jinnah...He was given the task of hoisting the flag of Pakistan...Due to his tremendous effort, the first constitution of Pakistan
Pakistan
was based on the Quraan and Sunnah...Fath Al-Mulhim bi Sharh Sahih Muslim. Even though he passed away before being able to complete the book it was accepted and praised by many renowned scholars. These include Shaykh Muhammad
Muhammad
Zahid al-Kawthari and Shaykh Anwar Shah Kashmiri. * ^ Usmani, Muhammad
Muhammad
Taqi (December 2011). "Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Shafi‘: The Grand Mufti
Grand Mufti
Of Pakistan". Deoband.org. Translated by Rahman, Zameelur. Retrieved 6 November 2013. The scholar of great learning, Shaykh Mufti Muhammad
Muhammad
Shafi‘ (Allah Almighty have mercy on him), is counted amongst the leading ‘ulama of India
India
and Pakistan...He completed his studies in the year 1325 H, and because he was from the advanced students in the period of his studies, the teachers of the Dar al-‘Ulum selected him to become a teacher there...the teachers appointed him as the head of the Fatwa Department at Dar al-‘Ulum...Ma‘arif al-Qur’an. This is a valuable exegesis of the Noble Qur’an which Shaykh compiled in the Urdu language in 8 large volumes. * ^ "Mufti Taqi Usmani". Albalagh. Retrieved 6 November 2013. * ^ S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 89. Leading scholar for the Deobandis...Usmani is very important as a figurehead in the Deobandi
Deobandi
movement * ^ Rahman, Azizur-. (Translated by Muhammad
Muhammad
Shameem), ed. Introducing Darul-\'Uloom Karachi (PDF). Public Information Department: Darul Uloom Karachi. p. 21. * ^ S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 69. Leader of the Pakistan
Pakistan
chapter of the Tablighi Jamaat Hajji Abd al-Wahhab is a prominent Pakistani scholar with a significant following in South Asia and the United Kingdom...Abd al-Wahhab's work stems from the prominent Islamic institution Darul Uloom Deoband, in India, where the latter studied before establishing a following in Pakistan. * ^ S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 114. * ^ Islamic Academy of Manchester The Islamic Academy of Manchester * ^ Kamran, Mohammad (3 December 2003). "SC Shariat Bench to hear appeal on presidential remissions today". Daily Times. Pakistan. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2010. * ^ S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 134. He has been very effective in influencing all types of the communities ranging from businessmen and landlords to ministers and sports celebrities.

FURTHER READING

* Zaman, Muhammad
Muhammad
Qasim (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton University Press . ISBN 0-691-09680-5 . * Moj, Muhammad
Muhammad
(2015), The Deoband Madrassah Movement: Countercultural Trends and Tendencies, Anthem Press, ISBN 978-1-78308-389-3 * The Beliefs of Darul Uloom Deoband Scholars * Books on Deoband Scholars

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Deoband.org * Darul-ifta Deoband * Darul-uloom Deoband * The Jamaat Tableegh and the Deobandis: A Critical Analysis of their Beliefs, Books and Dawah by Sajid Abdul-Kayum

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