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Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.[1] Deductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning
goes in the same direction as that of the conditionals, and links premises with conclusions. If all premises are true, the terms are clear, and the rules of deductive logic are followed, then the conclusion reached is necessarily true. Deductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning
("top-down logic") contrasts with inductive reasoning ("bottom-up logic") in the following way; in deductive reasoning, a conclusion is reached reductively by applying general rules which hold over the entirety of a closed domain of discourse, narrowing the range under consideration until only the conclusion(s) is left. In inductive reasoning, the conclusion is reached by generalizing or extrapolating from specific cases to general rules, i.e., there is epistemic uncertainty. However, the inductive reasoning mentioned here is not the same as induction used in mathematical proofs – mathematical induction is actually a form of deductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning
differs from abductive reasoning by the direction of the reasoning relative to the conditionals. Deductive reasoning goes in the same direction as that of the conditionals, whereas abductive reasoning goes in the opposite direction to that of the conditionals.

Contents

1 Simple example 2 Reasoning
Reasoning
with modus ponens, modus tollens, and syllogism

2.1 Modus ponens 2.2 Modus tollens 2.3 Law of syllogism

3 Validity and soundness 4 History 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Simple example[edit] An example of an argument using deductive reasoning:

All men are mortal. (First premise) Socrates is a man. (Second premise) Therefore, Socrates is mortal. (Conclusion)

The first premise states that all objects classified as "men" have the attribute "mortal." The second premise states that "Socrates" is classified as a "man" – a member of the set "men." The conclusion then states that "Socrates" must be "mortal" because he inherits this attribute from his classification as a "man." Reasoning
Reasoning
with modus ponens, modus tollens, and syllogism[edit] Modus ponens[edit] Main article: Modus ponens Modus ponens (also known as "affirming the antecedent" or "the law of detachment") is the primary deductive rule of inference. It applies to arguments that have as first premise a conditional statement (

P → Q

displaystyle Prightarrow Q

) and as second premise the antecedent (

P

displaystyle P

) of the conditional statement. It obtains the consequent (

Q

displaystyle Q

) of the conditional statement as its conclusion. The argument form is listed below:

P → Q

displaystyle Prightarrow Q

  (First premise is a conditional statement)

P

displaystyle P

  (Second premise is the antecedent)

Q

displaystyle Q

  (Conclusion deduced is the consequent)

In this form of deductive reasoning, the consequent (

Q

displaystyle Q

) obtains as the conclusion from the premises of a conditional statement (

P → Q

displaystyle Prightarrow Q

) and its antecedent (

P

displaystyle P

). However, the antecedent (

P

displaystyle P

) cannot be similarly obtained as the conclusion from the premises of the conditional statement (

P → Q

displaystyle Prightarrow Q

) and the consequent (

Q

displaystyle Q

). Such an argument commits the logical fallacy of affirming the consequent. The following is an example of an argument using modus ponens:

If an angle satisfies 90° <

A

displaystyle A

< 180°, then

A

displaystyle A

is an obtuse angle.

A

displaystyle A

= 120°.

A

displaystyle A

is an obtuse angle.

Since the measurement of angle

A

displaystyle A

is greater than 90° and less than 180°, we can deduce from the conditional (if-then) statement that

A

displaystyle A

is an obtuse angle. However, if we are given that

A

displaystyle A

is an obtuse angle, we cannot deduce from the conditional statement that 90° <

A

displaystyle A

< 180°. It might be true that other angles outside this range are also obtuse. Modus tollens[edit] Main article: Modus tollens Modus tollens (also known as "the law of contrapositive") is a deductive rule of inference. It validates an argument that has as premises a conditional statement (

P → Q

displaystyle Prightarrow Q

) and the negation of the consequent (

¬ Q

displaystyle lnot Q

) and as conclusion the negation of the antecedent (

¬ P

displaystyle lnot P

). In contrast to modus ponens, reasoning with modus tollens goes in the opposite direction to that of the conditional. The general expression for modus tollens is the following:

P → Q

displaystyle Prightarrow Q

. (First premise is a conditional statement)

¬ Q

displaystyle lnot Q

. (Second premise is the negation of the consequent)

¬ P

displaystyle lnot P

. (Conclusion deduced is the negation of the antecedent)

The following is an example of an argument using modus tollens:

If it is raining, then there are clouds in the sky. There are no clouds in the sky. Thus, it is not raining.

Law of syllogism[edit] Main article: Syllogism The law of syllogism takes two conditional statements and forms a conclusion by combining the hypothesis of one statement with the conclusion of another. Here is the general form:

P → Q

displaystyle Prightarrow Q

Q → R

displaystyle Qrightarrow R

Therefore,

P → R

displaystyle Prightarrow R

.

The following is an example:

If Larry is sick, then he will be absent. If Larry is absent, then he will miss his classwork. Therefore, if Larry is sick, then he will miss his classwork.

We deduced the final statement by combining the hypothesis of the first statement with the conclusion of the second statement. We also allow that this could be a false statement. This is an example of the transitive property in mathematics. Another example is the transitive property of equality which can be stated in this form:

A = B

displaystyle A=B

.

B = C

displaystyle B=C

. Therefore,

A = C

displaystyle A=C

.

Validity and soundness[edit]

Argument
Argument
terminology

Deductive arguments are evaluated in terms of their validity and soundness. An argument is “valid” if it is impossible for its premises to be true while its conclusion is false. In other words, the conclusion must be true if the premises are true. An argument can be “valid” even if one or more of its premises are false. An argument is “sound” if it is valid and the premises are true. It is possible to have a deductive argument that is logically valid but is not sound. Fallacious arguments often take that form. The following is an example of an argument that is “valid”, but not “sound”:

Everyone who eats carrots is a quarterback. John eats carrots. Therefore, John is a quarterback.

The example’s first premise is false – there are people who eat carrots who are not quarterbacks – but the conclusion would necessarily be true, if the premises were true. In other words, it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false. Therefore, the argument is “valid”, but not “sound”. False generalizations – such as "Everyone who eats carrots is a quarterback" – are often used to make unsound arguments. The fact that there are some people who eat carrots but are not quarterbacks proves the flaw of the argument. In this example, the first statement uses categorical reasoning, saying that all carrot-eaters are definitely quarterbacks. This theory of deductive reasoning – also known as term logic – was developed by Aristotle, but was superseded by propositional (sentential) logic and predicate logic. Deductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning
can be contrasted with inductive reasoning, in regards to validity and soundness. In cases of inductive reasoning, even though the premises are true and the argument is “valid”, it is possible for the conclusion to be false (determined to be false with a counterexample or other means). History[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2015)

Aristotle
Aristotle
started documenting deductive reasoning in the 4th century BC.[2] See also[edit]

Logic
Logic
portal Web portal

Abductive reasoning Analogical reasoning Argument
Argument
(logic) Correspondence theory of truth Decision making Decision theory Defeasible reasoning Fallacy Fault Tree Analysis Geometry Hypothetico-deductive method Inference Inquiry Logic
Logic
and rationality Logical consequence Mathematical logic Natural deduction Peirce's theory of deductive reasoning Propositional calculus Retroductive reasoning Scientific method Subjective logic Theory of justification

References[edit]

^ Sternberg, R. J. (2009). Cognitive Psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. p. 578. ISBN 978-0-495-50629-4.  ^ Evans, Jonathan St. B. T.; Newstead, Stephen E.; Byrne, Ruth M. J., eds. (1993). Human Reasoning: The Psychology of Deduction (Reprint ed.). Psychology Press. p. 4. ISBN 9780863773136. Retrieved 2015-01-26. In one sense [...] one can see the psychology of deductive reasoning as being as old as the study of logic, which originated in the writings of Aristotle. 

Further reading[edit]

Vincent F. Hendricks, Thought 2 Talk: A Crash Course in Reflection and Expression, New York: Automatic Press / VIP, 2005, ISBN 87-991013-7-8 Philip Johnson-Laird, Ruth M. J. Byrne, Deduction, Psychology Press 1991, ISBN 978-0-86377-149-1 Zarefsky, David, Argumentation: The Study of Effective Reasoning
Reasoning
Parts I and II, The Teaching Company 2002 Bullemore, Thomas, * The Pragmatic Problem of Induction.

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Deductive reasoning

Look up deductive reasoning in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikiversity has learning resources about Deductive Logic

Deductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning
at PhilPapers Deductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning
at the Indiana Philosophy Ontology Project "Deductive reasoning". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 

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