A database model is a type of data model that determines the logical structure of a database and fundamentally determines in which manner data can be stored, organized and manipulated. The most popular example of a database model is the relational model, which uses a table-based format.


Common logical data models for databases include:

It is the oldest form of data base model. It was developed by IBM for IMS (information Management System). It is a set of organized data in tree structure. DB record is a tree consisting of many groups called segments. It uses one to many relationships. The data access is also predictable.

An object-relational database combines the two related structures.

Physical data models include:

Other models include:

Relationships and functions

A given database management system may provide one or more models. The optimal structure depends on the natural organization of the application's data, and on the application's requirements, which include transaction rate (speed), reliability, maintainability, scalability, and cost. Most database management systems are built around one particular data model, although it is possible for products to offer support for more than one model.

Various physical data models can implement any given logical model. Most database software will offer the user some level of control in tuning the physical implementation, since the choices that are made have a significant effect on performance.

A model is not just a way of structuring data: it also defines a set of operations that can be performed on the data.[1] The relational model, for example, defines operations such as select (project) and join. Although these operations may not be explicit in a particular query language, they provide the foundation on which a query language is built.

Flat model

Flat File Model