OriginsAccording to early Islamic books and Somali tradition, Aqeel Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib Al-Qurashi descendant Abdirahman bin Isma'il al-Jabarti (Darod), a son of the Sufism, Sufi Sheikh Isma'il al-Jabarti of the Qadiriyyah order, fled his homeland in the Arabian Peninsula after an argument with his uncle.Rima Berns McGown, ''Muslims in the diaspora'', (University of Toronto Press: 1999), pp.27-28 During the 10th or 11th century CE, Abdirahman is believed to have then settled in northern Somalia just across the Red Sea and married Dobira, the daughter of the Dir (clan), Dir clan chief. This union is said to have given rise to the Darod clan family. Thus, it established matrilateral ties with the Samaale main stem. According to the British anthropologist and Somali Studies veteran Ioan Lewis, the traditions of descent from noble Arab families related to the Muhammad, Prophet are most probably figurative expressions of the importance of Islam in Somali society. However, "there is a strong historically valid component in these legends which, in the case of the Darod, is confirmed in the current practice of a Dir representative officiating at the ceremony of installation of the chief of the Darod family." A similar clan mythology exists for the Ishaaq bin Ahmed, Sheikh Ishaq ibn Ahmad al-'Alawi, who are said to have descended from one Sheikh Ishaq ibn Ahmad al-'Alawi, another Banu Hashim who came to Somaliland around the same time.I.M. Lewis, ''A Modern History of the Somali'', fourth edition (Oxford: James Currey, 2002), p. 22 As with Sheikh Isaaq, there are also numerous existing Hagiography, hagiologies in Arabic which describe Sheikh Darod's travels, works and overall life in northern Somalia, as well as his movements in Arabia before his arrival. Besides historical sources such as Al-Masudi's ''Aqeeliyoon'', a modern ''manaaqib'' (a collection of glorious deeds) printed in Cairo in 1945 by Sheikh Ahmad bin Hussen bin Mahammad titled ''Manaaqib as-Sheikh Ismaa'iil bin Ibraahiim al-Jabarti'' also discusses Sheikh Darod and his proposed father Isma'il al-Jabarti, the latter of whom is reportedly buried in Bab Siham in the Zabid District of western Yemen.Lewis, ''A pastoral democracy'', p.131. Sheikh Darod's own tomb is in Haylaan, situated in the Sanaag region of Somaliland, and is the scene of frequent pilgrimages.Lewis, ''Peoples of the Horn of Africa'', p.18-19 Sheikh Isaaq is buried nearby in Maydh, as is Sheikh Harti, a descendant of Sheikh Darod and the progenitor of the Harti (Darod), Harti Darod sub-clan, whose tomb lies in the ancient town of Qa’ableh. Sheikh Darod's ''mawlid'' (birthday) is also celebrated every Friday with a public reading of his ''manaaqib''. The Darod were supporters of Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi during his 16th century Ethiopian-Adal War, conquest of Abyssinia; especially the Harti, Marehan and Bartire sub-clans, who fought at Battle of Shimbra Kure, Shimbra Kure, among other battles. In his medieval ''Futuh Al-Habash'' documenting this campaign, the chronicler Shihāb al-Dīn indicates that 300 Harti soldiers took part in Imam Ahmad's Adal Sultanate army. He describes them as "famous among the infantry as stolid swordsmen" and "a people not given to yielding".
LineageDarod is believed to be the son of the famous Arabian Sheikh, Ismail bin Ibrahim Al-Jabarti, who is buried in the Zabid District of Yemen who is believed to have descendant of Aqeel ibn Abi Talib who in turn hails from the Quraysh, a historically significant Arab tribe that the final prophet of Islam, Muhammed hails from. In 2009, former President of Somalia, Abdullahi Yusuf visited the grave of Ismail bin Ibrahim Al-Jabarti in Yemen According to many medieval and modern Islamic historians, Darod is descended from Aqeel ibn Abi Talib, the cousin of Muhammad and brother of Ali ibn Abi Talib. An ancient Islamic history book, called ''Aqeeliyoon'' by Al-Masudi, talks in detail about the descendants of Aqeel ibn Abi Talib, wherein Darod is also mentioned. The book gives Sheikh Darod's lineage as Abdirahmaan Bin Ismaa'iil Bin Ibraahim Bin Abdirahmaan Bin Muhammed Bin Abdi Samad Bin Hanbal Bin Mahdi Bin Ahmed Bin Abdalle Bin Muhammed Bin Aqail Bin Abu-Talib Bin Abdul-Mutalib Bin Hashim Bin Qusaya. According to ''Allaa'i Alsuniyah Fi Al-Aqab Al-Aqeeliyah'' (2006) by Ahmed bin Ali Al-Rajihi Al-Aqeeli, the lineage of Sheikh Darod/Da'ud is: "Da'ud ibn Ismail ibn Ibrahim ibn Abdulsamad ibn Ahmed ibn Abdallah ibn Ahmed Ibn Ismail ibn Ibrahim ibn Abdallah ibn Isma'il ibn Ali ibn Abdallah ibn Muhammad ibn Hamid ibn Abdallah ibn Ibrahim ibn Ali ibn Ahmed ibn Abdallah ibn Muslim ibn Abdallah ibn Muhammad ibn Aqeel ibn Abi-Talib Al-Hashimi Al-Qurashi". Al-Aqeeli adds that Sheikh Isma'il's sons include Abi-Bakar, Da'ud, Ahmad and Abdulsamad, whose other offspring inhabit the Hadhramaut and Al Mahrah Governorate, Mahra regions in Southern Arabia.
DistributionThe Darood are believed to be a large Somali clan both in terms of population size and land inhabitation. The Darood constitute a big presence in the Somali Region of Ethiopia and are also the largest Somali clan in North Eastern Province of Kenya. Within Somalia, the Darood are also one of the largest clans, with traditional strongholds in the north, modern day Puntland state which is dominated by the Harti subclan of Darood. In addition, the Marehan, Ogaden (clan), Ogaden, Jidwaaq, and Harti (Darod), Harti Darod members are also settled further down south in the Gedo region as well as the Middle Jubba and Lower Jubba regions of Somalia. The Darood in Somalia, roughly corresponds to the Darood's settled within the Jubbaland and Puntland states. In the Darood settle the eastern Sool, Sanaag regions and the Buhoodle District, Buhoodle district of Togdheer Major Darood Settlements within Somalia include Galkacyo, Kismaayo, Bosaso, and Garowe. Darood are also the largest clan in Jigjiga in Ethiopia, and Garissa in Northern Kenya.
NobilityThe Darod clan has produced numerous nobility, noble Somali men and women over the centuries, including many Sultans. Traditionally, the Darod population was mostly concentrated in the northern and northeastern cities on the Gulf of Aden and upper Indian Ocean coast in the . Darod noble men ruled these settlement pockets until the European colonial powers changed the political dynamics of Somalia during the late 19th century. Before many Darods began pushing southward in the mid-1850s, the Majeerteen Sultanate and Sultanate of Hobyo held steadfast in solidly established posts from Alula to Hobyo.
Clan treeThere is no clear agreement on the clan and sub-clan structures and many lineages are omitted. The following listing is based upon the World Bank's ''Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics'' from 2005 and the United Kingdom's Home Office publication, ''Somalia Assessment 2001''.Country Information and Policy Unit, Home Office, Great Britain, Somalia Assessment 2001, Annex B: Somali Clan Structure
Darod's tombDarod is buried in an old town called Haylaan near Badhan, Sanaag, Badhan in the north-eastern Sanaag region of Somalia. His wife Dobira is buried just outside the town. The surrounding buildings and the mosque near the tomb was built by the former president of Somalia Abdullahi Yusuf. Darod is believed to be the son of the famous Arabian Sheikh, Ismail bin Ibrahim Al-Jabarti, who is buried in the Zabid District of Yemen. Tradition holds that he is descended from the Banu Hashim. In 2009, former President of Somalia, Abdullahi Yusuf visited the grave of Ismail bin Ibrahim Al-Jabarti in Yemen Sheikh Darod's mawlid (birthday) is celebrated every Friday with a public reading of his manaqib and passages in the Quran.
Sons of Sheikh Darod Ismail*Ahmed bin Abdirahman: Sade Darood *Muhammad bin Abdirahman: Kablalax Darood *Hussien bin Abdirahman: Tanade Darod *Yousuf bin Abdirahman: Awrtable Darood *Eissa bin Abdirahman: Cisse Darood
Notable Darod people
Rulers*Garaad Wiil-Waal Airport, Garaad Wiil-Waal Liberated Jigjiga from the Oromo invaders in the 1700s *Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, Ogaden, the Sayyid; religious and nationalist leader of the Dervish State; called the ''Mad Mullah'' by the British *Nur ibn Mujahid, Marehan, second Conqueror of Ethiopia and the Patron Saint of Harar was one of rulers of parts of the Horn of Africa. *Ali Yusuf Kenadid, Majerteen, Last Sultan of the Sultanate of Hobyo *Mohamoud Ali Shire, Warsangeli, Sultan of former "British Somaliland" (1897–1960) *Siad Barre, Marehan, third President of Somalia, 1969–1991, Leader of the most successful part of Somalia's history *Ugas Yasin Ugas Abdurahman former ruler of Bosaso
Inventors and founders*Osman Yusuf Kenadid, Majerteen, Inventor of the Osmanya Script. *Shire Jama Ahmed, Marehan, inventor of the Somali script *Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf, Majeerteen, first President of Somali National Assembly; former Minister of Health and Labor of Somalia (1966–67)
Lawyers and legislators*Burale, Ahmed Sheikh Ali Ahmed, Marehan former President of Court of Appeal, Somali Democratic Republic. *Ahmed Hussen, Majeerteen, Minister of Immigration of Canada *Abdulqawi Yusuf, Majerteen, prominent Somali international lawyer and president on the International Court of Justice. *Ilhan Omar, Majerteen, Member of the Minnesota House of Representatives *Mohamud Ali Magan, Marehan, Somali Foreign Affairs, Consul General to Unites States Of America and Canada *Amina Mohamed, Dhulbahante, former Chairman of the International Organization for Migration and the World Trade Organisation's General Council *Yusuf Mohamed Ismail, Majeerteen, former Ambassador of Somalia to the United Nations Human Rights Office in Geneva
Writers and musicians
Military leaders and personnel*Abdulkadir Sheikh Dini, Marehan, Former minister of defence of Somalia *Abdullahi Anod, Marehan, Former Head Commander of Somali Military Forces *Mohammed Said Hersi Morgan, Majeerteen, Defense Minister Under The Siad Barre Government *Yusuf Osman Dhumal, Marehan, Former Head Commander of Somali Military Forces *Abdirizak Haji Hussein, Majeerteen, former Prime Minister of Somalia, and former Secretary General of the Somali Youth League. *Barre Adan Shire Hiiraale, Marehan, Former minister of defence of Somalia, Head Jubba Valley Alliance *Jama Ali Korshel, Warsangeli, Somali Army General, former Head of Somali Police and one of the leaders of 1969 coup d'état of Somalia *Ahmed Warsame, Marehan, Head of the Somali Military Academy. *Abdullahi Ahmed Jama, Warsangeli, Former Minister of Justice and 1977 Ogaden War Veteran *Mohamed Abshir Muse, Majerteen, First Commander of the Somali Police Force *Bashir Abdi Mohammed "Ameeriko", Majerteen, current Somali federal government police force commander
Politicians*Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed (Farmajo), Marehan, Current President of Somalia *Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, Majeerteen, former List of Presidents of Somalia, President of Somalia, First President and founding father of Puntland *Abdi Farah Shirdon, Marehan, former Prime Minister of Somalia *Hirsi Bulhan Farah Majeerteen, former Minister in the civilian government of the 1960s, political prisoner and Pan-Somalist. *Aden Ibrahim Aw Hirsi, Marehan, Author, Politician - Former minister of planning of Jubaland state of Somalia. *Abdirashid Ali Shermarke, Majeerteen, second President of Somalia, 1967–1969 *Mohamed Aden Sheikh, Marean premier Somali intellectual and former head of Somali Technological Development, Minister of Information, Minister of Education, Head of the Ideology Bureau SRRC *Omar Haji Massale, Marehan, Former minister of defence of Somalia *Abdiweli Mohamed Ali, Majeerteen Current President of Puntland *Abdi Shire Warsame, Marehan, former Somali Ambassador to Kenya and China and Former Foreign Affairs State minister in Transitional National Government *Ahmed Mohamed Islam(Axmed Madoobe), Ogaden, President of Jubbaland State of Somalia *Abdiwahid Gonjeh, Marehan, Formar Prime minister of Somalia, member of upper house *Ahmed Elmi Osman (Karaash), Dhulbahante, Minister of Interior of Puntland and former President of Khatumo State *Fatimo Isaak Bihi, Marehan, first Somali female ambassador, Ambassador to Geneva, Director of the African Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs *Abdi Mohamoud Omar, Ogaden, President of Somali region of Ethiopia *Abdulahi Sheik Ismael Fara-Tag, Member of sen of upper house *Abdihakim Abdullahi Haji Omar, Dhulbahante, Vice President of Puntland *Ahmed Mohamed Hassan, Marehan, Member of the Pan-African Parliament from Djibouti *Abdirahman Mohamud Farole, Majeerteen, Former President of Puntland *Abdirizak Haji Hussein, Majeerteen, former Prime Minister of Somalia, and former Secretary General of the Somali Youth League. *Abdirizak Jurile Dishiishe, Veteran politician, Diplomat & Professor. Former TFG minister of planning & International Cooperation, Former MP, former Executive director of numerous UN and International organisations, Senator *Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed, Marehan, Former Prime Minister of Somalia *Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, Majeerteen, Prime Minister of Somalia, and son of Abdirashid Ali Shermarke *Abdulkadir Abdi Hashi, Leelkase, State Minister of the Presidency for Planning and International Relations of Puntland *Farah Ali Jama, Majeerteen, former Minister of Finance of Puntland *Abdulahi Bille Nour, Dishiishe, Somali State Minister of Education, Cultural & Higher Education, One of Somali longest serving national MPs. *Abdulrahman Jama Barre, Marehan, former Foreign Minister of Somalia and close relative of Siad Barre *Shukran Hussein Gure, Ogaden, MP for Garissa County *Said Mohamed Rage, Dishiishe, Founder of Puntland Counter-piracy Agency and Puntland Minister of Ports, Marine Transportation and Marine Resource *Farah Maalim, Ogaden, Deputy Speaker in the Parliament of Kenya
Pilots*Asli Hassan Abade, Ogaden, First Ever African Female Military Pilot *Ali Matan Hashi, Marehan, first Somali pilot, commander of Somali Airforce 1959–1978, Minister of Justice, Minister of Health, Somali Nationalist.
Athletes*Abdi Bile, Dhulbahante, former middle-distance runner and 1500m world champion in 1987.
Other*Iman (model), Majeerteen, a supermodel, actress and entrepreneur *Fatima Jibrell, Dhulbahante, Somali-American environmentalist *Haji Mohamed Yasin Ismail, Majeerteen, entrepreneur and presidential candidate *Hirsi Magan Isse, Majeerteen, scholar and one of the leaders of the Somalian revolution *Nathif Jama Adam, Ogaden, Governor of Garissa County and former Head of the Sharjah Islamic Bank's Investments & International Banking Division
References*Hunt, John A. (1951).