The Republic of
Dagestan (Russian: Респу́блика
Дагеста́н), or simply
Dagestan (/ˌdæɡɪˈstæn/ or
/ˌdæɡɪˈstɑːn/; Russian: Дагеста́н), is a federal
subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the
North Caucasus region.
Its capital and largest city is Makhachkala, located at the center of
Dagestan on the
Caspian Sea coast. Its government was dissolved in a
major corruption investigation on 5 February 2018, and the region is
currently under the direct control of the Russian
With a population of 2,910,249,
Dagestan is very ethnically diverse
and Russia's most heterogeneous republic, with none of its several
dozen ethnicities and subgroups forming a majority. Largest among
these ethnicities are the Avar, Dargin, Kumyk, Lezgian, Laks,
Azerbaijani, Tabasaran, and Chechen. Ethnic
about 3.6% of Dagestan's total population. Russian is the primary
official language and the lingua franca among the ethnicities.
Dagestan has been a scene of Islamic insurgency, occasional outbreaks
of separatism, and ethnic tension since the 1990s. According to
International Crisis Group, the militant Islamist organization Shariat
Jamaat is responsible for much of the violence. Much of the
tension is rooted in an internal Islamic conflict between traditional
Sufi groups advocating secular government and more recently introduced
Salafist teachers preaching the implementation of a certain form of
Sharia in Dagestan.
1.1 Names for Dagestan
1.1.1 Official languages
1.1.2 Other non-official languages
2.4 Natural resources
3 Administrative divisions
4.1 Early 1st Millennium
4.2 Islamic Influence
4.3 Alternating Persian and Russian Rule
4.4 Russian Rule Consolidated
4.5 Risings against Imperial Russia
4.6 Soviet Era
4.7 Post-Soviet Era
6.1 Vital statistics
8 Dagestani conflict
9 Notable people
10 See also
13 Further reading
14 External links
Dagestan is of Turkish and Persian origin. Dağ means
'mountain' in Turkish and
-stan is a Persian suffix meaning 'land'.
Some areas of
Dagestan were known as Albania, Lezgistan, Avaria, and
Tarkov at various times.
Dagestan referred to
Dagestan Oblast during 1860 to 1920,
corresponding to the southeastern part of the present-day Republic.
The current borders were created with the establishment of the
Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1921, by the
inclusion of the eastern part of Terek Oblast, which is not
"mountainous" at all but includes the Terek littoral at the southern
end of the Caspian Depression.
Names for Dagestan
Russian – Респу́блика Дагеста́н (Respublika
Avar – Дагъистаналъул Жумгьурият
Dargin – Дагъистанес Республика (Daɣistanes
Kumyk – Дагъыстан Джумгьурият (Dağıstan
Lezgian – Республика Дагъустан (Respublika
Lak – Дагъустаннал Республика (Daɣustannal
Tabasaran – Дагъустан Республика (Daɣustan
Rutul – Республика Дагъустан (Respublika
Aghul – Республика Дагъустан (Respublika
Tsakhur – Республика Дагъустан (Respublika
Nogai – Дагыстан Республикасы (Dağıstan
Chechen – Деxастан пачхьалкъ (Dexastan Pačxalqʼ)
Azerbaijani – Дағыстан Республикасы (Dağıstan
Other non-official languages
Turkish – Dağıstan Cumhuriyeti
Arabic – جمهورية داغستان (Jumhūrīyat Dāghistān)
Persian – جمهوری داغستان (Jomhuriye Dâghestân)
Armenian – Դաղստանի Հանրապետություն
Georgian – დაღესტნის
რესპუბლიკა (Daghestnis Respublika)
Federal subjects in the Black Sea-Caspian area.
*Smaller areas along the north
Caucasus are the republics:
Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, North Ossetia-Alania,
Ingushetia, and Chechnya
*Yellow is the Southern Federal District and Pink is the North
Caucasus Federal District
The republic is situated in the
North Caucasus mountains. It is the
southernmost part of
Russia and is bordered on its eastern side by the
Area: 50,300 square kilometers (19,400 sq mi)
internal: Republic of
Chechen Republic (W), and
Stavropol Krai (NW)
Azerbaijan (S), Georgia (SW)
Caspian Sea (E)
Highest point: Mount Bazardüzü/Bazardyuzyu: 4,446 metres
Maximum north-south distance: 400 kilometers (250 mi)
Maximum east-west distance: 200 kilometers (120 mi)
Map of Dagestan.
There are over 1,800 rivers in the republic. Major rivers include:
Dagestan has about 405 kilometers (252 mi) of coastline on the
Most of the Republic is mountainous, with the Greater Caucasus
Mountains covering the south. The highest point is the
Bazardüzü/Bazardyuzyu peak at 4,470 meters (14,670 ft) on the
border with Azerbaijan. The southernmost point of
Russia is located
about seven kilometers southwest of the peak. Other important
Diklosmta (4,285 m (14,058 ft)), Gora Addala
Shukgelmezr (4,152 m (13,622 ft)) and Gora Dyultydag
(4,127 m (13,540 ft)).
Dagestan is rich in oil, natural gas, coal, and many other minerals.
The climate is hot and dry in the summer but the winters are harsh in
the mountain areas.
Average January temperature: +2 °C (36 °F)
Average July temperature: +26 °C (79 °F)
Average annual precipitation: 250 mm (10 in) (northern
plains) to 800 mm (31 in) (in the mountains).
Main article: Administrative divisions of Dagestan
Dagestan is administratively divided into forty-one districts (raions)
and ten cities/towns. The districts are further subdivided into
nineteen urban-type settlements, and 363 rural okrugs and stanitsa
Main article: History of Dagestan
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Map of the Caucasian isthmus. Designed and drawn by J. Grassl, 1856.
In the old town of Derbent, a World Heritage Site.
Early 1st Millennium
In the first few centuries AD,
Caucasian Albania (corresponding
Azerbaijan and southern Dagestan) became a vassal and
eventually subordinate to the Parthian Empire. With the advent of the
Sassanian Empire, it became a satrapy (province) within the vast
domains of the empire. In later antiquity, it was a few times fought
over by the
Roman Empire and the
Sassanid Persians as the former
sought to contest the latter's rule over the region, without success.
Over the centuries, to a relatively large extent, the peoples within
Dagestan territory converted to
Dagestan is renowned for the
Sassanid fortress, a UNESCO
world heritage site.
In the 5th century AD, the Sassanids gained the upper hand, and
by the 6th AD constructed a strong citadel at Derbent, known
henceforward as the Caspian Gates, while the northern part of Dagestan
was overrun by the Huns, followed by the Caucasian Avars. During the
Sassanian era, southern
Dagestan became a bastion of Iranian culture
and civilization, with its center at Derbent, and a policy of
"Persianisation" can be traced over many centuries.
In 664, the Persians were succeeded in
Derbent by the Arabs, who in
the 8th century repeatedly clashed with the Khazars. Although the
local population rose against the Arabs of
Derbent in 905 and 913,
Islam was eventually adopted in urban centers, such as Samandar and
Kubachi (Zerechgeran), from where it steadily penetrated into the
highlands. By the 15th century, Albanian
Christianity had died away,
leaving a 10th-century church at Datuna as the sole monument to its
Kaitag embroidered textile, early 19th century, from southwest
Alternating Persian and Russian Rule
As Mongolian authority gradually eroded, new centers of power emerged
in Kaitagi and Tarki. In the early 16th century, the Persians (under
the Safavids) reconsolidated their rule over the region, which would,
intermittently, last till the early 19th century. In the 16th and 17th
centuries, legal traditions were codified and mountainous communities
(djamaats) obtained a considerable degree of autonomy.
Russians intensified their hold in the region for the first time
in the 18th century, when
Peter the Great
Peter the Great annexed maritime Dagestan
Safavid Persia in the course of the Russo-Persian War
(1722–23). The territories were however returned to Persia in 1735
per the Treaty of Ganja.
Between 1730 and the early course of the 1740s, following his
brother's murder in Dagestan, the new Iranian ruler and military
Nader Shah led a lengthy campaign in swaths of
order to fully conquer the region, which was met with considerable
success, although he was eventually inflicted several decisive defeats
by various of the ethnic groups of Dagestan, forcing him to retreat
with his army. From 1747 onwards, the Iranian-ruled part of Dagestan
was administered through the
Derbent Khanate, with its center at
Persian Expedition of 1796 resulted in the Russian
Derbent in 1796. However, the
Russians were again forced to
retreat from the entire
Caucasus following internal governmental
problems, allowing Iran to capture the territory again.
Russian Rule Consolidated
In 1806 the khanate voluntarily submitted to Russian
authority, but it was not until the aftermath of the
Russo-Persian War (1804-1813)
Russo-Persian War (1804-1813) that Russian power over
confirmed, and that
Qajar Iran officially ceded the territory to
Russia. In 1813, following Russia's victory in the war, Iran was
forced to cede southern
Dagestan with its principal city of Derbent,
alongside other vast territories in the
Caucasus to Russia, conforming
with the Treaty of Gulistan. The 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay
indefinitely consolidated Russian control over
Dagestan and removed
Iran from the military equation.
Risings against Imperial Russia
The Russian administration, however, disappointed and embittered the
highlanders. The institution of heavy taxation, coupled with the
expropriation of estates and the construction of fortresses (including
Makhachkala), electrified highlanders into rising under the aegis of
the Muslim Imamate of Dagestan, led by
Ghazi Mohammed (1828–32),
Gamzat-bek (1832–34) and Shamil (1834–59). This Caucasian War
raged until 1864.
Dagestani man, photographed by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, circa 1907 to
Chechnya profited from the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78),
to rise together against Imperial
Russia for the last time (Chechnya
rose again at various times throughout the late 19th and 20th
On 21 December 1917 Ingushetia, Chechnya, and
Russia and formed a single state called the "United
Mountain Dwellers of the North Caucasus" (also known as the
Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus) which was recognized by
major world powers. The capital of the new state was moved to
Temir-Khan-Shura (Dagestan). The first prime minister of
the state was Tapa Chermoyev, a prominent Chechen statesman. The
second prime minister was an Ingush statesman Vassan-Girey Dzhabagiev,
who in 1917 also became the author of the constitution of the land,
and in 1920 was reelected for a third term. In 1921,
and occupied the country and forcefully joined it to the Soviet state.
The Caucasian war for independence continued but the government went
into exile. After the Bolshevik Revolution, Ottoman armies
Dagestan and the region became part of the
short-lived Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus. After more
than three years of fighting the
White movement and local
nationalists, the Bolsheviks achieved victory and the Dagestan
Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed on January 20,
1921. Nevertheless, Stalin's industrialization largely bypassed
Dagestan and the economy stagnated, making the republic the poorest
region in Russia.
In 1999, an Islamist group from Chechnya, led by
Shamil Basayev and
Ibn Al-Khattab, launched a military invasion of Dagestan, with the aim
of creating an "independent Islamic State of Dagestan". The invaders
were driven back by the Russian military. As a retaliation, Russian
forces subsequently reinvaded
Chechnya later that year.[citation
needed] Violence in the Republic exploded from the beginning of 2010
to the end of 2012. This upsurge led many people to claim that
Dagestan was about to enter into a situation of sectarian civil
Dagestan became the epicenter of violence in the North
Caucasus with Makhachkala, Kaspiisk, Derbent, Khasavyurt, Kizlyar,
Sergokala, Untsukul, and Tsumada all becoming hotbeds of militant
The Government building of the Republic of Dagestan.
Dagestan is the People's Assembly, consisting of
72 deputies elected for a four-year term. The People's Assembly
is the highest executive and legislative body of the republic.
The Constitution of
Dagestan was adopted on July 10, 2003. According
to it, the highest executive authority lies with the State Council,
comprising representatives of fourteen ethnicities. The members of the
State Council are appointed by the Constitutional Assembly of Dagestan
for a term of four years. The State Council appoints the members of
The ethnicities represented in the State Council are Avars, Dargins,
Kumyks, Lezgins, Laks, Azerbaijanis, Tabasarans, Russians, Chechens,
Nogais, Aguls, Rutuls, Tsakhurs, and Tats.
Formerly, the Chairman of the State Council was the highest executive
post in the republic, held by Magomedali Magomedovich Magomedov until
2006. On February 20, 2006, the People's Assembly passed a resolution
terminating this post and disbanding the State Council. Russian
Vladimir Putin offered the People's Assembly the candidature
Mukhu Aliyev for the newly established post of the President of the
Republic of Dagestan. The nomination was accepted by the People's
Mukhu Aliyev became the first President of the republic.
On 20 February 2010 Aliyev was replaced by Magomedsalam Magomedov. The
current Head of the republic is
Ramazan Abdulatipov (acting until
2013, following the resignation of Magomedov).
A couple in traditional dress poses for a portrait in Dagestan.
Photographed by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, circa 1907 to 1915.
Ethnolinguistic groups in the
Dagestani man and woman, April 1904.
Because its mountainous terrain impedes travel and communication,
Dagestan is unusually ethnically diverse, and still largely tribal. It
is Russia's most heterogeneous republic. Dagestan's population is
Population: 2,910,249 (2010 Census); 2,576,531 (2002
Census); 1,802,579 (1989 Census).
Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Average population (x 1000)
Crude birth rate (per 1000)
Crude death rate (per 1000)
Natural change (per 1000)
The people of
Dagestan include a large variety of ethnicities.
According to the 2010 Census, Northeast Caucasians (including
Avars, Dargins, Lezgins, Laks, Tabasarans, and Chechens) make up
almost 75% of the population of Dagestan. Turkic peoples, Kumyks,
Nogais make up 21%, and
Russians 3.6%. Other
ethnicities (e.g. Tats) each account for less than 0.4% of the total
It should be noted that such groups as the Botlikh, the Andi, the
Akhvakhs, the Tsez and about ten other groups were reclassified as
Avars between the 1926 and 1939 censuses.
1 18,430 people were registered from administrative databases, and
could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of
ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared
The indigenous ethnicities of
Dagestan are in bold.
There are also 40 or so tiny groups such as the Hinukh, numbering 439,
or the Akhvakhs, who are members of a complex family of indigenous
Caucasians. Notable are also the Hunzib or Khunzal people who live in
only four towns in the interior.
More than 30 local languages are commonly spoken, most belonging to
the Northeast Caucasian language family. Russian became the principal
lingua franca in
Dagestan during the 20th century; prior to that,
beginning in the 18th century, it had been Classical Arabic. The
northern Avar dialect of
Khunzakh has also served as a lingua franca
in central Dagestan. Over 20 of Russia's 131 endangered languages
as identified by
UNESCO can be found in Dagestan. Most of these
endangered languages have Dagestani speakers in the mountainous region
on the Dagestan-Georgia border.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (October
Dagestan as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)
"Spiritual but not religious"
Rodnovery and other native faiths
Atheism and irreligion
Other and undeclared
Makhachkala Grand Mosque.
Islamic school in Sasitli village.
Znamensky Cathedral in Khasavyurt.
According to a 2012 survey 83% of the population of Dagestan
adheres to Islam, 2.4% to the Russian Orthodox Church, 2% to Caucasian
folk religion and other native faiths, 1% are non-denominational
Christians. In addition, 9% of the population declares to be
"spiritual but not religious", 2% is atheist and 0.6% follows other
religions or did not answer the question.
Dagestanis are largely
Sunni Muslims, of the
Shafii rites, that has
been in place for centuries. On the Caspian coast, particularly in and
around the port city of Derbent, the population (primarily made up of
Azerbaijanis) is Shia. There is also a
Salafi population, which is
often a target of official repression.
A relatively large number of native Tati speaking Jews, designated by
the Soviet state censuses as the "Mountain Jews" were also present in
this same coastal areas, but since 1991 and the collapse of the Soviet
Union they have migrated to
Israel and the United States. These were
an extension of much larger Jewish community across the border in
Azerbaijan (districts of
Quba and Shamakhi).
The appearance of
Sufi mysticism in
Dagestan dates back to the 14th
century. The two
Sufi tariqas that spread in the
North Caucasus were
Naqshbandiya and the Qadiriya. The mystic Tariqas preached
tolerance and coexistence between the diverse people in the region.
The Communist total intolerance for any religion after the Communist
Revolution of 1917 also suppressed the
Sufi movements. Shaykh Said
Afandi al-Chirkawi was a prominent scholar, spiritual leader and
Shadhili tariqahs in
Dagestan until his
The number of Christians among the non-Slavic indigenous population is
very low, with estimates between 2,000 and 2,500. Most of these are
Pentecostal Christians from the Lak ethnicity. The largest
congregation is Osanna Evangelical
Christian Church (Pentecostal) in
Makhachkala, with more than 1,000 members.
The major industries in
Dagestan include oil production, engineering,
chemicals, machine building, textile manufacturing, food processing,
and the timber.
Oil deposits are located in the narrow coastal region.
The Dagestani oil is of high quality and is delivered to other
regions. Dagestan's natural gas production goes mostly to satisfy
Agriculture is varied and includes grain-farming,
viticulture and wine-making, sheep-farming, and dairying. The
engineering and metalworking industries own 20% of the republic's
industrial production assets and employ 25% of all industrial workers.
Dagestan's hydroelectric power industry is developing rapidly. There
are five power plants on the
Sulak River providing hydroelectric
power. It has been estimated that Dagestan's total potential
hydroelectric power resources are 4.4 billion kW.
Dagestan has a
well-developed transportation system. Railways connect the capital
Makhachkala to Moscow, Astrakhan, and the Azerbaijani capital, Baku.
Baku highway also passes through Dagestan, and there are
air links with major cities.
Conditions for economic development are favorable in Dagestan, but –
as of 2006[update] – the republic's low starting level for a
successful transition to market relations, in addition to rampant
corruption, has made the region highly dependent on its underground
economy and the subsidies coming from the central Russian
government. Corruption in
Dagestan is more severe than in
other regions of the former
Soviet Union and is coupled with a
flourishing black market and clan-based economic system.
Rostelecom started implementation of WDM-based equipment on
the backbone network for data transmission in the Republic of
Dagestan. Due to WDM introduction, the fiber-optic communication lines
bandwidth increased to 2.5 Gbit/s.
Rostelecom invested about 48
million rubles in the project.
Main article: Insurgency in the North Caucasus
A border guard outpost.
Dagestan has been the venue of a low-level guerrilla war,
bleeding over from Chechnya; the fighting has claimed the lives of
hundreds of federal servicemen and officials—mostly members of local
police forces—as well as many Dagestani national rebels and
More recently, among other incidents:
On May 15, 2008, two MVD officers were killed and one police officer
heavily wounded during an ambush on their vehicle in Gubden.
On September 8, 2008, Abdul Madzhid and several rebels were killed in
an ambush by Russian special forces.
On October 21, 2008, rebels ambushed a Russian military truck, killing
five soldiers and wounding nine others.
On January 6, 2010, a suicide bomber attempted to blow up a police
station in Makhachkala, killing six officers and wounding 14 others.
On March 31, 2010, 12 people were killed and 18 wounded by two suicide
bombings in the town of
Kizlyar outside the offices of the local
interior ministry and the FSB security agency. The second bomb went
off twenty minutes after the first, as a crowd had gathered. In the
early hours of the next morning, two people died as a bomb went off in
their car, apparently prematurely, near the village of Toturbiikala.
On July 15, 2010,
Pastor Artur Suleimanov, a Muslim convert to
Christianity, was murdered by a gunman. The pastor was killed in his
car as he was leaving the Hosanna House of Prayer in Makhachkala,
according to a religious persecution watchdog group, Voice of the
Pastor Suleimanov's church is one of the largest
Protestant churches in Dagestan. Christians in the Russian Republic of
Dagestan, which borders Chechnya, face harassment and intimidation
from various groups.
Pastor Suleimanov's life had been threatened on
several previous occasions.
On September 23, 2011, Magomed Murtuzaliyev, a high-level law
enforcement official, was shot and killed by gunmen.
On September 28, 2011, seven civilians and a police officer were
killed by a car bomb in the village of Hajjalmakhi.
On May 4, 2012, 12 people were killed in two separate explosions on
the outskirts of Makhachkala.
On August 28, 2012, Sheikh Said Afandi, an influential 75-year-old
Sufi cleric, was killed along with six others in a suicide bombing.
Sufi Muslim, opposed violent jihad in Dagestan.
Adam Amirilayev, politician.
Abdulkhakim Ismailov (1916–2010), World War II soldier.
Abdulrashid Sadulaev – a two time World Champion (2014, 2015),
European Champion (2014), European Games Champion (2015), two time
Cadet World Champion (2012, 2013), Golden Grand-Prix Champion, Olympic
Gold Medalist (2016).
Abdusalam Gadisov – Freestyle
Wrestling World Champion.
Adam Saitiev (December 12, 1977, Khasavyurt,
Dagestan ASSR) –
Russia's freestyle wrestler, a Chechen, Russian Master of sports of
international class, Honored Master of Sports of
three-time champion of
Russia (1999, 2000, 2002), three-time champion
Europe (1999, 2000, 2006), two-time world champion (1999, 2002),
Olympic champion (2000).
Ali Aliyev (wrestler)
Ali Aliyev (wrestler) - Avar Dagestani-born
Soviet Union freestyle
wrestler. He won five world titles.
Ali Bagautinov – UFC fighter in the flyweight division. Combat Sambo
Bekkhan Goygereyev - wrestler who won the gold medal at the 2013 World
Buvaisar Saitiev (b. March 11, 1975 in Khasavyurt,
Dagestan ASSR) –
Russia's freestyle wrestler, three-time Olympic champion, six-time
world champion, six-time European champion, five-time Russian
champion, seven-time winner of the tournament Krasnoyarsk Ivan Yarygin
winner Goodwill Games will. Honored Master of Sports of
Dzhabar Askerov - He is the World Muay Thai Council's Muay Thai
Welterweight European Champion and K-1 MAX Scandinavia 2008 Tournament
Dzhamal Otarsultanov -won the gold medal in men's freestyle 55 kg at
the 2012 London Olympics.
Eduard Puterbrot (1940–1993) –
Dagestan artist and member of the
USSR Union of Artists.
Gasret Aliev - Hero of Soviet Union.
Gaydarbek Gaydarbekov - boxer of Avar heritage, who has won two
Olympic medals in
Middleweight including the gold medal at the 2004
Hizgil Avshalumov (1913–2001) – Soviet novelist, poet, playwright.
Wrote in Mountain
Jews (Juhuri) and Russian languages.
Israel Tsvaygenbaum (b. 1961) – Russian-American artist.
Khabib Nurmagomedov – UFC fighter in the lightweight division and
the #1 Lightweight contender.
Khadzhimurad Magomedov - Olympic gold medalist and two time world
Kuramagomed Kuramagomedov (b. 1978), freestyle wrestler who competed
Russia in the 2000 Summer Olympics, and won a world title in 1997.
Magomed Ibragimhalilovich Ibragimov -He competed in the freestyle 85
kg competition at the
2000 Summer Olympics
2000 Summer Olympics and won the bronze medal.
Mansur Isaev - In 2012, he won the gold medal in judo at the 2012
Makhach Murtazaliev - Avar born-Russian Olympic wrestler who won the
bronze medal for
Russia at the
2004 Summer Olympics
2004 Summer Olympics in Athens.
Magomed Abdusalamov - is a Russian former heavyweight professional
boxer who competed from 2008 to 2013.
Magomedrasul Gazimagomedov - He won gold medal at the 2015 World
Wrestling Championships at Men's freestyle 70 kg.
Magomedkhan Aratsilov - former wrestler who competed in the 1980
Magomed Kurbanaliev - Avar Dagestani-born Russian freestyle wrestler.
World freestyle wrestling champion 2016 in 70 kg.
Magomed Magomedov - the professional WMC and IMF[clarification needed]
Light Heavyweight World Muay Thai Champion.
Magomedrasul Khasbulaev - (Frodo khasbulaev) mixed martial artist of
Avar heritage at one time fought in the Featherweight division for the
Bellator Fighting Championships.
Mavlet Batirov - Avar descent freestyle wrestler, world and 2-time
Olympic champion, who competed in the men's freestyle 55 kg category
2004 Summer Olympics
2004 Summer Olympics and won the gold medal.
Michail Borisovich Dadashev - (born 1936) Jewish writer and poet,
honored economist of the Republic of Dagestan. For 20 years worked as
the head of the Tax division in Derbent.
Murad Umakhanov -Umakhanov competed at the
2000 Summer Olympics
2000 Summer Olympics in
Sydney where he received a gold medal in Freestyle wrestling.
Mushail Mushailov (1941–2007) – a painter, a member of the USSR
Union of Artists and Israel.
Muslim Salikhov - The only non Chinese "King of sanda". Muslim
Salikhov is often acknowledged as one of the best Wushu Sanda
competitors in history.
Nurmagomed Shanavazov - Shanavazov won the
Light Heavyweight Silver
medal at the
1988 Summer Olympics
1988 Summer Olympics for the Soviet Union.
Ramazan Şahin - Olympic Gold Medalist (2008), World Champion (2007)
in Freestyle wrestling.
Rashid Magomedov - UFC fighter in the lightweight division.
Ruslan Magomedov - UFC fighter in the heavyweight division.
Rasul Gamzatov (1923–2003) – Avar poet, writer, political
Rustam Khabilov – UFC fighter in the lightweight division. Combat
Sambo World Champion.
Sagid Murtazaliev - two time World champion,
Olympic champion in
Saypulla Absaidov -
Olympic champion and World Champion 1981 in
Sazhid Sazhidov - is an Avar Dagestani-born Russian Olympic wrestler
Russia at the world-level from 2003 to 2006. He won
the bronze medal at the 2004
Shamil Zavurov - Combat Sambo World champion (3 time).
Shirvani Muradov - wrestler, who has won a gold medal at the 2008
Summer Olympics and European champion 2007.
Sergey Izgiyayev (1922–1972) –
Mountain Jew Soviet poet,
playwright and translator.
Suleyman Kerimov - businessman, investor, philanthropist and
politician. Featured on Forbes list as one of the richest people in
Russia. Founded the
Suleyman Kerimov Foundation as a vehicle for his
Sultan Ibragimov- professional boxer held the WBO heavyweight title
from 2007 to 2008. As an amateur he won silver medals at the 2000
Olympics and 2000 European Championships, and bronze at the 2001 World
Championships, all in the heavyweight division.
Tagir Khaybulaev - Judoka of Avar descent. In the 2012 Summer
Olympics, Khaybulaev won a gold medal.
Tamara Musakhanova (1928–2014) – a sculptor and ceramist, a member
USSR Union of Artists and Israel.
Tankho Israelov (1917–1981) – ballet dancer, choreographer,
Artist of the USSR (1978).
Vazif Meylanov (1940–2015) – Soviet dissident and political
prisoner, political activist.
Yagutil Mishiev (b. 1927) – Honored Teacher of the Republic of
Dagestan and the Russian Federation, publicist, author of books about
the history of Derbent.
Former countries in Europe after 1815
Insurgency in the North Caucasus
List of clashes in the North Caucasus
Music of Dagestan
^ Президент Российской
Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая
2000 г. «О полномочном представителе
Президента Российской Федерации в
федеральном округе». Вступил в
силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован:
"Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст.
2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian
Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the
Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian
Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
^ Госстандарт Российской
Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995
г. «Общероссийский классификатор
2. Экономические районы», в ред.
Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (
Gosstandart of the Russian
Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian
Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as
amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
^ Всероссийский Центральный
Комитет. Декрет от 20 января 1921
г. «Об Автономной Дагестанской
Республике». (All-Russian Central Executive
Committee. Decree of January 20, 1921 On Autonomous
Dagestan Socialist Soviet Republic. ).
^ a b Constitution, Article 8
^ Федеральная служба государственной
статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21).
"Территория, число районов, населённых
пунктов и сельских администраций по
субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory,
Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by
Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)".
Всероссийская перепись населения 2002
Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal
State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
^ a b c d
Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011).
"Всероссийская перепись населения 2010
года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census,
vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись
населения 2010 года (2010 All-
Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June
^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported
by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note
that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the
infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the
^ Правительство Российской
закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об
исчислении времени», в ред.
Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03
июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в
Федеральный закон "Об исчислении
времени"». Вступил в силу по
истечении шестидесяти дней после дня
официального опубликования (6 августа
2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская
газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian
Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31,
2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ
of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating
Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the
^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to
Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
^ According to Article 11 of the Constitution of Dagestan, the
official languages of the republic include "Russian and the languages
of the peoples of Dagestan"
^ Solntsev et al., pp. XXXIX–XL
Russia Today - "
Dagestan government dissolved amid major corruption
^ http://tass.com/politics/988511 "High-ranking Dagestani officials
detained on fraud charges" - Tass Russian News Agency
"Golden Pistol Seized in Anti-Corruption Raid on Dagestani Prime
Minister" - The
^ https://lenta.ru/articles/2018/02/06/dagestan/ "They held Dagestan
for decades. Now they have questions." - Lenta
^ Dagestan. Most inhabitants speak Caucasian and Turkic languages. In
terms of religion, however,
Dagestan is homogeneously Muslim.
Encyclopædia Britannica (Online edition)
^ Heinrich, Hans-Georg; Lobova, Ludmila; Malashenko, Alexei (2011).
Russia Become a Muslim Society?. Peter Lang. p. 46.
ISBN 3631609132. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
^ Dalby, Andrew (2004). Dictionary of Languages: The Definitive
Reference to More Than 400 Languages. Columbia University Press.
p. 59. ISBN 0231115695. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
^ a b Russia’s Dagestan: Conflict Causes Archived March 28, 2014, at
the Wayback Machine..
International Crisis Group
International Crisis Group Europe Report N°192.
3 June 2008. Access date: 07 April 2014.
^ Zonn, Igor S.; et al. The
Caspian Sea Encyclopedia. Berlin:
Springer. p. 280.
^ Michael Khodarkovsky. "Bitter Choices: Loyalty and Betrayal in the
Russian Conquest of the North Caucasus" Cornell University Press, 12
mrt. 2015. ISBN 0801462908 pp 47-52
^ "DAGESTAN". Retrieved 11 June 2015.
^ Timothy C. Dowling
Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to
Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond pp 728-730 ABC-CLIO, 2 dec. 2014
^ Aksan, Virginia. (2014). Ottoman Wars, 1700-1870: An Empire Besieged
page 463. Routledge. ISBN 978-1317884033
^ Russian Civil War Polities
^ Общественное движение ЧЕЧЕНСКИЙ
КОМИТЕТ НАЦИОНАЛЬНОГО СПАСЕНИЯ Archived
February 23, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Вассан-Гирей Джабагиев Archived February 21,
2014, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Nick Paton Walsh, “
Dagestan Edged Closer to Civil War” The
^ "Putin replaces head of South Russian republic of Dagestan". RT.
January 28, 2013. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
^ Ware, Robert Bruce (29 Mar 2008). "Islamic Resistance and Political
Hegemony in Dagestan". Retrieved 28 May 2014.
Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004).
"Численность населения России,
субъектов Российской Федерации в
составе федеральных округов, районов,
городских поселений, сельских
населённых пунктов – районных
центров и сельских населённых пунктов
с населением 3 тысячи и более
человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal
Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural
Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with
Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская
перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia
Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9,
^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись
населения 1989 г. Численность
наличного населения союзных и
автономных республик, автономных
областей и округов, краёв, областей,
районов, городских поселений и
сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989:
Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous
Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and
Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers].
Всесоюзная перепись населения
1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian).
Институт демографии Национального
Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at
the National Research University: Higher School of Economics].
Retrieved August 9, 2014.
^ Wixman, Ronald (1984). "The Peoples of the USSR: An Ethnographic
Handbook". Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc: 11.
^ Перепись-2010: русских становится
больше (in Russian). Perepis-2010.ru. 2011-12-19. Retrieved
^ Beliaev, Edward; Oksana Buranbaeva (2006). Dagestan. New York:
Marshall Cavendish Benchmark. p. 89. ISBN 0761420150.
^ Kemper, Michael (2011). "An Island of
Classical Arabic in the
Caucasus: Dagestan". In Françoise Companjen; László Károly
Marácz; Lia Versteegh. Exploring the
Caucasus in the 21st Century:
Essays on Culture, History and Politics in a Dynamic Context.
Amsterdam: Pallas Publications. pp. 63–90.
ISBN 9789089641830. Retrieved 2013-04-04.
^ Comrie, Bernard (1981). The Languages of the Soviet Union.
Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 199.
ISBN 0521232309. Retrieved 2013-04-04.
^ Moseley, Christopher (2010). "
UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the
World's Languages in Danger". United Nations Education, Scientific,
and Cultural Organization. UNESCO. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia".
^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012.
Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
^ Russia’s crackdown on Salafis may be breeding extremism
Jews at World Culture Encyclopedia
^ "Biography of Shaykh Said Afandi al-Chirkawi". Islamdag.info. July
22, 2011. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
^ "Slavic Center for Law & Justice". SCLJ. Retrieved January 15,
^ Magomed Gasanov (2001). "On
Christianity in Dagestan". Iran &
the Caucasus. 5: 79–84. JSTOR 4030847.
^  Archived August 11, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
Dagestan Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2008. Archived
^ a b
Dagestan Republic Archived September 6, 2009, at the Wayback
Machine. Kommersant 2004-03-10
^ Dagestan’s Economic Crisis: Past, Present and Future North
Caucasus Weekly 2006-12-31
^ "The Voice of the Martyrs' Be-A-Voice Network". Be-a-voice.net.
^ "Russia: Official Killed in Dagestan". The New York Times. September
^ "BBC News –
Russia blasts: At least 12 dead in
Makhachkala". Bbc.co.uk. May 4, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
^ "Sheikh Murdered Over Religious Split Say Analysts
Novosti". En.rian.ru. 30 August 2012. Retrieved 24 February
В. М. Солнцев и др., ed. (2000).
Письменные языки мира: Российская
энциклопедия. (in Russian). Москва:
Российская Академия Наук. Институт
языкознания. проект №99-04-16158. CS1 maint:
Multiple names: editors list (link)
10 июля 2003 г. «Конституция Республики
Дагестан», в ред. Закона №45 от 7
октября 2008 г. (July 10, 2003 Constitution of the Republic of
Dagestan, as amended by the Law #45 of October 7, 2008. ).
Catholic Haidak in the Holy
Roman Empire (rus)
Kaziev, Shapi. Imam Shamil. "Molodaya Gvardiya" publishers. Moscow,
2001, 2003, 2006, 2010
Kaziev, Shapi. Akhoulgo.
Caucasian War of 19th century. The historical
novel. "Epoch", Publishing house. Makhachkala, 2008.
Kaziev, Shapi. Caucasian highlanders. Everyday life of the Caucasian
highlanders. 19th century (In the co-authorship with I.Karpeev).
"Molodaya Gvardiy" publishers. Moscow, 2003. ISBN 5-235-02585-7
Kaziev, Shapi. Crash of tyrant.
Nader Shah (Крах тирана).
The historical novel about Nader Shah. "Epoch", Publishing house.
Makhachkala, 2009. ISBN 978-5-98390-066-0
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dagestan.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Dagestan.
(in Russian) Official governmental website of Dagestan
Egbert Wesselink (1998). "
Dagestan (Daghestan): Comprehensive Report".
Caspian.net. Archived from the original on October 5, 2001. Retrieved
January 15, 2012.
Dagestan in Iranica Encyclopaedia
Islam in Russia
"The North Caucasus," Russian Analytical Digest No. 22 (5 June 2007)
BBC Country Report on Dagestan
University of Texas maps of the
Radio Free Europe discusses religious tension in Dagestan
ISN Case Study: The
North Caucasus on the Brink (August 2006)
Articles on Dagestan, reports from research, photos
Dagestan in Pictures (in Russian)
Daghestan's Kaitag Embroideries – and Henri Matisse?
Dagestan Republic News Portal
Subdivisions of Russia
Ukraine and considered by most of the international
community to be part of Ukraine
2Administratively subordinated to Tyumen Oblast
3Administratively subordinated to Arkhangelsk Oblast
Internal additional non-constitutional divisions by different
Economic regions (by Ministry of Economic Development)
Military districts (by Ministry of Defence)
Federal districts (by President)
Judicial districts (by law "On arbitration courts")
Countries and regions of the Caucasus
1 Partially-recognized states
Russia by federal subject
1 Recognized by most states as part of Ukraine.
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