A CUISINE (/kwɪˈziːn/ kwi-ZEEN ; from French , in turn from Latin coquere "to cook") is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients , techniques and dishes , and usually associated with a specific culture or geographic region. A cuisine is primarily influenced by the ingredients that are available locally or through trade. Religious food laws, such as Hindu , Islamic and Jewish dietary laws , can also exercise a strong influence on cuisine. Regional food preparation traditions, customs and ingredients often combine to create dishes unique to a particular region.
* 1 Factors that affect a cuisine * 2 History * 3 New cuisines * 4 Global cuisine
* 5 Regional cuisines
* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links
FACTORS THAT AFFECT A CUISINE
Some factors that have an influence on a region's cuisine include the area's climate , the trade among different countries, religiousness or sumptuary laws and culinary culture exchange. For example, a Tropical diet may be based more on fruits and vegetables, while a polar diet might rely more on meat and fish.
The area's climate, in large measure, determines the native foods that are available. In addition, climate influences food preservation. For example, foods preserved for winter consumption by smoking , curing , and pickling have remained significant in world cuisines for their altered gustatory properties.
The trade among different countries also largely affects a region's
cuisine. Dating back to the ancient spice trade, seasonings such as
cinnamon , cassia , cardamom , ginger , and turmeric were important
items of commerce in the earliest evolution of trade.
cassia found their way to the
Certain foods and food preparations are required or proscribed by the religiousness or sumptuary laws, such as Islamic dietary laws and Jewish dietary laws.
Culinary culture exchange is also an important factor for cuisine in many regions: Japan’s first substantial and direct exposure to the West came with the arrival of European missionaries in the second half of the 16th century. At that time, the combination of Spanish and Portuguese game frying techniques with a Chinese method for cooking vegetables in oil led to the development of tempura , the popular Japanese dish in which seafood and many different types of vegetables are coated with batter and deep fried.
Further information: List of historical cuisines
An example of nouvelle cuisine presentation. This dish consists of marinated crayfish on gazpacho asparagus and watercress.
Cuisines evolve continually, and new cuisines are created by
innovation and cultural interaction. One recent example is fusion
cuisine , which combines elements of various culinary traditions while
not being categorized per any one cuisine style, and generally refers
to the innovations in many contemporary restaurant cuisines since the
Nouvelle cuisine (New cuisine) is an approach to cooking and
food presentation in
French cuisine that was popularized in the 1960s
by the food critics
Henri Gault , who invented the phrase, and his
André Gayot and
Christian Millau in a new restaurant
Gault-Millau , or Le Nouveau Guide.
A global cuisine is a cuisine that is practiced around the world, and can be categorized according to the common use of major foodstuffs, including grains , produce and cooking fats .
Regional cuisines may vary based upon food availability and trade,
cooking traditions and practices, and cultural differences. For
example, in Central and South America, corn (maize ), both fresh and
dried, is a staple food . In northern Europe, wheat , rye , and fats
of animal origin predominate, while in southern
Main article: List of African cuisines
African cuisines use a combination of locally available fruits , cereal grains and vegetables , as well as milk and meat products. In some parts of the continent, the traditional diet features a preponderance of milk, curd and whey products. In much of tropical Africa, however, cow's milk is rare and cannot be produced locally (owing to various diseases that affect livestock). The continent's diverse demographic makeup is reflected in the many different eating and drinking habits, dishes, and preparation techniques of its manifold populations.
Yassa is a popular dish throughout West Africa prepared with chicken or fish . Chicken yassa is pictured. *
Main article: List of Asian cuisines
Asian cuisines are many and varied. Ingredients common to many
cultures in the east and Southeast regions of the continent include
rice, ginger, garlic, sesame seeds, chilies, dried onions, soy, and
Stir frying , steaming, and deep frying are common cooking
methods. While rice is common to most Asian cuisines, different
varieties are popular in the various regions;
Basmati rice is popular
Due to Guangdong 's location on the southern coast of China, fresh live seafood is a specialty in Cantonese cuisine . *
A Tajik feast *
Typical Assyrian cuisine
Main article: List of European cuisines
European cuisine (alternatively, "Western cuisine") include the
A variety of tapas : appetizers or snacks in Spanish cuisine *
German sausages and cheese
Oceanian cuisines include
Australian cuisine ,
New Zealand cuisine ,
Tasmanian cuisine , and the cuisines from many other islands or island
groups throughout Oceania.
Australian cuisine consists of immigrant
European cuisine , and
Bushfood prepared and eaten by native
Aboriginal Australian peoples, and various newer Asian influences. New
Zealand cuisine also consists of European inspired dishes, such as
Pavlova , and native
Maori cuisine . Across Oceania, staples include
the Kumura (
Sweet potato ) and
Taro , which was/is a staple from Papua
New Guinea to the South Pacific. On most islands in the south pacific,
Samoan umu , an oven of hot rocks above ground
CUISINES OF THE AMERICAS
The cuisines of the
Québécois poutine is made with french fries , curds and gravy . *
A sirloin steak dinner
Main article: Outline of cuisines PORTALS
FOOD DRINK WINE
BEER COFFEE BACON
* ^ "Cuisine." Thefreedictionary.com. Accessed June 2011.