A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive
ingredients, techniques and dishes, and usually associated with a
specific culture or geographic region. A cuisine is primarily
influenced by the ingredients that are available locally or through
trade. Religious food laws, such as Hindu, Islamic and Jewish dietary
laws, can also exercise a strong influence on cuisine. Regional food
preparation traditions, customs and ingredients often combine to
create dishes unique to a particular region.
1 Factors that affect a cuisine
3 New cuisines
4 Global cuisine
5 Regional cuisines
5.1 African cuisine
5.2 Asian cuisine
5.3 European cuisine
5.4 Oceanian cuisine
5.5 Cuisines of the Americas
6 See also
8 Further reading
9 External links
Factors that affect a cuisine
Some factors that have an influence on a region's cuisine include the
area's climate, the trade among different countries, religiousness or
sumptuary laws and culinary culture exchange. For example, a Tropical
diet may be based more on fruits and vegetables, while a polar diet
might rely more on meat and fish.
The area's climate, in large measure, determines the native foods that
are available. In addition, climate influences food preservation. For
example, foods preserved for winter consumption by smoking, curing,
and pickling have remained significant in world cuisines for their
altered gustatory properties.
The trade among different countries also largely affects a region's
cuisine. Dating back to the ancient spice trade, seasonings such as
cinnamon, cassia, cardamom, ginger, and turmeric were important items
of commerce in the earliest evolution of trade.
Cinnamon and cassia
found their way to the
Middle East at least 4,000 years ago.
Certain foods and food preparations are required or proscribed by the
religiousness or sumptuary laws, such as
Islamic dietary laws
Islamic dietary laws and
Jewish dietary laws.
Culinary culture exchange is also an important factor for cuisine in
many regions: Japan’s first substantial and direct exposure to the
West came with the arrival of European missionaries in the second half
of the 16th century. At that time, the combination of Spanish and
Portuguese game frying techniques with a Chinese method for cooking
vegetables in oil led to the development of tempura, the popular
Japanese dish in which seafood and many different types of vegetables
are coated with batter and deep fried.
Further information: List of historical cuisines
Cuisine dates back to the Antiquity. As food began to require more
planning, there was an emergence of meals that situated around
Rome was known for its cuisine, wealthy families would
dine in the
Triclinium on a variety of dishes; their diet consisted of
eggs, cheese, bread, meat and honey.
An example of nouvelle cuisine presentation. This dish consists of
marinated crayfish on gazpacho asparagus and watercress.
Cuisines evolve continually, and new cuisines are created by
innovation and cultural interaction. One recent example is fusion
cuisine, which combines elements of various culinary traditions while
not being categorized per any one cuisine style, and generally refers
to the innovations in many contemporary restaurant cuisines since the
Nouvelle cuisine (New cuisine) is an approach to cooking and
food presentation in
French cuisine that was popularized in the 1960s
by the food critics Henri Gault, who invented the phrase, and his
André Gayot and
Christian Millau in a new restaurant
guide, the Gault-Millau, or Le Nouveau Guide. Molecular cuisine, is a
modern style of cooking which takes advantage of many technical
innovations from the scientific disciplines (molecular cooking). The
term was coined in 1999 by the French INRA chemist
Hervé This because
he wanted to distinguish it from the name
Molecular cuisine that was
previously introduced by him and the late Oxford physicist Nicholas
Kurti. It is also named as multi sensory cooking, modernist
cuisine, culinary physics, and experimental cuisine by some chefs.
Besides, international trade brings new foodstuffs including
ingredients to existing cuisines and leads to changes. The
introduction of hot pepper to China from South America around the end
of the 17th century, greatly influencing Sichuan cuisine, which
combines the original taste with the taste of introduced hot pepper
and creates a unique flavor of both spicy and pungent.
Main articles: Global cuisine, Regional cuisine, and List of cuisines
A global cuisine is a cuisine that is practiced around the world, and
can be categorized according to the common use of major foodstuffs,
including grains, produce and cooking fats.
Regional cuisines may vary based upon food availability and trade,
cooking traditions and practices, and cultural differences. For
example, in Central and South America, corn (maize), both fresh and
dried, is a staple food. In northern Europe, wheat, rye, and fats of
animal origin predominate, while in southern
Europe olive oil is
ubiquitous and rice is more prevalent. In Italy the cuisine of the
north, featuring butter and rice, stands in contrast to that of the
south, with its wheat pasta and olive oil. China likewise can be
divided into rice regions and noodle & bread regions. Throughout
Middle East and Mediterranean there is a common thread marking the
use of lamb, olive oil, lemons, peppers, and rice. The vegetarianism
practiced in much of India has made pulses (crops harvested solely for
the dry seed) such as chickpeas and lentils as significant as wheat or
rice. From India to Indonesia the use of spices is characteristic;
coconuts and seafood are used throughout the region both as foodstuffs
and as seasonings.
Main article: List of African cuisines
African cuisines use a combination of locally available fruits, cereal
grains and vegetables, as well as milk and meat products. In some
parts of the continent, the traditional diet features a preponderance
of milk, curd and whey products. In much of tropical Africa, however,
cow's milk is rare and cannot be produced locally (owing to various
diseases that affect livestock). The continent's diverse demographic
makeup is reflected in the many different eating and drinking habits,
dishes, and preparation techniques of its manifold populations.
Typical Ethiopian and Eritrean cuisine:
Injera (pancake-like bread)
and several kinds of wat (stew)
Ramadan dinner in Tanzania
Yassa is a popular dish throughout
West Africa prepared with chicken
or fish. Chicken yassa is pictured.
Spices at central market in Agadir, Morocco
Main article: List of Asian cuisines
Asian cuisines are many and varied. Ingredients common to many
cultures in the east and Southeast regions of the continent include
rice, ginger, garlic, sesame seeds, chilies, dried onions, soy, and
tofu. Stir frying, steaming, and deep frying are common cooking
methods. While rice is common to most Asian cuisines, different
varieties are popular in the various regions;
Basmati rice is popular
in the South Asia, Jasmine is often found across the southeast, while
long-grain rice is popular in China and short-grain in Japan and
Curry is also a common dish found in southern and eastern
Asia, however they are not as popular in western Asian cuisines. Those
curry dishes with origins in India and other South Asian countries
usually have a yogurt base while Southeastern and Eastern curries
generally use coconut milk as their foundation.
A market stall at Thanin market in Chiang Mai,
Thailand selling ready
Due to Guangdong's location on the southern coast of China, fresh live
seafood is a specialty in Cantonese cuisine.
A Tajik feast
Typical Assyrian cuisine
Main article: List of European cuisines
European cuisine (alternatively, "Western cuisine") include the
Europe and other Western countries. European cuisine
includes that of
Europe and to some extent Russia, as well as
non-indigenous cuisines of North America, Australasia, Oceania, and
Latin America. The term is used by East Asians to contrast with Asian
styles of cooking. This is analogous to Westerners referring
collectively to the cuisines of Asian countries as Asian cuisine. When
used by Westerners, the term may refer more specifically to cuisine in
Europe; in this context, a synonym is Continental cuisine, especially
in British English.
Sunday roast with roast beef, roast potatoes, vegetables
and Yorkshire pudding
A variety of tapas: appetizers or snacks in Spanish cuisine
German sausages and cheese
Main article: Oceanic cuisine
Oceanian cuisines include Australian cuisine,
New Zealand cuisine,
Tasmanian cuisine, and the cuisines from many other islands or island
groups throughout Oceania.
Australian cuisine consists of immigrant
European cuisine, and
Bushfood prepared and eaten by native Aboriginal
Australian peoples, and various newer Asian influences. New Zealand
cuisine also consists of European inspired dishes, such as Pavlova,
and native Maori cuisine. Across Oceania, staples include the Kumura
(Sweet potato) and Taro, which was/is a staple from Papua New Guinea
to the South Pacific. On most islands in the south pacific,
widely consumed because of the proximity to the ocean.
Bush Tucker (bush foods) harvested at Alice Springs Desert Park in
Hāngi being prepared, a
New Zealand Māori method of cooking food
for special occasions using hot rocks buried in a pit oven.
Samoan umu, an oven of hot rocks above ground
Cuisines of the Americas
List of cuisines
List of cuisines of the
Americas and Native American
The cuisines of the
Americas are found across North and South America,
and are based on the cuisines of the countries from which the
immigrant people came, primarily Europe. However, the traditional
European cuisine has been adapted by the addition of many local and
native ingredients, and many techniques have been added to traditional
foods as well.
Native American cuisine
Native American cuisine is prepared by indigenous
populations across the continent, and its influences can be seen on
Latin American cuisine. Many staple foods eaten across
the continent, such as Corn, Beans, and
Potatoes have native origins.
The regional cuisines are North American cuisine, Mexican cuisine,
Central American cuisine, South American cuisine, and Caribbean
A New England clam bake
Québécois poutine is made with french fries, curds and gravy.
A sirloin steak dinner
Main article: Outline of cuisines
List of cuisines
List of foods
List of nutrition guides
Outline of food preparation
^ "Rediscover the flavors and traditions of true American cuisine!"
Whatscookingamerica.net. Accessed June 2011.
^ "spice trade". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 23 April
^ "web-japan.org/factsheet/en/pdf/36JapFoodCulture.pdf" (PDF).
^ Laudan, Rachel.
Cuisine & Empire. University of California
Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-520-26645-2.
^ Lindsey, Robert (18 August 1985). "California Grows Her Own
Cuisine". New York Times.
^ "Why is Molecular Gastronomy?". www.scienceofcooking.com. Retrieved
23 April 2016.
^ Adria, Ferran; Blumenthal, Heston; Keller, Thomas; McGee, Harold (9
December 2006). "Statement on the 'new cookery'". The Guardian.
ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
^ "Sichuan Cuisine". www.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 23 April
^ "The American
Food Revolutions: Cuisines in America." Eldrbarry.net.
Accessed June 2011.
^ Bea Sandler (1993). The African Cookbook. Diane and Leo Dillon
(Illust.). Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8065-1398-5. Archived
from the original on 16 December 2008. Retrieved 18 December
^ "The flavors of Asia". Quaker Oats Company. Archived from the
original on 4 June 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2008.
Cuisine Areas Of Asia".
Kraft Foods (Australia). 2007. Retrieved 20
^ Leung Man-tao (12 February 2007), "Eating and Cultural Stereotypes",
Eat and Travel Weekly, no. 312, p. 76. Hong Kong
Albala, Ken (2011).
Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia Greenwood.
California Culinary Academy (2001). In the World Kitchen: Global
Cuisine from California Culinary Academy. Bay Books (CA).
Laudan, Rachel (2013).
Cuisine and Empire:
Cooking in World History
University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-26645-2
MacVeigh, Jeremy (2008). International Cuisine. Delmar Cengage
Learning; 1st edition. ISBN 1-4180-4965-4.
Nenes, Michael F; Robbins, Joe (2008). International Cuisine. Hoboken,
N.J.: Wiley, John & Sons; 1st edition. ISBN 0-470-05240-6.
Scarparto, Rosario (2000). New global cuisine: the perspective of
postmodern gastronomy studies. Royal Melbourne Institute of
Zobel, Myron (1962). Global cuisine: being the unique recipes of the
84 top restaurants of the world. Patron Press.
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