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A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, techniques and dishes, and usually associated with a specific culture or geographic region. A cuisine is primarily influenced by the ingredients that are available locally or through trade. Religious food laws, such as Hindu, Islamic and Jewish dietary laws, can also exercise a strong influence on cuisine. Regional food preparation traditions, customs and ingredients often combine to create dishes unique to a particular region.[1]

Contents

1 Factors that affect a cuisine 2 History 3 New cuisines 4 Global cuisine 5 Regional cuisines

5.1 African cuisine 5.2 Asian cuisine 5.3 European cuisine 5.4 Oceanian cuisine 5.5 Cuisines of the Americas

6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Factors that affect a cuisine[edit] Some factors that have an influence on a region's cuisine include the area's climate, the trade among different countries, religiousness or sumptuary laws and culinary culture exchange. For example, a Tropical diet may be based more on fruits and vegetables, while a polar diet might rely more on meat and fish. The area's climate, in large measure, determines the native foods that are available. In addition, climate influences food preservation. For example, foods preserved for winter consumption by smoking, curing, and pickling have remained significant in world cuisines for their altered gustatory properties. The trade among different countries also largely affects a region's cuisine. Dating back to the ancient spice trade, seasonings such as cinnamon, cassia, cardamom, ginger, and turmeric were important items of commerce in the earliest evolution of trade. Cinnamon
Cinnamon
and cassia found their way to the Middle East
Middle East
at least 4,000 years ago.[2] Certain foods and food preparations are required or proscribed by the religiousness or sumptuary laws, such as Islamic dietary laws
Islamic dietary laws
and Jewish dietary laws. Culinary culture exchange is also an important factor for cuisine in many regions: Japan’s first substantial and direct exposure to the West came with the arrival of European missionaries in the second half of the 16th century. At that time, the combination of Spanish and Portuguese game frying techniques with a Chinese method for cooking vegetables in oil led to the development of tempura, the popular Japanese dish in which seafood and many different types of vegetables are coated with batter and deep fried.[3] History[edit] Further information: List of historical cuisines Cuisine
Cuisine
dates back to the Antiquity. As food began to require more planning, there was an emergence of meals that situated around culture.[4] Rome
Rome
was known for its cuisine, wealthy families would dine in the Triclinium
Triclinium
on a variety of dishes; their diet consisted of eggs, cheese, bread, meat and honey. New cuisines[edit]

An example of nouvelle cuisine presentation. This dish consists of marinated crayfish on gazpacho asparagus and watercress.

Cuisines evolve continually, and new cuisines are created by innovation and cultural interaction. One recent example is fusion cuisine, which combines elements of various culinary traditions while not being categorized per any one cuisine style, and generally refers to the innovations in many contemporary restaurant cuisines since the 1970s.[5] Nouvelle cuisine
Nouvelle cuisine
(New cuisine) is an approach to cooking and food presentation in French cuisine
French cuisine
that was popularized in the 1960s by the food critics Henri Gault, who invented the phrase, and his colleagues André Gayot
André Gayot
and Christian Millau in a new restaurant guide, the Gault-Millau, or Le Nouveau Guide. Molecular cuisine, is a modern style of cooking which takes advantage of many technical innovations from the scientific disciplines (molecular cooking). The term was coined in 1999 by the French INRA chemist Hervé This
Hervé This
because he wanted to distinguish it from the name Molecular cuisine
Molecular cuisine
that was previously introduced by him and the late Oxford physicist Nicholas Kurti.[6] It is also named as multi sensory cooking, modernist cuisine, culinary physics, and experimental cuisine by some chefs.[7] Besides, international trade brings new foodstuffs including ingredients to existing cuisines and leads to changes. The introduction of hot pepper to China from South America around the end of the 17th century, greatly influencing Sichuan cuisine, which combines the original taste with the taste of introduced hot pepper and creates a unique flavor of both spicy and pungent.[8] Global cuisine[edit] Main articles: Global cuisine, Regional cuisine, and List of cuisines A global cuisine is a cuisine that is practiced around the world, and can be categorized according to the common use of major foodstuffs, including grains, produce and cooking fats. Regional cuisines[edit] Regional cuisines may vary based upon food availability and trade, cooking traditions and practices, and cultural differences.[9] For example, in Central and South America, corn (maize), both fresh and dried, is a staple food. In northern Europe, wheat, rye, and fats of animal origin predominate, while in southern Europe
Europe
olive oil is ubiquitous and rice is more prevalent. In Italy the cuisine of the north, featuring butter and rice, stands in contrast to that of the south, with its wheat pasta and olive oil. China likewise can be divided into rice regions and noodle & bread regions. Throughout the Middle East
Middle East
and Mediterranean there is a common thread marking the use of lamb, olive oil, lemons, peppers, and rice. The vegetarianism practiced in much of India has made pulses (crops harvested solely for the dry seed) such as chickpeas and lentils as significant as wheat or rice. From India to Indonesia the use of spices is characteristic; coconuts and seafood are used throughout the region both as foodstuffs and as seasonings. African cuisine[edit]

Main article: List of African cuisines African cuisines use a combination of locally available fruits, cereal grains and vegetables, as well as milk and meat products. In some parts of the continent, the traditional diet features a preponderance of milk, curd and whey products. In much of tropical Africa, however, cow's milk is rare and cannot be produced locally (owing to various diseases that affect livestock). The continent's diverse demographic makeup is reflected in the many different eating and drinking habits, dishes, and preparation techniques of its manifold populations.[10]

Typical Ethiopian and Eritrean cuisine: Injera
Injera
(pancake-like bread) and several kinds of wat (stew)

A Ramadan
Ramadan
dinner in Tanzania

Yassa is a popular dish throughout West Africa
West Africa
prepared with chicken or fish. Chicken yassa is pictured.

Spices at central market in Agadir, Morocco

Asian cuisine[edit]

Main article: List of Asian cuisines Asian cuisines are many and varied. Ingredients common to many cultures in the east and Southeast regions of the continent include rice, ginger, garlic, sesame seeds, chilies, dried onions, soy, and tofu. Stir frying, steaming, and deep frying are common cooking methods. While rice is common to most Asian cuisines, different varieties are popular in the various regions; Basmati rice
Basmati rice
is popular in the South Asia, Jasmine is often found across the southeast, while long-grain rice is popular in China and short-grain in Japan and Korea.[11] Curry
Curry
is also a common dish found in southern and eastern Asia, however they are not as popular in western Asian cuisines. Those curry dishes with origins in India and other South Asian countries usually have a yogurt base while Southeastern and Eastern curries generally use coconut milk as their foundation.[12]

A market stall at Thanin market in Chiang Mai, Thailand
Thailand
selling ready cooked food

Due to Guangdong's location on the southern coast of China, fresh live seafood is a specialty in Cantonese cuisine.

A Tajik feast

Typical Assyrian cuisine

European cuisine[edit]

Main article: List of European cuisines European cuisine
European cuisine
(alternatively, "Western cuisine") include the cuisines of Europe
Europe
and other Western countries. European cuisine includes that of Europe
Europe
and to some extent Russia, as well as non-indigenous cuisines of North America, Australasia, Oceania, and Latin America. The term is used by East Asians to contrast with Asian styles of cooking.[13] This is analogous to Westerners referring collectively to the cuisines of Asian countries as Asian cuisine. When used by Westerners, the term may refer more specifically to cuisine in Europe; in this context, a synonym is Continental cuisine, especially in British English.

An English Sunday roast
Sunday roast
with roast beef, roast potatoes, vegetables and Yorkshire pudding

A variety of tapas: appetizers or snacks in Spanish cuisine

German sausages and cheese

Oceanian cuisine[edit]

Main article: Oceanic cuisine Oceanian cuisines include Australian cuisine, New Zealand
New Zealand
cuisine, Tasmanian cuisine, and the cuisines from many other islands or island groups throughout Oceania. Australian cuisine
Australian cuisine
consists of immigrant European cuisine, and Bushfood
Bushfood
prepared and eaten by native Aboriginal Australian peoples, and various newer Asian influences. New Zealand cuisine also consists of European inspired dishes, such as Pavlova, and native Maori cuisine. Across Oceania, staples include the Kumura (Sweet potato) and Taro, which was/is a staple from Papua New Guinea to the South Pacific. On most islands in the south pacific, Fish
Fish
are widely consumed because of the proximity to the ocean.

Bush Tucker
Bush Tucker
(bush foods) harvested at Alice Springs Desert Park in Australia

A Hāngi
Hāngi
being prepared, a New Zealand
New Zealand
Māori method of cooking food for special occasions using hot rocks buried in a pit oven.

Samoan umu, an oven of hot rocks above ground

Cuisines of the Americas[edit]

Main articles: List of cuisines
List of cuisines
of the Americas
Americas
and Native American cuisine The cuisines of the Americas
Americas
are found across North and South America, and are based on the cuisines of the countries from which the immigrant people came, primarily Europe. However, the traditional European cuisine
European cuisine
has been adapted by the addition of many local and native ingredients, and many techniques have been added to traditional foods as well. Native American cuisine
Native American cuisine
is prepared by indigenous populations across the continent, and its influences can be seen on multi-ethnic Latin American
Latin American
cuisine. Many staple foods eaten across the continent, such as Corn, Beans, and Potatoes
Potatoes
have native origins. The regional cuisines are North American cuisine, Mexican cuisine, Central American cuisine, South American cuisine, and Caribbean cuisine.

A New England clam bake

Québécois poutine is made with french fries, curds and gravy.

A sirloin steak dinner

See also[edit] Main article: Outline of cuisines

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References[edit]

^ "Rediscover the flavors and traditions of true American cuisine!" Whatscookingamerica.net. Accessed June 2011. ^ "spice trade". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 23 April 2016.  ^ "web-japan.org/factsheet/en/pdf/36JapFoodCulture.pdf" (PDF).  ^ Laudan, Rachel. Cuisine
Cuisine
& Empire. University of California Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-520-26645-2.  ^ Lindsey, Robert (18 August 1985). "California Grows Her Own Cuisine". New York Times.  ^ "Why is Molecular Gastronomy?". www.scienceofcooking.com. Retrieved 23 April 2016.  ^ Adria, Ferran; Blumenthal, Heston; Keller, Thomas; McGee, Harold (9 December 2006). "Statement on the 'new cookery'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 23 April 2016.  ^ "Sichuan Cuisine". www.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 23 April 2016.  ^ "The American Food
Food
Revolutions: Cuisines in America." Eldrbarry.net. Accessed June 2011. ^ Bea Sandler (1993). The African Cookbook. Diane and Leo Dillon (Illust.). Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8065-1398-5. Archived from the original on 16 December 2008. Retrieved 18 December 2008.  ^ "The flavors of Asia". Quaker Oats Company. Archived from the original on 4 June 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2008.  ^ " Cuisine
Cuisine
Areas Of Asia". Kraft Foods
Kraft Foods
(Australia). 2007. Retrieved 20 December 2008.  ^ Leung Man-tao (12 February 2007), "Eating and Cultural Stereotypes", Eat and Travel Weekly, no. 312, p. 76. Hong Kong

Further reading[edit]

Albala, Ken (2011). Food
Food
Cultures of the World Encyclopedia Greenwood. ISBN 978-0-313-37626-9 California Culinary Academy (2001). In the World Kitchen: Global Cuisine
Cuisine
from California Culinary Academy. Bay Books (CA). ISBN 1-57959-506-5. Laudan, Rachel (2013). Cuisine
Cuisine
and Empire: Cooking
Cooking
in World History University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-26645-2 MacVeigh, Jeremy (2008). International Cuisine. Delmar Cengage Learning; 1st edition. ISBN 1-4180-4965-4. Nenes, Michael F; Robbins, Joe (2008). International Cuisine. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, John & Sons; 1st edition. ISBN 0-470-05240-6. Scarparto, Rosario (2000). New global cuisine: the perspective of postmodern gastronomy studies. Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology. Zobel, Myron (1962). Global cuisine: being the unique recipes of the 84 top restaurants of the world. Patron Press.

External links[edit]

Find more aboutCuisineat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Eating and drinking.

Wikibooks Cookbook The Elizabeth Robins Pennell Collection at the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
has many volumes on the topic of cuisine.

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Cuisines

Regional

African

North West list

Americas

North South list

Asian

Central South list

Caribbean Caucasian European

Central Eastern list

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Oceanic

National

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Tibetan

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Occitania

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California Cuisine Hawaiian New American Puerto Rican Soul food

Uruguayan Uzbek Venezuelan Vietnamese Vatican Western Saharan Yemeni Zambian Zimbabwean

Ethnic and religious

Ainu American Chinese Anglo-Indian Arab Assyrian Balochi Balinese Batak Bengali Berber Betawi Buddhist Cajun Cantonese Chechen Chinese Indonesian Chinese Islamic Christian Circassian Crimean Tatar Greek American Hindu Inuit Italian American Jain Javanese Jewish

Sephardic Mizrahi American Bukharan Syrian

Komi Kurdish Livonian Louisiana Creole Malay Manado Maharashtrian Mordovian Native American Okinawan Ossetian Padang Parsi Pashtun Pennsylvania Dutch Peranakan Punjabi Sami Sikh Sindhi Soul food Sundanese Tatar Udmurt Yamal Yup'ik Zanzibari

Historical

Ancient Egyptian Ancient Greek Ancient Israelite Ancient Roman Aztec Byzantine Early modern European Historical Chinese Historical South Asian History of seafood History of vegetarianism Inca Mayan Medieval Ottoman Peasant Soviet Thirteen Colonies

Styles

Cuisine
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History of cuisine

Ancient Egyptian cuisine Ancient Greek cuisine Ancient Israelite cuisine Ancient Roman cuisine Cuisine
Cuisine
of the Thirteen Colonies Aztec cuisine Maya cuisine Muisca cuisine Inca cuisine Byzantine cuisine Medieval cuisine Ottoman cuisine Early modern European cuisine History of Argentine cuisine History of Chinese cuisine History of English cuisine History of French cuisine History of Hawaiian cuisine History of South Asian cuisine History of Italian cuisine History of Japanese cuisine History of Jewish cuisine Persian cuisine History of Polish cuisine History of Scottish cuisine

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