A cuisine is a style of cooking
characterized by distinctive ingredient
, and usually associated with a specific culture
or geographic region. Regional food preparation
traditions, customs and ingredients often combine to create dishes unique to a particular region.
A cuisine is primarily influenced by the ingredients that are available locally or through trade, they can even be made into distinct ingredients themselves when they become popular within a region, take for example Japanese rice
in Japanese cuisine
and New Mexico chile
in New Mexican cuisine
food laws can also exercise a strong influence on cuisine, such as Hinduism
in Indian cuisine
in Punjabi cuisine
in East Asian cuisine
in Middle Eastern cuisine
, and Judaism
in Jewish cuisine
and Israeli cuisine
Factors that affect a cuisine
Some factors that have an influence on a region's cuisine include the area's climate
, the trade among different countries, religious
laws and culinary culture exchange. For example, a tropical
diet may be based more on fruits and vegetables, while a polar diet might rely more on meat and fish.
The area's climate, in large measure, determines the native foods that are available. In addition, climate influences food preservation. For example, foods preserved for winter consumption by smoking
, and pickling
have remained significant in world cuisines
for their altered gustatory properties.
The trade among different countries also largely affects a region's cuisine. Dating back to the ancient spice trade, seasonings such as cinnamon
, and turmeric
were important items of commerce in the earliest evolution of trade. Cinnamon and cassia found their way to the Middle East
at least 4,000 years ago.
Certain foods and food preparations are required or proscribed by the religiousness or sumptuary laws, such as Islamic dietary laws and Jewish dietary laws.
Culinary culture exchange is also an important factor for cuisine in many regions: Japan's first substantial and direct exposure to the West came with the arrival of European missionaries in the second half of the 16th century. At that time, the combination of Spanish and Portuguese game frying techniques with an East Asian method for cooking vegetables in oil led to the development of ''tempura
'', the "popular Japanese dish in which seafood and many different types of vegetables are coated with batter and deep fried".
Cuisine dates back to the Antiquity
. As food began to require more planning, there was an emergence of meals that situated around culture.
Evolution of cuisine
Cuisines evolve continually, and new cuisines are created by innovation and cultural interaction. One recent example is fusion cuisine
, which combines elements of various culinary
traditions while not being categorized per any one cuisine style, and generally refers to the innovations in many contemporary restaurant cuisines since the 1970s.
'' (New cuisine) is an approach to cooking and food presentation in French cuisine
that was popularized in the 1960s by the food critics Henri Gault
, who invented the phrase, and his colleagues André Gayot
and Christian Millau
in a new restaurant guide, the Gault-Millau
, or ''Le Nouveau Guide''. Molecular cuisine
, is a modern style of cooking which takes advantage of many technical innovations from the scientific disciplines (molecular cooking). The term was coined in 1999 by the French INRA
chemist Hervé This
because he wanted to distinguish it from the name Molecular gastronomy
(a scientific activity) that was introduced by him and the late Oxford
physicist Nicholas Kurti
in 1988. It is also named as multi sensory cooking, modernist cuisine, culinary physics, and experimental cuisine by some chefs. Besides, international trade brings new foodstuffs including ingredients to existing cuisines and leads to changes. The introduction of hot pepper
to China from South America around the end of the 17th century, greatly influencing Sichuan cuisine
, which combines the original taste (with use of Sichuan pepper
) with the taste of newly introduced hot pepper and creates a unique mala
() flavor that's mouth-numbingly spicy and pungent.
A global cuisine
is a cuisine that is practiced around the world, and can be categorized according to the common use of major foodstuffs, including grain
and cooking fat
s can vary based on availability and usage of specific ingredients, local cooking traditions and practices, as well as overall cultural
["The American Food Revolutions: Cuisines in America."Eldrbarry.net](_blank)
Accessed June 2011.
Such factors can be more-or-less uniform across wide swaths of territory, or vary intensely within individual regions. For example, in Central and North South America, corn (maize
), both fresh and dried, is a staple food, and is used in many different ways. In northern Europe, wheat
, and fats of animal origin predominate, while in southern Europe olive oil
is ubiquitous and rice
is more prevalent. In Italy, the cuisine of the north, featuring butter
and rice, stands in contrast to that of the south, with its wheat pasta
and olive oil. In some parts of China, rice is the staple, while in others this role is filled by noodle
s and bread
. Throughout the Middle East and Mediterranean, common ingredients include lamb
, olive oil, lemon
, and rice. The vegetarianism
practiced in much of India has made pulses
(crops harvested solely for the dry seed) such as chickpea
s and lentil
s as important as wheat or rice. From India to Indonesia, the extensive use of spice
s is characteristic; coconut
s and seafood
are also used throughout the region both as foodstuffs and as seasoning
s use a combination of locally available fruit
s and vegetable
s, as well as milk
products. In some parts of the continent, the traditional diet features a preponderance of milk, curd
products. In much of tropical Africa, however, cow's milk is rare and cannot be produced locally (owing to various diseases that affect livestock). The continent's diverse demographic makeup is reflected in the many different eating and drinking habits, dishes, and preparation techniques of its manifold populations.
File:Alicha 1.jpg|Typical Ethiopian and Eritrean cuisine: ''Injera'' (thin pancake-like bread) and several kinds of ''wat'' (stew)
File:Iftar.jpg|A Ramadan dinner in Tanzania
File:Yassapoulet.JPG|Yassa is a popular dish throughout West Africa prepared with chicken or fish. Chicken yassa is pictured.
File:Spices1.jpg|Spices at central market in Agadir, Morocco
s are many and varied, and include East Asian cuisine
, South Asian cuisine
, Southeast Asian cuisine
, Central Asian cuisine
and West Asian cuisine
. Ingredients common to East Asia and Southeast Asia (due to overseas Chinese
influence) include rice, ginger, garlic, sesame seeds, chilies, dried onions, soy, and tofu, with stir frying
, steaming, and deep frying
being common cooking methods. While rice is common to most regional cuisines in Asia, different varieties are popular in the different regions: Basmati rice
is popular in South Asia, Jasmine rice
in Southeast Asia, and long-grain rice in China and short-grain rice in Japan and Korea.
is also a common ingredient found in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and East Asia (notably Japanese curry
); however, they are not popular in West Asian and Central Asian cuisines. Those curry dishes with origins in South Asia usually have a yogurt
base, with origins in Southeast Asia a coconut milk
base, and in East Asia a stewed meat and vegetable base.
South Asian cuisine and Southeast Asian cuisine are often characterized by their extensive use of spices
native to the tropical regions of Asia.
File:CantoneseRestaurantSeafood.jpg|Due to Guangdong's location on the southern coast of China, fresh live seafood is a specialty in Cantonese cuisine. Such markets selling seafood are found across East Asia.
File:Vegetarian Curry.jpeg|Traditional North Indian vegetarian thali with various curries from India. Various curry dishes are found across South Asia.
File:Thai market food 01.jpg|A market stall at Thanin market in Chiang Mai, Thailand, selling ready-cooked food. Market stalls selling food are found across Southeast Asia.
File:Tajik dastarkhan meal.jpg|A Tajik feast. A large feast is commonly associated with cultures of Central Asia.
File:Assyriancusiene.jpg|Typical Assyrian cuisine; an example of a type of meal found in West Asia.
(alternatively, "Western cuisine") include the cuisines of Europe
and other Western countries
. European cuisine includes that of Europe
and to some extent Russia
, as well as non-indigenous
cuisines of North America
, and Latin America
. The term is used by East Asians
to contrast with East Asian
styles of cooking.
[Leung Man-tao (12 February 2007), "Eating and Cultural Stereotypes", ''Eat and Travel Weekly'', no. 312, p. 76. Hong Kong]
When used in English, the term may refer more specifically to cuisine ''in'' (Continental
) Europe; in this context, a synonym is Continental cuisine, especially in British English
File:Sunday roast - roast beef 1.jpg|An English Sunday roast with roast beef, roast potatoes, vegetables and Yorkshire pudding
File:Flickr - cyclonebill - Tapas.jpg|A variety of tapas: appetizers or snacks in Spanish cuisine
File:German sausages and cheese.jpg|German sausages and cheese
s include Australian cuisine
, New Zealand cuisine
, and the cuisines from many other islands or island groups throughout Oceania. Australian cuisine consists of immigrant Anglo-Celtic
derived cuisine, and Bushfood
prepared and eaten by native Aboriginal Australian
peoples, and various newer Asian influences. New Zealand cuisine
also consists of European inspired dishes, such as Pavlova
, and native Maori cuisine
. Across Oceania, staples include the Kumura (Sweet potato
) and Taro
, which was/is a staple from Papua New Guinea
to the South Pacific. On most islands in the south pacific, fish
are widely consumed because of the proximity to the ocean.
File:Australian bush tucker, Alice Springs.jpg|''Bush Tucker'' (bush foods) harvested at Alice Springs Desert Park in Australia
File:Hangi prepare.jpg|A Hāngi being prepared, a New Zealand Māori method of cooking food for special occasions using hot rocks buried in a pit oven.
File:Pig on the Samoan Umu.jpg|Samoan ''umu'', an oven of hot rocks above ground
Cuisines of the Americas
The cuisines of the Americas
are found across North and South America
, and are based on the cuisines of the countries from which the immigrant
people came, primarily Europe
. However, the traditional European cuisine has been adapted by the addition of many local and native ingredients, and many techniques have been added to traditional foods as well. Native American cuisine
is prepared by indigenous populations across the continent, and its influences can be seen on multi-ethnic Latin American
cuisine. Many staple foods
eaten across the continent, such as corn
, and potatoes
have native origins. The regional cuisines are North American cuisine
, Mexican cuisine
, Central American cuisine
, South American cuisine
, and Caribbean cuisine
File:Bandeja paisa 30062011.jpg|Bandeja paisa from Peñól de Guatapé in Antioquia, Colombia.
File:Coco bread wrapped beef patty.jpg|A Jamaican patty wrapped in coco bread.
File:Buffalo - Wings at Airport Anchor Bar.jpg|Buffalo wings with blue cheese dressing, served with lager beer.
File:001 Tacos de carnitas, carne asada y al pastor.jpg|Tacos filled with several meat types, mainly beef, chicken and pork.
* Culinary art
* Diet food
* Dish (food)
* Food group
* Food photography
* Food preparation
* Food presentation
* Haute cuisine
* List of cuisines
* List of foods
* List of nutrition guides
* Outline of cuisines
* Outline of food preparation
* Portion size
* Traditional food
* Whole food
* Albala, Ken (2011)''Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia''
* California Culinary Academy (2001). ''In the World Kitchen: Global Cuisine from California Culinary Academy''. Bay Books (CA). .
* Laudan, Rachel (2013)''Cuisine and Empire: Cooking in World History''
University of California Press.
* MacVeigh, Jeremy (2008). ''International Cuisine''. Delmar Cengage Learning; 1st edition. .
* Nenes, Michael F; Robbins, Joe (2008). ''International Cuisine''. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, John & Sons; 1st edition. .
* Scarparto, Rosario (2000)''New global cuisine: the perspective of postmodern gastronomy studies''.
Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology.
* Zobel, Myron (1962)''Global cuisine: being the unique recipes of the 84 top restaurants of the world''.
at the Library of Congress
has many volumes on the topic of cuisine.