A CUISINE (/kwɪˈziːn/ kwi-ZEEN ; from French , in turn from
Latin coquere "to cook") is a style of cooking characterized by
distinctive ingredients , techniques and dishes , and usually
associated with a specific culture or geographic region. A cuisine
is primarily influenced by the ingredients that are available locally
or through trade. Religious food laws, such as Hindu , Islamic and
Jewish dietary laws , can also exercise a strong influence on cuisine.
Regional food preparation traditions, customs and ingredients often
combine to create dishes unique to a particular region.
* 1 Factors that affect a cuisine
* 2 History
* 3 New cuisines
* 5 Regional cuisines
* 5.5 Cuisines of the
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 8 Further reading
* 9 External links
FACTORS THAT AFFECT A CUISINE
Some factors that have an influence on a region's cuisine include the
area's climate , the trade among different countries, religiousness or
sumptuary laws and culinary culture exchange. For example, a Tropical
diet may be based more on fruits and vegetables, while a polar diet
might rely more on meat and fish.
The area's climate, in large measure, determines the native foods
that are available. In addition, climate influences food preservation.
For example, foods preserved for winter consumption by smoking ,
curing , and pickling have remained significant in world cuisines for
their altered gustatory properties.
The trade among different countries also largely affects a region's
cuisine. Dating back to the ancient spice trade, seasonings such as
cinnamon , cassia , cardamom , ginger , and turmeric were important
items of commerce in the earliest evolution of trade.
cassia found their way to the
Middle East at least 4,000 years ago.
Certain foods and food preparations are required or proscribed by the
religiousness or sumptuary laws, such as
Islamic dietary laws and
Jewish dietary laws.
Culinary culture exchange is also an important factor for cuisine in
many regions: Japan’s first substantial and direct exposure to the
West came with the arrival of European missionaries in the second half
of the 16th century. At that time, the combination of Spanish and
Portuguese game frying techniques with a Chinese method for cooking
vegetables in oil led to the development of tempura , the popular
Japanese dish in which seafood and many different types of vegetables
are coated with batter and deep fried.
List of historical cuisines
Cuisine dates back to the Antiquity .
Rome was known for its cuisine,
wealthy families would dine in the
Triclinium on a variety of dishes;
their diet consisted of eggs, cheese, bread, meat and honey.
An example of nouvelle cuisine presentation. This dish consists
of marinated crayfish on gazpacho asparagus and watercress.
Cuisines evolve continually, and new cuisines are created by
innovation and cultural interaction. One recent example is fusion
cuisine , which combines elements of various culinary traditions while
not being categorized per any one cuisine style, and generally refers
to the innovations in many contemporary restaurant cuisines since the
Nouvelle cuisine (New cuisine) is an approach to cooking and
food presentation in
French cuisine that was popularized in the 1960s
by the food critics
Henri Gault , who invented the phrase, and his
André Gayot and
Christian Millau in a new restaurant
Gault-Millau , or Le Nouveau Guide.
Molecular gastronomy ,
is a modern style of cooking which takes advantage of many technical
innovations from the scientific disciplines. The term was coined in
1988 by late Oxford physicist
Nicholas Kurti and the French INRA
Hervé This . It is also named as multi sensory cooking,
modernist cuisine, culinary physics, and experimental cuisine by some
chefs. Besides, international trade brings new foodstuffs including
ingredients to existing cuisines and leads to changes. The
introduction of hot pepper to China from South America around the end
of the 17th century, greatly influencing Sichuan cuisine, which
combines the original taste with the taste of introduced hot pepper
and creates a unique flavor of both spicy and pungent.
Global cuisine ,
Regional cuisine , and List of
A global cuisine is a cuisine that is practiced around the world, and
can be categorized according to the common use of major foodstuffs,
including grains , produce and cooking fats .
Regional cuisines may vary based upon food availability and trade,
cooking traditions and practices, and cultural differences. For
example, in Central and South America, corn (maize ), both fresh and
dried, is a staple food . In northern Europe, wheat , rye , and fats
of animal origin predominate, while in southern
Europe olive oil is
ubiquitous and rice is more prevalent. In Italy the cuisine of the
north, featuring butter and rice, stands in contrast to that of the
south, with its wheat pasta and olive oil. China likewise can be
divided into rice regions and noodle coconuts and seafood are used
throughout the region both as foodstuffs and as seasonings .
List of African cuisines
African cuisines use a combination of locally available fruits ,
cereal grains and vegetables , as well as milk and meat products. In
some parts of the continent, the traditional diet features a
preponderance of milk, curd and whey products. In much of tropical
Africa, however, cow's milk is rare and cannot be produced locally
(owing to various diseases that affect livestock). The continent's
diverse demographic makeup is reflected in the many different eating
and drinking habits, dishes, and preparation techniques of its
Typical Ethiopian and
Eritrean cuisine :
Injera (pancake-like bread)
and several kinds of wat (stew)
Ramadan dinner in
Yassa is a popular dish throughout
West Africa prepared with chicken
or fish . Chicken yassa is pictured.
Spices at central market in
List of Asian cuisines
Asian cuisines are many and varied. Ingredients common to many
cultures in the east and Southeast regions of the continent include
rice, ginger, garlic, sesame seeds, chilies, dried onions, soy, and
Stir frying , steaming, and deep frying are common cooking
methods. While rice is common to most Asian cuisines, different
varieties are popular in the various regions;
Basmati rice is popular
South Asia , Jasmine is often found across the southeast, while
long-grain rice is popular in China and short-grain in Japan and
Curry is also a common dish found in southern and eastern
Asia, however they are not as popular in western Asian cuisines. Those
curry dishes with origins in India and other South Asian countries
usually have a yogurt base while Southeastern and Eastern curries
generally use coconut milk as their foundation.
A market stall at Thanin market in
Chiang Mai ,
ready cooked food
Due to Guangdong 's location on the southern coast of China, fresh
live seafood is a specialty in
Cantonese cuisine .
A Tajik feast
List of European cuisines
European cuisine (alternatively, "Western cuisine") include the
Europe and other Western countries . European cuisine
includes that of
Europe and to some extent
Russia , as well as
non-indigenous cuisines of
North America ,
Oceania , and
Latin America . The term is used by East Asians to contrast with Asian
styles of cooking. This is analogous to Westerners referring
collectively to the cuisines of Asian countries as
Asian cuisine .
When used by Westerners, the term may refer more specifically to
cuisine in Europe; in this context, a synonym is CONTINENTAL CUISINE,
British English .
Sunday roast with roast beef , roast potatoes, vegetables
A variety of tapas : appetizers or snacks in
German sausages and cheese
Oceanian cuisines include
Australian cuisine ,
New Zealand cuisine
New Zealand cuisine ,
Tasmanian cuisine , and the cuisines from many other islands or island
groups throughout Oceania.
Australian cuisine consists of immigrant
European cuisine , and
Bushfood prepared and eaten by native
Aboriginal Australian peoples, and various newer Asian influences. New
Zealand cuisine also consists of European inspired dishes, such as
Pavlova , and native
Maori cuisine . Across Oceania, staples include
the Kumura (
Sweet potato ) and
Taro , which was/is a staple from Papua
New Guinea to the South Pacific. On most islands in the south pacific,
Fish are widely consumed because of the proximity to the ocean.
Bush Tucker (bush foods) harvested at Alice Springs Desert Park in
Hāngi being prepared, a
New Zealand Māori method of cooking food
for special occasions using hot rocks buried in a pit oven.
Samoan umu , an oven of hot rocks above ground
CUISINES OF THE AMERICAS
List of cuisines of the
Americas and Native American
The cuisines of the
Americas are found across North and South America
, and are based on the cuisines of the countries from which the
immigrant people came, primarily
Europe . However, the traditional
European cuisine has been adapted by the addition of many local and
native ingredients, and many techniques have been added to traditional
foods as well.
Native American cuisine is prepared by indigenous
populations across the continent, and its influences can be seen on
Latin American cuisine. Many staple foods eaten across
the continent, such as
Beans , and
Potatoes have native
origins. The regional cuisines are
North American cuisine , Mexican
Central American cuisine ,
South American cuisine
South American cuisine , and
Caribbean cuisine .
New England clam bake
New England clam bake
Québécois poutine is made with french fries , curds and gravy .
A sirloin steak dinner
Outline of cuisines
Outline of cuisines PORTALS
List of cuisines
List of foods
List of nutrition guides
Outline of food preparation
Outline of food preparation
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Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia
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Cuisine and Empire:
Cooking in World
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