A crossover, crossover SUV, or crossover utility vehicle (CUV) is a type of sport utility vehicle
-like vehicle built with unibody frame
construction. Crossovers are often based on a platform
shared with a passenger car
, as opposed to a platform shared with a pickup truck
. Because of that, crossovers may also be referred as "car-based SUVs". Compared to truck-based SUVs, they typically have better interior comfort, a more comfortable ride, superior fuel economy, and lower manufacturing costs, but also inferior off-road and towing capability.
Forerunners of the modern crossover include the 1977 Matra Rancho
and the AMC Eagle
introduced in 1979.
Many crossovers lack all-wheel drive or four-wheel-drive
drivetrain, which, in combination with their lesser off-road capability, causes many journalists and consumers to question their definition as "sports utility vehicles". This has led some to describe crossovers as pseudo-SUVs. Furthermore, there are inconsistencies about whether some vehicles are considered crossovers or SUVs; therefore, the term "SUV" is often used as a catch-all for both crossovers and compact SUV
Some regions outside North America do not have a distinction between a crossover SUV and body-on-frame SUV, calling both of them SUVs. Several governmental bodies in the United States also did not acknowledge the crossover distinction, including the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
. Crossovers are sometimes also classified as light trucks
in some jurisdictions.
In the United States , crossover models comprised more than 50% of the overall SUV market.
Crossovers have become increasingly popular in Europe also since the early 2010s.
The difference between crossover SUVs and other SUVs is generally defined by journalists and manufacturers as a crossover being built using a unibody
platform (the type used by most passenger cars), while an SUV is built using a body-on-frame
platform (the type used by off-road vehicles and pickup trucks). However, these definitions are often blurred in practice, since unibody vehicles are also often referred to as SUVs. "Crossover" is a relatively recent term, and early unibody SUVs (such as the 1984 Jeep Cherokee
) are rarely called crossovers. Due to these inconsistencies, the term "SUV" is often used as an umbrella term for both crossovers and SUVs.
Outside of the United States, the term "crossover" tends to be used for C-segment
) or smaller vehicles, with large unibody vehicles—such as the Audi Q7
, Range Rover
and Volkswagen Touareg
—usually referred to as SUVs rather than crossovers. In the United Kingdom, a crossover is sometimes defined as a hatchback
with raised ride height
and SUV-like styling features.
Introduced in 1979, the AMC Eagle
is retroactively considered to be the first dedicated crossover automobile that made its debut prior to the terms "SUV" or "crossover" being coined.
The mass-market Eagle model line was based on a unibody
passenger car platform, with fully automatic four-wheel drive and a raised ride height.
Some cite the front-wheel drive
1977 Matra Rancho
as a slightly earlier forerunner to the modern crossover.
Though it is not part of the modern linear evolution, and only fifteen were built, some stretch the definition and history of the "crossover" to regard the off-road racing 1936 Opel Geländesportwagen
as the first of the class.
The first-generation Toyota RAV4
released in 1994 has been credited as the model that expanded the concept of the crossover market segment.
Essentially a shrunken SUV, the RAV4 was based on a modified platform used by the Toyota Corolla
and Toyota Carina
Depending on the market, crossovers are divided into several size categories. Since there is an absence of any official distinction, often times the size category might be ambiguous for some crossover models. Several aspects needed to determine the size category of a vehicle may include length/width dimensions, positioning in its respective brand line-up, platform
, and interior space.
Subcompact crossover SUV (B-segment)
Subcompact crossover SUVs (also called B-segment crossover SUV, B-SUV, small crossover SUV) are crossovers that depending on the market and the manufacturer, typically has a length dimension under .
Subcompact crossovers are usually based on the platform of a subcompact
(also known as supermini
) passenger car, although some high-end subcompact crossover models may be based on a compact car
). They typically have limited off-road capabilities, although some subcompact crossovers offer all-wheel-drive
The segment may be called differently depending on the market. In several regions, the category may be known as "compact crossover" or "compact SUV", not to be confused with the North American definition of a compact crossover SUV, which is a larger C-segment crossover SUV. In India, subcompact crossovers with a length dimension below may be called "compact SUV", and the larger ones are usually referred as "mid-size SUV".
One of the first crossover built on a subcompact car platform is the first-generation Honda HR-V
, which was released in 1998 mainly for the Japanese and European markets. Its length stood between , sold with either 3-doors and 5-doors, and was offered with an all-wheel-drive option.
This category is particularly popular in Europe, India, and Brazil where they count for 37 percent, 75 percent and 69 percent of total SUV sales in 2018 respectively. In the United States, it accounts for 7 percent of total SUV sales in 2018.
According to IHS Markit
, European sales of the segment between 2010 and 2016 rose from 134,000 units to 1.13 million units.
The emergence of the Nissan Juke
in 2010 was argued to had helped define and start the development of the hitherto almost non-existent B-segment crossover segment. The firm added that vehicles from this segment were considered by customers as cheap to buy and run, offer a desirable lifestyle styling and higher seating position.
Other advantages may also include higher ground clearance, convenient ingress/egress, larger headroom, and larger legroom space compared to B-segment/subcompact hatchbacks.
As the result of the increasing popularity of the segment, from mid-2010s, manufacturers began to phase out subcompact hatchbacks and sedans in favor of this segment in several markets since it offers higher profit margins, particularly in North America. In Europe, several manufacturers have introduced subcompact crossovers to replace mini MPVs in Europe due to the dwindling sales, and that it offers the similar benefits to mini MPVs regarding interior comfort. The examples are the Citroën C3 Aircross
which replaced the Citroën C3 Picasso
and Opel Crossland X
replacing the Opel Meriva
Also common for this segment is that one brand may offer more than one model at different price points and segmentation, for example Ford offers both the EcoSport
in Europe, while Opel sells the Crossland and Mokka
The best-selling vehicle is the segment in 2019 was the Honda HR-V, recording 622,154 units being sold worldwide.
File:2019 Honda HR-V EX i-VTEC 1.5 Front.jpg|Honda HR-V (also called Vezel), built on the same platform as the subcompact (B-segment) Fit/Jazz
File:2018 Volkswagen T-Roc SE TSi EVO 1.5 Front.jpg|Volkswagen T-Roc, built on the same platform as the compact (C-segment) Golf
File:Subaru XV 1.6i Comfort – Frontansicht, 1. März 2014, Wuppertal.jpg|Subaru Crosstrek (also called XV), essentially an Impreza hatchback with rugged body kits and higher ground clearance
File:2018 Mercedes-Benz GLA 220 AMG Line Exclusive Diesel 4MATIC 2.1 Front.jpg|Mercedes-Benz GLA-Class subcompact luxury crossover
Compact crossover SUV (C-segment)
Compact crossover SUVs (also called C-segment crossover SUV or C-SUV) are usually based on the platform of a compact car
), while some models may be based on a mid-size car (D-segment
) or a B-segment platform. It typically has a length dimension between and .
Most compact crossovers have two-row seating, while some of others have three rows.
The naming of the segment may differ depending on the market. In several regions outside North America, the category may be known as "mid-size crossover" or "mid-size SUV",
not to be confused with the North American definition of a mid-size crossover SUV, which is a larger D-segment crossover SUV.
The first compact crossovers included the 1994 Toyota RAV4
1995 Honda CR-V
, 1997 Subaru Forester
, 2000 Nissan X-Trail
, 2000 Mazda Tribute
, and the 2001 Ford Escape
. Between 2005 and 2010, market share of compact crossovers in the US has increased from 6 percent to 11.2 percent. In 2014, for the first time ever, sales of compact crossovers have outpaced mid-size sedans in the United States.
In 2019, it was stated by American magazine Car and Driver
that "so many of these vehicles are crowding the marketplace, simply sorting through them can be a daunting task". Due to its popularity and to cater customer needs, many manufacturers offer more than one compact crossover, usually offering them in slightly different sizes at different price points.
By late 2010s, the segment has emerged as the most popular segment in several regions. For example, nearly 1 in every 4 cars sold in the United States in 2019 is a compact crossover, precisely at about 24.2 percent. It also makes up 5.6 percent of the total European car market.
The best-selling vehicle in the segment in 2019 was the Toyota RAV4, with 961,918 units sold globally.
File:2019 Toyota RAV4 LE 2.5L front 4.14.19.jpg|Toyota RAV4 two-row compact crossover, built on a D-segment platform
File:2017 Honda CR-V front 4.11.18.jpg|Honda CR-V two-row compact crossover, built on a C-segment platform, with three-row seating optional in several markets
File:Peugeot 3008 BlueHDi 180 EAT8 GT (II) – Frontansicht, 25. November 2018, Düsseldorf.jpg|Peugeot 3008 two-row compact crossover
File:2019 Infiniti QX50 AWD, front 8.25.19.jpg|Infiniti QX50 compact luxury crossover
Mid-size crossover SUV (D/E-segment)
Mid-size crossover SUVs are usually based on the platform of a mid-size
(also known as D-segment
) passenger car. The first mid-size crossovers include the 1999 BMW X5
, 2001 Toyota Highlander
, 2001 Pontiac Aztek
, and the 2000 Hyundai Santa Fe
. Some mid-size crossovers have a three-row of seats, while others have two rows, which led to several brands offering multiple models to cater both sub-segments. It typically has a length dimension between and .
The segment is most popular in North America and China, where larger vehicles are preferred. It makes up 15.8 percent of the total United States car market. In Europe, the segment covers 2.1 percent of the total market in 2019 with luxury crossover SUVs dominating most of the share.
The Toyota Highlander/Kluger is the best-selling vehicle in the category in 2018, with 387,869 sold worldwide.
File:2019 Honda Passport EX-L 3.5L, front 8.27.19.jpg|Honda Passport two-row mid-size crossover, which is a shortened version of the three-row, mid-size Pilot
File:2019 Ford Edge SEL EcoBoost AWD 2.0L front 4.6.19.jpg|Ford Edge (also called Endura) two-row mid-size crossover, which is also available in a longer three-row model
File:2020 Toyota Highlander XLE AWD, front.jpg|Toyota Highlander (also called Kluger) three-row mid-size crossover
File:2016 Lexus RX 200t front view.jpg|Lexus RX mid-size luxury crossover
Full-size crossover SUV
Full-size crossover SUVs are usually based on full-size car
s. They are the largest crossovers that offer exclusively three rows. The first full-size crossovers include the GMC Acadia
, Saturn Outlook
, and the Buick Enclave
, with older full-size SUVs were mostly built above a body-on-frame chassis. The full-size crossover SUV class is sometimes intersect and being compared with the three-row mid-size crossover class as in the case of the Jeep Grand Cherokee L
. Vehicles in this category usually are longer than in length.
As it is the case with mid-size crossover, the segment is only common in North America.
File:2013 Ford Flex -- 07-11-2012.JPG|Ford Flex
File:2013 GMC Acadia Denali in Amagansett, front left.jpg|GMC Acadia
Body style categories
While a three-door body-on-frame SUV are not uncommon, crossover SUVs with three doors (including the tailgate door) are more rare in contrast. The decline of two or three-door vehicles in general have led to the disappearance of this category.
File:1999 Honda HR-V (GH2) Sport 3-door wagon (22140082888).jpg|Honda HR-V three-door
File:2003 Toyota RAV4 01.jpg|Toyota RAV4 three-door
File:Range Rover Evoque Coupé SD4 4WD Prestige – Frontansicht, 15. Juni 2014, Düsseldorf.jpg|Range Rover Evoque three-door
Crossover SUVs with a sloping rear roofline may be marketed as a "coupé crossover SUV" or "coupé SUV". Although coupé
itself supposed to mean a passenger car with a sloping or truncated rear roofline and two or three doors, every coupé crossover SUV (except for the Range Rover Evoque Coupé
) is equipped with five doors. The sloping roofline, also resembling fastbacks
, arguably offers styling advantage compared to its standard crossover counterpart. The body style notably gained criticism as some see it as less attractive and less practical than normal crossovers, since the low roofline reduces into the cargo space and rear passenger headroom.
The BMW X6
has generally been considered as the first coupé crossover. It was marketed as a "sports activity coupé" (SAC), as opposed to standard BMW crossovers which are called "sports activity vehicle" (SAV). Introduced in 2008, the vehicle's styling generated some controversy at its introduction and it had less cargo space and a higher price tag, but the body style proved to be popular with tens of thousands being sold annually. However, the Infiniti FX
from 2003 has introduced a similar sloping roof design without marketing it as a coupé crossover.
Due to its roots from the BMW X6, the segment mostly consists of vehicles in the luxury segments. Audi released the coupé version of their crossover with the "Sportback" moniker, while Mercedes-Benz uses the "Coupé" designation, both in line with their two-door and four-door coupés or fastbacks. Several manufacturers began offering coupé crossovers from non-luxury segments, for example the Renault Arkana
According to Strategic Vision, an automotive research and consulting company, buyers of coupé crossovers particularly those from Mercedes-Benz
, are four to five years younger than the usual buyer of typical SUVs. It brings down a car brand's average age, which in turn increases the brand's desirability. They also noted that buyers of SUV coupes are less price-sensitive, which means brands can increase the price tag on these vehicles and that would not affect the sales.
File:Renault Arkana 1.3 TCe Zen 2021.jpg|Renault Arkana compact coupé crossover
File:Audi Q3 Sportback IMG 3505 (cropped).jpg|Audi Q3 Sportback subcompact luxury coupé crossover
File:BMW G06 IMG 3715.jpg|BMW X6 mid-size luxury coupé crossover
File:2010 Acura ZDX Advance -- NHTSA 2.jpg|Acura ZDX mid-size luxury coupé crossover
There are several notable convertible
crossover SUVs entering mass production, including the first of its kind which is the Toyota RAV4 soft top convertible. Released in North America for the 1998 model year, it was only offered up to 1999 model year. Other examples include the Nissan Murano CrossCabriolet
, Range Rover Evoque Convertible
, and Volkswagen T-Roc Cabriolet
The category was heavily criticized by journalists, enthusiasts, and analysts for numerous reasons. Industry analyst Dave Sullivan from AutoPacific said that "they're awkward". He continued, "they're a strange kind of Franken-vehicle. And I think that's part of the problem." On reviewing the Murano CrossCabriolet, Car and Driver
mentioned that "Drivers will hate this car. This unholy beast wasn't cheap, either, setting buyers back almost $45,000. And as if all of that weren't bad enough, it was styled like a retirement-home cocktail party in shades of "Merlot
" or "Glacier Pearl." Some also questioned its purpose, as the practicality that crossovers usually have did not carryover to its convertible version, since it could only have two doors and little luggage space.
File:Toyota-RAV4-convertible.jpg|Toyota RAV4 convertible
File:2011 Nissan Murano CrossCabriolet -- 10-28-2011.jpg|Nissan Murano CrossCabriolet
File:Land Rover Range Rover Evoque Convertible 2016 - front three-quarter (cropped).jpg|Range Rover Evoque Convertible
File:Volkswagen T-Roc Cabriolet IMG 3137.jpg|Volkswagen T-Roc Cabriolet
Some manufacturers have been capitalizing the SUV boom by offering a version of station wagons, hatchbacks or MPVs with a raised ride height and the addition of rugged-looking accessories such as black plastic wheel arch
extension kit, body cladding, skid plates
and roof rails. Due to its raised ground clearance, it may be marketed as more capable off-road. Some of them may also equipped with all-wheel-drive. This strategy has been used by manufacturers to move models upmarket, or to help filling an absence in a crossover SUV segment. Some had described these vehicles as pseudo-crossovers.
Due to its large cargo space and its practicality, many manufacturers are releasing "off-road" versions of station wagons that are claimed to be more capable in soft off-road or all-weather situations due to its raised height, essentially making them a crossover between a station wagon and an SUV.
One of the first manufacturer to offer a crossover version of a station wagon is Subaru
, which offers the SUV-look version of the Legacy
wagon since 1994 as the Legacy Outback
. At the time, Subaru was absent in the growing SUV segment. Lacking the finances to design an all-new vehicle, Subaru added two-tone paint scheme, body cladding and a suspension lift to the Legacy wagon. It was marketed as a capable and more efficient alternative to larger truck-based SUVs. Sales exceeded expectations in North America.
The Outback became its own model in 1999.
Another example include the Volvo V70 XC
(also called V70 Cross Country), first introduced in 1999.
It featured standard all-wheel drive. In 2002, the model was renamed XC70. Audi has been making Allroad
versions of their station wagons since 1999. Currently, the Allroad version is offered for the A4
and the A6
equivalent variants are called Alltrack and Scout respectively.
The segment is particularly popular in Europe due to the popularity of station wagons. In North America, some manufacturers are selling station wagons as crossovers due to the former's unpopularity. In the United States, the crossover-styled Subaru Outback is both the best-selling station wagon, and the fourth best-selling mid-size car in 2019.
File:2016 Volkswagen Golf Alltrack TDi BlueMotion 4MOTION Front 2.0.jpg|Volkswagen Golf Alltrack
File:Volvo V90 Cross Country IMG 3504.jpg|Volvo V90 Cross Country
File:2014 Audi A6 Allroad TDi Quattro Automatic 3.0 Front.jpg|Audi A6 Allroad
File:2018 Buick Regal TourX front, Lime Rock 9.1.19.jpg|Buick Regal TourX
Many manufacturers are also selling a crossover-styled variant of hatchbacks
or city cars
with the same body, either as a substitute or a complement to the subcompact crossover SUV segment. Unlike crossover wagons, most crossover-styled hatchbacks are usually not offered with all-wheel-drive.
One of the forerunners of crossover-styled hatchback is the Volkswagen CrossPolo
, launched in 2005, and to some extent, the 1983 Fiat Panda 4x4
and the 1996 Toyota Starlet Remix
. At that time, the CrossPolo was described as an SUV-like "lifestyle" vehicle. The Dacia/Renault Sandero
Stepway, the crossover-styled version of the Sandero launched in 2009 is an example of a well-received crossover-styled hatchback, as it consistently outsold its standard model and makes up for 65 percent of Sandero sales figures.
Some manufacturers may chose to sell the crossover-styled hatchback under a separate nameplate, like the Subaru Crosstrek
which is based on the Impreza
hatchback. Other manufacturers had also went an extensive reengineering in differentiating the crossover-styled model with the standard model by completely reworking the hood area, for example the Honda WR-V
which is based on the third-generation Fit/Jazz
. These two vehicles are directly marketed as a subcompact crossover SUV model.
File:2018 Vauxhall Viva Rocks 1.0 Front (1).jpg|Vauxhall Viva Rocks city car (A-segment)
File:2019 Dacia Sandero Stepway Techroad Front.jpg|Dacia Sandero Stepway supermini/subcompact hatchback (B-segment)
File:2018 Kia Rio X-Line 1.6 front view (FB; Russia-spec).jpg|Kia Rio X-Line supermini/subcompact hatchback (B-segment)
File:2019 Ford Focus Active Ecoboost 1.0.jpg|Ford Focus Active compact hatchback (C-segment)
As most MPVs
are roughly as tall as SUVs to begin with, several manufacturers tried upselling
MPV models by adding crossover-styled variants. Crossover-styled MPVs are usually not offered with all-wheel-drive. This segment is particularly popular in Europe and Asia.
One of the first MPV with a crossover-styled variant was the Renault Scénic RX4
introduced in 2000, which feature a lifted ride height, rugged body cladding, tailgate-mounted spare wheel and offered with part time four-wheel-drive. Another early example also include the Volkswagen CrossTouran
, launched in 2006 as a "lifestyle" version of the Touran. It is fitted with slightly different suspension to give a higher ride height.
In some cases, manufacturers may also went an extensive reengineering in differentiating the crossover-styled model with the standard model by completely reworking the hood area, for example the Suzuki XL6/XL7
, based on the second-generation Ertiga
. In some cases, some brands tried to directly market these models as a crossover SUV as the line between crossover-styled MPV and actual crossover SUV became blurry.
File:Scenic-R4x-img 1843 (cropped).jpg|Renault Scénic RX4
File:VW CrossTouran 1.4 TSI Reflexsilber.JPG|Volkswagen CrossTouran
File:Maruti Suzuki XL6 (front).jpg|Suzuki XL6, based on the Ertiga
Apart from crossover-styled variants equipped with accessories, due to the declining popularity of MPVs and minivans, many manufacturers had also began developing MPVs with crossover-inspired styling from scratch, and may market them either purely as an MPV or as a "crossover MPV". This include the Chevrolet Orlando
, fifth-generation Renault Espace
, Mitsubishi Xpander
, Renault Triber
, and the fourth-generation Kia Carnival
File:2012 Chevrolet Orlando LTZ VCDi Automatic 2.0 Front.jpg|Chevrolet Orlando
File:Renault Espace in Tienen (cropped).JPG|Renault Espace
File:2018 Mitsubishi Xpander Ultimate 1.5 NC1W (20190623).jpg|Mitsubishi Xpander, which in turn is available in a more rugged-looking version called the Xpander Cross
Crossover-styled sedans remained a rare phenomenon, however some manufacturers had experimented with it which led to the release of the Subaru Legacy SUS
(short for "Sport Utility Sedan"), Volvo S60 Cross Country
, Citroën C3L
, Renault/Dacia Logan Stepway
, and the Qoros 3 GT
. Some models such as the Suzuki SX4 sedan
(also called Neo Baleno in Indonesia) has some SUV-inspired design elements (high roofline and ground clearance) though not directly marketed as a crossover sedan.
File:1st Subaru Outback SUS.jpg|Subaru Legacy SUS
File:Volvo S60 Cross Country fl.jpg|Volvo S60 Cross Country
File:2020 Renault Logan Intens (Colombia) front view 01.png|Renault Logan Intens (also called Logan Stepway)
Since the early 2010s, sales of crossover-type vehicles have been increasing in Europe. By 2017, European sales of compact and mid-sized crossover models continued to surge.
Sales of crossovers increased 30% between 2003 and 2005.
By 2006, the segment came into strong visibility in the U.S., when crossover sales "made up more than 50% of the overall SUV market".
Sales increased in 2007 by 16%. In 2013, the Audi Q5
's second best-selling vehicle in the United States market after the Audi A4
sedan. Around half of Lexus
' sales volume has come from its SUVs since the late 1990s.
American manufacturers were initially slow to switch from their emphasis on light truck-based SUVs, and foreign automakers developed crossovers targeting the U.S. market as an alternative to station wagon
s that were unpopular there. But by the 2010 model year, American car manufacturers had caught up.
* Car classification
* List of sport utility vehicles
* Mini SUV
* Recreational vehicle
Category:Crossover sport utility vehicles