HOME
The Info List - County Of Gorizia And Gradisca



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

The PRINCELY COUNTY OF GORIZIA AND GRADISCA (German : Gefürstete Grafschaft Görz und Gradisca; Italian : Principesca Contea di Gorizia e Gradisca; Slovene : Poknežena grofija Goriška
Goriška
in Gradiščanska) was a crown land of the Habsburg dynasty within the Austrian Littoral on the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
, in what is now a multilingual border area of Italy
Italy
and Slovenia
Slovenia
. It was named for its two major urban centers, Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca d\' Isonzo
Isonzo
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 2 History

* 2.1 Province of the Habsburg Empire * 2.2 Border region of Italy
Italy
* 2.3 World War II
World War II
and post-war division

* 3 Culture

* 3.1 Slovene culture * 3.2 Friulian culture * 3.3 Italian culture
Italian culture
* 3.4 German culture

* 4 Religion * 5 Area and population

* 6 Subdivisions

* 6.1 Administrative districts * 6.2 Judicial districts

* 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Sources * 10 External links

GEOGRAPHY

18th century map of the Inner Austrian districts of Görz and Trieste
Trieste

The province stretched along the Soča
Soča
/ Isonzo
Isonzo
River, from its source at Mt. Jalovec in the Julian Alps
Julian Alps
down to the Gulf of Trieste
Trieste
near Monfalcone
Monfalcone
. In the northwest, the Predil Pass
Predil Pass
led to the Duchy of Carinthia , in the northeast Mts. Mangart
Mangart
, Razor and Triglav
Triglav
marked the border with the Duchy of Carniola
Duchy of Carniola
( Upper Carniola
Upper Carniola
).

In the west, Mts. Kanin and Matajur stood on the border with the Friulian region, which until the 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
was part of the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
, from 1815 onwards belonged to the Austrian Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
and finally to the re-established Kingdom of Italy
Italy
from 1866. In the south the province bordered on the territory of the Imperial Free City
Imperial Free City
of Trieste
Trieste
and the Margraviate of Istria
Istria
.

HISTORY

PROVINCE OF THE HABSBURG EMPIRE

The medieval County of Görz
County of Görz
had been acquired by the Austrian Habsburgs in 1500, when the last Meinhardiner count Leonhard died without heir. Habsburg suzerainty was interrupted briefly by the Venetians in 1508/09, before Görz was finally incorporated into the Inner Austrian territories of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
. In 1647 Emperor Ferdinand III elevated the Görz town of Gradisca to an immediate county for the descendants of privy councillor Prince Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg . After the princely House of Eggenberg had become extinct, Gradisca was re-unified with Gorizia
Gorizia
in 1754, creating the COUNTY OF GORIZIA AND GRADISCA (Grafschaft Görz und Gradisca / Contea di Gorizia
Gorizia
e Gradisca).

During the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
, Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca fell under French rule. In 1805, all of its territories on the right bank of the Isonzo river (including the town of Gradisca d\' Isonzo
Isonzo
and the westernmost suburbs of Gorizia
Gorizia
) were assigned to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy . The majority of its territory remained part of the Austrian Empire until 1809, when it was incorporated into the Illyrian Provinces
Illyrian Provinces
under direct domination of the French Empire . In 1813, Austrian rule was restored. The county was established again in its former borders, including the enclaves of Monfalcone
Monfalcone
and Grado , which had been under Venetian control before 1797. Already in 1816, however, the county was included in a wider administrative unit, called Kingdom of Illyria , with the capital in Laibach . In 1849, the Kingdom of Illyria was dissolved, and the Austrian Littoral
Austrian Littoral
was then formed, comprising the County of Gorizia
County of Gorizia
and Gradisca, Trieste
Trieste
and Istria
Istria
. In 1861, the territory of the County gained autonomy as the PRINCELY COUNTY OF GORIZIA AND GRADISCA (Gefürstete Grafschaft Görz und Gradisca/Principesca Contea di Gorizia
Gorizia
e Gradisca/Poknežena grofija Goriška
Goriška
in Gradiščanska), a crown land within Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
. The County had its own provincial parliament and enjoyed a large degree of self-government, although it was formally subjected to an Imperial Governor (Landeshauptmann) with the seat in Trieste, who carried out the government supervision for the whole territory of the Austrian Littoral.

In 1915, Italy
Italy
entered in war against Austria-Hungary. The western part of the county was devastated by the Battles of the Isonzo
Isonzo
, fought between the two armies. In August 1916, Gorizia
Gorizia
was occupied by Italian troops for the first time in its history, but in November 1917 the Austro-Hungarian Army
Austro-Hungarian Army
threw the Italian forces back in the Battle of Caporetto . Large numbers of population were interned in civil camps around the Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
and Italy, while almost half of the province's territory laid in ruins.

In Spring 1918, two mass political movements emerged in the county, demanding larger autonomy within a federalized Habsburg Monarchy. The Slovenes
Slovenes
demanded the union with other South Slavic peoples
South Slavic peoples
into a sovereign Yugoslav state , while the Friulians demanded a special autonomy for the western part of the region, where they were the majority. The two movements did not clash, since they did not contend the same territories. The only open issue was the town of Gorizia
Gorizia
, claimed by both the Slovenes
Slovenes
and the Friulians. An underground movement, known as Italia irredenta
Italia irredenta
(Unredeemed Italy), demanded the unification of Gorizia
Gorizia
with Italy. With the dissolution of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in late October 1918, a short interim period followed, in which no movement was able to establish its authority. In November 1918, the whole territory of the county was occupied by the Italian military which suppressed all political movements challenging her claims on the region.

BORDER REGION OF ITALY

In November 1918, the county was officially abolished and incorporated in the provisional administrative region of Julian March . With the treaties of Rapallo and Saint Germain-en-Laye of 1920, the whole territory of the county became an integral part of the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
. The former Habsburg policy favouring local autonomies was replaced by a strict centralism . The Province of Gorizia
Gorizia
was established, which had very little self-government compared to the old county. The borders of the new province were also partially changed. The new province included some areas of the former Austrian Duchy of Carniola
Carniola
that were assigned to Italy
Italy
by the Peace Treaty (the districts of Idrija
Idrija
, Vipava and Šturje ). On the other hand, most of the territory in the Karst region, which had belonged to the County of Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca, was incorporated in the Province of Trieste
Trieste
, while the district of Cervignano
Cervignano
was included in the Province of Udine .

In 1924, the Province of Gorizia
Gorizia
was abolished and its territory incorporated into the Province of Friuli
Friuli
, whose capital was Udine
Udine
, except for the administrative district of Monfalcone
Monfalcone
and the town of Grado that became part of Province of Trieste. In 1927 the Province of Gorizia
Gorizia
was recreated with approximately the same territory, except for the district of Cervignano
Cervignano
del Friuli
Friuli
which remained under the Province of Udine, and the area of Monfalcone
Monfalcone
and Grado remained part of the Province of Trieste. With the establishment of the Fascist regime , a violent Italianization of the area started. This policy was carried out in three stages: first, all public administration was Italianized, with the Slovene and German losing their previous status of official languages ; second, all education (both public and private) was Italianized; third, all visual presence of Slovene and German languages in public was prohibited. The latter included changing names of villages, prohibition to use a language other than Italian in public, prohibition to give Slavic names to children, forcible changes of Slovenian surnames, etc. This policy was accompanied by political persecutions and intimidations. By 1927, all Slovenian organizations were outlawed, including all media, publishing houses, cultural associations, as well as financial and economic companies owned by Slovenian organizations. Only one publishing house, the Catholic Hermagoras Society , was allowed to publish books in Slovene language, although only religious literature. Most Slovene intellectuals and free professionals were forced to leave the region, many of them settled in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
or emigrated to Argentina
Argentina
.

Between 1927 and 1943, the Province of Gorizia
Gorizia
was an administrative territorial entity of the Fascist regime, governed by a Government-appointed prefect and the local Fascist hierarchy. All municipal autonomy was abolished and the podestà , appointed by the prefect, replaced the elected mayors. All legal political activity outside the regime became impossible and most of the civil society institutions, at least the Slovenian ones, were dismantled.

In 1927, the first militant anti-fascist organization, known as TIGR , was established. The organization, founded by local Slovenes
Slovenes
(mostly young people of liberal , nationalist and social-democratic orientation) carried out several attacks on Italian military and administrative personnel, which further exacerbated the situations in the region. Several Slovenian cultural and political figures were imprisoned, exiled or killed, with the most famous being Lojze Bratuž .

WORLD WAR II AND POST-WAR DIVISION

The Province of Gorizia
Gorizia
within the Operational Zone Adriatic Coast (1943-1945)

In 1941, with the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia
Axis invasion of Yugoslavia
, the situation became even worse. By 1942, the Yugoslav resistance penetrated in the region from the bordering Province of Ljubljana
Ljubljana
. Several important clashes between the resistance and the Italian military happened. After the Italian armistice
Italian armistice
in September 1943, Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
occupied the region, incorporating it into the Operational Zone Adriatic Coast
Operational Zone Adriatic Coast
, led by the Gauleiter
Gauleiter
Friedrich Rainer
Friedrich Rainer
.

Already in September 1943, large portions of the region were taken over by the Communist -led Liberation Front of the Slovenian People
Liberation Front of the Slovenian People
, which established several important bases in the area, including the famous Franja Partisan Hospital . Fights between the Communist-led resistance and the Nazis were frequent. Soon, German authorities adopted a pragmatic approach regarding the local Slovenian population: public use of Slovenian language was allowed again. The anti-Communist collaborationist militia called Slovene Home Guard was also allowed to establish some units in the area, although they had little success in recruiting the locals. At the same time, politically motivated assassinations were carried out by the Communist cells within the resistance movement. Among the victims, there were several Roman Catholic priests and anti-fascists opposed to the Communist ideology.

After the end of World War II
World War II
in 1945, almost the entire region was liberated by the Yugoslav People\'s Army , but was forced to withdraw from its western part. During the forty days of Yugoslav occupation, thousands of Italians
Italians
were arrested by Communist authorities; most of them were released, but several hundred of them perished in the Foibe massacres .

For two years, Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca was a contested region between Italy
Italy
and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
, divided by the so-called Morgan Line
Morgan Line
. The territory west of the line (including the entire Soča
Soča
valley, the lower Vipava Valley and most of the Karst Plateau ) were occupied by British and U.S. forces, while the east remained under Yugoslav military administration. In September 1947, the region was finally divided between the two countries: Yugoslavia got most of the rural territory of the eastern part, while all of the western lowlands and the urban center of Gorizia
Gorizia
were left to Italy. A small portion of the Karst region between Trieste
Trieste
and Duino
Duino
was incorporated into the Zone A of the Allied-administered Free Territory of Trieste
Trieste
(which became part of Italy
Italy
in 1954).

Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca thus ceased to exist as a unified historical region. Its Yugoslav portion became an integral part of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia
Slovenia
: most of its territory was included in the Goriška
Goriška
region, except for the Karst Plateau, which was incorporated into the Littoral–Inner Carniola Statistical Region
Littoral–Inner Carniola Statistical Region
. A new urban center, called Nova Gorica
Nova Gorica
("New Gorizia") was built between the late 1940s and in the early 1950s. The Italian portion became part of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
autonomous region, mostly included in the Province of Gorizia
Gorizia
.

CULTURE

Funeral of the Slovene poet Simon Gregorčič
Simon Gregorčič
in Gorizia
Gorizia
, 1906 A Slovene choir in the Karst region

The county of Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca enjoyed a multicultural environment, where Slavic, German and Latin people lived together and the government respected the right of minorities; it wasn't uncommon for people in this area to speak three or four language.

SLOVENE CULTURE

The County of Gorizia
County of Gorizia
and Gradisca emerged as a major center of Slovene culture in the second half of the 19th century. Already in the early 1860s, Slovene replaced German as the major language of education and administration in the Slovene-inhabited parts of the county. Differently from Styria , Carinthia and even Carniola
Carniola
, there was no assimilation pressure against the Slovene culture in most of Gorizia-Gradisca, so the Slovene culture flourished. Since the 1890s, the State Gymnasium of Gorizia
Gorizia
emerged as one of the most prestigious educational centers in the Slovene Lands
Slovene Lands
: several prominent figures in Slovenian arts, sciences and politics in the early 20th century received their education in this institution. In 1913, the Gymnasium was divided into three parts, with German, Italian and Slovenian as the language of teaching. The Slovenian section of the Gymnasium of Gorizia
Gorizia
thus became the first public high school with Slovene as the primary language of teaching.

Among the prominent figures of Slovene culture from the County of Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca were: the poets Simon Gregorčič
Simon Gregorčič
, Alojz Gradnik , and Joža Lovrenčič , writer Julius Kugy , theologian Anton Mahnič , composer Stanko Premrl
Stanko Premrl
, historian Simon Rutar , painters Jožef Tominc
Jožef Tominc
and Saša Šantel , architect Max Fabiani
Max Fabiani
, philologist Karel Štrekelj , and literary historian Avgust Žigon . Other prominent Slovenes
Slovenes
from Gorizia-Gradisca included politicians Karel Lavrič and Anton Gregorčič , admiral Anton Haus
Anton Haus
, Roman Catholic bishop Frančišek Borgia Sedej , economist Milko Brezigar and the pioneer pilot Edvard Rusjan
Edvard Rusjan
. Prominent Slovenes
Slovenes
who settled in the province from other regions included politician and author Henrik Tuma , historian Franc Kos , linguist Stanislav Škrabec , and jurist, historian and politician Bogumil Vošnjak
Bogumil Vošnjak
.

FRIULIAN CULTURE

See also: Friulian literature

During the 19th century Gorizia
Gorizia
was an important and lively center for the Friulian language . Throughout the century, many old books were republished, new works were composed, and several political and cultural association promoting Friulian culture were founded in the region. This was also thanks to the fact that even the nobility would normally use the language, while for example in Udine
Udine
and in other towns of central Friulian higher classes rather used the Venetian language , because Friulian was seen as the language of peasants.

The County of Gorizia
County of Gorizia
and Gradisca was also important for the Friulian language because it is the only territory in which an official census on speakers of Friulian has been carried out: in 1857, the official Austrian census showed 48.841 Friulians, 130.748 Slovenians, 15.134 Italians
Italians
and 2.150 Germans
Germans
in the County. A second census in 1921, carried out shortly after the annexation to Italy
Italy
gave similar results.

Throughout the 19th century, most educated Friulians gravitated towards the Italian culture
Italian culture
. A distinct Friulian identity existed, but was weak and not well articulated. One of the most prominent Friulian poets from Gorizia-Gradisca in the 19th century, Carlo Favetti , was for example also a fervent Italian irredentist . Others, such as the conservative leader and political author Luigi Faidutti , favoured an autonomous development of Friulian culture within a multicultural framework of the Habsburg Empire . Between 1890 and 1918, the autonomist movement gained widespread support in the countryside, but remained marginal in the urban areas.

ITALIAN CULTURE

During the 19th century, the town of Gorizia
Gorizia
was the only major center of Italian culture
Italian culture
in the region. In the 17th century, Italian emerged as a second language of culture in the town, next to German. Throughout the 18th and early 19th century, Italian culture
Italian culture
flourished in the whole region. Italian was used as a language of education and culture by many noble families, as well as in Slovene and German bourgeois families. Several renowned artists, such as architect Nicolò Pacassi
Nicolò Pacassi
, painters Jožef Tominc
Jožef Tominc
and Franz Caucig
Franz Caucig
, Garibaldin general Ignazio Francesco Scodnik , architect Max Fabiani
Max Fabiani
and author Julius Kugy were educated in a predominantly Italian cultural environment.

The emergence of the Slovene National Awakening in the second half of the 19th century meant a significant setback for the Italian culture in the region. Most families that would previously educate their children in an Italian cultural environment, switched to Slovenian. Another reason for the decrease of Italian cultural influence was the unification of Lombardy-Venetia with the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
in 1866, which radically reduced the influence of Italian culture
Italian culture
within the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and cut off the free cultural exchange between Gorizia-Gradisca and Northern Italy
Italy
.

By the beginning of the 20th century, Italian language
Italian language
lost is previous function as the lingua franca in the region. Gorizia
Gorizia
remained the only important center of Italian culture
Italian culture
in the County, although the percentage of Italian speakers in the town was in constant decrease and dropped under 50% in 1910.

Nevertheless, important figures emerged from the Italian-speaking milieu of Gorizia, such as the prominent philologist Graziadio Isaia Ascoli and philosopher Carlo Michelstaedter , both of whom were of Jewish
Jewish
descent. Composer Rodolfo Lipizer and painters Italico Brass and Vittorio Bolaffio also came from this community. Other minor Italian cultural centres were the towns of Grado and Monfalcone
Monfalcone
, where a dialect of the Venetian language
Venetian language
was spoken. The poet Biagio Marin was the most important representative of this local Italian culture.

GERMAN CULTURE

The German-speaking community represented only a very small portion of the population. They were mostly concentrated in the town of Gorizia, where they represented some 10% of the overall population of the city center. Nevertheless, other factors increased the importance of the German culture in the region. Until the end of World War I
World War I
, the German language
German language
continued to enjoy the prestige acquired in previous centuries, when the great majority of the high culture in the region was linked to the German cultural sphere. Most of the local aristocracy was multilingual, but they spoke mostly German among themselves. Several important noble families resided in the County, and they were often important contributors of arts and literature. They included the Thurn und Taxis
Thurn und Taxis
, the Lanthieri , the Attems Petzenstein , the Windischgraetz
Windischgraetz
, the Coronini Cronberg and the Strassoldo . Furthermore, German had served as a lingua franca for the communication between the single ethnic groups. Until 1913, most of the high education was available only in German.

Among the most prominent members of the German-speaking community of Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca were the chemist Johannes Christian Brunnich
Johannes Christian Brunnich
and explorer and natural scientist Karl von Scherzer
Karl von Scherzer
.

In the 1850s, Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca also emerged as a tourist destination for the Central European elite. Towns such as Gorizia, Grado , Aquileia
Aquileia
, Duino
Duino
, Aurisina , and Most na Soči became important tourist centers in the Austrian Riviera
Austrian Riviera
. Many prominent figures, belonging to the German cultural milieu, frequented these places, making an important contribution to the survival of the local German culture. These include the ethnographer and linguist Karl von Czoernig , poet Rainer Maria Rilke
Rainer Maria Rilke
who wrote his famous Duino
Duino
Elegies while visiting the region, and the renowned chemist Ludwig Boltzmann
Ludwig Boltzmann
.

RELIGION

The vast majority of the population of the County was of Roman Catholic denomination. Gorizia
Gorizia
was one of the most important centers of the Catholic Church in Austria, since it was the seats of the Archbishops of Görz , who were one of the three legal descendants of the Patriarchate of Aquileia
Aquileia
(along with the Patriarchate of Venice and the Archdiocese of Udine
Udine
). Gorizia
Gorizia
was thus the center of a Metropolitan bishopric that comprised the Dioceses of Ljubljana
Ljubljana
, Trieste
Trieste
, Poreč-Pula and Krk . Several important religious figures lived and worked in Gorizia, including cardinal Jakob Missia , bishop Frančišek Borgia Sedej , theologians Anton Mahnič
Anton Mahnič
and Josip Srebrnič , and Franciscan
Franciscan
monk and philologian Stanislav Škrabec . There were many important Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
sacral buildings in the area, among them the sancturies of Sveta Gora ("Holy Mountain") and Barbana , and the monastery of Kostanjevica . Most of the County was included into the Archbidiocese of Gorizia, with the exception of the south-western portion of the Karst Plateau (around Sežana
Sežana
), which was included in the Diocese of Trieste.

According to the census of 1910, there were around 1,400 members of non-Latin Catholic or non-Catholic denominations in the County, which amounted to only around 0,5% of the overall population. Among them, around 750 belonged to various Protestant
Protestant
denominations (mostly Lutherans
Lutherans
), around 340 were of Jewish
Jewish
faith, around 180 Greek Orthodox and around 130 were Greek Catholic
Greek Catholic
.

AREA AND POPULATION

According to the data of the last official census in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in 1910, the County had an area of 2918 km² and 260,721 inhabitants, of which around 20% lived in urban areas (Gorizia, Gradisca, Monfalcone
Monfalcone
, Cormons
Cormons
, Cervignano
Cervignano
, Ronchi , Grado ), around 18% in semi-urban settlements (Podgora, Aquileia
Aquileia
, Staranzano
Staranzano
, Solkan
Solkan
, Šempeter , Duino
Duino
, Ajdovščina , Bovec
Bovec
, Kobarid
Kobarid
, Tolmin
Tolmin
, Sežana
Sežana
, Kanal ob Soči ) and around 62% in rural areas. Among the urban population, some 21% were ethnic Slovenes, some 8% ethnic Germans, while the rest were mostly ethnic Italians. Among the semi-urban population, some 90% were Slovenes
Slovenes
and 10% Italians
Italians
and Friulians, while in the rural population 30% were Friulians and some 70% Slovenes.

The historical demography of the region was the following one:

CENSUS ETHNIC STRUCTURE

YEAR Population of Gorizia-Gradisca Slovenes
Slovenes
% Italians
Italians
and Friulians % Germans
Germans
%

1818 144,008 n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

1857 196,279 130,748 66.6% 62,975 32.1% 2,320 1.2%

1890 222,000 145,000 65.3% 73,000 32.9% 3,000 1.4%

1910 260,721 154,564 59.3% 90,119 34.6% 4,486 1.7%

SUBDIVISIONS

The County was divided into five administrative or "political" districts (Kreise), which were in turn subdivided into judicial districts. The town of Gorizia
Gorizia
had a status of an administrative district.

ADMINISTRATIVE DISTRICTS

* Gorizia
Gorizia
City (Italian : Gorizia
Gorizia
città, Slovene : Gorica mesto, German : Görz Stadt) * Gorizia
Gorizia
Countryside (Italian : Gorizia
Gorizia
Campagna, Slovene : Gorica-dežela, German : Görz Land) * Gradisca d\' Isonzo
Isonzo
(Slovene : Gradišče ob Soči, German : Gradisca) * Monfalcone
Monfalcone
(Slovene : Tržič, German : Neumarktl) * Sežana
Sežana
(Italian and German : Sesana) * Tolmin
Tolmin
(Italian : Tolmino, German : Tolmein)

JUDICIAL DISTRICTS

* Administrative district of Gorizia:

* Gorizia * Kanal ob Soči (Italian : Canale d'Isonzo, German : Kanalburg) * Ajdovščina (Italian : Aidussina, German : Haidenschaft)

* A.d. of Gradisca:

* Gradisca * Cormons
Cormons
(Slovene : Krmin)

* A.d. of Monfalcone:

* Monfalcone
Monfalcone
(Slovene : Tržič) * Cervignano
Cervignano
(Friulian : Çarvingan, Slovene : Červinjan)

* A.d. of Sežana:

* Sežana * Komen (Italian and German : Comeno)

* A.d. of Tolmin:

* Tolmin * Kobarid
Kobarid
(Italian : Caporetto, German : Karfreit) * Bovec
Bovec
(Italian : Plezzo, German : Flitsch) * Cerkno
Cerkno
(Italian : Circhina, German : Kirchheim)

SEE ALSO

* History of Gorizia
Gorizia
* Slovenian Littoral
Slovenian Littoral
* Italia irredenta
Italia irredenta

REFERENCES

* ^ Branko Marušič, Pregled politične zgodovine Slovencev na Goriškem (Nova Gorica: Goriški muzej, 2005)

SOURCES

* Branko Marušič
Branko Marušič
;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Crown lands of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire

* Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
* Kingdom of Croatia * Kingdom of Dalmatia
Kingdom of Dalmatia
* Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
* Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
* Kingdom of Illyria * Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia * Kingdom of Slavonia
Kingdom of Slavonia
* Archduchy of Austria
Archduchy of Austria
* Duchy of Bukovina
Duchy of Bukovina
* Duchy of Carinthia
Duchy of Carinthia
* Duchy of Carniola
Duchy of Carniola
* Duchy of Styria
Duchy of Styria
* Duchy of Salzburg
Duchy of Salzburg
* Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia * Grand Principality
Principality
of Transylvania * Margravate of Istria
Margravate of Istria
* Margraviate of Moravia
Margraviate of Moravia
* Princely County of Tyrol
County of Tyrol
* County of Gorizia
County of Gorizia
and Gradisca * Voivodeship of Serbia and Temes Banat
Voivodeship of Serbia and Temes Banat
* Imperial Free City
Imperial Free City
of Trieste
Trieste
* Military Frontier
Military Frontier

* v * t * e

Subdivisions of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary

CISLEITHANIA

* Archduchy of Austria
Archduchy of Austria
* Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
* Duchy of Bukovina
Duchy of Bukovina
* Duchy of Carinthia
Duchy of Carinthia
* Duchy of Carniola
Duchy of Carniola
* Kingdom of Dalmatia
Kingdom of Dalmatia
* Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria

* Austrian Littoral
Austrian Littoral

* Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca * Istria
Istria
* Trieste
Trieste

* Margraviate of Moravia
Margraviate of Moravia
* Duchy of Salzburg
Duchy of Salzburg
* Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia * Duchy of Styria
Duchy of Styria
* County of Tyrol
County of Tyrol

TRANSLEITHANIA

* Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
* Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
* Fiume and its surroundings * Military Frontier
Military Frontier
(1867–1882)

CONDOMINIUMS

* Province of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1878–1918) * Sanjak of Novi Pazar
Sanjak of Novi Pazar
(1878–1908) * Carpathian passes (1918) * Concession zone in Tianjin (1901–1917)

* v * t * e

Former states of the Italian Peninsula, Savoy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and Malta

Etruscan civilization

* Lega dei popoli

* Etruscan dodecapolis
Etruscan dodecapolis

Ancient Rome

* Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
(753 BC–509 BC)

* Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(509 BC–27 BC)

* Roman Italy
Italy
* Sicilia (241 BC–476 AD) * Corsica and Sardinia
Corsica and Sardinia
(238 BC–455 AD)

* Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(27 BC–395 AD)

* Praetorian prefecture of Italy
Italy
(337 AD–584 AD) * Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(285 AD–476 AD)

Medieval and Early Modern states

Early Italian Kingdom (476-774)

* Odoacer\'s rule (476–493) * Ostrogothic rule (493–553) * Vandal rule (435–534)

* Lombard rule (568–774)

* Duchy of Benevento
Duchy of Benevento
* Duchy of Friuli
Friuli
* Duchy of Ivrea
Duchy of Ivrea
* Duchy of Spoleto
Duchy of Spoleto
* Duchy of Tridentum

Holy Roman Kingdom of Italy (774/962–1806), Papal States
Papal States
and other independent states

* March of Ancona * Duchy of Aosta
Duchy of Aosta
* Patria del Friuli
Friuli
(Patriarchate of Aquileia) * Bishopric of Bressanone * Duchy of Castro
Duchy of Castro
* Commune of Rome * Marquisate of Ceva * Republic of Cospaia * Duchy of Ferrara * Marquisate of Finale
Marquisate of Finale
* City of Fiume and its District * Republic of Florence
Republic of Florence
* Duchy of Florence
Duchy of Florence
* March of Friuli
Friuli
* Republic of Genoa
Republic of Genoa
* Republic of Noli * County of Gorizia
County of Gorizia
* Princely County of Gorizia
County of Gorizia
and Gradisca * County of Guastalla * Duchy of Guastalla * Kingdom of Illyria * March of Istria
March of Istria
* Duchy of Ivrea
Duchy of Ivrea
* Republic of Lucca
Republic of Lucca
* Margravate of Mantua
Margravate of Mantua
* Duchy of Mantua
Duchy of Mantua
* Duchy of Massa and Carrara
Duchy of Massa and Carrara
* Duchy of Merania * Duchy of Milan
Duchy of Milan
* Duchy of Mirandola * Duchy of Modena and Reggio
Duchy of Modena and Reggio
* March of Montferrat
March of Montferrat
* Duchy of Montferrat
Duchy of Montferrat
* County of Nizza * Duchy of Parma
Duchy of Parma
* Principality
Principality
of Piedmont * Principality
Principality
of Piombino * Republic of Pisa
Republic of Pisa
* Duchy of Reggio * Marquisate of Saluzzo
Marquisate of Saluzzo
* County of Savoy
County of Savoy
* Duchy of Savoy
Duchy of Savoy
* Republic of Siena
Republic of Siena
* Duchy of Spoleto
Duchy of Spoleto
* Terra Sancti Benedicti
Terra Sancti Benedicti
* Bishopric of Trento * March of Turin * March of Tuscany
March of Tuscany
* Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
* County of Tirolo * Duchy of Urbino
Duchy of Urbino
* March of Verona * Imperial Free City
Imperial Free City
of Trieste
Trieste

Byzantine Empire (584-751)

* Exarchate of Ravenna
Exarchate of Ravenna
(584–751)

* Duchy of Rome
Duchy of Rome
(533–751) * Duchy of Perugia (554–752) * Duchy of the Pentapolis
Duchy of the Pentapolis
(554–752)

* Exarchate of Africa
Exarchate of Africa
(585–698)

Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
(697–1797)

* Dogado
Dogado
* Stato da Màr
Stato da Màr
* Domini di Terraferma
Domini di Terraferma

Southern Italy (774–1139)

BYZANTINE

* Duchy of Amalfi
Duchy of Amalfi
* Duchy of Gaeta * Catepanate of Italy
Italy
* Longobardia
Longobardia
* Theme of Lucania * Duchy of Naples
Duchy of Naples
* Sicily (theme) and Byzantine Sicily
Byzantine Sicily
* Duchy of Sorrento

ARAB

* Emirate of Bari
Emirate of Bari
* Emirate of Sicily
Emirate of Sicily

LOMBARD

* Principality
Principality
of Benevento * Principality
Principality
of Salerno * Principality
Principality
of Capua

NORMAN

* County of Apulia and Calabria
County of Apulia and Calabria
* County of Aversa * County of Sicily
County of Sicily
* Principality
Principality
of Taranto

Sardinia and Corsica (9th century–1420)

* Giudicati
Giudicati

* Giudicato of Agugliastra
Giudicato of Agugliastra
* Giudicato of Arborea
Giudicato of Arborea
* Giudicato of Cagliari
Giudicato of Cagliari
* Giudicato of Gallura
Giudicato of Gallura
* Giudicato of Logudoro
Giudicato of Logudoro

* Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica
Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica
* Corsican Republic
Corsican Republic
(1755–1769)

Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
(1130–1816) and Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Naples
(1282–1816)

* State of the Presidi
State of the Presidi
* Duke of San Donato * Duchy of Sora
Duchy of Sora
* Principality
Principality
of Taranto * Neapolitan Republic (1647–1648) * Malta under the Order * Gozo * Malta Protectorate
Malta Protectorate
* Crown Colony of Malta
Crown Colony of Malta

French Revolutionary and Napoleonic era (1792–1815)

REPUBLICS

* Alba * Ancona * Bergamo * Bologna * Brescia * Cisalpinia * Cispadania * Crema * Italy
Italy
* Liguria * Lucca * Parthenopea * Piedmont * Rome * Subalpinia * Tiberinia * Transpadania

MONARCHIES

* Benevento * Etruria * Guastalla * Italy
Italy
* Lucca and Piombino * Massa and Carrara * Naples * Pontecorvo * Tuscany * Elba * Corsica

Post-Napoleonic states

* Duchy of Genoa (1815–1848) * Duchy of Lucca
Duchy of Lucca
(1815–1847) * Duchy of Massa and Carrara
Duchy of Massa and Carrara
(1814–1829) * Duchy of Modena and Reggio
Duchy of Modena and Reggio
(1814–1859) * Duchy of Parma
Duchy of Parma
(1814–1859) * Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
(1815–1859) * Italian United Provinces
Italian United Provinces
(1831) * Provisional Government of Milan (1848) * Republic of San Marco
Republic of San Marco
(1848–1849) * Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(1849) * United Provinces of Central Italy
Italy
(1859–1860) * Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
(1814–1860) * Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
(1816–1861) * Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
(1815–1866) * Papal States
Papal States
(1814–1870)

POST-UNIFICATION

* Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(1861–1946)

*