The term COCKNEY has had several distinct geographical, social, and
linguistic associations. Originally a pejorative term applied to all
city-dwellers, it was eventually restricted to Londoners and
particularly to "Bow-bell Cockneys": those born within earshot of Bow
Bells , the bells of
St Mary-le-Bow in the
Cheapside district of the
London . It eventually came to be used to refer to those in
London's East End , or to all working-class Londoners generally.
Linguistically, cockney English refers to the accent or dialect of
English traditionally spoken by working-class Londoners. By the 1980s
and 1990s, many aspects of cockney English had become part of general
South East English speech, producing a variant known as Estuary
English . Today cockney-speaking areas include parts of
Billericay , Brentwood ,
Sidcup , Welling
Eltham among others.
* 2 Area
* 3 Notable people
* 4 Use in films
* 5 Migration and evolution
* 6 Speech
* 6.1 Typical features
* 6.2 Perception
* 6.3 Spread
* 6.3.1 Scotland
* 6.3.2 England
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 9 Bibliography
* 10 External links
A costume associated with cockneys is that of the pearly King or
Queen , worn by
London costermongers who sew thousands of pearl
buttons onto their clothing in elaborate and creative patterns.
The earliest recorded use of the term is 1362 in passus VI of William
Piers Plowman , where it is used to mean "a small,
misshapen egg ", from
Middle English coken + ey ("a cock 's egg").
Concurrently, the mythical land of luxury
Cockaigne (attested from
1305) appeared under a variety of spellings—including Cockayne,
Cocknay, and Cockney—and became humorously associated with the
The present meaning of cockney comes from its use among rural
Englishmen (attested in 1520) as a pejorative term for effeminate
town-dwellers, from an earlier general sense (encountered in "the
Reeve\'s Tale " of
Geoffrey Chaucer 's
Canterbury Tales c. 1386) of
a "cokenay" as "a child tenderly brought up" and, by extension, "an
effeminate fellow" or "a milksop". This may have developed from the
sources above or separately, alongside such terms as "cock" and
"cocker" which both have the sense of "to make a nestle-cock... or
darling of", "to indulge or pamper". By 1600, this meaning of
cockney was being particularly associated with the
Bow Bells area.
In 1617, the travel writer
Fynes Moryson stated in his Itinerary that
"Londoners, and all within the sound of
Bow Bells , are in reproach
called Cockneys." The same year,
John Minsheu included the term in
this newly restricted sense in his dictionary Ductor in Linguas. The
use of the term to describe all Londoners generally, however, survived
into the 19th century before becoming restricted to the working class
and their particular accent. The term is now used loosely to describe
all East Londoners , although some distinguish the areas (such as
Canning Town ) that were added to
London in 1964.
Example of a cockney accent
Michael Caine who grew up in
Southwark , London, recorded
September 2010 from the
BBC Radio 4 programme Front Row
Problems playing this file? See media help .
The region in which cockneys are thought to reside is not clearly
defined. A common view is that in order to be a cockney, one must have
been born within earshot of
Bow Bells , the bells of
St Mary-le-Bow .
However, the church of
St Mary-le-Bow was destroyed in 1666 by the
Great Fire of
London and rebuilt by
Sir Christopher Wren . Although
the bells were destroyed again in 1941 in the Blitz , they had fallen
silent on 13 June 1940 as part of the British anti-invasion
World War II
World War II . Before they were replaced in 1961,
there was a period when, by the "within earshot" definition, no "Bow
Bell" cockneys could be born. The use of such a literal definition
produces other problems, since the area around the church is no longer
residential and the noise of the area makes it unlikely that many
people would now be born within earshot of the bells, although the
London Hospital , Guy\'s Hospital and St Thomas\' Hospital are
within the defined area covered by the sound of the Bow Bells. The
closest maternity units would be the City of
Finsbury Square , but this hospital was bombed out during
World War II
World War II Blitz, and St Bartholomew\'s Hospital (or Barts),
whose maternity department closed in the late 1980s. The East London
Maternity Hospital in Stepney, which was 2.5 miles from St
Mary-le-Bow, was in use from 1884 to 1968. There is a maternity unit
still in use at the Royal
London Hospital in
Whitechapel . Home births
were very common until the late 1960s.
A study was carried out by the City in 2000 to see how far away Bow
Bells could be heard, and it was estimated that the bells would have
been heard up to six miles to the east, five miles to the north, three
miles to the south, and four miles to the west. According to the
Dick Whittington the bells could once be heard from as far
away as the Highgate Archway (4.5 miles north). The association of
cockneys with the East End in the public imagination may be due to
many people assuming that
Bow Bells are to be found in the district of
Bow , rather than the lesser known
St Mary-le-Bow church in Cheapside
in the City of
London . Thus while all East Enders are cockneys, not
all cockneys are East Enders.
The traditional core districts of the East End are
Bethnal Green ,
Limehouse , Poplar ,
Cubitt Town , Hackney
Hoxton , Bow and
Mile End . "The Borough" to the south of Waterloo,
London and Tower Bridge were also considered cockney before
redevelopment all but extinguished the local working-class areas, and
Bermondsey is the only cockney area south of the
River Thames ,
Pearly Kings and Queens
Pearly Kings and Queens can be found as far out as Peckham
Penge . The area north of the Thames gradually expanded to include
East Ham , Stratford ,
West Ham and Plaistow as more land was built
Becontree estate was built by the Corporation of
house poor residents of London's East End on what was previously a
rural area of Essex, and Peter Wright wrote that most of the residents
identified as cockneys rather than as
John Keats (poet, born in
Finsbury ) was said to speak with a
Michael Caine (actor, born in
The Kray Twins , Villains, born in
Hoxton and lived in Bethnal
Barbara Windsor , actress, born in
Shoreditch and lived in Stoke
Jason Statham , actor, born in Shirebrook and lived in Great
Hoxton Tom McCourt , musician, face, born in
Shoreditch and lived
Lenny McLean , bare knuckle/unlicensed boxer, actor, born in
Ray Winstone (actor, born in
Danny Baker (broadcaster, born in
* Mike Reid (actor, comedian, born in Central
Danny Dyer (actor, born in
Canning Town )
Amy Winehouse (singer)
USE IN FILMS
* Many of
Ken Loach 's early films were set in London. Loach has a
reputation for using genuine dialect speakers in films:
* 3 Clear Sundays
Up the Junction
Cathy Come Home
The Long Good Friday . The DVD of this film has an extra feature
that explains the rhyming slang used.
My Fair Lady
MIGRATION AND EVOLUTION
Linguistic research conducted in the early 2010s suggests that today,
certain elements of cockney English are declining in usage within the
East End of
London and the accent has migrated to Outer
London and the
Home Counties . In London's East End, some traditional features of
cockney have been displaced by a
Jamaican Creole -influenced variety
popular among young Londoners (sometimes referred to as "
particularly, though far from exclusively, those of Afro-Caribbean
descent. Nevertheless, the glottal stop , double negatives, and the
vocalisation of the dark L (and other features of cockney speech),
along with some rhyming slang terms are still in common usage.
An influential July 2010 report by Paul Kerswill, Professor of
Sociolinguistics at Lancaster University, Multicultural
: the emergence, acquisition and diffusion of a new variety, predicted
that the cockney accent will disappear from London's streets within 30
years. The study, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council
, said that the accent, which has been around for more than 500 years,
is being replaced in
London by a new hybrid language. "
Cockney in the
East End is now transforming itself into Multicultural
a new, melting-pot mixture of all those people living here who learnt
English as a second language", Prof Kerswill said.
Conversely, migration of cockney speakers has led to migration of the
Essex , planned towns that grew from post-war migration
Harlow ) often have a strong cockney
influence on local speech. However, this is, except where least mixed,
difficult to discern because of common features: linguistic historian
and researcher of early dialects
Alexander John Ellis in 1890 stated
that cockney developed owing to the influence of
Essex dialect on
The dialect eventually moved out of inner-city
London towards the
outskirts of suburban
London and into the
Home Counties . Today
cockney-speaking areas include parts of
Billericay , Brentwood ,
Example of a
Cockney accent Voice of
Danny Baker , recorded
July 2007 from the
BBC Radio 4 programme
Desert Island Discs
Problems playing this file? See media help .
Cockney speakers have a distinctive accent and dialect, and
occasionally use rhyming slang . The
Survey of English Dialects
Survey of English Dialects took a
recording from a long-time resident of Hackney, and the
another recording in 1999 which showed how the accent had changed.
John Camden Hotten, in his Slang Dictionary of 1859, makes reference
to "their use of a peculiar slang language" when describing the
costermongers of London's East End. In terms of other slang, there are
also several borrowings from
Yiddish , including kosher (originally
Hebrew, via Yiddish, meaning legitimate) and stumm (/ʃtʊm/
originally German, via Yiddish, meaning quiet), as well as Romany ,
for example wonga (meaning money, from the Romany "wanga" meaning
coal), and cushty (Kushty) (from the Romany kushtipen, meaning good).
A fake cockney accent is sometimes called mockney .
Closing diphthongs of
Cockney on a vowel chart (from Mott (2012
:77)). This chart gives only a general idea of the closing diphthongs
of Cockney, as they are much more variable than the realizations shown
on the chart. There are also three closing diphthongs that are
missing, namely /ɪi, ʊʉ, oʊ/. Centering diphthongs of
Cockney on a vowel chart (from Mott (2012 :77))
* As with many accents of the United Kingdom, cockney is non-rhotic
. A final -er is pronounced or lowered in broad cockney. As with all
or nearly all non-rhotic accents, the paired lexical sets COMMA and
LETTER, PALM/BATH and START, THOUGHT and NORTH/FORCE, are merged.
Thus, the last syllable of words such as cheetah can be pronounced as
well in broad cockney.
* Broad /ɑː/ is used in words such as bath, path, demand . This
London in the 16th–17th centuries and is also part of
Received Pronunciation (RP).
T-glottalisation : use of the glottal stop as an allophone of /t/
in various positions, including after a stressed syllable. Glottal
stops also occur, albeit less frequently for /k/ and /p/, and
occasionally for mid-word consonants. For example, Richard Whiteing
spelt "Hyde Park" as Hy′ Par′. Like and light can be homophones.
"Clapham" can be said as Cla'am (i. e., ). /t/ may also be flapped
intervocalically, e.g. utter .
London /p, t, k/ are often aspirated in
intervocalic and final environments, e.g., upper , utter , rocker , up
, out , rock , where RP is traditionally described as having the
unaspirated variants. Also, in broad cockney at least, the degree of
aspiration is typically greater than in RP, and may often also involve
some degree of affrication . Affricatives may be encountered in
initial, intervocalic, and final position.
* This feature results in cockney being often mentioned in textbooks
about Semitic languages while explaining how to pronounce the glottal
* /θ/ can become in any environment. "thin", "maths".
* /ð/ can become in any environment except word-initially when it
can be . "they", "bother".
* Yod-coalescence in words such as tune or reduce (compare
traditional RP ).
H-dropping . Sivertsen considers that is to some extent a
stylistic marker of emphasis in cockney.
* Diphthong alterations:
* /iː/ → : "beet"
* /eɪ/ → : "bait"
* /aɪ/ → or even in "vigorous, dialectal" cockney. The second
element may be reduced or absent (with compensatory lengthening of the
first element), so that there are variants such as . This means that
pairs such as laugh-life, Barton-biting may become homophones: , . But
this neutralisation is an optional, recoverable one: "bite"
* /ɔɪ/ → : "choice"
* /uː/ → or a monophthongal , perhaps with little lip rounding,
or : "boot"
* /əʊ/ → this diphthong typically starts in the area of the
London /ʌ/, . The endpoint may be , but more commonly it is rather
opener and/or completely unrounded, i.e. or . Thus, the most common
variants are and , with and also being possible. The broadest
cockney variant approaches . There's also a variant that is used only
by women, namely . In addition, there are two monophthongal
pronunciations, as in 'no, nah' and , which is used in non-prominent
* /ɪə/ and /eə/ have somewhat tenser onsets than in RP: ,
* /ʊə/, according to Wells (1982b) , is being increasingly merged
with /ɔː/ ~ /ɔə/.
* /aʊ/ may be or .
* /ɪə/, /eə/, /ʊə/, /ɔə/ and /aʊ/ can be monophthongised to
, , (if it doesn't merge with /ɔː/ ~ /ɔə/), and ~ . Wells
(1982b) states that "no rigid rules can be given for the distribution
of monophthongal and diphthongal variants, though the tendency seems
to be for the monophthongal variants to be commonest within the
utterance, but the diphthongal realisations in utterance-final
position, or where the syllable in question is otherwise prominent."
* Triphthongal realizations of /iə, eə, ɔə, æʊ/ are also
possible, and are regarded as "very strongly Cockney". Among these,
the triphthongal realization of /ɔə/ occurs most commonly. There is
not a complete agreement about the distribution of these; according to
Wells (1982b) , they "occur in sentence-final position", whereas
according to Mott (2012) , these are "most common in final position".
* Other vowel differences include
* /æ/ may be or , with the latter occurring before voiced
consonants, particularly before /d/: "back", "bad"
* /ɛ/ may be , , or before certain voiced consonants, particularly
before /d/: "bed"
* /ɒ/ may be a somewhat less open : "cot"
* /ɑː/ has a fully back variant, qualitatively equivalent to
cardinal 5 , which Beaken (1971) claims characterises "vigorous,
* /ɜː/ is on occasion somewhat fronted and/or lightly rounded,
giving cockney variants such as , .
* /ʌ/ → or a quality like that of cardinal 4, : "jumped up"
* /ɔː/ → or a closing diphthong of the type when in non-final
position, with the latter variants being more common in broad cockney:
"sauce"-"source", "lord", "water"
* /ɔː/ → or a centring diphthong/triphthong of the type when
in final position, with the latter variants being more common in broad
cockney; thus "saw"-"sore"-"soar", "law"-"lore", "war"-"wore". The
diphthong is retained before inflectional endings, so that board and
pause can contrast with bored and paws . /ɔə/ has a somewhat
tenser onset than the cardinal /ɔ/, that is .
* /əʊ/ becomes something around or even in broad cockney before
dark l . These variants are retained when the addition of a suffix
turns the dark l clear . Thus a phonemic split has occurred in London
English, exemplified by the minimal pair wholly vs. holy . The
L-vocalisation (see next section) leads to further
pairs such as sole-soul vs. so-sew , bowl vs. Bow , shoulder vs.
odour , while associated vowel neutralisations may make doll a
homophone of dole, compare dough . All this reinforces the phonemic
nature of the opposition and increases its functional load. It is now
well-established in all kinds of London-flavoured accents, from broad
cockney to near-RP.
* /ʊ/ in some words (particularly good) is central . In other
cases, it is near-close near-back , as in traditional RP.
* Vocalisation of dark L , hence for
Millwall . The actual
realisation of a vocalised /l/ is influenced by surrounding vowels and
it may be realised as , , or . It is also transcribed as a semivowel
by some linguists, e.g., Coggle and Rosewarne. However, according to
Ladefoged these include:
* In broad cockney, and to some extent in general popular London
speech, a vocalised /l/ is entirely absorbed by a preceding /ɔː/:
e.g., salt and sort become homophones (although the contemporary
pronunciation of salt /sɒlt/ would prevent this from happening), and
likewise fault-fought-fort, pause-Paul's, Morden-Malden, water-Walter.
Sometimes such pairs are kept apart, in more deliberate speech at
least, by a kind of length difference: Morden vs. Malden.
* A preceding /ə/ is also fully absorbed into vocalised /l/. The
reflexes of earlier /əl/ and earlier /ɔː(l)/ are thus phonetically
similar or identical; speakers are usually ready to treat them as the
same phoneme. Thus awful can best be regarded as containing two
occurrences of the same vowel, /ˈɔːfɔː/. The difference between
musical and music-hall, in an
H-dropping broad cockney, is thus
nothing more than a matter of stress and perhaps syllable boundaries.
* With the remaining vowels a vocalised /l/ is not absorbed, but
remains phonetically present as a back vocoid in such a way that /Vl/
and /V/ are kept distinct.
* The clearest and best-established neutralisations are those of
/ɪ~iː~ɪə/ and /ʊ~uː~ʊə/. Thus rill, reel and real fall
together in cockney as ; while full and fool are and may rhyme with
cruel . Before clear (i.e., prevocalic) /l/ the neutralisations do not
usually apply, thus silly but ceiling-sealing, fully but fooling.
* In some broader types of cockney, the neutralisation of
/ʊ~uː~ʊə/ before non-prevocalic /l/ may also involve /ɔː/, so
that fall becomes homophonous with full and fool .
* The other pre-/l/ neutralisation which all investigators agree on
is that of /æ~eɪ~aʊ/. Thus, Sal and sale can be merged as , fail
and fowl as , and Val, vale-veil and vowel as . The typical
pronunciation of railway is .
* According to Siversten, /ɑː/ and /aɪ/ can also join in this
neutralisation. They may on the one hand neutralise with respect to
one another, so that snarl and smile rhyme, both ending , and Child's
Hill is in danger of being mistaken for Charles Hill; or they may go
further into a fivefold neutralisation with the one just mentioned, so
that pal, pale, foul, snarl and pile all end in . But these
developments are evidently restricted to broad cockney, not being
London speech in general.
* A neutralisation discussed by Beaken (1971) and Bowyer (1973), but
ignored by Siversten (1960), is that of /ɒ~əʊ~ʌ/. It leads to the
possibility of doll, dole and dull becoming homophonous as or .
Wells' impression is that the doll-dole neutralisation is rather
widespread in London, but that involving dull less so.
* One further possible neutralisation in the environment of a
following non-prevocalic /l/ is that of /ɛ/ and /ɜː/, so that well
and whirl become homophonous as .
Cockney has been occasionally described as replacing /ɹ/ with
/w/. For example, thwee (or fwee) instead of three, fwasty instead of
frosty. Peter Wright, a
Survey of English Dialects
Survey of English Dialects fieldworker,
concluded that this was not a universal feature of cockneys but that
it was more common to hear this in the
London area than anywhere else
in Britain. This description may also be a result of mishearing the
labiodental R as /w/, when it is still a distinct phoneme in cockney.
* An unstressed final -ow may be pronounced . In broad cockney this
can be lowered to . This is common to most traditional, Southern
English dialects except for those in the
West Country .
* Grammatical features:
* Use of me instead of my, for example, "At's me book you got 'ere".
Cannot be used when "my" is emphasised; e.g., "At's my book you got
'ere" (and not "his").
* Use of ain\'t
* Use of double negatives , for example "I didn't see nuffink".
By the 1980s and 1990s, most of the features mentioned above had
partly spread into more general south-eastern speech, giving the
Estuary English ; an Estuary speaker will use some but
not all of the cockney sounds.
The cockney accent has long been looked down upon and thought of as
inferior by many. For example, in 1909 the Conference on the Teaching
of English in
London Elementary Schools issued by the
Council , stating that "the
Cockney mode of speech, with its
unpleasant twang, is a modern corruption without legitimate
credentials, and is unworthy of being the speech of any person in the
capital city of the Empire ". Others defended the language variety:
London dialect is really, especially on the South side of the
Thames, a perfectly legitimate and responsible child of the old
kentish tongue the dialect of
London North of the Thames has been
shown to be one of the many varieties of the Midland or Mercian
dialect, flavoured by the East Anglian variety of the same speech".
Since then, the cockney accent has been more accepted as an
alternative form of the English language rather than an inferior one.
In the 1950s, the only accent to be heard on the
BBC (except in
entertainment programmes such as
The Sooty Show ) was RP , whereas
nowadays many different accents, including cockney or accents heavily
influenced by it, can be heard on the BBC. In a survey of 2,000
people conducted by Coolbrands in the autumn of 2008, cockney was
voted equal fourth coolest accent in Britain with 7% of the votes,
while The Queen\'s English was considered the coolest, with 20% of the
Brummie was voted least popular, receiving just 2%.
Studies have indicated that the heavy use of South East England
accents on television and radio may be the cause of the spread of
cockney English since the 1960s.
Cockney is more and more
influential and some claim that in the future many features of the
accent may become standard.
Studies have indicated that working-class adolescents in areas such
Glasgow have begun to use certain aspects of cockney and other
Anglicisms in their speech. infiltrating the traditional Glasgow
patter . For example, TH-fronting is commonly found, and typical
Scottish features such as the postvocalic /r/ are reduced. Research
suggests the use of English speech characteristics is likely to be a
result of the influence of
South East England accents
featuring heavily on television. For example, the popularity of the
BBC One soap opera,
Eastenders . However, such claims have been
Certain features of cockney –
T-glottalisation , and the fronting of the GOAT and GOOSE vowels –
have spread across the south-east of England and, to a lesser extent,
to other areas of Britain. However,
Clive Upton has noted that these
features have occurred independently in some other dialects, such as
TH-fronting in Yorkshire and
L-vocalisation in parts of Scotland.
Estuary English has been used to describe London
pronunciations that are slightly closer to RP than cockney. The
variety first came to public prominence in an article by David
Rosewarne in the
Times Educational Supplement in October 1984.
Rosewarne argued that it may eventually replace Received Pronunciation
in the south-east. The phonetician
John C. Wells collected media
Estuary English on a website. Writing in April 2013,
Wells argued that research by Joanna Przedlacka "demolished the claim
that EE was a single entity sweeping the southeast. Rather, we have
various sound changes emanating from working-class
London speech, each
* Language portal
* Sociology portal
Languages of the United Kingdom
List of British regional nicknames
* ^ A B "Born within the sound of Bow Bells". Phrases.org.uk.
Retrieved 18 January 2013.
* ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cockney". Encyclopædia
Britannica . 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 627.
* ^ Green, Jonathon "Cockney".
Oxford English Dictionary .
Retrieved April 10, 2017.
* ^ Miller, Marjorie (July 8, 2001). "Say what? London\'s cockney
culture looks a bit different".
Chicago Tribune .
* ^ Oakley, Malcolm (30 September 2013). "History of The East
London Cockney". East
* ^ A B
Oxford English Dictionary (Second ed.). Oxford University
Press . 1989. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 24
* ^ A B Hotten, John Camden (1859). "Cockney". A dictionary of
modern slang, cant and vulgar words . p. 22. COCKNEY: a native of
London. An ancient nickname implying effeminacy, used by the oldest
English writers, and derived from the imaginary fool's paradise, or
Oxford English Dictionary (Second ed.). Oxford University Press
. 2009. access-date= requires url= (help )
* ^ Note, however, that the earliest attestation of this particular
usage provided by the
Oxford English Dictionary is from 1824 and
consists of a tongue-in-cheek allusion to an existing notion of
* ^ Whittington, Robert. Vulgaria. 1520.
* ^ "This cokneys and tytyllynges... may abide no sorrow when they
come to age... In this great cytees as London, York, Perusy and
such... the children be so nycely and wantonly brought up... that
commonly they can little good.
* ^ Cumberledge, Geoffrey. F. N. Robinson, ed. The Poetical Works
of Geoffrey Chaucer.
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press . p. 70 & 1063.
* ^ Locke, John (1695). Some thoughts concerning education (Third
ed.). p. 7.
* ^ " ...I shall explain myself more particularly; only laying down
this as a general and certain observation for the women to consider,
viz. that most children's constitutions are spoiled, or at least
harmed, by cockering and tenderness."
* ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "cocker, v.1" & "cock, v.6".
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1891
* ^ Rowlands, Samuel . The Letting of Humours Blood in the
* ^ "Bow Bells". London.lovesguide.com. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 August 2007.
* ^ "
Cockney (Grose 1811 Dictionary)". Fromoldbooks.org. Retrieved
18 January 2013.
* ^ Grose, Francis. "A classical dictionary of the vulgar tongue".
Project Gutenberg e-text. gutenberg.org. Retrieved 24 March 2009.
* ^ "A
Cockney or a Cocksie, applied only to one born within the
sound of Bow bell, that is in the City of London". Note, however, that
his proffered etymology —from either "cock" and "neigh" or from the
Latin incoctus—were both erroneous. The humorous folk etymology
which grew up around the derivation from "cock" and "neigh" was
Francis Grose 's 1785 Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar
A citizen of London, being in the country, and hearing a horse neigh,
exclaimed, Lord! how that horse laughs! A by-stander telling him that
noise was called Neighing, the next morning, when the cock crowed, the
citizen to shew he had not forgot what was told him, cried out, Do you
hear how the Cock Neighs? * ^
* ^ J. Swinnerton, The
London Companion (Robson, 2004), p. 21.
* ^ Wright (1981 :11)
* ^ Oxford English Dictionary
* ^ Wright (1981 :146)
* ^ "Screening Room Special: Michael Caine" (29 October 2007). CNN.
25 June 2015.
* ^ "Ray Winstone: Me cockney accent won the role". WhatsonTV (13
November 2016). Retrieved 17 January 2017.
* ^ A B C "
Cockney to disappear from
London \'within 30 years\'".
bbc.co.uk. 1 July 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
* ^ Ellis (1890 :35, 57, 58)
* ^ British Library (10 March 2009). "Survey of English Dialects,
Hackney, London". Sounds.bl.uk. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
* ^ British Library (10 March 2009). "British Library Archival
Sound Recordings". Sounds.bl.uk. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
* ^ "Definition of shtumm". Allwords.com. 14 September 2007.
Retrieved 18 January 2013.
* ^ "money slang history, words, expressions and money slang
meanings, london cockney money slang words meanings expressions".
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* Grose\'s 1811 dictionary
Cockney Rhyming Slang translator
* Money slang expressions
* Sounds Familiar? – Listen to examples of
London and other