CHRISTIAN SYMBOLISM is the use of symbols , including archetypes ,
acts, artwork or events, by
Christianity . It invests objects or
actions with an inner meaning expressing Christian ideas.
The symbolism of the early Church was characterized by being
understood by initiates only, while after the legalization of
Christianity in the 4th-century more recognizable symbols entered in
Christianity has borrowed from the common stock of significant
symbols known to most periods and to all regions of the world.
Christianity has not generally practiced Aniconism , or the avoidance
or prohibition of types of images, even if the early Jewish Christians
sects, as well as some modern denominations , preferred to some extent
not to use figures in their symbols, by invoking the Decalogue\'s
prohibition of idolatry .
* 1 Early Christian symbols
* 1.1 Cross and crucifix
Alpha and Omega
Alpha and Omega Α Ω
* 1.6 IH
* 1.7 IX
* 2 Other Christian symbols
* 2.1 The Good Shepherd
* 2.3 Peacock
* 2.7 Elemental symbols
* 3 Tomb paintings
* 4 Symbols of Christian Churches
* 4.2 Icons
* 5 See also
* 6 References
* 7 External links
EARLY CHRISTIAN SYMBOLS
CROSS AND CRUCIFIX
Christian cross The
Crucifix , a cross with
corpus, a symbol used by the
Catholic Church , in
Eastern Orthodoxy , and
Anglicanism , in contrast with some Protestant
denominations , which use only a bare cross. Early use of a
globus cruciger on a solidus minted by
Leontios (r. 695–698); on the
obverse, a stepped cross in the shape of a
Iota Eta monogram.
The shape of the cross, as represented by the letter T , came to be
used as a "seal" or symbol of Early
Christianity by the 2nd century.
At the end of the 2nd century, it is mentioned in the Octavius of
Minucius Felix , rejecting the claim by detractors that Christians
worship the cross. The cross (crucifix, Greek stauros ) in this
period was represented by the letter T .
Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria in the
early 3rd century calls it τὸ κυριακὸν σημεῖον
("the Lord's sign") he repeats the idea, current as early as the
Epistle of Barnabas , that the number 318 (in
Greek numerals , ΤΙΗ)
in Genesis 14:14 was a foreshadowing (a "type") of the cross (T, an
upright with crossbar, standing for 300) and of
Jesus (ΙΗ, the first
two letters of his name ΙΗΣΟΥΣ, standing for 18).
Tertullian also rejects the accusation that
Christians are crucis religiosi (i.e. "adorers of the gibbet"), and
returns the accusation by likening the worship of pagan idols to the
worship of poles or stakes. In his book De Corona, written in 204,
Tertullian tells how it was already a tradition for Christians to
trace repeatedly on their foreheads the sign of the cross .
While early Christians used the T-shape to represent the cross in
writing and gesture, the use of the
Greek cross and
Latin cross , i.e.
crosses with intersecting beams, appears in
Christian art towards the
Late Antiquity . An early example of the cruciform halo , used
Christ in paintings, is found in the Miracles of the
Loaves and Fishes mosaic of Sant\'Apollinare Nuovo , Ravenna (dated c.
504). 20th-21st century Celtic cross with inscribed symbolism
Instances of the
St Thomas cross , a
Greek cross with clover leaf
edges, popular in southern India, date to about the 6th century.
Patriarchal cross , a
Latin cross with an additional horizontal
bar, first appears in the 10th century.
Although the cross was used as a symbol by early Christians, the
crucifix , i.e. depictions of the crucifixion scene , were rare prior
to the 5th century; some engraved gems thought to be 2nd or 3rd
century have survived, but the subject does not appear in the art of
Catacombs of Rome
Catacombs of Rome . The purported discovery of the
True Cross by
Constantine's mother, Helena , and the development of Golgotha as a
site for pilgrimage led to a change of attitude. It was probably in
Palestine that the image developed, and many of the earliest
depictions are on the
Monza ampullae , small metal flasks for holy
oil, that were pilgrim's souvenirs from the
Holy Land , as well as 5th
century ivory reliefs from Italy.
In the early medieval period, the plain cross became depicted as the
crux gemmata , covered with jewels, as many real early medieval
processional crosses in goldsmith work were. The first depictions of
crucifixion displaying suffering are believed to have arisen in
Byzantine art , where the "S"-shaped slumped body type was developed.
Early Western examples include the
Gero Cross and the reverse of the
Cross of Lothair
Cross of Lothair , both from the end of the 10th century.
Marie-Madeleine Davy (1977) described in great detail Romanesque
Symbolism as it developed in the
Middle Ages in Western Europe.
Ichthys from ancient
Among the symbols employed by the early Christians, that of the fish
seems to have ranked first in importance. Its popularity among
Christians was due principally to the famous acrostic consisting of
the initial letters of five Greek words forming the word for fish
(Ichthus), which words briefly but clearly described the character of
Christ and the claim to worship of believers: "Ἰησοῦς
Χριστὸς Θεοῦ Υἱὸς Σωτήρ", (Iēsous Christos
Theou Huios Sōtēr), meaning,
Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour.
This explanation is given among others by
Augustine in his Civitate
Dei , where he also notes that the generating sentence "Ίησοῦς
Χρειστὸς Θεοῦ Υἱὸς Σωτήρ" has 27 letters,
i.e. 3 x 3 x 3, which in that age indicated power.
ALPHA AND OMEGA Α Ω
Jesus depicted with the alpha and omega letters in the catacombs
Rome from the 4th century Main article:
Alpha and Omega
Alpha and Omega
The use since the earliest
Christianity of the first and the last
letters of the
Greek alphabet , alpha (α or Α) and omega (ω or Ω),
derives from the statement said by
Jesus (or God) himself "I am Alpha
and Omega, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End"
(Revelation 22:13, also 1:8 and 21:6).
Staurogram A staurogram used as τρ-ligature
part of the spelling of the word σταυρον (as ϲ(τρ)ον) in
Luke 14:27 (Papyrus Bodmer XIV-XV , 2nd century)
The STAUROGRAM ⳨ (from the Greek σταυρός, i.e. cross), also
MONOGRAMMATIC CROSS or Tau-Rho symbol, is composed by a tau (Τ)
superimposed on a rho (Ρ). The
Staurogram was first used to
abbreviate the Greek word for cross in very early New Testament
manuscripts such as P66 , P45 and P75 , almost like a nomen sacrum ,
and may visually have represented
Jesus on the cross.
Ephrem the Syrian
Ephrem the Syrian in the 4th-century explained these two united
letters stating that the tau refers to the cross , and the rho refers
to the Greek word "help" (Βoήθια ; proper spelling:
Βoήθεια) which has the numerological value in Greek of 100 as
the letter rho has. In such a way the symbol expresses the idea that
the Cross saves. The two letters tau and rho can also be found
separately as symbols on early Christian ossuaries .
The Monogrammatic Cross was later seen also as a variation of the Chi
Rho symbol, and it spread over Western
Europe in the 5th and 6th
The Chi-Rho symbol ☧,
Catacombs of San Callisto ,
The CHI RHO is formed by superimposing the first two (capital)
letters chi and rho (ΧΡ) of the Greek word "ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ" =Christ
in such a way to produce the monogram . Widespread in ancient
Christianity, it was the symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine
I as vexillum (named
The first two letters of the name of
Jesus in Greek , iota (Ι) and
eta (Η), sometime superimposed one on the other, or the numeric value
18 of ΙΗ in Greek, was a well known and very early way to represent
Christ. This symbol was already explained in the Epistle of Barnabas
Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria . For other christograms such as IHS,
Monogram from a 4th century
Sarcophagus from Constantinople
An early form of the monogram of Christ, found in early Christian
ossuaries in Palestinia , was formed by superimposing the first
(capital) letters of the Greek words for
Christ , i.e. iota
Ι and chi Χ, so that this monogram means "
Jesus Christ". :166
Another more complicated explanation of this monogram was given by
Pachomius : because the numeric value of iota is 10 and
the chi is the initial of the word "Christ" (Greek: ΧΡΕΙΣΤΟΣ ;
proper spelling: ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ) which has 8 letters, these early
fathers calculate 888 ((10*8)*10)+((10*8)+8) which was a number
already known to represent Jesus, being the sum of the value of the
letters of the name "Jesus" (ΙΗΣΟΥΣ) (10+8+200+70+400+200).
OTHER CHRISTIAN SYMBOLS
THE GOOD SHEPHERD
A 3rd-century painting of the Good Shepherd in the Catacomb of
Callixtus . Main article: Good Shepherd
The image of the Good Shepherd, often with a sheep on his shoulders,
is the most common of the symbolic representations of
Christ found in
Catacombs of Rome
Catacombs of Rome , and it is related to the Parable of the Lost
Sheep . Initially it was also understood as a symbol like others used
Christian art . By about the 5th century the figure more
often took on the appearance of the conventional depiction of Christ,
as it had developed by this time, and was given a halo and rich robes.
A dove with an olive branch,
Catacombs of Domitilla ,
The dove as a Christian symbol is of very frequent occurrence in
ancient ecclesiastical art. According to Matthew 3:16, during the
Holy Spirit descended like a dove and came to
rest on Jesus. For this reason the dove became a symbol of the Holy
Spirit and in general it occurs frequently in connection with early
representations of baptism. It signifies also the Christian soul , not
the human soul as such, but as indwelt by the Holy Spirit; especially,
therefore, as freed from the toils of the flesh and entered into rest
and glory. The
Peristerium or Eucharistic dove was often used in the
past, and sometime still used in Eastern
Christianity , as Church
However the more ancient explanation of the dove as a Christian
symbol refers to it as a symbol of
Irenaeus in the 2nd
century explains that the number 801 is both the numerological value
of the sum in Greek of the letters of the word "dove" (Greek:
περιστερά) and the sum of the values of the letters Alpha and
Omega , which refers to Christ. In the
Bible story of
Noah and the
Flood , after the flood a dove returns to
Noah bringing an olive
branch as a sign that the water had receded, and this scene recalled
Christ who brings salvation through the cross.
This biblical scene led to interpreting the dove also as a symbol of
Two peacocks, symbolizing paradise and immortality, on a
fragment from an eighth century ciborium from a church in Italy
Ancient Greeks believed that the flesh of peafowl did not decay after
death, and so it became a symbol of immortality. This symbolism was
adopted by early Christianity, and thus many early Christian paintings
and mosaics show the peacock. The peacock is still used in the Easter
season especially in the east. The "eyes" in the peacock's tail
feathers symbolise the all-seeing God and - in some interpretations -
the Church. A peacock drinking from a vase is used as a symbol of a
Christian believer drinking from the waters of eternal life. The
peacock can also symbolise the cosmos if one interprets its tail with
its many "eyes" as the vault of heaven dotted by the sun, moon, and
stars. By adoption of old Persian and Babylonian symbolism, in which
the peacock was associated with Paradise and the Tree of Life, the
bird is again associated with immortality. In Christian iconography
the peacock is often depicted next to the Tree of Life.
A pelican vulning itself. Main article:
Europe , the pelican was thought to be particularly
attentive to her young, to the point of providing her own blood by
wounding her own breast when no other food was available. As a result,
the pelican became a symbol of the Passion of
Jesus and of the
Eucharist since about the 12th century.
Christians adopted the anchor as a symbol of hope in future existence
because the anchor was regarded in ancient times as a symbol of
safety. For Christians,
Christ is the unfailing hope of all who
believe in him:
Saint Peter , Saint Paul , and several of the early
Church Fathers speak in this sense. The
Epistle to the Hebrews
Epistle to the Hebrews 6:19-20
for the first time connects the idea of hope with the symbol of the
A fragment of inscription discovered in the catacomb of St. Domitilla
contains the anchor, and dates from the end of the 1st century. During
the 2nd and 3rd centuries the anchor occurs frequently in the epitaphs
of the catacombs. The most common form of anchor found in early
Christian images was that in which one extremity terminates in a ring
adjoining the cross-bar while the other ends in two curved branches or
an arrowhead; There are, however, many deviations from this form. In
general the anchor can symbolize hope, steadfastness, calm and
St. Patrick depicted with shamrock in detail of stained glass
window in St. Benin's Church, Wicklow, Ireland
Traditionally, the shamrock is said to have been used by Saint
Patrick to illustrate the Christian doctrine of the
Holy Trinity when
Christianising Ireland in the 5th century.
Elemental symbols were widely used by the early Church . Water has
specific symbolic significance for Christians. Outside of baptism,
water may represent cleansing or purity. Fire, especially in the form
of a candle flame, represents both the
Holy Spirit and light. The
sources of these symbols derive from the
Bible ; for example from the
tongues of fire that symbolized the
Holy Spirit at
Pentecost , and
from Jesus' description of his followers as the light of the world; or
God is a consuming fire found in Hebrews 12.
Holy Trinity Church, Long Melford ,
The coat of arms of the
Anglican diocese of Trinidad contains
several Christian visual symbols
A lily crucifix is a rare symbol of
Anglican churches in England. It
Christ crucified on a lily , or holding such a plant. The
symbolism may be from the medieval belief that the Annunciation of
Christ and his crucifixion occurred on the same day of the year, March
There are few depictions of a lily crucifix in England. One of the
most notable is a painting on a wall above the altar at All Saint\'s
Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight . Other examples include:
* An alabaster example on a tomb in St Mary\'s Church, Nottingham .
* The Lady Chapel of St Helen 's,
Abingdon, Oxfordshire , has a wall
* Five examples are in glass as at
Holy Trinity Church, Long Melford
* At All Saints,
Great Glemham ,
Suffolk , the image is on the base
of a font .
* At St Mary,
Norfolk , an image in a bench end may be a
Tong, Shropshire ,
St. Bartholomew 's choir stall No. 8 depicts
a lily crucifix.
Church of St John the Baptist, Wellington includes a lily
crucifix in the carving of the centre mullion of the east window of
the Lady chapel.
Christians from the very beginning adorned their catacombs with
paintings of Christ, of the saints, of scenes from the
allegorical groups. The catacombs are the cradle of all Christian art.
Early Christians accepted the art of their time and used it, as well
as a poor and persecuted community could, to express their religious
From the second half of the 1st century to the time of Constantine
the Great they buried their dead and celebrated their rites in these
underground chambers. The Christian tombs were ornamented with
indifferent or symbolic designs—palms, peacocks, with the chi-rho
monogram, with bas-reliefs of
Christ as the Good Shepherd , or seated
between figures of saints, and sometimes with elaborate scenes from
the New Testament.
Other Christian symbols include the dove (symbolic of the Holy
Spirit), the sacrificial lamb (symbolic of Christ's sacrifice), the
vine (symbolizing the necessary connectedness of the Christian with
Christ) and many others. These all derive from the writings found in
the New Testament. Other decorations that were common included
garlands, ribands, stars landscapes, which had symbolic meanings, as
SYMBOLS OF CHRISTIAN CHURCHES
Baptism in early Christian art.
Some of the oldest symbols within the
Christian Church are the
sacraments , the number of which vary between denominations. Always
Eucharist and baptism . The others which may or may not
be included are ordination , unction , confirmation , penance and
marriage . They are together commonly described as an outward and
visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace or, as in the Roman
Catholic system, "outward signs and media of grace."
The rite is seen as a symbol of the spiritual change or event that
takes place. In the Eucharist, the bread and wine are symbolic of the
body and shed blood of
Jesus , and in Roman Catholicism, become the
actual Body of
Christ and Blood of
The rite of baptism is symbolic of the cleansing of the sinner by
God, and, especially where baptism is by immersion, of the spiritual
death and resurrection of the baptized person. Opinion differs as to
the symbolic nature of the sacraments, with some Protestant
denominations considering them entirely symbolic, and Roman Catholics
, Orthodox, Lutherans, and some Reformed Christians believing that the
outward rites truly do, by the power of God, act as media of grace.
The tomb paintings of the early Christians led to the development of
icons . An icon is an image, picture, or representation; it is
likeness that has symbolic meaning for an object by signifying or
representing it, or by analogy, as in semiotics . The use of icons,
however, was never without opposition. It was recorded that, "there is
no century between the fourth and the eighth in which there is not
some evidence of opposition to images even within the Church.
Nonetheless, popular favor for icons guaranteed their continued
existence, while no systematic apologia for or against icons, or
doctrinal authorization or condemnation of icons yet existed.
Saint Menas . A 6th-century icon. (
Musée du Louvre
Musée du Louvre )
Though significant in the history of religious doctrine, the
Byzantine controversy over images is not seen as of primary importance
in Byzantine history. "Few historians still hold it to have been the
greatest issue of the period..."
Byzantine Iconoclasm began when images were banned by Emperor Leo
III the Isaurian sometime between 726 and 730. Under his son
Constantine V , a council forbidding image veneration was held at
Constantinople in 754. Image veneration was later
reinstated by the Empress Regent Irene , under whom another council
was held reversing the decisions of the previous iconoclast council
and taking its title as
Seventh Ecumenical Council
Seventh Ecumenical Council . The council
anathematized all who held to iconoclasm, i.e. those who held that
veneration of images constitutes idolatry. Then the ban was enforced
again by Leo V in 815. And finally icon veneration was decisively
restored by Empress Regent Theodora .
Today icons are used particularly among Eastern Orthodox , Oriental
Orthodox , Assyrian and
Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches .
Part of a series on
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Cross and Crown
Holy Spirit in
Jesus, King of the Jews
Lamb of God
Lamb of God
* Shield of the
* ^ Jenner, Henry (2004) . Christian Symbolism. Kessinger
Publishing. p. xiv.
* ^ A B Herbert Thurston (1913). "Symbolism". In Herbermann,
Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
* ^ "The cross as a Christian symbol or 'seal' came into use at
least as early as the second century (see "Apost. Const." iii. 17;
Epistle of Barnabas, xi.-xii.; Justin, "Apologia," i. 55-60; "Dial.
cum Tryph." 85-97); and the marking of a cross upon the forehead and
the chest was regarded as a talisman against the powers of demons
(Tertullian, "De Corona," iii.; Cyprian, "Testimonies," xi. 21-22;
Lactantius, "Divinæ Institutiones," iv. 27, and elsewhere). The
Christian Fathers had to defend themselves, as early as the second
century, against the charge of being worshipers of the cross, as may
be learned from Tertullian, "Apologia," xii., xvii., and Minucius
Felix, "Octavius," xxix. Christians used to swear by the power of the
Jewish Encyclopaedia .
* ^ "Crosses, moreover, we neither worship nor wish for.1815 You,
indeed, who consecrate gods of wood, adore wooden crosses perhaps as
parts of your gods. For your very standards, as well as your banners;
and flags of your camp, what else are they but crosses glided and
adorned? Your victorious trophies not only imitate the appearance of a
simple cross, but also that of a man affixed to it. We assuredly see
the sign of a cross,1816 naturally, in the ship when it is carried
along with swelling sails, when it glides forward with expanded oars;
and when the military yoke is lifted up, it is the sign of a cross;
and when a man adores God with a pure mind, with hands outstretched.
Thus the sign of the cross either is sustained by a natural reason, or
your own religion is formed with respect to it." Cruces etiam nec
colimus, nec optamus. Vos plane qui ligneos deos consecratis, cruces
ligneas, ut deorum vestrorum partes, forsitan adoratis. (0332B) Nam et
signa ipsa et cantabra et vexilla castrorum, quid aliud quam inauratae
cruces sunt et ornatae? Tropaea vestra victricia, non tantum simplicis
crucis faciem, verum et affixi hominis imitantur. Signum sane crucis
naturaliter visimus in navi, quum velis tumentibus vehitur, quum
expansis palmulis labitur; et quum erigitur iugum, crucis signum est,
et quum homo, porrectis manibus, Deum pura mente veneratur. Ita signo
crucis aut ratio naturalis innititur, aut vestra religio formatur.
(Octavius of Minucius Felix, chapter 29)
* ^ A B Stromata, book VI, chapter XI
* ^ Apology., chapter xvi.
Tertullian uses crux "cross", palus
"pole" and stipes "stake" interchangeably for rhetoric effect: "Then,
if any of you think we render superstitious adoration to the cross, in
that adoration he is sharer with us. If you offer homage to a piece of
wood at all, it matters little what it is like when the substance is
the same: it is of no consequence the form, if you have the very body
of the god. And yet how far does the Athenian Pallas differ from the
stock of the cross, or the Pharian Ceres as she is put up uncarved to
sale, a mere rough stake and piece of shapeless wood? Every stake
fixed in an upright position is a portion of the cross; we render our
adoration, if you will have it so, to a god entire and complete. We
have shown before that your deities are derived from shapes modelled
from the cross." Sed et qui crucis nos religiosos putat, consecraneus
noster erit. Cum lignum aliquod propitiatur, viderit habitus, dum
materiae qualitas eadem sit; viderit forma, dum id ipsum dei corpus
sit. Et tamen quanto distinguitur a crucis stipite Pallas Attica, et
Ceres Pharia, quae sine effigie rudi palo et informi ligno prostat?
Pars crucis est omne robur, quod erecta statione defigitur; nos, si
forte, integrum et totum deum colimus. Diximus originem deorum
vestrorum a plastis de cruce induci.
* ^ "At every forward step and movement, at every going in and out,
when we put on our clothes and shoes, when we bathe, when we sit at
table, when we light the lamps, on couch, on seat, in all the ordinary
actions of daily life, we trace upon the forehead the sign" (De
Corona, chapter 3)
* ^ see: "Granite Objects in Kerala Churches", in Glimpses of
Nazraney Heritage, George Menachery, SARAS, 2005; and "Thomas
Christian Architecture", in George Menachery, ed. The St. Thomas
Christian Encyclopaedia of India, Vol. 2, 1973
* ^ Schiller, Gertrud, Iconography of Christian Art, Vol. II, 1972,
89-90, fig. 321.
* ^ Schiller, Gertrud, Iconography of Christian Art, Vol. II, 1972,
89-90, figs. 322-326.
* ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online
* ^ M.-M. Davy, Initiation à la Symbolique Romane. Nouv. éd.
Paris: Flammarion, 1977.
* ^ Maurice Hassett (1913). "Symbolism of the Fish". In
Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton
Augustine . The City of God.
Wikisource . XVIII, 23.
* ^ A B Hurtado, Larry (2006). "The
Staurogram in Early Christian
Manuscripts: the earliest visual reference to the crucified Jesus?".
In Kraus, Thomas.
New Testament Manuscripts. Leiden: Brill. pp.
207–26. ISBN 978-90-04-14945-8 .
* ^ A B C Bagatti, Bellarmino (1984). The Church from the
Circumcision: history and archaeology of the Judaeo-Christians.
Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Collectio Minor, n.2. Jerusalem.
* ^ Redknap, Mark (1991). The Christian Celts: treasures of late
Celtic Wales. Cardiff: National Museum of Wales. p. 61. ISBN
* ^ Hurtado, Larry (2006). The earliest Christian artifacts :
manuscripts and Christian origins. William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co. pp.
114–115. ISBN 978-0-8028-2895-8 .
* ^ Irenaeus, Adv Haer, 1.15.2
* ^ Arthur Barnes (1913). "Dove". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic
Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
* ^ Irenaeus, Adv Haer, 1.15.6
* ^ "Birds, symbolic." Peter and Linda Murray, Oxford Dictionary of
Christian Art (2004).
* ^ Jenner, Henry (2004) . Christian Symbolism. Kessinger
Publishing. p. 37.
* ^ A B Maurice Hassett (1913). "The
Anchor (as Symbol)". In
Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton
* ^ Klöpping, Laura (2012). Customs, Habits and Symbols of the
Protestant Religion. GRIN Verlag. p. 5. ISBN 978-3-656-13453-4 .
* ^ Treeck, Carl Van; Croft, Aloysius (1936). Symbols in the
Church. Bruce Publishing Co. St. Patrick is said to have used the
shamrock in explaining to the pagan Irish the idea of the Holy
Trinity. access-date= requires url= (help )
* ^ A B Dilasser, Maurice. The Symbols of the Church (1999).
Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, hardcover: ISBN 0-8146-2538-X
* ^ The Passion in Art. Richard Harries. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.,
* ^ "St John the Baptist, Wellington". Wellington and District Team
Ministry. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
* ^ A B C D Fortescue, Adrian (1912). "Veneration of Images".
Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 2007-11-26.
* ^ A B C Kennedy, D.J (1912). "Sacraments". Catholic Encyclopedia.
Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 2007-11-26.
* ^ Kitzinger, Ernst (1954), The Cult of Images in the Age before
Iconoclasm, Dumbarton Oaks , quoted by Jaroslav, Pelikan (1974), The
Spirit of Eastern Christendom 600–1700, University of Chicago Press
* ^ Karlin-Hayter, Patricia (2002), Oxford History of Byzantium,
Oxford University Press .
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