Central, Hong Kong
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Central (also Central District) is the central business district of Hong Kong. It is located in Central and Western District, on the north shore of Hong Kong Island, across Victoria Harbour from Tsim Sha Tsui, the southernmost point of Kowloon Peninsula. The area was the heart of Victoria, Hong Kong, Victoria City, although that name is rarely used today. As the central business district of Hong Kong, it is the area where many multinational financial institution, financial services corporations have their headquarters. Consulates general and consulates of many countries are also located in this area, as is Government Hill, the site of the government headquarters. The area, with its proximity to Victoria Harbour, has served as the centre of trade and financial activities from the earliest days of the History of Colonial Hong Kong (1800s–1930s), British colonial era in 1841, and continues to flourish and serve as the place of administration after the Handover of Hong Kong, handover to China in 1997.


Naming

The area of Chung Wan (), named Central in English, was one of the districts () in Victoria City. The English name ''Central'' became prevalent after the Island line (MTR), Island line of the MTR metro system was built in the early 1980s, and the connected metro station, stations of Pedder and Chater renamed as ''Central station (MTR), Central''. On some older maps, it and the area to its west are named Kwan Tai Lo () below Victoria Peak. It formed a channel, Chung Mun (), with Tsim Sha Tsui, on the sea route along the coast of Northern and southern China, southern China. The eastern part of Central District has been known as Admiralty, Hong Kong, Admiralty since the completion of Admiralty station (MTR), Admiralty station in the early 1980s.


Location

Central is located on the north shore of Hong Kong Island, across Victoria Harbour from Tsim Sha Tsui, the southernmost point of Kowloon Peninsula. It is bordered in the west by Sheung Wan, with the border being along Aberdeen Street (also called Wing Kut Street). It is bordered in the east by Admiralty, Hong Kong, Admiralty, an eastern extension of the central business district. As such, Admiralty is sometimes considered a part of Central. Central is bordered in the south by Mid-Levels, an area halfway up Victoria Peak. The boundary between Central and Mid-Levels is not clearly defined. For Central and Western District Council, district council elections purposes, the area, together with Admiralty, correspond roughly to the "Chung Wan (constituency), Chung Wan" constituency. The boundaries of such constituencies may be subject to modification.


History

The British landed on Possession Point of Sheung Wan in 1841. They soon decided to build a city on the north coast of Hong Kong Island, and the present-day Central was chosen to house major military facilities and an administrative centre. The area soon attracted both Westerners and Chinese to trade and live in the area, and a Canton Bazaar (precursor of Central Market, Hong Kong, Central Market) was built between Cochrane Street and Graham Street in 1842. The area was soon zoned for Westerners only, and the Chinese residents were restricted to Sheung Wan. [It was zoned for "Western-style buildings," meaning buildings with minimum space and hygiene standards]. The area was largely dominated by the presence of Victoria City. The popularity of this area would also boost the Demographics of Hong Kong, population of Hong Kong from 5,000 in 1841 to 24,000 in 1848. Government House, Hong Kong, Government House and other Government of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Government buildings were completed during this period on Government Hill. Various barracks, naval base and residence of Commander, Flagstaff House were built on the east end of the district. Between 1860 and 1880 the construction of City Hall, Theatre Royal and other financial structures made Central the heart of Hong Kong. In 1904, the Praya Reclamation Scheme added of land to Central's waterfront. Many of the proposals came from Paul Chater, Sir Paul Chater and James Johnstone Keswick, the founders of Hongkong Land. During the 1920s, Hong Kong was able to push far ahead economically, because of the cohesive collaboration between Central and all waterfront commerce. The military structures survived until the 1980s. Only Flagstaff House remains as Museum of Tea Ware in Hong Kong Park. Hong Kong City Hall, City Hall sat on the present premises of the HSBC HSBC Building (Hong Kong), Hong Kong headquarters. Hong Kong's first road, Queen's Road, Hong Kong, Queen's Road, passes through the area and the business centre continued to expand toward the shoreline as far as the reclaimed lands. Central has been the site of a number of major political protests. From October 2011 to September 2012, the Occupy Central (2011–2012), Occupy Central movement against global economic inequality was based in front of the HSBC Building (Hong Kong), HSBC Main Building. Two years later, in September 2014, democratic activists initiated Occupy Central with Love and Peace, demanding universal suffrage for the election of the Chief Executive of Hong Kong, eventually contributing to the Umbrella Revolution.


Economy

There are man
Grade-A commercial buildings in Central
a prime commercial district in Hong Kong. Bank of China (Hong Kong) has its head office in the Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, Bank of China Tower. The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, a subsidiary of HSBC, has its head office in the HSBC Building (Hong Kong), HSBC Main Building. Bank of East Asia and Hang Seng Bank have their head offices in Central. Chu Kong Passenger Transport is headquartered in the Chu Kong Shipping Tower (珠江船務大廈) in Central. Before 1999, Cathay Pacific had its head office in the Chater House, Swire House in Central. In 1999, the airline relocated its head office to Hong Kong International Airport. Nord Anglia Education, which operates international schools in various countries, formerly had its head office in Central. The head office moved to Hong Kong in 2012. In 2018 the company announced it was returning its head office to the United Kingdom.


Notable places, streets and buildings


Office buildings

*9 Queen's Road Central *AIA Central *Alexandra House *Bank of America Tower (Hong Kong), Bank of America Tower *Bank of China Building (Hong Kong), Bank of China Building, housing the China Club *Bank of China Tower (Hong Kong), Bank of China Tower *Central Building (Hong Kong), Central Building *Chater House *Cheung Kong Center *Citibank Plaza *CITIC Tower *Entertainment Building *Exchange Square (Hong Kong), Exchange Square, housing the Hong Kong Stock Exchange *Hong Kong Club Building, housing the Hong Kong Club *Hong Kong Trade Centre *HSBC Building (Hong Kong), HSBC Main Building *Hutchison House *Jardine House *Man Yee Building *Prince's Building *St. John's Building *Standard Chartered Bank Building *The Center *The Centrium *The Landmark (Hong Kong), The Landmark (office and shopping complex) *International Finance Centre (Hong Kong), International Finance Centre (IFC), the second List of tallest buildings in Hong Kong, tallest building in Hong Kong *Wheelock House *Wing On House *World-Wide House *York House, Hong Kong, York House


Streets and squares

*Aberdeen Street, marking the limit between Central and Sheung Wan *Arbuthnot Road *Battery Path *Chater Road *Connaught Place, Hong Kong, Connaught Place *Cochrane Street *Connaught Road Central *Cotton Tree Drive *D'Aguilar Street *Des Voeux Road Central *Edinburgh Place, a public square adjacent to the Victoria Harbour *Elgin Street, Hong Kong, Elgin Street *Gage Street, a market street *Garden Road, Hong Kong, Garden Road *Glenealy, Hong Kong, Glenealy *Graham Street, a market street *Gutzlaff Street *Hollywood Road *Ice House Street *Jubilee Street (). Named for the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria in 1887. *Lower Albert Road *Lyndhurst Terrace *Old Bailey Street *On Lan Street *Pedder Street *Peel Street, Hong Kong, Peel Street *Pottinger Street, one of the "ladder streets" *Queen's Road Central, the first road in Hong Kong built by the Government of Hong Kong between 1841 and 1843Lim, Patricia. [2002] (2002). Discovering Hong Hong's Cultural Heritage. Central, Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. ISBN Volume One 0-19-592723-0 *Queen Victoria Street, Hong Kong, Queen Victoria Street *Queensway (Hong Kong), Queensway, in Admiralty *Stanley Street, Hong Kong, Stanley Street *Statue Square, a public pedestrian square *Staunton Street *Staveley Street, one of the "ladder streets" *Theatre Lane, home to many of Shoe shiners in Hong Kong, Hong Kong's shoe shiners *Wellington Street, Hong Kong, Wellington Street *Wyndham Street *Wing On Street (), aka. Cloth Street ()


Government buildings

*Central Government Complex (Hong Kong), Central Government Complex, Tamar *Former Central Government Offices on Government Hill *Chinese People's Liberation Army Forces Hong Kong Building *Hong Kong City Hall, City Hall *Former French Mission Building, housing the Court of Final Appeal (Hong Kong), Court of Final Appeal *General Post Office, Hong Kong *Government House, Hong Kong, Government House *Hong Kong Planning and Infrastructure Exhibition Gallery *Court of Final Appeal Building, Legislative Council Building *Queensway Government Offices


Other historical buildings

*Bishop's House, Hong Kong, Bishop's House *Central Market, Hong Kong, Central Market *Central Police Station (Hong Kong), Central Police Station *Duddell Street Steps and Gas Lamps *Flagstaff House *Former Central Magistracy *Hong Kong Visual Arts Centre *Old Dairy Farm Depot, housing the Hong Kong Fringe Club and the Foreign Correspondents' Club, Hong Kong, Foreign Correspondents' Club *Pedder Building *The Cenotaph (Hong Kong), The Cenotaph *The Helena May main building *Victoria Prison *Zetland Hall *Central and Western Heritage Trail *Dr Sun Yat-sen Historical Trail


Hotels

Central, together with Tsim Sha Tsui and Tsim Sha Tsui East, is home to many hotels. *Conrad Hotels, Conrad Hong Kong (Pacific Place, Admiralty, Hong Kong, Admiralty) *Four Seasons Hotel Hong Kong (International Finance Centre (Hong Kong), IFC) *Hong Kong Hilton (demolished in 1995) *JW Marriott Hotel Hong Kong (Pacific Place, Admiralty, Hong Kong, Admiralty) *Landmark Mandarin Oriental (Landmark, The Landmark) *Mandarin Oriental, Hong Kong, Mandarin Oriental (Connaught Road Central) *Murray Building, The Murray, Hong Kong *Ovolo Hotels (2 Arbuthnot Road). Opened in October 2012. *Ritz-Carlton (Chater Road), closed 1 January 2008. *Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts, Island Shangri-La (Pacific Place (Hong Kong), Pacific Place, Admiralty, Hong Kong, Admiralty)


Entertainment areas

*Lan Kwai Fong, the location of numerous bars, restaurants and clubs *Hong Kong Maritime Museum, Central Ferry Pier 8 *SoHo, Hong Kong *Wyndham Street


Places of worship

*Various Buddhist temples *St John's Cathedral (Hong Kong), St. John's Cathedral (Sheng Kung Hui, Anglican Church) *First Church of Christ Scientist *Union Church, Hong Kong, Union Church *Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (Hong Kong), Immaculate Conception Cathedral, Hong Kong (Roman Catholic) *St. Joseph's Church (Roman Catholic)


Parks

*Chater Garden *Cheung Kong Park *Hong Kong Park, former location of the Victoria Barracks, Hong Kong, Victoria Barracks *Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens *Statue Square


Schools

*Raimondi College *Sacred Heart Canossian School *St Joseph's College, Hong Kong *Ying Wa Girls' School (in Mid-Levels) *St. Paul's Co-educational College (in Mid-Levels)


Former buildings

*Beaconsfield House, demolished in 1995 *Hong Kong Hilton, closed in 1995 *Hongkong Hotel, closed in 1952 *Murray House, part of Murray Barracks, moved to Stanley, Hong Kong, Stanley *Old Central Government Offices, demolished in 1954 *Wellington Barracks, Hong Kong, Wellington Barracks, demolished in 1992 *City Hall Ferry Pier, barge pier, closed due to the Central and Wan Chai Reclamation *Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier, demolished in 2007 *Blake Pier, Central, demolished, partially Blake Pier at Stanley, moved to Stanley *Queen's Pier, demolished in 2008 *United Pier, demolished in 1994


Transport


Public transport

The area is a major transport hub for Hong Kong (see also Transport in Hong Kong). *Bus **Kowloon Motor Bus, KMB, serving only cross-Victoria Harbour, harbour routes on Hong Kong Island **New World First Bus, First Bus **Citybus (Hong Kong), Citybus *Public light bus, Minibus *Trains and Trams **MTR – Island line (MTR), Island line, Tsuen Wan line, Tung Chung line, Airport Express (MTR), Airport Express, South Island line at Sheung Wan station, Sheung Wan, Hong Kong station, Hong Kong, Central station (MTR), Central and Admiralty station (MTR), Admiralty stations **Hong Kong Tramways, Tram **Peak Tram *Ferries **Sun Ferry, to Silvermine Bay (Mui Wo), Peng Chau and Cheung Chau **Hong Kong & Kowloon Ferry, to Sok Kwu Wan and Yung Shue Wan on Lamma Island **Star Ferry, to Tsim Sha Tsui and Hung Hom **Discovery Bay Ferry, to Tsim Sha Tsui East and Discovery Bay **Park Island Transport, Park Island Ferry *Ferry piers: **Central Piers **Star Ferry Pier, Central *Pedestrian facilities **Central Elevated Walkway **Central–Mid-Levels escalator


Expressways and routes

*Route 4 (Hong Kong), Route 4 **Connaught Road Central **Central–Wan Chai Bypass


Climate


References


External links

* *
Photo Tour of Central Hong Kong
About.com
Map of Central District in 1964 (crown copyright)


{{Authority control Central, Hong Kong, Central and Western District, Hong Kong Central business districts Economy of Hong Kong Financial districts in China Populated coastal places in Hong Kong Populated places in Hong Kong Areas of Hong Kong Victoria City