Castlefield is an inner city conservation area of
Manchester in North
West England. The conservation area which bears its name is bounded by
the River Irwell, Quay Street,
Deansgate and the
Chester Road. It was
the site of the Roman era fort of
Mamucium or Mancunium which gave its
name to Manchester. It was the terminus of the Bridgewater Canal, the
world's first industrial canal, built in 1764; the oldest canal
warehouse opened in 1779. The world's first passenger railway
terminated here in 1830, at Liverpool Road railway station and the
first railway warehouse opened here in 1831.
Rochdale Canal met the
Bridgewater Canal at
Castlefield in 1805
and in the 1830s they were linked with the Mersey and Irwell
Navigation by two short cuts. In 1848 the two viaducts of the
Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway
Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway crossed the area and
joined each other, two further viaducts and one mainline station
Manchester Central railway station followed. It has a tram station,
Deansgate-Castlefield tram stop
Deansgate-Castlefield tram stop (formerly G-Mex) providing frequent
Manchester Metrolink services to Eccles, Bury, Altrincham, Manchester
Didsbury and Rochdale.
Castlefield was designated a conservation area in 1980 and the United
Kingdom's first designated
Urban Heritage Park in 1982.
2.1 Roman period
2.2 Medieval and early modern periods
2.4 20th century
3 Present day
5.2 Warehouses of Castlefield
5.3 Bridges of Castlefield
5.4 Other prominent buildings
7 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
Castlefield refers to the settlement's position below the
former Roman fort. It is a contracted version of the earlier name
Castle-in-the-field. Another name for the area was
Campfield, which derived from the same source. It is preserved in the
name of St Matthew's Church, Campfield, and Campfield Market.
Manchester also derived its name from the fort.)
An older name for the settlement was the
Old English Aldport, meaning
old or long used port, distinguishing it from the new port at
Manchester nearer the confluence of the Rivers Irk and
Irwell. Port in
Old English could refer to a harbour or a market so
the names could be old and new market.
The Roman fort
The reconstructed Roman fort of Mamucium
Main article: Mamucium
A Roman fort (castra),
Mamucium or Mancunium was established in what
Castlefield around AD 79 near a crossing place on the
River Medlock. The fort was sited on a sandstone bluff near the
confluence of the
River Medlock and Irwell in a naturally defensible
position. It was erected as a series of fortifications established
Gnaeus Julius Agricola
Gnaeus Julius Agricola during his campaign against the Brigantes,
who were the Celtic tribe in control of most of northern England.
It guarded a central stage of the
Roman road (equivalent to Watling
Street)[original research?], between
Deva Victrix (Chester) and
Eboracum (York). Another road branched off to the north to
Bremetennacum (Ribchester). The neighbouring forts were Castleshaw
and Northwich. Built first from turf and timber, the fort was
demolished around 140. When it was rebuilt around 160, it was again of
turf and timber construction. Around the year 200, the fort
underwent another rebuild enhancing its defences by replacing the
gatehouse in stone and facing the walls with stone. The fort would
have been garrisoned by an infantry cohort of around 500 auxiliary
Evidence of pagan and Christian worship has been discovered. Two
altars have been found and there may be a temple of Mithras at the
site. A word square was discovered in the 1970s that may be one of the
earliest examples of Christianity in Britain. A civilian
settlement (vicus) grew in association with the fort, made up of
traders and the soldiers' families. An area which has a concentration
of furnaces and industrial activity has been described as an
industrial estate. The civilian settlement was probably abandoned
by the mid-3rd century, although a small garrison may have remained at
Mamucium into the late 3rd and early 4th centuries.
A reconstructed part of the fort stands on the site and is open to the
Medieval and early modern periods
The village of
Manchester later became established a kilometre to the
north and the area around the vicus became known as "Aldport" or "The
Old Town". A house and park here became the home of the Mosley
family in 1601 but, in 1642, after being used by Lord Strange as a
royalist headquarters during the Siege of Manchester, it was burned
down by parliamentarians.
River Irwell was made navigable in 1720s, leading to the
construction of a quay in the area for loading and unloading of goods
(vessels of up to 50 tons could dock here and ply between Manchester
Bridgewater Canal & Grocer's
Bridgewater Canal arrived in
Castlefield in July 1761, around the
Industrial Revolution is considered to have started.
Rochdale Canal, and a network of private branch canals joined the
Bridgewater at Lock 92 in Castlefield. The
Bridgewater Canal company
hesitated in connecting their canal the adjacent Mersey and Irwell
Navigation until the
Rochdale Canal Company had almost constructed its
Manchester and Salford Junction Canal, and the railways had arrived in
the 1830s. As the century progressed the canals gave way to the
railways and the area became dissected by a network of railway lines
carried on a series of multi-arch viaducts. Though
have cotton mills, it was the engineering works and warehousing that
was more noticeable. The first canal warehouse, built in 1771 on Coal
Wharf, was used to raise coal from the barges to street level, and
store other goods. In the nineteenth century the warehouses assumed
other functions such as trans-shipment which involved receiving trains
or barges, and reassembling their loads to be shipped to other
destinations. Other warehouses received raw materials such as yarn,
which was collected by outworkers who then returned woven cloth. The
later warehouses acted as showrooms on the ground floors, with offices
and storage above and behind.
During the 20th century both canal and railway transport declined and
the area became somewhat derelict. The railway complex in Liverpool
Road was sold to a conservation group for a nominal £1 and became the
Greater Manchester Museum of Science and Industry. In 1982 the area
was designated as an
Urban Heritage Park and a part of the fort was
reconstructed on the excavated foundations.
Bridgewater Canal with the Beetham Tower
As part of the renewal of the site, an extensive outdoor area was
developed as an events arena which is used for a wide variety of
events, including the annual 'Dpercussion' music festival. Granada
Television studios are located in the area along with the now closed
Granada Studios Tour. In 2008 it was reported that ITV were
considering re-opening the tour as the company is searching for new
forms of revenue to restore growth.
Castlefield has several bars and restaurants which are particularly
popular during the summer months when people flock to the area to
enjoy the large outdoor drinking areas and regular live music events.
The popular Barça Bar closed in late December 2008, leaving Dukes 92,
Choice Bar & Restaurant and Lava Bar as the only bars within the
Castlefield basin. Castle Quay is the home of radio stations Key 103
and Piccadilly Magic 1152.
Planning permission to turn the empty Jackson's Wharf building into a
modern five-storey block of flats by the
Peel Group was rejected for a
second time in 2008. In 2011, planning permission was rejected
Manchester City Council with opposition from locals. Peel
subsequently decided to sell the building and it is now a
In 1996 an architectural design competition was launched to create
Timber Wharf by developers Urban Splash and
RIBA Competitions to
design a new housing type capable of being mass-produced, using modern
building techniques on a realistic budget to challenge the
preconceived notions of volume house building. 162 entries were
submitted for the project and Glenn Howells Architects provided the
winning entry, the building was completed in 2002 and has since gone
on to win a number of awards.
Sandstone cliff in Castlefield
Castlefield is in the city centre ward of Manchester. To the west is
River Irwell and Salford, to the south lie the Bridgewater Canal,
River Medlock and the
The land between the two rivers consists primarily of a plateau of
Collyhurst sandstone, which is deep red in colour. This can be seen in
the exposed river cliffs around the
Castlefield basin, and provides a
solid foundation for multistorey buildings and also an easily workable
rock for cutting culverts and tunnels.
River Medlock makes an end-on connection with the Bridgewater
Canal at Knott Mill Bridge. Originally surplus water was diverted, via
a tippler weir, into an overflow tunnel passing under the basin and
emerging just to the north of the overspill from the Giant's Basin.
The tippler weir has been replaced with a conventional weir within the
basin. The 1848 OS large scale map shows the original course as
following the line of the canal as far as the coal wharf (site of the
Giant's Basin). The
River Irwell forms two gigantic meanders around
Manchester and Salford; these too have had to be heavily controlled,
for the Irwell was straightened and deepened from 1724, forming the
Mersey and Irwell Navigation
Mersey and Irwell Navigation with quays built along Water Street in
1740. Most of the navigation was abandoned in the 1890s, with the
construction of the
Manchester Ship Canal but a deep water channel was
maintained up to the Woden Street footbridge. Two canals define
Castlefield: the Bridgewater built in 1761 and the
Rochdale opened in
1804. There are however two more short canals within
form links with the Irwell, these are the
Manchester and Salford
Junction Canal and the
Hulme Locks Branch Canal, both being disused
but both are still visible. The
Bridgewater Hall basin on the former
has been restored. Over the Irwell from Water Street is the entrance
to the Manchester, Bolton &
A panorama of
Castlefield over the Bridgewater Canal
The navigations, canals, roads and railways of Manchester
Before 1750, roads were an impractical way of transporting heavy goods
and water transport on the rivers was the accepted method. The number
of suitable rivers was limited. Power to drive machinery was also
derived from water but this needed fast-flowing streams where a head
could be built up to turn the waterwheels. Finding the two types of
water at the same locality was rare.
Castlefield could use the River
Medlock, as it fell to join the
River Irwell to turn the wheels, but
the Irwell needed to be improved to make it a safe river to navigate.
Eight locks were constructed between 1724 and 1734, along the Rivers
Irwell and Mersey; this was known as the Mersey and Irwell Navigation.
Short cuts were dug to eliminate the difficult bends. Wharfs were
Manchester Wharf, Water Street in 1740, and if the wind was
not in the east small boats could travel from there to the sea.
The navigation was subject to continuous improvement and was
eventually superseded by the
Manchester Ship Canal.
The "Giant's Basin. Today this is a circular structure 7m deep with a
Rochdale Canal enters the Basin, under the Castle Street Bridge,
behind is lock 92
Bridgewater Canal was commissioned by Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of
Bridgewater, to transport coal from his mines in
Manchester. It was built by
James Brindley and is the world's first
true industrial canal, and Britain's first arterial canal. It
Castlefield in 1761 and fully to Liverpool in 1766.
Castlefield was the
Manchester basin, and it was watered by the River
Medlock. The actual river was culverted under the basin and emerged by
Potato Wharf, then flowed into the Irwell at
Hulme Locks. The basin
also was watered by ground water runoff, and in times of heavy rain, a
weir was needed to maintain the water level. Brindley built a clover
leaf-shaped weir which was replaced by the Giant's Basin. Today this
appears as a 7-metre-deep, 7-metre-wide circular sump, crossed by an
iron footbridge. The basin allowed other goods to be transported into
the city such as cotton (from 1784) and building materials, and
In 1802 the
Rochdale Canal joined here at Duke's Lock, lock 92; this
was the first canal to cross the Pennines; it brought with it clean
water from its feeder reservoir at Hollingworth Lake. It connected
Ashton Canal and the
Peak Forest Canal
Peak Forest Canal bringing building
Bugsworth in Derbyshire. At that time, major warehouses
and mills would cut private canal arms to their buildings, the
Rochdale had many.
In 1837, the
Manchester Bolton &
Bury Canal was connected to the
Irwell, and there was commercial pressure to connect the
Rochdale to them. The
Manchester and Salford Junction
Canal, 1837, was cut from the
Rochdale under the city to provide the
link with the Irwell at Quay street. To preempt this, the Bridgewater
Canal Company built the
Hulme Locks Branch Canal, completing it in
1831. This canal remained open until 1991, when it was replaced by a
lock at Pomona No. 3 basin.
These canals did not have the capacity to take boats larger than
1.4 m wide, so trans-shipment to oceangoing vessels was needed at
a point outside the city. The
Manchester Ship Canal, the 36-mile
(58 km) long river navigation was designed to give the city of
Manchester direct access to the sea, and was built between 1887 and
1894 at a cost of about £15 million (£1.27 billion as of
2010), and in its day was the largest navigation canal in the world.
Though the main docks were at
Salford Quays and
Pomona Docks the ship
canal started at the Woden Street footbridge at
Warehouses of Castlefield
The restored Merchants'
Warehouse with the Middle
Warehouse was built at the end
Bridgewater Canal over the
River Medlock. It has long since gone. It was first built in 1771,
destroyed by fire in 1789 and rebuilt and extended including a fulling
mill on the southern bank and cottages on the northern bank. It was
destroyed again by fire in 1919. Built at the same time was the
Warehouse 19.4 x 9.7m. This was a five-storey warehouse with
one then two shipping holes. It was cut back into the Collyhurst
sandstone river cliff face to the north of the Medlock. It was
James Brindley and incorporated a waterwheel driven hoist
system. The canal arm was continued into a tunnel in the cliff. It was
modified and extended in the first decade of the 19th century when
Rochdale canal was cut behind it. The tunnel was severed and
became an arm of the
Rochdale Canal. Part of the facade has been
restored and the canal arms are bridged by two Dutch style lifting
Warehouse (46.2 m x 15.4m) was built on the north bank
at the entrance to the Giant's Basin around 1827. This was a
four-storey warehouse with two shipping holes. On the street side it
had six side loading bays topped by wooden catsheads (hoods). It has
been badly damaged by fire[when?] but has since been rebuilt by Jim
Ramsbottom and converted into offices. The other surviving warehouse
is the Middle
Warehouse built in 1831 by the
Manchester Ship Canal
company on the south bank, off the Middle Basin canal arm. It was in
use to store maize until the 1970s. It has been converted into a
restaurant, offices and flats. It is five storeys plus an attic. The
two shipping holes are enclosed in an elliptical blind arch.
The Kenworthy Warehouse, was 19m x 47m was built in 1840 and
looked like others. It was six storeys high, had twin shipping hole
and was built on an arm running east of the Giant's Basin. It was
designed for heavy goods: the ground floor was used for oil, the first
for shipping goods, then the other floors for cotton, flour and grain.
In 1897, the Great Northern Viaduct was built over it and the piers
modified the canal arms.
Warehouse sat abridge the Staffordshire arms of the
basin and was used to warehouse cotton.
Warehouse was built on Slate Wharf before 1848, and was the
largest. It was six storeys high, with 20 14 ft bays thus
280 ft (85 m) in length.
The Victoria and Albert Warehouses are not at the basin, but at the
junction of the
River Irwell and the
Manchester and Salford Junction
Canal. This L-shaped building was built flush with the canal for
direct loading, on the street side there were three loading
This commercial terrace masks the Great Northern Railway Company's
Also significant is the 1830 Railway
Warehouse of the Liverpool and
Manchester Railway. This was built with[clarification needed] There
was no available water to drive the hoists, so for the first year they
were manual, but in 1832 they were powered by a small steam engine.
Possibly the last of Castlefield's great warehouses was the Great
Warehouse of 1896 to 1898. This was a trans-shipment
warehouse that had railway access on two of its floors, road access
and canal arms from the
Manchester and Salford Junction canal in the
basement. This was one of Britain's first large steel-framed
buildings (81m x 66m). There were hydraulic lifts capable of raising
fully laden railway waggons between the floors. To service the
building the Great Northern Viaduct was built parallel to the
Cornbrook Viaduct over the basin, and over the Kenworthy Warehouse.
The country's longest Victorian commercial terrace was built to mask
it from Deansgate.
Textile warehouses in the Italianate palazzo style were built in other
Manchester city centre, notably King Street in the 1840s
spreading to Portland Street, Charlotte Street and by the start of the
20th century, Whitworth Street. In all covering over a square mile of
the city centre,
Manchester was called
Warehouse City and
arguably[weasel words] was the finest example of Victorian
Bridges of Castlefield
The cast iron arch of the 1849 viaduct with the Cornbrook viaduct over
Beneath the Cornbook and Great Northern viaducts with MSJ&AR
viaducts on the left and extreme right
The canal basin at
Castlefield is crossed by four large railway
viaducts dating from 1848, 1877 and 1898.
The southern viaduct in the group of three is the 1849 red brick
viaduct of the
Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway
Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway with
its cast iron arch bridge over the
Rochdale Canal. It carried the
double tracks between
Manchester Piccadilly via Oxford Road station
and Knott Mill railway station, then turns south-west, crosses the
canal basin and heads for Altrincham. Designated as No.100A, it
forms part of the long brick viaduct taking the
Altrincham branch of
Manchester South Junction &
Altrincham Railway through Knott
Mill Station. The bridge, designed by William Baker, spans 31.9m. It
has six cast iron ribs each made in five pieces and bolted together.
The ribs are braced with cruciform cast iron sections. The twin
railway tracks were carried on cast iron deck plates. The resident
engineer was Henry Hemberow, and the sections were cast by Garforths
of Dukinfield. The MSJ&A Railway was Manchester's first suburban
railway line. A second cast iron rib arch bridge by Baker passed over
Egerton Street but this was reconstructed in steel in 1976.
The central one in the group of three southwest of
is the high-level iron truss girder viaduct of 1877 built for the
Cheshire Lines Committee
Cheshire Lines Committee by the Midland Railway. It's known as
Cornbrook Viaduct. The viaduct is a red brick and wrought iron truss
girder construction. When it opened in 1877, it carried trains coming
from a temporary station to
Irlam and Warrington, and Chorlton via a
branch line. The temporary station was replaced by Sir John Fowler's
Manchester Central Station in 1880, which operated until 1969 and is
now used as an exhibition centre (
To the north is the 1894 Great Northern viaduct that served the Great
Northern Railway's warehouse in Deansgate. The high-level tubular
steel viaduct is decorated with turrets. It was built for the Great
Northern Railway Company and carried GNR trains to the company's
Deansgate warehouse until 1963. Richard Johnson who was a Chief
Engineer of the GNR was responsible for the design.
The Cornbrook and Great Northern viaducts stood disused for many
years. When a route for the Metrolink trams was investigated, the
Cornbrook Viaduct was found to be in much better condition than the
1894 one. It was chosen for refurbishment (1990–1991) and is
currently used by Metrolink trams going to Altrincham.
The Salford branch viaduct, the fourth viaduct, was separate from the
others. It was also built by the
Manchester South Junction &
Altrincham Railway in 1848-9. It uses a brick arch to cross the
Staffordshire arm of the basin, before passing under the later
Cornbrook and Great Northern viaduct and intersected with the then
main line to
Altrincham at a point about 300m west of Knott Mill
Station. The whole viaduct from Piccadilly to Ordsall Junction is
1.75 miles (2.82 km) long and consists of 224 brick arches.
There were six cast iron bridges that span Water Street, the Rochdale
Canal, Castle Street and
Deansgate Station, Oxford Road
(encased in concrete in 1959) and over Albion Street (renewed in
reinforced concrete in 1980). They were all designed by William Baker
and have a similar construction, with six cast iron arches each made
in three or five sections.
The Whitby and Bird Merchants' Bridge
During the regeneration of the
Castlefield basin, a spectacular
footbridge was built from Slate Wharf to Catalan Square. This is the
Merchant's Bridge, where the 3m wide deck is hung by 13 hangers from
the steel arches. The span is 40m. The designers, Whitby and Bird
acknowledge the influence of Santiago Calatrava.
A couple of modern but traditional looking cast iron clad steel
footbridges built by Marsh Bros Engineers, Bakewell 1990 have been
thrown over some arms. In addition Dutch style lifting bridges
have been built at Slate Wharf and Grocers Warehouse. An interesting
stoneclad footbridge has been built over the
Rochdale Canal. This is
called the Architect's bridge.
George Stephenson's line crossed the
River Irwell by a skew-arched
masonry bridge built in 1830, to the north of the canal basin and
then Water Street; this bridge is the first recorded use of the
Hodgkinson beam, (or I-beam).
Other prominent buildings
Further information: Liverpool Road railway station (Manchester)
Granada Studios Tour
The Liverpool Road railway station complex is significant as it was
here that the passenger terminus was invented, and concepts such as
separate facilities for the rich and the poor first appear here. The
station is the oldest mainline station in the world. The booking hall
for first and second class passengers was on Liverpool Road, and there
were separate stairs up to the separate first floor waiting rooms and
the platform. There was a sundial over the first class entrance, since
up to 1847,
Manchester Corporation used 'local time' and that was set
by the sun. In 1847, the Corporation adopted 'railway time'.
Adjoining the station are the 1830 warehouse (300 ft X
70 ft) with 6 spur tracks, and the three-storey 200 ft
(61 m) long, No. 1 Cotton Store built in 1831, and the similar
No. 2 Cotton Store. However this was period of rapid expansion. The
1830 warehouse had been built within 4 months by
David Bellhouse Jnr.
In 1837, the station buildings were extended by the Grand Junction
Railway and a new goods shed built. Warehouses now covered 5 acres
(2.0 ha),and had a floor area of 4,000,000 sq ft
(370,000 m2). The passenger station closed on 4 May 1844 when the
line was extended to join the
Manchester and Leeds Railway at a new
station situated in Hunt's Bank and it all became a freight terminal.
The cotton stores and the goods sheds were demolished in the 1860s
London and North Western Railway
London and North Western Railway expanded the goods
In 1844 there were six railway lines connecting the world to
Manchester, and Léon Faucher commented that there were 15 or 16
seats of industry that formed this great constellation.
Two more railway warehouses can be seen, the 1869 London and North
Western Railway Bonded
Warehouse on Grape Street with its separate
viaduct over Water Street and the four-storey 1880 Great Western
Railway Lower Byrom Street Warehouse. The Lower Byrom Street
Warehouse is now part of the Museum of Science and Industry, while the
Grape Street warehouse is used by
Granada Studios as studios,
rehearsal space and offices.
Castlefield regeneration dates from 1972, when the Greater Manchester
Council carried out archaeological investigations in the area. The
Liverpool Road goods depot closed 8 September 1975, and the GMC made a
survey of the site and it became the North Western Museum of Science
and Industry in 1978.
Through the joint efforts of the Civic Trust, the Georgian Group, the
Victorian Society and
Manchester Region Industrial Archaeology Society
(MRIAS) a report called Historic
Castlefield was published in 1979,
which set upon a development framework. Also in 1979
designated a conservation area even though most of its historic canals
and buildings were derelict. The major landowner was the Manchester
Ship Canal Company. The area's potential had been recognised and the
1982 City Centre Local Plan actively supported the Museum of Science
and Industry at Liverpool Road, and the
Castlefield Conservation Area
Steering Committee, (CCASC) was formed.
Castlefield designated itself Britain's first
Urban Heritage Park in
1983. This led to £40m of public sector funding being invested for
In 1988 the Central
Manchester Development Corporation was created to
formulate a regeneration policy for nearly 187 ha of central
Manchester (approximately 40% of the city centre) and to pump-prime
private sector development using Government grants. This embraced
The Corporation determined that
Castlefield should be revitalised by
strengthening the tourism base, consolidating and supporting business
activity and establishing a vibrant residential community. The
imaginative and sensitive conservation and enhancement of the listed
buildings, canals, viaducts and spaces, was to be achieved with high
standards of urban design. A large number of grants now became
available for public/private development partnerships.
One organisation to benefit was Jim Ramsbottom's,
company, who initiated several significant development projects,
including Eastgate, Merchants
Warehouse and Dukes 92.
The similarly named
Castlefield Management Company was created in 1992
as a non-profit company to provide services, events and to maintain
the environmental quality of the area. An Urban Ranger service was set
up to assist visitors, guide tours and oversee the Urban Heritage
Most of the buildings have now either been renovated or restored and
many have been converted into modern apartments (warehouse flats).
Numerous archaeological digs have taken place and revealed a great
deal about the early history of the city.
Manchester City Council have
recently encouraged high quality new developments to accompany the
converted warehouses and enhance the conservation area. However,
key sites remain to be completed, and Ian Simpson's proposals for a
massive eight-storey block of apartments at Jackson's Wharf, has twice
been rejected by the City Council reflecting vociferous local
objections. for instance, the entertainer
Mike Harding said:
I oppose the Jackson's Wharf development most vehemently. The original
Castlefield as an urban heritage park and the early work of
Jim Ramsbottom in particular was truly exciting. Then the big money
moved in and the dream was hijacked. Brutal Euroboxes, with neither
imagination nor taste to ameliorate them, were thrown up piecemeal in
one of the worst cases of planning blight I can think of, so that now
Manchester looks like a city designed by a schizophrenic drunk with
attention deficiency disorder.
List of lattice girder bridges in the United Kingdom
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Manchester in 1844: its present
condition and future prospects. London: Frank Cass (facsim. repr. of
1844 ed.); p. 15
^ a b Parkinson-Bailey 2000, p. 50
^ Parkinson-Bailey 2000, p. 216
^ Parkinson-Bailey 2000, p. 214
^ Cabe:Design of Castlefield
Castlefield Conservation Area". Government of the United Kingdom.
^ a b Jacksons Wharf
Heaton, Frank (1995) The
compiled by Frank Heaton. Radcliffe: Neil Richardson (contains the
recollections of Heaton's contemporaries, born early in the 20th
Gregory, Richard A. (2007). Roman Manchester: the University of
Manchester's excavations within the Vicus 2001–5. Oxbow Books.
McNeil, R.; Nevell, Mike (2000). A Guide to the Industrial Archaeology
of Greater Manchester. Association for Industrial Archaeology.
Mills, A.D. (1998). A Dictionary of English Placenames. Oxford
University Press. ISBN 0-19-280074-4.
Nevell, Mike; Walker, John (2001). Portland Basin and the archaeology
of the Canal Warehouse. Tameside Metropolitan Borough with University
Manchester Archaeological Unit. ISBN 1-871324-25-4
Owen, David (1983). The
Manchester Ship Canal.
Press. ISBN 0-7190-0864-6.
Parkinson-Bailey, John J. (2000). Manchester: an architectural
history. ISBN 0-7190-5606-3.
Parkinson-Bailey, John J. (2000). Manchester: An architectural
history. ISBN 0-7190-5606-3.
Woodside, Arch; et al. (2004). Consumer Psychology of Tourism,
Hospitality, and Leisure. CABI Publishing.
Atkins,, Philip (1977). Guide across Manchester. Civic Trust for the
North West. ISBN 0-901347-29-9.
Mason, David J. P. (2001). Roman Chester: City of the Eagles. Tempus
Publishing. ISBN 0-7524-1922-6.
Philpott, Robert A. (2006). "The Romano-British Period Resource
Assessment". Archaeology North West. 8: 59–90.
Shotter, David (2004) . Romans and Britons in North-West
England. Centre for North-West Regional Studies.
Walker, John, ed. (1989). Castleshaw: The archaeology of a Roman
Greater Manchester Archaeological Unit.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Castlefield.
Castlefield travel guide from Wikivoyage
Castlefield Canal Basins – photo tour
Manchester City Council:
Castlefield conservation area
Eyewitness in Manchester:
Castlefield – description and photographs
Website of the annual D-Percussion festival
Manchester View" – A History of the City from Roman times to the
Manchester City Council's Regeneration Team
The City of Manchester
Grade I buildings
This constituency also contains Broughton and
Kersal in neighbouring
Salford City Council.
Ancoats and Clayton
Ancoats and Clayton ward
City Centre ward
Miles Platting and Newton Heath
Miles Platting and Newton Heath ward
Moss Side ward
and Sale East
This constituency also contains Brooklands (Trafford), Priory and Sale
Moor in neighbouring Trafford Council.