CALABRIA (Italian pronunciation: ; Calàbbria in Calabrian ,
Calabrian Greek , Καλαβρία in Greek , Kalavrì in
Arbëresh ), known in antiquity as BRUTTIUM, is a region in Southern
Italy . It forms the traditionally conceptualized "toe" of the Italian
Peninsula which resembles a boot.
The capital city of
Catanzaro . Its most populated city,
and the seat of the
Regional Council of Calabria , is Reggio Calabria
. The region is bordered to the north by the
Basilicata Region, to the
west by the
Tyrrhenian Sea , and to the east by the
Ionian Sea . The
region covers 15,080 km2 (5,822 sq mi) and has a population of just
under 2 million. The demonym of
Calabria in English is Calabrian.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Geography
* 3 Climate
* 4 Geology
* 5 History
* 5.1 Antiquity
* 5.2 Middle Ages
* 5.3 Early Modern period
* 6 Economy
* 6.1 Manufacturing
* 6.2 Tourism
* 6.3 Agriculture
* 7 Infrastructure and transport
* 8 Demographics
* 9 Government and politics
* 9.1 Sister jurisdictions
* 10 Administrative divisions
* 10.1 Main sights
* 10.2 Language
* 10.3 Religion
* 11 Cuisine
* 12 Transportation
* 12.1 Airports
* 12.2 Seaports
* 12.3 Bridges
* 13 Universities
* 14 Notable people
* 15 See also
* 16 References
* 17 Further reading
* 18 External links
Starting in the third century BC, the name
Calabria was originally
given to the
Adriatic coast of the
Salento peninsula in modern Apulia
. In the late first century BC this name came to extend to the
entirety of the Salento, when the Roman emperor
Augustus divided Italy
in regions. The whole region of
Apulia received the name Regio II
Apulia et Calabria. By this time modern
Calabria was still known as
Bruttium, after the
Bruttians who inhabited the region. Later in the
seventh century AD, the
Byzantine Empire created the Duchy of Calabria
Salento and the Ionian part of Bruttium. Even though the
Calabrian part of the duchy was conquered by the
Longobards during the
eighth and ninth centuries AD, the Byzantines continued to use the
Calabria for their remaining territory in Bruttium.
The modern name
Italy derives from Italia, which was first used as a
name for the southern part of modern Calabria. Over time the Greeks
started to use it for the rest of the southern Italian peninsular as
well. After the Roman conquest of the region, the name was used for
the entire Italian peninsula and eventually the Alpine region too.
Pollino National Park La Sila
National Park Calabria, photography taken from the
The region is a long and narrow peninsula which stretches from north
to south for 248 km (154 mi), with a maximum width of 110 km (68 mi).
Some 42% of Calabria's area, corresponding to 15,080 km2, is
mountainous, 49% is hilly, while plains occupy only 9% of the region's
territory. It is surrounded by the Ionian and Tyrrhenian seas. It is
Sicily by the
Strait of Messina , where the narrowest
Capo Peloro in
Punta Pezzo in
only 3.2 km (2 mi).
Three mountain ranges are present:
La Sila and
All three mountain ranges are unique with their own flora and fauna.
Pollino Mountains in the north of the region are rugged and form a
natural barrier separating
Calabria from the rest of Italy. Parts of
the area are heavily wooded, while others are vast, wind-swept
plateaus with little vegetation. These mountains are home to a rare
Bosnian Pine variety, and are included in the
Pollino National Park .
La Sila , which has been referred to as the "Great Wood of Italy",
is a vast mountainous plateau about 1,200 metres (3,900 feet) above
sea level and stretches for nearly 2,000 square kilometres (770 square
miles) along the central part of Calabria. The highest point is Botte
Donato , which reaches 1,928 metres (6,325 feet). The area boasts
numerous lakes and dense coniferous forests.
La Sila also has some of
the tallest trees in
Italy which are called the "Giants of the Sila"
and can reach up to 40 metres (130 feet) in height. The Sila
National Park is also known to have the purest air in Europe.
Aspromonte massif forms the southernmost tip of the Italian
peninsula bordered by the sea on three sides. This unique mountainous
structure reaches its highest point at Montalto, at 1,995 metres
(6,545 feet), and is full of wide, man-made terraces that slope down
towards the sea.
In general, most of the lower terrain in
Calabria has been
agricultural for centuries, and exhibits indigenous scrubland as well
as introduced plants such as the prickly pear cactus . The lowest
slopes are rich in vineyards and citrus fruit orchards. The Diamante
citron is one of the citrus fruits. Moving upwards, olives and
chestnut trees appear while in the higher regions there are often
dense forests of oak, pine, beech and fir trees.
Calabria's climate is influenced by the sea and mountains. The
Mediterranean climate is typical of the coastal areas with
considerable differences in temperature and rainfall between the
seasons, with an average low of 8 °C (46 °F) during the winter
months and an average high of 30 °C (86 °F) during the summer
months. Mountain areas have a typical mountainous climate with
frequent snow during winter. Erratic behavior of the Tyrrhenian Sea
can bring heavy rainfall on the western slopes of the region, while
hot air from Africa makes the east coast of
Calabria dry and warm. The
mountains that run along the region also influence the climate and
temperature of the region. The east coast is much warmer and has wider
temperature ranges than the west coast. The geography of the region
causes more rain to fall along the west coast than that of the east
coast, which occurs mainly during winter and autumn and less during
the summer months.
Geotectonic map of the Central Mediterranean Area and the
Calabrian Arc. The blue trace indicates the position of the
geotectonic cross section depicted below. From van Dijk (1992)
Geotectonic Cross Section of the Calabrian Arc. Left: NW; Right: SE.
From van Dijk (1992)
When describing the geology of Calabria, it is commonly considered as
part of the "Calabrian Arc", an arc-shaped geographic domain extending
from the southern part of the
Basilicata Region to the northeast of
Sicily , and including the Peloritano Mountains (although some authors
extend this domain from
Naples in the North up to
Palermo in the
Southwest). The Calabrian area shows basement (crystalline and
metamorphic rocks) of
Paleozoic and younger ages, covered by (mostly
Neogene sediments. Studies have revealed that these rocks
comprise the upper Unit of a pile of thrust sheets which dominate the
Apennines and the Sicilian Maghrebides .
Neogene evolution of the Central Mediterranean system is
dominated by the migration of the Calabrian Arc to the southeast,
overriding the African Plate and its promontories (Argand, 1922;
Boccaletti and Guazzone, 1972 ). The main tectonic elements of the
Calabrian Arc are the Southern
Apennines fold-and-thrust belt, the
"Calabria-Peloritani", or simply Calabrian block and the Sicilian
Maghrebides fold-and-thrust belt. The foreland area is formed by the
Apulia Platform, which is part of the
Adriatic Plate, and the Ragusa
or Iblean Platform, which is an extension of the African Plate. These
platforms are separated by the Ionian Basin . The Tyrrhenian oceanized
basin is regarded as the back-arc basin . This subduction system
therefore shows the southern plates of African affinity subducting
below the northern plates of European affinity.
The geology of
Calabria has been studied for more than a century. For
details concerning the older literature, i.e. from before 1973, the
reader is referred to the review of Ogniben (1973). Ippolito (1959)
presented a complete bibliography of the literature on the Calabrian
geology as published up until that moment. Books, reviews and
important "mile¬stones" concerning the geology of the Calabrian Arc
are the following: Cortese (1895), Limanowski (1913), Quitzow
(1935), Caire et al. (1960), Caire (1961), Grandjacquet et al.
(1961), Ogniben (1969, 1973 ), Caire (1970, 1975, 1978 ), Burton
(1971), Amodio-Morelli et al. (1976), Dubois (1976), Grandjacquet
and Mascle (1978), Moussat (1983), van Dijk (1992), and van Dijk et
al. (2000). The earlier works were mainly dedicated to the evolution
of the basement rocks of the area. The
Neogene sedimentary successions
were merely regarded as "post-orogenic" infill of "neo-tectonic"
tensional features. In the course of time, however, a shift can be
observed in the temporal significance of these terms, from post-Eocene
Miocene to post-middle
The area is seismically and volcanically highly active. This is
generally ascribed to the re-establishment of an equilibrium after the
latest (mid-Pleistocene) deformation phase. Some authors believe that
the subduction process is still ongoing, which is a matter of debate
(van Dijk ">
Magna Grecia around 280 BC
Calabria has one of the oldest records of human presence in Italy,
which date back to around 700,000 BC when a type of Homo Erectus
evolved leaving traces around coastal areas. During the Paleolithic
period stone age man created the "Bos Primigenius", a figure of a bull
on a cliff which dates back around 12,000 years in the Cave of Romito
in the town of
Papasidero . When the Neolithic period came the first
villages were founded around 3,500 BC.
Around 1500 BC a tribe called the Oenotri ("vine-cultivators"),
settled in the region. According to Greek mythology they were Greeks
who were led to the region by their king,
Oenotrus . The Greeks used
the term 'italoi', which according to some ancient Greek writers was
derived from a legendary king of the Oenotri,
Italus and according to
others from the bull. Originally the Greeks used 'italoi' to indicate
Calabria and later it became synonymous with the rest of the
Calabria therefore was the first region to be called Italia
During the eighth and seventh centuries BC, Greek settlers founded
many colonies (settlements) on the coast of southern
Grecia ). In
Calabria they founded Chone (
Pallagorio ), Cosentia
Cosenza ), Clampetia (
Vibo Valentia ),
Locri Epizefiri (
Locri ), Kaulon
Cirò Marina ), Kroton (
Crotone ), Laüs
Santa Maria del Cedro ),
Strongoli ), Rhégion (
Reggio Calabria ), Scylletium
(Borgia ), Temesa (
Campora San Giovanni ),
Nocera Terinese ),
Acri ) and
Thurii , (Thurio, comune of
Corigliano Calabro ).
Rhegion was the birthplace of one of the famed nine lyric poets ,
Metauros was the birthplace of another of the nine lyric
Stesichorus , who was the first lyric poet of the western
world. Kroton spawned many victors during the ancient Olympics and
other Panhellenic Games. Amongst the most famous were
Milo of Croton
Milo of Croton ,
who won six wrestling events in six Olympics in a row, along with
seven events in the Pythian Games, nine events in the Nemean Games and
ten events in the Isthmian Games and also
Astylos of Croton , who won
six running events in three Olympics in a row. Through Alcmaeon of
Croton (a philosopher and medical theorist) and
mathematician and philosopher), who moved to Kroton in 530 BC, the
city became a renowned center of philosophy, science and medicine. The
Sybaris created "Intellectual Property."
from "vinoducts" which were a series of pipes that carried wine to the
homes of its citizens. The Sybarite founded at least 20 other
colonies, including Poseidonia (
Paestum in Latin, on the Tyrrhenian
coast of Lucania),
Laüs (on the border with Lucania) and
the Lucanian coast in the
Gulf of Taranto ).
Locri was renowned for
being the town where
Zaleucus created the first Western Greek law, the
"Locrian Code" and the birthplace of ancient epigrammist and poet
The Itali were the first established people of Calabria. Later came
Bruttii from Lucania. These occupied
Calabria and called it
Bruttii were very advanced culturally. The Greek cites
Calabria came under the pressure from these
Lucanians , an Oscan
people who lived in the present day region of
Basilicata . They
conquered the north of
Calabria and pushed further south, taking over
part of the interior, probably after they defeated the Thurians near
Laus in 390 BC. A few decades later
Calabria came under pressure from
Bruttii . They were Lucanian slaves and other fugitives who were
seeking refuge on the steep mountains of Calabria. Their name was
Lucanian and meant rebels. They took advantage of the weakening of the
Greek cites caused by wars between them. They took over Hipponium,
Terina and Thurii. They helped the
Lucanians to fight Alexander of
Epirus (334–32 BC), who had come to the aid of Tarentum (in Apulia
), which was also pressured by the Lucanians. After this, Agathocles
of Syracuse ravaged the coast of
Calabria with his fleet, took
Hipponium and forced the
Bruttii into unfavourable peace terms.
However, they soon seized Hipponium again. After Agathloces' death in
289 BC the
Bruttii pushed into the territory of Thurii
and ravaged it. The city sent envoys to Rome to ask for help in 285 BC
and 282 BC. On the second occasion, the Romans sent forces to garrison
the city. This was part of the episode which sparked the Pyrrhic war.
During the Pyrrhic War (280–275 BC) the
with Pyrrhus and provided contingents which fought with his army. When
Pyrrhus landed in
Italy the people of
Rhegion were worried about their
safety and asked Rome for protection. The Romans sent soldiers from
Campania to garrison the city. Coveting the wealth of the city, the
soldiers killed its prominent men, sent away the rest and seized their
property. The Romans could not do much about it because they were
engaged in the war. A few years after the end of the war, in 271 BC,
the Romans retook the city, arrested the soldiers and took them to
Rome, where they were executed. After Pyrrhus was defeated, to avoid
Roman revenge, the
Bruttii submitted willingly and gave up half of the
Sila, a mountainous plateau which was valuable for its pitch and
timber. The timber here was sold all over
Italy and the resin of the
area was of the highest quality.
During the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) the
Bruttii allied with
Hannibal , who sent Hanno , one of his commanders, to Calabria. Hanno
Capua (in Campania) with Bruttian soldiers to take
them to Hannibal's headquarters there twice, but he was defeated on
both occasions. When his campaign in
Italy came to a dead end,
Hannibal took refuge in Calabria, whose steep mountains provided
protection against the Roman legions. He set up his headquarters in
Kroton and stayed there for four years until he was recalled to
Carthage. The Romans fought a battle with him near Kroton, but its
details are unknown. Many Calabrian cities surrendered.
put under a military commander. Nearly a decade after the war, the
Romans set up colonies in Calabria: at Tempsa and Kroton (Croto in
Latin) in 194 BC, Copiae in the territory of
Thurii (Thurium in Latin)
in 193 BC, and
Vibo Valentia in the territory of
Hipponion in 192 BC.
The Romans called
Calabria Bruttium. Later, during the reign of
Augustus it became part of the third region of Italy, the 'Regio III
Lucania et Brettium.
After sacking Rome in 410, Alaric I (King of the Visigoths) went to
Calabria with the intention of sailing to Africa. He contracted
malaria and died in Cosentia (Cosenza), probably of fever. Legend has
it that he along with the treasure of Rome were buried under the bed
of the River Busento. With the fall of the western part of the Roman
Italy was taken over by the
Ostrogoths and became part of the
Ostrogothic Kingdom in the late fifth century. During the sixth
century, under the Ostrogoths,
Cassiodorus emerged as one of the most
prominent men of his time. He was an administrator, politician,
scholar and historian who was born in
Scylletium (near Catanzaro). He
spent most of his career trying to bridge the divides of East and
West, Greek and Latin cultures, Romans and Goths, and official
Arian Christianity , which was the form of
Christianity of the
Ostrogoths and which had earlier been banned. He
set up his Vivarium monastery (monastery school) in Scylletium. He
oversaw the collation of three editions of the Bible in Latin. Seeing
the practicality of uniting all the books of the Bible in one volume,
he was the first who produced Latin Bibles in single volumes. The
most well-known of them was the
Codex Grandior which was the ancestor
of all modern western Bibles.
Cassiodorus was at the heart of the administration of the Ostrogothic
kingdom. Theodoric made him quaestor sacri palatii (quaestor of the
sacred palace, the senior legal authority) in 507, governor of Lucania
and Bruttium, consul in 514 and magister officiorum (master of
offices, one of the most senior administrative officials) in 523. He
was praetorian prefect (chief minister) under the successors of
Theodoric: under Athalaric (Theodoric's grandson, reigned 526–34) in
533 and, between 535 and 537, under Theodahad (Theodoric's nephew,
reigned 534–36) and Witiges (Theodoric's grandson-in-law, reigned,
536–40). The major works of Cassiodorus, besides the mentioned
bibles, were the Historia Gothorum, a history of the Goths, the Variae
and account of his administrative career and the Institutiones
divinarum et saecularium litterarum, an introduction to the study of
the sacred scriptures and the liberal arts which was very influential
in the Middle Ages.
Byzantine emperor Justinian I, retook
Italy from The Ostrogoths.
Byzantine is the Eastern Roman Empire. They soon lost much
Italy to the
Lombards , but they retained the south, where they
Calabria and towns such as
great religious status. From the 7th Century many monasteries were
built in the Amendolea and Stilaro Valleys and
Stilo was the
destination of hermits and Basilian monks. Many beautiful Byzantine
churches are still seen in the region. The 10th-century church in
Rossano is considered one of the best preserved
Byzantine churches in
Italy. It was built by St.
Nilus the Younger
Nilus the Younger as a retreat for the
monks who lived in the tufa grottos underneath. The present name of
Calabria comes from the duchy of Calabria.
Around the year 800, Saracens began invading the shores of Calabria,
attempting to wrest control of the area from the Byzantines (The
Eastern Roman Empire). This group of Arabs had already been successful
Sicily and knew that
Calabria was another key spot. The people of
Calabria retreated into the mountains for safety. Although the Arabs
never really got a stronghold on the whole of Calabria, they did
control some villages while enhancing trade relations with the eastern
world. In 918, Saracens captured Reggio (which was renamed Rivà) and
sold the majority of its population in the slave markets of
North Africa. It is during this time of Arab invasions that many
staples of today's Calabrian cuisine came into fashion: citrus fruits
and eggplants for example. Exotic spices such as cloves and nutmeg
were also introduced.
In the 1060s the
Normans from their duchy in France, under the
Robert Guiscard 's brother, Roger I of
established a presence in this borderland , and organized a government
modeled on the Eastern
Roman Empire and was run by the local magnates
of Calabria. Of note is that the
Normans established their presence
here, in southern
Italy (namely Calabria), 6 years prior to their
conquest of England, see
The Battle of Hastings , a fact that has been
totally missed in many history texts. The purpose of this strategic
Calabria was to lay the foundations for the Crusades 30
years later, and for the creation of two Kingdoms: the Kingship of
Jerusalem, and the Kingdom of Sicily. Ships would sail from Calabria
to the Holy Land. This made
Calabria one of the richest regions in
Europe as princes from the noble families of England, France and other
regions, constructed secondary residences and palaces here, on their
way to the Holy Land. Guiscard's son Bohemond , who was born in San
Marco Argentano , would be one of the leaders in the first crusade.
In 1098, Roger I of
Sicily was named the equivalent of an apostolic
legate by Pope
Urban II and later his son Roger II of
the first King of
Sicily and formed what would become the Kingdom of
Sicily which lasted nearly 700 years. Under the
Normans Southern Italy
was united as one region and started a feudal system of land ownership
in which the
Normans were made lords of the land while peasants
performed all the work on the land.
In 1194 the Swabians took control under Frederick II, Holy Roman
Emperor . He created a kingdom that blended cultures, philosophy and
customs and would build several castles while fortifying existing ones
Normans previously constructed. After the death of Frederick
II in 1250,
Calabria was controlled by the French once more, the
Angevins, under the rule of Charles d’Anjou after being granted the
crown by Pope Clement IV. Under Charles d’Anjou the Kingdom of
Sicily was changed to the Kingdom of
Naples in 1282 after he lost
Sicily due to the rebellion of the
Sicilian Vespers . During the 14th
century, would emerge
Barlaam of Seminara
Barlaam of Seminara who would be
Greek teacher and his disciple
Leonzio Pilato , who would translate
Homer's works for
Giovanni Boccaccio .
EARLY MODERN PERIOD
In 1442 the Aragonese took control under
Alfonso V of Aragon who
became ruler under the
Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon . In 1501
Calabria came under
the control of
Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon who is famed for sponsoring the
first voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492.
greatly under Aragonese rule with heavy taxes, feuding landlords,
starvation and sickness. After a brief period in the early 1700s under
the Austrian Hapsburgs,
Calabria came into the control of the Bourbons
in 1735. It was during Spanish rule that
Calabria would contribute to
modern world history with the creation of the
Gregorian calendar by
the Calabrian doctor and astronomer
Luigi Lilio .
In 1563 philosopher and natural scientist
Bernardino Telesio wrote
"On the Nature of Things according to their Own Principles" and
pioneered early modern empiricism. He would also influence the works
of Francis Bacon, René Descartes, Giordano Bruno, Tommaso Campanella
and Thomas Hobbes. In 1602 philosopher and poet Tommaso Campanella
wrote his most famous work, "
The City of the Sun " and would later
defend Galileo Galilei during his first trial with his work "A Defense
of Galileo", which was written in 1616 and published in 1622. In 1613
philosopher and economist
Antonio Serra wrote "A Short Treatise on the
Wealth and Poverty of Nations" and was a pioneer in the Mercantilist
At the end of the 18th century the French took control and in 1808
Napoleon Bonaparte gave the Kingdom of
Naples to his brother-in-law
Joachim Murat . Murat controlled the kingdom until the return of the
Bourbons in 1815.
Calabria experienced a series of peasant revolts as part of the
Revolutions of 1848 . This set the stage for the eventual
unification with the rest of
Italy in 1861, when the Kingdom of Naples
was brought into the union by
Giuseppe Garibaldi . The unification was
orchestrated by Great Britain in an attempt to nationalize the
production of sulfur from the two volcanoes located in
Sicily respectively. The
Aspromonte was the scene of a famous battle
of the unification of Italy. During the late 19th or early 20th
century, pianist and composer
Alfonso Rendano invented the "Third
Pedal", which augmented the interpretative resources of the piano.
The ancient Greek colonies from
Naples and to the south, had been
completely Latinized , but from the fifth century AD onward Greeks had
once again emigrated there when pressed out of their homeland by
invasions. This Greek
Diaspora allowed the ancient Greek dialects to
continue in Southern Italy, much in the same way that the Italian
Diaspora allowed long-lost dialects from
Italy to thrive in countries
Italians emigrated to. Greek texts were also valued in
monasteries and places of learning. However it was
Charlemagne in the
8th century, who made Latin the 'official' language of study and
communication for Europe. For the sake of uniformity, he supplanted
much of the Greek spoken, read or taught in Europe. It was through
language (Latin) and education (Latin texts) that
During the 13th century a French chronicler who traveled through
Calabria stated that "the peasants of
Calabria spoke nothing but
Greek" given he had traveled to areas where Greek was still available.
But the educated classes spoke Italian. Indeed, formal Italian has
been taught in schools throughout
Italy for nearly two centuries,
causing the ancient languages and dialects to continually disappear,
much to the chagrin of the cultural community. These lost dialects
continue to thrive to this day in North America and Australia, places
Italians emigrated to, on account of the
Calabria enjoys a diversified economy comparable to western nations
in various categories, as shown in these statistics: the Gross
Domestic Product (GDP) of
Calabria is subdivided as follows: service
industry (28.94%), financial activities and real estate (21.09%),
trade, tourism, transportation and communication (19.39%), taxation
(11.49%), manufacturing (8.77%), construction (6.19%) and agriculture
(4.13%). It is one of the least (resort) developed regions in Italy.
Its economy is hampered by corruption, tax evasion and organized crime
which is mainly run by the \
'Ndrangheta (the local
the latter has deep connections with some of the local authorities.
Food and textile industries are the most developed and vibrant.
Within the industrial sector, manufacturing contributes to a gross
value added of 7.2%. In the manufacturing sector the main branches are
foodstuff, beverage and tobacco with a contribution to the sector very
close to the national average. Over the recent decades have emerged
some petrochemical, engineering and chemical industries, within the
Vibo Valentia and
Reggio Calabria .
Ski trails near
Gambarie overlooking the
Strait of Messina
Calabria attracts year-round tourism, offering both summer and winter
activities, in addition to its cultural, historical, artistic
heritage, it has an abundance of protected natural habitats and
'green' zones. The 485 miles (781 kilometres) of its coast make
Calabria a popular tourist destination during the summer. The low
industrial development and the lack of major cities in much of its
territory have allowed the maintenance of indigenous marine pollution.
In fact, the region is considered by many a natural paradise, which
attracts a tourists and eco-minded populace from all over the world.
The most sought-after seaside destinations are:
Tropea , Pizzo
Capo Vaticano ,
Reggio Calabria ,
Soverato , Scilla, Scalea
Sellia Marina ,
Montauro , Copanello (comune of
Staletti ), Tonnara di
Palmi , Diamante , Paola ,
Fiumefreddo Bruzio ,
Praia a Mare ,
Belvedere Marittimo ,
Roseto Capo Spulico ,
Corigliano Calabro ,
Cirò Marina ,
Roccella Ionica ,
Bagnara Calabra ,
Zambrone , Isola di Capo
Rizzuto , Caminia (comune of
Parghelia , Ricadi
San Nicola Arcella .
In addition to the coastal tourist destinations, the interior of
Calabria is rich in history, traditions, art and culture that attract
a discerning clientele and specialized, cultured tourists.
among the most important cultural cities of Calabria, with a rich
historical and artistic patrimony. Medieval castles, towers, churches,
monasteries and other French castles and structures from the Norman to
the Aragonese periods are common elements in both the interior and
coastline of Calabria.
The mountains offer skiing and other winter activities: Sila ,
Aspromonte are three national parks that offer facilities
for winter sports, especially in the towns of Camigliatello (comune of
Spezzano della Sila ), Lorica (comune of
San Giovanni in Fiore ),
Gambarie and Monte Sant'Elia (comune of
Calabrian olive tree plantations
A typical feature is agricultural richness in Calabria. The region
boasts the second highest number of organic farmers only after Sicily
. The olive tree, representing 29.6% of UAA and represents
approximately 70% of tree crops. The region is the second-highest for
olive oil production. The
Bergamot orange is intensively cultivated,
since the 18th century, exclusively in coastal area nearby to Reggio
, where it found its optimal geological and weather conditions:
essence oil from Calabrian Bergamot reach the best quality in the
Calabria is also the largest producer of Porcini Mushrooms in
INFRASTRUCTURE AND TRANSPORT
The seaport of
The main Calabrian ports are in Reggio and in
Gioia Tauro . The
Reggio port is equipped with five loading docks of a length of 1,530
metres (5,020 feet). The
Gioia Tauro port has seven loading docks with
an extension of 4,646 metres (15,243 feet); it is the largest in Italy
and the seventh largest container port in Europe, with a 2007
throughput of 3.7 million TEUs from more than 3,000 ships.
The region is served by three heavily used roads: two national
highways along the coasts (SS18 Napoli -Reggio and SS106 Reggio
Taranto ) and the A2 motorway , which links
Salerno and Reggio ,
Cosenza along the old inland route.
Calabria there are two main airports: one is situated in Reggio ,
a few kilometres from city centre, built in 1939 is chronologically
the first airport in Calabria; another is located in Lamezia Terme
municipality area, currently being the first airport in Calabria
concerning the number of passengers per year.
Source: ISTAT 2001
The following is a list of Calabrian municipalities with a population
of over 20,000:
Reggio Calabria – 186,013 inhabitants
Catanzaro – 93,265
Lamezia Terme – 71,123
Cosenza – 69,827
Crotone – 61,529
Corigliano Calabro – 40,533
Rossano – 38,280
Rende – 35,352
Vibo Valentia – 33,857
Castrovillari – 22,518
Acri – 21,263
Montalto Uffugo – 20,553
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
Politics of Calabria
* Burwood , Australia.
* State of
West Virginia , United States.
Calabria is divided into five provinces:
Riace bronzes , Greek bronzes, about 460–430 BC The
Byzantine church known as the Cattolica
Calabria has increased over the years. The main tourist
attractions are the coastline and the mountains. The coastline
alternates between rugged cliffs and sandy beaches, and is sparsely
interrupted by development when compared to other European seaside
destinations. The sea around
Calabria is clear, and there is a good
level of tourist accommodation. The poet Gabriele D\'Annunzio called
the coast facing
Reggio Calabria "... the most beautiful
kilometer in Italy" (il più bel chilometro d'Italia). The primary
mountain tourist draws are
La Sila , with its national
park and lakes. Some other prominent destinations include:
Reggio Calabria is on the strait between the mainland and
the largest and oldest city in
Calabria dating from the 8th century
BC, renowned for its panoramic seaside with botanical gardens between
the art nouveau buildings and the beautiful beaches, and its 3,000
years of history with its Aragonese Castle and the Museo Nazionale
Magna Grecia where the famous
Riace bronzes (Bronzi di Riace)
Cosenza , birthplace of scientist and philosopher Bernardino
Telesio and seat of the
Cosentian Academy , renowned for its cultural
institutions, the beautiful old quarter, a Hohenstaufen Castle, an
open-air museum and an 11th-century Romanesque-Gothic Cathedral. On 12
October 2011, the Cathedral of
Cosenza received UNESCO World Heritage
status for being "Heritage Witness to a Culture of Peace". This is
the first award given by UNESCO to the region of Calabria.
Scilla , on the
Tyrrhenian Sea , "pearl" of the "Violet Coast",
has a delightful panorama and is the site of some of
Homer 's tales.
Tropea , on the
Tyrrhenian Sea coast, is home to a dramatic
seaside beach, and the Santa Maria dell'Isola sanctuary. It is also
renowned for its sweet red onions (mainly produced in
Capo Vaticano , on the Tyrrhenian Sea, is a very famous wide
bathing place near Tropea.
Gerace , near
Locri , is a beautiful medieval city with a Norman
Castle and Norman Cathedral.
Squillace , a seaside resort and important archaeological site.
Nearby is the birthplace of
Stilo , the birthplace of philosopher
Tommaso Campanella , with
its Norman Castle and beautiful
Byzantine church, the Cattolica .
Pizzo Calabro , on the
Tyrrhenian Sea coast, known for its ice
cream called "Tartufo". Interesting places in Pizzo are Piazza
Repubblica and the Aragonese castle where Murat was shot.
* Paola , a town situated on the
Tyrrhenian Sea coast, renowned for
being the birthplace of St. Francis of Paola, patron saint of Calabria
and Italian sailors, and for the old Franciscan sanctuary built during
the last hundred years of the Middle Ages by the will of St. Francis.
Sibari , on the Ionian coast, a village situated near the
archaeological site of the ancient city of
Sybaris , a Greek colony of
the 8th century BC.
Lamezia Terme , the main transportation hub of the region with its
international airport which links it to many destinations in Europe
plus Canada and Israel and the train station . Several are the
historical sights of the city, like the Norman-Swabian castle, the
Jewish historical quarter and the Casa del Libro Antico (House of the
Ancient Book) where books from the 16th to the 19th centuries, as well
as old globes and ancient maps reproduction are well preserved and
available to be seen by the public.
Catanzaro , an important silk center since the time of the
Byzantines, is located at the centre of the narrowest point of Italy,
from where the
Ionian Sea and
Tyrrhenian Sea are both visible, but not
from Catanzaro. Of note are the well-known one-arch bridge (Viaduct
Morandi-Bisantis, one of the tallest in Europe), the Cathedral
(rebuilt after World War II bombing), the castle, the promenade on the
Ionian sea, the park of biodiversity and the archaeological park.
Soverato on the
Ionian Sea , also known as the "Pearl" of the
Ionian Sea. Especially renowned for its beaches, boardwalk and
Soverato is a well-preserved medieval hilltop
village with 13 churches. It was selected as one of the 1000 marvels
Italy to mark the anniversary of the unification of Italy. It is
increasingly popular with wealthy foreigners who have renovated the
Nicotera on the Tyrrhenian Sea, is a beautiful little medieval
town with an ancient Ruffo's castle.
* Ancient temples of the Roman gods on the sun-kissed hills of
Catanzaro still stand as others are swept beneath the earth. Many
excavations are going on along the east coast, digging up what seems
to be an ancient burial ground.
* Samo , a village on the foot of the Aspromonte, is well known for
its spring water and ruins of the old village destroyed in the 1908
Messina earthquake .
Mammola , art center, tourist and gastronomic, boasts an ancient
history. Well worth a visit, the old town, with its small houses
attached to each other, the ancient churches and noble palaces. Of
particular interest is the Museum Park Santa Barbara, a place of art
and cultural events of many international artists and the Shrine of
St. Nicodemo of the 10th century, in the highlands of Limina. Its
renowned gastronomy with the "Stocco" typical of Mammola, cooked in
various ways, other typical products are smoked ricotta and goat
cheese, salami pepper and wild fennel, bread "pizza" (corn bread) and
wheat bread baked in a wood oven.
Praia a Mare on the Tyrrhenian Sea, is a well-known tourist city,
thanks to the Isola di Dino and the seaside beach.
Although the official national language of
Calabria has been Standard
Italian since before unification in 1861, as a consequence of its deep
and colourful history, Calabrian dialects have developed that have
been spoken in the region for centuries. The Calabrian language is a
direct derivative of the Latin language, and is closer to the words
spoken in Latin than the standard Italian. Most linguists divide the
various dialects into two different language groups. In the northern
one-third of the region, the Calabrian dialects are considered part of
Neapolitan language (or
Southern Italian ) and are grouped as
Northern Calabrian or Cosentino. In the southern two-thirds of the
region, the Calabrian dialects are often grouped as Central and
Southern Calabrian. In many respects, the Calabrian dialect is
considered very similar to the Puglian/Salentine dialects spoken in
Salento, the region situated on the "heel" of Italy. However, in
isolated pockets, as well as some quarters of
Reggio Calabria a
Occitan can also be found in certain communities and French
has had an influence on many Calabrian words and phrases. In addition,
Calabria was once ruled by the Spanish, some Calabrian dialects
exhibit Spanish derivatives.
History of the Jews in Calabria Cathedral of Reggio
The majority of Calabrians are
Roman Catholic . There are also
communities of Evangelicals in the region.
Calabria has also been
called "The Land of Saints" as the region was the birthplace of many
saints spanning nearly 2,000 years. The most famous saint in
Calabria and also the patron saint of the region is St. Francis of
Calabria also has another patron saint called Saint Bruno of
Cologne who was the founder of the
Carthusian Order. Saint Bruno would
build the charterhouse of
Serra San Bruno , a town which bears his
name, in 1095 and later die there in 1101.
Even though it is currently a very small community, there has been a
long history of the presence of
Jews in Calabria. The
Jews have had a
presence in the region for at least 1600 years and possibly as much as
2300 years. Calabrian
Jews have had notably influence on many areas of
Jewish life and culture. Although virtually identitical to the
Calabria are considered a distinct Jewish
population due to historical and geographic considerations. There is a
small community of Italian
Anusim who have resumed the
It is important to highlight the presence of Calabrians in
Renaissance humanism and in the
Renaissance . Indeed, the Hellenistics
in this period frequently came from
Calabria maybe because of the
Greek influence. The rediscovery of
Ancient Greek was very difficult
because this language had been almost forgotten. In this period the
presence of Calabrian humanists or refugees from Constantinople was
fundamental. The study of Ancient Greek, in this period, was mainly a
work of two monks of the monastery of
Seminara : Barlaam , bishop of
Gerace , and his disciple,
Leonzio Pilato .
Leonzio Pilato , in
particular, was a Calabrian born near
Reggio Calabria . He was an
important teacher of
Ancient Greek and translator, and he helped
Giovanni Boccaccio in the translations of
Homer 's works.
Calabrian wine \
The cuisine is a typical southern Italian
Mediterranean cuisine with
a balance between meat-based dishes (pork, lamb, goat), vegetables
(especially eggplant ), and fish. Pasta (as in Central
Italy and the
rest of Southern Italy) is also very important in Calabria. In
contrast to most other Italian regions, Calabrians have traditionally
placed an emphasis on the preservation of their food and packing
vegetables and meats in olive oil . Also making sausages and cold cuts
Sopressata , \
'Nduja , Capocollo ), along the coast curing fish –
especially swordfish , sardines (sardelle rosamarina) and cod
Baccalà ). Local desserts are typically fried, honey-sweetened
pastries Cudduraci, Nacatole, Scalille or scalidde or baked biscotti
-type treats (such as 'nzudda).
Some local specialties include
Caciocavallo Cheese, Cipolla rossa di
Tropea (red onion),
Curcùci (fried pork), Liquorice
Lagane e Cicciari (a pasta dish with chickpeas ),
Pecorino Crotonese (Cheese of Sheep), and
In ancient times
Calabria was referred to as Enotria (from Ancient
Oenotria , "land of wine"). According to
ancient Greek tradition, Οἴνωτρος (
Oenotrus ), the youngest
of the sons of Lycaon , was the eponym of Oenotria. Some vineyards
have origins dating back to the ancient Greek colonists. The best
known DOC wines are Cirò (Province of
Crotone ) and
Cosenza ). 3% of the total annual production qualifies as DOC.
Important grape varieties are the red
Gaglioppo and white Greco . Many
producers are resurrecting local, ancient grape varieties which have
been around for as long as 3000 years.
Lamezia Terme International Airport (Airport IATA code: SUF)
Reggio Calabria Airport (Airport IATA code: REG)
Crotone Airport (Airport IATA code: CRV)
* Port of
Gioia Tauro (the busiest container port in
seventh-busiest in mainland Europe)
Port of Reggio Calabria
* Port of Vibo Valentia
* Port of Villa San Giovanni
* Port of Corigliano Calabro
* Port of Crotone
Calabria has the two highest bridges in
Sfalassa Viaduct (also the highest and longest span frame bridge
in the world)
There are 3 public universities in the region of
University of Calabria (Cosenza)
Magna Graecia University (Catanzaro)
* Mediterranea University of
There is also the private University for Foreigners "Dante Alighieri"
Reggio Calabria .
Achille Falcone (16th-century composer)
Acrion (Pythagorean philosopher)
Ada Dondini (actress)
Alcmaeon of Croton (ancient philosopher/medical theorist who
pioneered anatomical dissection)
Alessandro Longo (19th-century composer and musicologist)
* Alexis (ancient comic poet)
Alfonso Rendano (19th-century pianist and composer who invented
the "third pedal")
Alfredo Costanzo (Australian motor racing driver born in Calabria)
Aloysius Lilius (16th-century astronomer who created the Gregorian
* Amyris of
Sybaris (consulted the Delphic oracle)
Andy Varipapa (professional bowler called "the greatest one-man
bowling show on Earth")
Angelo Arciglione (international prize-winning pianist)
Angelo Maria Mazzia (19th-century artist and Knight in the Order
of the Crown of Italy)
Anna Maria Maiolino (Italian-Brazilian artist)
Anselmo Lorecchio (lawyer, journalist, politician, poet, writer &
Antonio Cantafora (film and television actor)
Antonio Diego Voci (figurative artist and sculptor)
Antonio Fuoco (motor racing driver)
Antonio Maria Magro (actor, director & screenwriter)
Antonio Porchia (poet)
Antonio Pujía (Italian-Argentine artist and sculptor)
Antonio Rodotà (former Director General of the European Space
Antonio Serra (late 16th-century philosopher and economist)
Antonio Siciliano (film editor)
Antonio Strati (Italian organizational theorist & artist)
Antony Carbone (film and television actor)
Arignote (pythagorean philosopher)
Aristomachus of Croton (ancient party leader of Croton during the
Aroldo Tieri (actor)
Astylos of Croton (ancient olympic athlete)
Autoleon (ancient war hero)
Baldassarre Squitti (teacher of law and politician)
Barlaam of Seminara
Barlaam of Seminara (14th-century humanist Greek teacher to
Petrarch and Boccaccio)
Benito Carbone (football manager)
Bernardino Telesio (16th-century philosopher and first of the
Camillus Costanzo (16th-century Jesuit missionary & Roman
Elena Aiello (founder of "Sister Minims of The Passion of
Our Lord Jesus Christ")
Francesco Maria Greco (co-founder of "Little Workers of
the Sacred Hearts")
Maria Candida of the Eucharist (Discalced Carmelite nun
Luca Antonio Falcone (Catholic priest & member of the
Franciscan Order of Friars Minor Capuchin)
Bohemond I of Antioch (Prince of
Taranto and Antioch)
Calliphon of Croton (pythagorean physician)
Carlo Carlei (Italian film director)
Carmelo Zito (journalist & newspaper editor)
Carmine Abate (writer and novelist)
Cassiodorus (founder of the Vivarium Monastery who put together
the first western bible)
Cesare Lanza (Italian journalist & author)
Charles Atlas (bodybuilder)
Cicco Simonetta (
Renaissance statesman who composed a treatise on
Clearchus of Rhegium (ancient sculptor)
Clinomachus (Megarian philosopher)
Corrado Alvaro (writer and journalist)
Democedes (ancient physician that Herodotus called "the most
skillful physician of his time")
Dick Danello (Singer & Composer)
Diego Carpitella (Professor of ethnomusicology)
Diognetus of Croton (ancient athlete)
Vinjay (Musician and Record Producer)
Domenico Berardi (Youngest footballer to score 4 goals in a "Serie
A" match since 1931)
Domenico Caruso (writer, poet and scholar of Calabrian dialects)
Domingo F. Periconi (20th-century artist)
Donatella Versace (Vice-President and Chief Designer of Versace
* El Presidente (Musician/Singer/Record Producer)
Eleuterio Francesco Fortino (Awarded Catholic priest who improved
relations between the Catholic & Orthodox churches during his service)
Elisabetta Gregoraci (model and television personality)
Emilio Bulgarelli (won gold team medal in water polo at the 1948
Enrico Salfi (19th-century painter of biblical/Roman subjects)
Enzo Mirigliani (patron of Miss
Italy beauty contest)
Eratosthenes of Croton (ancient athlete)
Erminio Blotta (sculptor)
Eugene De Rosa (20th-century Italian-American architect)
Eugene Gaudio (cinematographer for 1916 version of "20,000 Leagues
Under the Sea")
Eugenio Tano (19th-century painter)
Fabrizio Ruffo (Italian cardinal and politician who led the
Fausto Torrefranca (Italian musicologist & critic)
Ferruccio Baffa Trasci (17th-century bishop, theologian and
Filippo De Nobili (writer and poet)
Flavia Fortunato (singer, actress & television presenter)
Florestano Pepe (19th-century Italian patriot)
Fortunato Arena (actor & stuntman)
Acri (19th-century philosopher and historian of
Francesco Amico (
Roman Catholic theologian, professor &
Francesco Anile (opera tenor)
Francesco Antonio Santori (19th-century writer, poet and
Francesco Cilea (19th-century opera composer)
Francesco Colelli (baroque painter)
* Francesco Cozza (17th-century Baroque artist)
Francesco Domenico Chiarello (Knight of Vittorio
Veneto who saw
action in both World Wars)
* Frank DiCianni (Architect, Entrepreneur & Cavaleri)
* Francesco Fiorentino (philosopher and historiographer)
Francesco Florimo (19th-century archivist, musicologist, music
historian and composer)
Francesco Jacomoni (20th-century Italian diplomat and governor of
Francesco Jerace (sculptor)
Francesco Manuel Bongiorno (professional cyclist)
Francesco Mottola (venerated priest)
Francesco Panetta (champion long-distance runner)
Francesco Pianeta (heavyweight boxer)
Francesco Pignata (Italian champion javelin thrower)
Francesco Raffaello Santoro (painter)
Francesco Reda (professional road bicycle racer)
Francesco Repaci (politician, socialist & anti-fascist)
Francesco Sambiasi (16th-century Catholic missionary to China)
Francesco Saverio Mergalo (18th-century painter)
Francesco Saverio Salfi (writer, politician & librettist)
Francesco Smalto (
Italian fashion designer)
Fran Hauser (Venture Capitalist, Digital Media Executive &
Gaetano Scorza (mathematician who inspired the theory of "Scorza
Gemelli Careri (17th-century Italian adventurer and traveler)
Gennaro Gattuso (footballer)
Giandomenico Martoretta (16th-century Baroque composer)
Gianna Maria Canale (model and actress)
Gianni Amelio (Italian film director)
Gianni De Luca (comic book artist, illustrator, painter and
Gianni Versace (fashion designer and founder of
Gigi Peronace (football agent)
Gioachino Greco (17th-century champion chess player)
Giacomo Marramao (Italian philosopher and teacher)
Giorgio Miceli (opera composer)
Giovanni Andrea Serrao (intellectual who supported the
Parthenopaean Republic of 1799)
Giovanni Angelo Criscuolo (16th-century
Giovanni Battista Palatino (16th-century
calligrapher whose name was given to the
Giovanni Battista Zupi (16th-century astronomer who discovered
that the planet Mercury had orbital phases)
* Giovanni De Gennaro (Police Officer & Chairman of Defense Group
Giovanni Leonardo di Bona
Giovanni Leonardo di Bona (first international chess tournament
* Giovanni Lorenzo d\'Anania (16th-century geographer and
Giovanni Luca Conforti (16th-century composer & prominent falsetto
Nicotera (19th-century Italian patriot and politician)
Giovanni Parisi (gold medal winning boxer at the 1988 Seoul
* Giovanni Tocci (professional diver)
Giovanni Valentino Gentile (16th-century humanist and
Giovanni Vincenzo Gravina
Giovanni Vincenzo Gravina (17th-century author, academic and
Girolamo de Rada (19th-century writer of Italo-Albanian
Giulio Variboba (18th-century poet and priest)
Giuseppe Albanese (classical pianist)
Giuseppe Antonio Sorbilli (sculptor)
Giuseppe Coniglio (poet)
Giuseppe Faraca (won young rider classification in the 1981 Giro
Giuseppe Filianoti (lyric tenor)
Giuseppe Leuzzi (journalist, essayist, writer & author)
Giuseppe Musolino (outlaw/folk hero)
Giuseppe Petitto (award-winning film director)
Giuseppe Sensi (Cardinal & Vatican diplomat)
Giuseppe Vincenzo Ciaccio (anatomist whose name is associated with
lacrimal glands called "Ciaccio\'s glands ")
Giuseppina Macrì (won bronze medal at the 2001 World Judo
Championships in Munich)
Glycon of Croton (ancient athlete)
Goffredo Zehender (Racing Driver)
Gregorio Carafa (Prince and Grand Master of the Order of Malta)
Gregorio Preti (17th-century Baroque artist and brother of Mattia
Guglielmo Pepe (19th-century Italian general and patriot)
Gugliemo Sirleto (16th-century cardinal and scholar)
Guido Daniele (internationally renowned body painting artist)
Henry Aristippus (Religious Scholar and writer in Norman Kingdom
Hippostratus of Croton (ancient athlete)
Ibycus (ancient lyric poet)
Isabela de Rosis (religious sister and congregation founder)
Isomachus of Croton (ancient athlete)
Janus Parrhasius (16th-century humanist who founded the Cosentian
Academy in 1511)
Joachim of Fiore (12th-century mystic and theologian)
John XVI (10th-century antipope)
Karmel Kandreva (writer & poet)
Leonardo Vinci (18th-century composer)
Leonida Rèpaci (writer, poet, playwright and political activist)
Leonzio Pilato (14th-century humanist and Western Europe's first
Professor of Greek)
Leopoldo Trieste (actor, film director and script writer)
Linda Lanzillotta (Vice-President of Italian Senate)
Loredana Berté (singer)
Luciano Rispoli (television/radio writer & presenter)
Lucio Parrillo (fantasy artist)
Luigi Miceli (19th-century Italian patriot, politician and
* Luigi Ruffo-
Scilla (Catholic Cardinal and Archbishop of Naples)
Luigi Tripepi (Catholic Cardinal and poet)
Lycinus of Croton (ancient athlete)
Marcello Guido (deconstructivist architect)
Marco Aurelio Severino (Italian surgeon, anatomist & author)
Marco Cardisco (16th-century
Maria Antonia Braile (writer who was the first Albanian woman to
ever publish literature in Albanian language)
Maria Latella (multimedia journalist, columnist, TV anchor woman &
Maria Perrotta (classical pianist)
Maria Perrusi (Miss Italia 2009)
Mariangela Perrupato (synchronized swimmer)
Mario Alicata (Italian Partisan, literary critic & politician)
Mario Tricoci (hairstylist-entrepreneur)
Marion A. Trozzolo (inventor of the Teflon coated frying pan)
Matilde Ciccia (actress and professional ice dancer)
Mattia Preti (17th-century Baroque artist)
Mauro Fiore (Academy Award Winning Cinematographer for the movie
Mia Martini (singer)
Michelangelo Falvetti (17th-century Baroque composer)
Michele Pane (19th–20th-century symbolist poet and journalist)
Milo of Croton
Milo of Croton (ancient olympic athlete)
Mimmo Calopresti (Italian film director, screenwriter, producer
Mimmo Rotella (20th-century poet and contemporary artist who
invented the Decollage)
Mino Reitano (singer-songwriter and actor)
Natuzza Evolo (Catholic mystic)
Niccolò Lapiccola (18th-century artist)
Nicholas Musuraca (Cinematographer & pioneer of film noir)
Nick Mancuso (actor of stage and screen)
Nick Nostro (Italian film director)
Nicola Antonio Manfroce (19th-century composer)
Nicola Calipari (military intelligence officer)
Nicola Squitti (Italian senator and diplomat)
Ninetto Davoli (actor)
Nossis (ancient epigrammist and poet)
Ofelia Giudicissi Curci (poet and archeologist)
Oreste Moricca (gold medal winning fencer at the 1924 Paris
Otello Profazio (folk singer-songwriter & author)
Paolo Antonio Foscarini (16th-century scientist who wrote about
the mobility of the earth)
Pasquale Carpino (celebrity chef)
Pasquale Galluppi (19th-century philosopher)
Paul Néri (professional cyclist)
Peppino Mazzotta (actor)
Philippus of Croton
Philippus of Croton (ancient olympic athlete and war hero)
* Philistion of
Locri (ancient physician and writer on medicine)
Philolaus (pythagorean and presocratic philosopher)
Pier Francesco Pingitore (director, screenwriter, playwright &
Pierpaolo Parisio (Cardinal who was one of the Presidents of the
Council of Trent at its first session in 1542)
Pietro Negroni (16th-century
Pino Arlacchi (sociologist & politician)
Polissena Ruffo (Princess and first wife to
Francesco Sforza )
Pope Anterus (3rd-century pope & saint)
Pope John VII (8th-century pope)
Pope Telesphorus (2nd-century pope & saint)
Pope Zachary (8th-century pope & saint)
Pope Zosimus (5th-century pope & saint)
Proclus of Rhegium (ancient physician)
Raf Vallone (actor and international film star)
Raffaele Conflenti (Italian aeronautical engineer & aircraft
Raffaele Piria (19th-century chemist who discovered the major
component of Aspirin)
Regina Catrambone (philanthropist & co-founder of Migrant Offshore
Aid Station )
Renato Dulbecco (Nobel Prize winning virologist)
Renato Turano (politician/businessman and founder of Turano Baking
Rhys Coiro (film, television and stage actor)
Rino Barillari (King of Paparazzi)
Rino Gaetano (singer-songwriter)
Roberto Sgambelluri (Italian former professional racing cyclist)
Rocco B. Commisso (founder of Mediacom Communications Corporation)
Rocco Granata (singer-songwriter who wrote the hit song "Marina")
* Roger II of
Sicily (Duke of
Calabria and 1st King of
Rosalba Forciniti (won bronze medal in Judo at the 2012 London
Rosario Rubbettino (founded publishing house Rubbettino Editore)
Saint Bartholomew the Younger (970–1055, abbot of Grottaferrata)
Saint Fantinus (927–1000)
Francis of Paola (1416–1507, patron saint of Calabria)
Saint Gaetano Catanoso (1879–1963)
Gregor von Burtscheid (940–999)
Himerius of Cremona (Italian Bishop – died 560)
Humilis of Bisignano (1582–1637)
* Saint Nicodemus of
Nicola Saggio (born 1650 Longobardi – died 1709 Rome)
* Saint Nilo of
Rossano (910–1005, founded the monastery of
Salvatore Albano (sculptor)
Salvatore Petruolo (painter)
Salvatore Pisani (sculptor)
Sandra Savaglio (Award-winning astrophysicist & author)
Santi Paladino (journalist, politician & writer)
Versace (President and Co-CEO of
Scilla Sclanizza (actress of stage and screen)
Sergio Cammariere (jazz singer-songwriter)
Silvio Vigliaturo (glassfusion maestro)
Simone Borrelli (actor, director, singer-songwriter & musician)
Stefano Rodotà (jurist, politician, academic & author)
Stesichorus (ancient poet)
Tatiana Trouvé (contemporary visual artist & sculptor)
Teresa Macrì (art critic, curator & writer)
Theagenes of Rhegium (ancient literary critic)
* Timaeus of
Locri (pythagorean philosopher)
Tisicrates of Croton (ancient athlete)
Tito Minniti (Italian Royal Air Force Hero of World War 2)
Tobia Giuseppe Loriga (Italian & IBF International Light
Middleweight Boxing Champion)
Tommaso Campanella (16th-century
theologian, astrologer & poet)
Tony Gaudio (Academy Award Winning Cinematographer for the movie
Tony Nardi (actor, playwright, director and producer)
Uluj Ali (16th-century Ottoman admiral)
Umberto Boccioni (20th-century futurist, painter and sculptor)
Vincenzo Di Benedetto (classical philologist)
Vincenzo Fondacaro (sailor, navy captain & merchant officer)
Vincenzo Iaquinta (footballer)
Vincenzo Lauro (Italian Papal diplomat, Bishop & Cardinal)
Vincenzo Milione (painter)
Vincenzo Musolino (actor, director, producer -webkit-column-width:
30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">
* ^ "Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table".
Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. 26 February 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
* ^ "
European Commission – PRESS RELEASES – Press release –
Regional GDP per inhabitant in 2008 GDP per inhabitant ranged from 28%
of the EU27 average in Severozapaden in Bulgaria to 343% in Inner
London". europa.eu. Archived from the original on 12 February 2012.
Retrieved 24 October 2015.
* ^ Carpenter, T. H.; Lynch, K. M.; Robinson, E. G. D., eds.
(2014). The Italic People of Ancient Apulia: New Evidence from Pottery
for Workshops, Markets, and Customs. New York City, New York:
Cambridge University Press. pp. 38–39. ISBN 9781139992701 .
* ^ Colafemmina, Cesare (2012). The
Jews in Calabria. Leiden, The
Netherlands: Brill. p. 1. ISBN 9789004234123 .
Dionysius of Halicarnassus (1937). "1.35". Roman Antiquities.
Harvard University Press.
Strabo (1924). "6.1.4". In Jones, H. L. Geography . 3.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN
* ^ Pallottino, Missimo (2014). A History of Earliest Italy. New
York City, New York: Routledge. p. 50. ISBN 9781317696827 .
* ^ NASA – Clouds and Sunlight. Nasa.gov (2009-12-30). Retrieved
* ^ "Journeys – Praia Art Resort".
* ^ "The
Calabria National Park, sila Grande and Sila Piccola".
* ^ "attivita_montagna – Costa Tiziana".
* ^ "Discoveries in
Sicily and Calabria: The giants of the sila".
* ^ "The Giants of the Sila: memories and history of a biogenetic
reserve – I Giganti della Sila".
* ^ "The Forest of Giants".
* ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HKXrJmG5bmI
* ^ "
Calabria climate: when to go to
Calabria – Italy: travel,
recipes, family and health". 17 March 2016.
* ^ A B C D E F van Dijk, J.P., Bello, M., Brancaleoni, G.P.,
Cantarella, G., Costa, V., Frixa, A., Golfetto, F., Merlini, S., Riva,
M., Toricelli, S., Toscano, C., and Zerilli, A. (2000, a); A new
structural model for the northern sector of the Calabrian Arc.
Tectonophysics, 324, 267–320.
* ^ Argand, E. (1922); La tectonique de l'Asie. Comptes Rendus 3rd
Int. Geol. Congr., Liège (Be), 1922, 1, 171–372.
* ^ Boccaletti, M., and Guazzone, G. (1972, b); Evoluzione
paleogeografica e geodinamica del Mediterraneo: i bacini marginali.
Mem. Soc. geol. It., 13, 162–169.
* ^ A B Ogniben, Leo (1973); Schema geologico della
base ai dati odierni. Geol. Romana, 12, 243–585.
* ^ Ippolito, Felice (1959); Bibliografia geologica d'Italia, Vol.
4, Calabria. C.N.R., Roma
* ^ Cortese, E. (1895); Descrizione geologica della Calabria. Mem.
Descrit. Carta Geol. It., 9, 310 pp., Roma.
* ^ Limanowski, Miesislas (1913); Die grosse kalabrische Decke.
Bull. Int. Acad. Sc. Cracovie, Cl. Sc. Math. Nat., S.A., (6A),
* ^ Quitzov, H.W. (1935); Der Deckenbau des Kalabrischen Massivs
und seine Randgebiete. Abh. d. Ges. d. Wiss. zu Gottingen, Mat. Phys.
Kl., 3e Folge, H. 13, 63–197.
* ^ Caire, André, Glangeaud, L., and Grandjaquet, C. (1960); Les
grand traits structureaux et l'évolution de territoire
calabro-sicilien (Italie méridionale). Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr., ser. 7,
v. 2, 915–938.
* ^ Caire, André (1961); Remarques sur l'evolution tectonique de
la Sicile. Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr., 7 (3), 545–558.
* ^ Grandjacquet, C., Glangeaud, L., Dubois, R., and Caire, A.
(1961); Hypothèse sur la structure profonde de la Calabre (Italie).
Rev. Geogr. Phys. Geol. Dyn., 4 (3), 131–147.
* ^ Ogniben, L. (1969, a); Schema introduttivo alla geologia del
confine calabro-lucano. Mem. Soc. Geol. Ital., 8, 453–763.
* ^ Caire, André (1970, a);
Sicily in its Mediterranean setting.
* ^ Caire, André (1975, a);
Italy in its Mediterranean setting.
In: Squyres, C.H. (Ed). Geology of Italy, Earth Sci. Soc. Lib. Arab.
Rep., 11–74, Tripoli.
* ^ Caire, André (1978); The Central Mediterranean mountain chains
in the Alpine orogenic environment.
* ^ Burton, A.N. (1971); Carta Geologica della
Calabria alla scala
di 1:25.000, Relazione generale. Cassa per il Mezzogiorno, Servizio
Bonifiche, Roma (It.), I.G.M. Firenze, 120 pp., 1971, 120 pp.
* ^ Amodio-Morelli, L., Bonardi, G., Colonna, V., Dietrich, D.,
Giunta, G., Ippolito, F., Liguori, V., Lorenzoni, S., Paglionico, A.,
Perrone, V., Piccaretta, G., Russo, M., Scandone, P., Zanettin
Lorenzoni, E., and Zuppetta, A. (1976); L'Arco calabro-peloritano
nell'orogene appenninico-maghrebide. Mem. Soc. Geol. Ital., 17,
* ^ Dubois, Roland (1976); La suture calabro-apenninique
Eocene et l'ouverture Tyrrhenienne neogene: etude
petrographique et structurale de la Calabre centrale. These, Univ. de
Paris, 1976, 567 pp.
* ^ Grandjacquet, C., and Mascle, G. (1978); The structure of the
Sicily and Calabria-Lucania. In: Nairn, A.E.M., H. Kanes
and F.G. Stehli (Eds). The ocean basins and margins, Plenum Press, 5,
257–329, New York.
* ^ Moussat, E. (1983, Int. Rept.); Evolution de la mer
Tyrrhenienne centrale et ses marges septentrionales en relation avec
la néotectonique dans l'Arc calabrais. These 3e cycle, Univ. Pierre
et M. Curie, Paris (Fr.), 122 pp.
* ^ van Dijk, J.P. (1992, d); Late
Neogene fore-arc basin evolution
in the Calabrian Arc (Central Mediterranean). Tectonic sequence
stratigraphy and dynamic geohistory. With special reference to the
geology of Central Calabria. Geologica Ultrajectina, 92, 288 pp. ISBN
* ^ van Dijk, J.P., and Scheepers, P.J.J. (1995);
in the Calabrian Arc. Implications for a Pliocene-Recent geodynamic
scenario for the Central Mediterranean. Earth Sci. Rev., 39,
* ^ CARSON, L. PIERCE. "Eating like a Calabrese — New cookbook
offers culinary gems from Italy\'s ‘toe’".
* ^ Vista, Vino Con (12 April 2011). "Vino Con Vista – The Blog:
Calabria For Tourists – 5 Things You Must See and Do".
* ^ generator, metatags. "History of
Calabria – Bleeding
* ^ "Storia della
Calabria – Calabrian History".
* ^ A B C D generator, metatags. "History of
Calabria – Bleeding
* ^ Antonio Luce (25 January 2011). "italian travel team Calabria
Italy Travel Guide" – via YouTube.
* ^ Inc., Dante Alighieri Society of Massachusetts,. "Dante
Alighieri Society of Massachusetts: A Concise History of Italy".
* ^ "Cirò: Calabria\'s Ancient Wine from the Toe of Southern
Italy\'s Boot – Into Wine".
* ^ Coulter, Cornelia C. (1 January 1942). "Review of Calabria: The
First Italy". Classical Philology. 37 (2): 223–225.
JSTOR 264353 .
* ^ "Olympic Games – Winter Summer Past and Future Olympics".
* ^ "Intellectual Property (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)".
plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
* ^ "
Calabria ArtisanVineyards.com". artisanvineyards.com.
Retrieved 24 October 2015.
* ^ "WineCountry.it – region and wines of
web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2004-03-31. Retrieved
24 October 2015.
* ^ Matthews, Jeff. "Who were the Sybarites?".
* ^ "
Reggio Calabria and
Calabria – Amalfi
* ^ Simcox, Edith Jemima (4 November 2010). Primitive
Civilizations: Or, Outlines of the History of Ownership in Archaic
Communities. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-02184-5 .
* ^ Polybius, The Histories, 1.7–10
* ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Histories, 20.5–6
* ^ Livy, The History of Rome, 30.19
* ^ Livy, The History of Rome, 34.45, 53; 35.40
* ^ Bernardini, Paolo; Camporeale, Giovannangelo (1 January 2004).
The Etruscans Outside Etruria. Getty Publications. ISBN
* ^ Erik Durschmied, From Armageddon to the Fall of Rome, Ch. 17
* ^ Peter Brown, The World of Late Antiquity: AD 150–750.
* ^ TheGreatMysteries (3 April 2011). "Testament The Bible And
History episode 6 Power And Glory part one (1 of 2)" – via YouTube.
* ^ "The Scriptorium and Library at the Vivarium (Circa 560) :
* ^ A B "Cassiodorus, Chapter 6: Vivarium".
* ^ Cassiodorus, Variae, 9.24–54, 38–39
* ^ metatags generator. "Bleeding Espresso". bleedingespresso.com.
Retrieved 24 October 2015.
* ^ The Italian Cities and the Arabs before 1095, Hilmar C.
Krueger, A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES: THE FIRST HUNDRED YEARS, Vol. I,
ed. Kenneth Meyer Setton, Marshall W. Baldwin, (University of
Pennsylvania Press, 1955), 50–51.
* ^ "The Gregorian Calendar".
* ^ "
Gregorian Calendar Adopted".
* ^ Matthews, Jeff. "Luigi Lillo, the Gregorian Calendat & the
* ^ http://undpress.nd.edu/books/P00091
* ^ org.cambridge.ebooks.online.book.Author@26275d6b;
org.cambridge.ebooks.online.book.Author@4e735990 (1 January 2011). "A
\'Short Treatise\' on the Wealth and Poverty of Nations (1613)". ISBN
978-1-84331-770-8 . doi :10.7135/UPO9781843317708 .
* ^ "Golden Day 107:
Cosenza with LuLu Bianco of Calabrisella Mia".
28 April 2014.
* ^ "In Italy,
Calabria is drained by corruption". New York Times.
Retrieved 28 May 2017.
* ^ A B "Portraits of the Regions". DG REGIO of the European
Commission . March 2004. Retrieved 8 September 2010.
* ^ "Biologico, l\'Italia resta prima in Europa – AgroNotizie –
Economia e politica". agronotizie.imagelinenetwork.com. Retrieved 24
* ^ ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/009/a0007e/a0007e01.pdf
* ^ Bolani, Domenico Spano (1857). Storia di Reggio di Calabria
da\'tempi primitivi sino all\'anno di Cristo 1797. Retrieved 26 March
* ^ http://globalepicurean.com/locations/calabria
* ^ "
Calabria itineraries from the Tyrrhenian to the Ionian".
* ^ "World Port Rankings 2005". American Association of Port
Authorities. May 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27.
Retrieved 6 February 2008.
* ^ Van Marle, Gavin (31 January 2008). "Europe Terminals stretched
to limit". Lloyds List Daily Commercial News. pp. 8–9.
* ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". demo.istat.it. Retrieved 24
* ^ "Sister and Friendship Cities".
Burwood Council . 17 August
2012. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 9 March
* ^ "Patto d’amicizia tra la
Calabria ed il West Virginia" (PDF).
* ^ "Guide to Reggio Calabria". Delicious Italy. 8 May 2012.
Retrieved 26 March 2013.
* ^ "Regions -> Calabria". Insiders Abroad. Retrieved 26 March
* ^ "Youritaly.com
Cosenza City Calabria". web.archive.org.
Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
* ^ "
Cosenza – Calabria: Your holiday in Italy".
en.italy-holiday.com. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
* ^ "Secret
Evangelical Christians – Rabbi Barbara".
* ^ "Orthodox Europe :: Italy".
* ^ "Orthodox Christianity in Southern Italy. Part 1 /
* ^ A JOURNAL OF ORTHODOX FAITH AND CULTURE – Road to Emmaus
* ^ "Center for the Study of Jewry in
Calabria and Sicily".
Retrieved 11 September 2010.
* ^ "Pausanias, Description of Greece, Arcadia, 8.3.5, at Theoi
Project". theoi.com. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
* ^ The-Wine-Library Short Description of wine in Calabria
* ^ List of world\'s busiest container ports
* ^ "Sfalassa Bridge". HighestBridges.com. 28 March 2010. Retrieved
26 March 2013.
* Dal Lago, Enrico, and Rick Halpern, eds. The American South and
the Italian Mezzogiorno: Essays in Comparative History (2002) ISBN
* Dunston, Lara, and Terry Carter. Travellers
– Thomas Cook) (2009), guidebook
* Moe, Nelson. The View from Vesuvius: Italian Culture and the
Southern Question (2002)
* Schneider, Jane. Italy's 'Southern Question': Orientalism in One
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
article CALABRIA .
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for CALABRIA .
* Calabria\'s History,