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Carbon
Carbon
dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide consists of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It occurs naturally in Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
as a trace gas. The current concentration is about 0.04% (405 ppm) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Natural sources include volcanoes, hot springs and geysers, and it is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, ice caps, glaciers and seawater. It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is odorless at normally encountered concentrations, however, at high concentrations, it has a sharp and acidic odor.[1] As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth
Earth
and its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian
Precambrian
has been regulated by photosynthetic organisms and geological phenomena. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use light energy to photosynthesize carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water, with oxygen produced as a waste product.[4] CO2 is produced by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize carbohydrates and lipids to produce energy by respiration.[5] It is returned to water via the gills of fish and to the air via the lungs of air-breathing land animals, including humans. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is produced during the processes of decay of organic materials and the fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making. It is produced by combustion of wood and other organic materials and fossil fuels such as coal, peat, petroleum and natural gas. It is an unwanted byproduct in many large scale oxidation processes, for example, in the production of acrylic acid (over 5 million tons/year).[6][7][8][9] It is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, as a chemical feedstock and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee[10] and supercritical drying. It is added to drinking water and carbonated beverages including beer and sparkling wine to add effervescence. The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is the most significant long-lived greenhouse gas in Earth's atmosphere. Since the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
anthropogenic emissions – primarily from use of fossil fuels and deforestation – have rapidly increased its concentration in the atmosphere, leading to global warming. The CO2 released into the atmosphere as a result of the use of fossil fuels "represents 99.4% of CO2 emissions in 2013".[11] Carbon
Carbon
dioxide also causes ocean acidification because it dissolves in water to form carbonic acid.[12]

Contents

1 Background 2 Chemical and physical properties

2.1 Structure and bonding 2.2 In aqueous solution 2.3 Chemical reactions of CO2 2.4 Physical properties

3 Isolation and production 4 Applications

4.1 Precursor to chemicals 4.2 Foods

4.2.1 Beverages 4.2.2 Wine
Wine
making

4.3 Inert gas 4.4 Fire extinguisher 4.5 Supercritical CO2 as solvent 4.6 Agricultural and biological applications 4.7 Medical and pharmacological uses 4.8 Oil recovery 4.9 Bio transformation into fuel 4.10 Refrigerant 4.11 Coal
Coal
bed methane recovery 4.12 Minor uses

5 In Earth's atmosphere 6 In the oceans 7 Biological role

7.1 Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
and carbon fixation 7.2 Toxicity

7.2.1 Below 1% 7.2.2 Ventilation

7.3 Human physiology

7.3.1 Content 7.3.2 Transport in the blood 7.3.3 Regulation of respiration

8 Additional media 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Background[edit]

Crystal structure
Crystal structure
of dry ice

Carbon
Carbon
dioxide was the first gas to be described as a discrete substance. In about 1640,[13] the Flemish chemist Jan Baptist van Helmont observed that when he burned charcoal in a closed vessel, the mass of the resulting ash was much less than that of the original charcoal. His interpretation was that the rest of the charcoal had been transmuted into an invisible substance he termed a "gas" or "wild spirit" (spiritus sylvestris).[14] The properties of carbon dioxide were further studied in the 1750s by the Scottish physician Joseph Black. He found that limestone (calcium carbonate) could be heated or treated with acids to yield a gas he called "fixed air." He observed that the fixed air was denser than air and supported neither flame nor animal life. Black also found that when bubbled through limewater (a saturated aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide), it would precipitate calcium carbonate. He used this phenomenon to illustrate that carbon dioxide is produced by animal respiration and microbial fermentation. In 1772, English chemist Joseph Priestley
Joseph Priestley
published a paper entitled Impregnating Water with Fixed Air in which he described a process of dripping sulfuric acid (or oil of vitriol as Priestley knew it) on chalk in order to produce carbon dioxide, and forcing the gas to dissolve by agitating a bowl of water in contact with the gas.[15] Carbon
Carbon
dioxide was first liquefied (at elevated pressures) in 1823 by Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy
and Michael Faraday.[16] The earliest description of solid carbon dioxide was given by Adrien-Jean-Pierre Thilorier, who in 1835 opened a pressurized container of liquid carbon dioxide, only to find that the cooling produced by the rapid evaporation of the liquid yielded a "snow" of solid CO2.[17][18] Chemical and physical properties[edit]

Stretching and bending oscillations of the CO2 carbon dioxide molecule. Upper left: symmetric stretching. Upper right: antisymmetric stretching. Lower line: degenerate pair of bending modes.

Structure and bonding[edit] See also: Molecular orbital diagram §  Carbon
Carbon
dioxide The carbon dioxide molecule is linear and centrosymmetric. The carbon–oxygen bond length is 116.3 pm, noticeably shorter than the bond length of a C–O single bond and even shorter than most other C–O multiply-bonded functional groups.[19] Since it is centrosymmetric, the molecule has no electrical dipole. Consequently, only two vibrational bands are observed in the IR spectrum
IR spectrum
– an antisymmetric stretching mode at 2349 cm−1 and a degenerate pair of bending modes at 667 cm−1. There is also a symmetric stretching mode at 1388 cm−1 which is only observed in the Raman spectrum.[20] In aqueous solution[edit] See also: Carbonic acid Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is soluble in water, in which it reversibly forms H 2CO 3 (carbonic acid), which is a weak acid since its ionization in water is incomplete.

CO 2 + H 2O ⇌ H 2CO 3

The hydration equilibrium constant of carbonic acid is

K

h

=

[

H

2

C

O

3

]

[ C

O

2

( a q ) ]

= 1.70 ×

10

− 3

displaystyle K_ mathrm h = frac rm [H_ 2 CO_ 3 ] rm [CO_ 2 (aq)] =1.70times 10^ -3

(at 25 °C). Hence, the majority of the carbon dioxide is not converted into carbonic acid, but remains as CO2 molecules, not affecting the pH. The relative concentrations of CO 2, H 2CO 3, and the deprotonated forms HCO− 3 (bicarbonate) and CO2− 3(carbonate) depend on the pH. As shown in a Bjerrum plot, in neutral or slightly alkaline water (pH > 6.5), the bicarbonate form predominates (>50%) becoming the most prevalent (>95%) at the pH of seawater. In very alkaline water (pH > 10.4), the predominant (>50%) form is carbonate. The oceans, being mildly alkaline with typical pH = 8.2–8.5, contain about 120 mg of bicarbonate per liter. Being diprotic, carbonic acid has two acid dissociation constants, the first one for the dissociation into the bicarbonate (also called hydrogen carbonate) ion (HCO3−):

H2CO3 ⇌ HCO3− + H+ Ka1 = 6999250000000000000♠2.5×10−4 mol/L; pKa1 = 3.6 at 25 °C.[19]

This is the true first acid dissociation constant, defined as

K

a 1

=

[ H C

O

3

] [

H

+

]

[

H

2

C

O

3

]

displaystyle K_ a1 = frac rm [HCO_ 3 ^ - ][H^ + ] rm [H_ 2 CO_ 3 ]

, where the denominator includes only covalently bound H2CO3 and does not include hydrated CO2(aq). The much smaller and often-quoted value near 6993416000000000000♠4.16×10−7 is an apparent value calculated on the (incorrect) assumption that all dissolved CO2 is present as carbonic acid, so that

K

a 1

( a p p a r e n t )

=

[ H C

O

3

] [

H

+

]

[

H

2

C

O

3

] + [ C

O

2

( a q ) ]

displaystyle K_ mathrm a1 rm (apparent) = frac rm [HCO_ 3 ^ - ][H^ + ] rm [H_ 2 CO_ 3 ]+[CO_ 2 (aq)]

. Since most of the dissolved CO2 remains as CO2 molecules, Ka1(apparent) has a much larger denominator and a much smaller value than the true Ka1.[21] The bicarbonate ion is an amphoteric species that can act as an acid or as a base, depending on pH of the solution. At high pH, it dissociates significantly into the carbonate ion (CO32−):

HCO3− ⇌ CO32− + H+ Ka2 = 6992469000000000000♠4.69×10−11 mol/L; pKa2 = 10.329

In organisms carbonic acid production is catalysed by the enzyme, carbonic anhydrase. Chemical reactions of CO2[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2014)

CO2 is a weak electrophile. Its reaction with basic water illustrates this property, in which case hydroxide is the nucleophile. Other nucleophiles react as well. For example, carbanions as provided by Grignard reagents and organolithium compounds react with CO2 to give carboxylates:

MR + CO2 → RCO2M where M = Li or MgBr and R = alkyl or aryl.

In metal carbon dioxide complexes, CO2 serves as a ligand, which can facilitate the conversion of CO2 to other chemicals.[22] The reduction of CO2 to CO is ordinarily a difficult and slow reaction:

CO2 + 2 e− + 2H+ → CO + H2O

Photoautotrophs
Photoautotrophs
(i.e. plants and cyanobacteria) use the energy contained in sunlight to photosynthesize simple sugars from CO2 absorbed from the air and water:

n CO2 + n H 2O → (CH 2O) n + n O 2

The redox potential for this reaction near pH 7 is about −0.53 V versus the standard hydrogen electrode. The nickel-containing enzyme carbon monoxide dehydrogenase catalyses this process.[23] Physical properties[edit] Further information: Carbon
Carbon
dioxide data

Pellets of "dry ice", a common form of solid carbon dioxide

Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is colorless. At low concentrations the gas is odorless however, at sufficiently-high concentrations, it has a sharp, acidic odor.[1] At standard temperature and pressure, the density of carbon dioxide is around 1.98 kg/m3, about 1.67 times that of air. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide has no liquid state at pressures below 5.1 standard atmospheres (520 kPa). At 1 atmosphere (near mean sea level pressure), the gas deposits directly to a solid at temperatures below −78.5 °C (−109.3 °F; 194.7 K) and the solid sublimes directly to a gas above −78.5 °C. In its solid state, carbon dioxide is commonly called dry ice.

Pressure–temperature phase diagram of carbon dioxide

Liquid carbon dioxide forms only at pressures above 5.1 atm; the triple point of carbon dioxide is about 5.1 bar (517 kPa) at 217 K (see phase diagram). The critical point is 7.38 MPa at 31.1 °C.[24][25] Another form of solid carbon dioxide observed at high pressure is an amorphous glass-like solid.[26] This form of glass, called carbonia, is produced by supercooling heated CO2 at extreme pressure (40–48 GPa or about 400,000 atmospheres) in a diamond anvil. This discovery confirmed the theory that carbon dioxide could exist in a glass state similar to other members of its elemental family, like silicon (silica glass) and germanium dioxide. Unlike silica and germania glasses, however, carbonia glass is not stable at normal pressures and reverts to gas when pressure is released. At temperatures and pressures above the critical point, carbon dioxide behaves as a supercritical fluid known as supercritical carbon dioxide. Isolation and production[edit] Carbon
Carbon
dioxide can be obtained by distillation from air, but the method is inefficient. Industrially, carbon dioxide is predominantly an unrecovered waste product, produced by several methods which may be practiced at various scales.[27] The combustion of all carbon-based fuels, such as methane (natural gas), petroleum distillates (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, propane), coal, wood and generic organic matter produces carbon dioxide and, except in the case of pure carbon, water. As an example, the chemical reaction between methane and oxygen:

CH 4+ 2 O 2→ CO 2+ 2 H 2O

It is produced by thermal decomposition of limestone, CaCO 3 by heating (calcining) at about 850 °C (1,560 °F), in the manufacture of quicklime (calcium oxide, CaO), a compound that has many industrial uses:

CaCO 3→ CaO + CO 2

Iron
Iron
is reduced from its oxides with coke in a blast furnace, producing pig iron and carbon dioxide:[28] Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is a byproduct of the industrial production of hydrogen by steam reforming and ammonia synthesis. These processes begin with the reaction of water and natural gas (mainly methane).[29] Acids liberate CO2 from most metal carbonates. Consequently, it may be obtained directly from natural carbon dioxide springs, where it is produced by the action of acidified water on limestone or dolomite. The reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate (limestone or chalk) is shown below:

CaCO 3+ 2 HCl → CaCl 2+ H 2CO 3

The carbonic acid (H 2CO 3) then decomposes to water and CO2:

H 2CO 3→ CO 2+ H 2O

Such reactions are accompanied by foaming or bubbling, or both, as the gas is released. They have widespread uses in industry because they can be used to neutralize waste acid streams. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is a by-product of the fermentation of sugar in the brewing of beer, whisky and other alcoholic beverages and in the production of bioethanol. Yeast
Yeast
metabolizes sugar to produce CO2 and ethanol, also known as alcohol, as follows:

C 6H 12O 6 → 2 CO 2+ 2 C 2H 5OH

All aerobic organisms produce CO2 when they oxidize carbohydrates, fatty acids, and proteins. The large number of reactions involved are exceedingly complex and not described easily. Refer to (cellular respiration, anaerobic respiration and photosynthesis). The equation for the respiration of glucose and other monosaccharides is:

C 6H 12O 6 + 6 O 2 → 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2O

Anaerobic organisms
Anaerobic organisms
decompose organic material producing methane and carbon dioxide together with traces of other compounds.[30] Regardless of the type of organic material, the production of gases follows well defined kinetic pattern. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide comprises about 40-45% of the gas that emanates from decomposition in landfills (termed "landfill gas"). Most of the remaining 50-55% is methane.[31] Applications[edit] Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is used by the food industry, the oil industry, and the chemical industry.[27] The compound has varied commercial uses but one of its greatest use as a chemical is in the production of carbonated beverages; it provides the sparkle in carbonated beverages such as soda water, beer and sparkling wine. Precursor to chemicals[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2014)

In the chemical industry, carbon dioxide is mainly consumed as an ingredient in the production of urea, with a smaller fraction being used to produce methanol and a range of other products,[32] such as metal carbonates and bicarbonates.[citation needed] Some carboxylic acid derivatives such as sodium salicylate are prepared using CO2 by the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction.[33] In addition to conventional processes using CO2 for chemical production, electrochemical methods are also being explored at a research level. In particular, the use of renewable energy for production of fuels from CO2 (such as methanol) is attractive as this could result in fuels that could be easily transported and used within conventional combustion technologies but have no net CO2 emissions.[34] Foods[edit]

Carbon
Carbon
dioxide bubbles in a soft drink.

Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is a food additive used as a propellant and acidity regulator in the food industry. It is approved for usage in the EU[35] (listed as E number
E number
E290), US[36] and Australia and New Zealand[37] (listed by its INS number 290). A candy called Pop Rocks
Pop Rocks
is pressurized with carbon dioxide gas[38] at about 4 x 106 Pa (40 bar, 580 psi). When placed in the mouth, it dissolves (just like other hard candy) and releases the gas bubbles with an audible pop. Leavening agents cause dough to rise by producing carbon dioxide.[39] Baker's yeast
Baker's yeast
produces carbon dioxide by fermentation of sugars within the dough, while chemical leaveners such as baking powder and baking soda release carbon dioxide when heated or if exposed to acids. Beverages[edit] Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is used to produce carbonated soft drinks and soda water. Traditionally, the carbonation of beer and sparkling wine came about through natural fermentation, but many manufacturers carbonate these drinks with carbon dioxide recovered from the fermentation process. In the case of bottled and kegged beer, the most common method used is carbonation with recycled carbon dioxide. With the exception of British Real Ale, draught beer is usually transferred from kegs in a cold room or cellar to dispensing taps on the bar using pressurized carbon dioxide, sometimes mixed with nitrogen. Wine
Wine
making[edit]

Dry ice
Dry ice
used to preserve grapes after harvest.

Carbon
Carbon
dioxide in the form of dry ice is often used during the cold soak phase in wine making to cool clusters of grapes quickly after picking to help prevent spontaneous fermentation by wild yeast. The main advantage of using dry ice over water ice is that it cools the grapes without adding any additional water that might decrease the sugar concentration in the grape must, and thus the alcohol concentration in the finished wine. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is also used to create a hypoxic environment for carbonic maceration, the process used to produce Beaujolais
Beaujolais
wine. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is sometimes used to top up wine bottles or other storage vessels such as barrels to prevent oxidation, though it has the problem that it can dissolve into the wine, making a previously still wine slightly fizzy. For this reason, other gases such as nitrogen or argon are preferred for this process by professional wine makers. Inert gas[edit] It is one of the most commonly used compressed gases for pneumatic (pressurized gas) systems in portable pressure tools. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is also used as an atmosphere for welding, although in the welding arc, it reacts to oxidize most metals. Use in the automotive industry is common despite significant evidence that welds made in carbon dioxide are more brittle than those made in more inert atmospheres. It is used as a welding gas primarily because it is much less expensive than more inert gases such as argon or helium.[citation needed] When used for MIG welding, CO2 use is sometimes referred to as MAG welding, for Metal Active Gas, as CO2 can react at these high temperatures. It tends to produce a hotter puddle than truly inert atmospheres, improving the flow characteristics. Although, this may be due to atmospheric reactions occurring at the puddle site. This is usually the opposite of the desired effect when welding, as it tends to embrittle the site, but may not be a problem for general mild steel welding, where ultimate ductility is not a major concern. It is used in many consumer products that require pressurized gas because it is inexpensive and nonflammable, and because it undergoes a phase transition from gas to liquid at room temperature at an attainable pressure of approximately 60 bar (870 psi, 59 atm), allowing far more carbon dioxide to fit in a given container than otherwise would. Life
Life
jackets often contain canisters of pressured carbon dioxide for quick inflation. Aluminium
Aluminium
capsules of CO2 are also sold as supplies of compressed gas for air guns, paintball markers/guns, inflating bicycle tires, and for making carbonated water. Rapid vaporization of liquid carbon dioxide is used for blasting in coal mines. High concentrations of carbon dioxide can also be used to kill pests. Liquid carbon dioxide is used in supercritical drying of some food products and technological materials, in the preparation of specimens for scanning electron microscopy[citation needed] and in the decaffeination of coffee beans. Fire extinguisher[edit]

Use of a CO2 fire extinguisher.

Carbon
Carbon
dioxide can be used to extinguish flames by flooding the environment around the flame with the gas. It does not itself react to extinguish the flame, but starves the flame of oxygen by displacing it. Some fire extinguishers, especially those designed for electrical fires, contain liquid carbon dioxide under pressure. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide extinguishers work well on small flammable liquid and electrical fires, but not on ordinary combustible fires, because although it excludes oxygen, it does not cool the burning substances significantly and when the carbon dioxide disperses they are free to catch fire upon exposure to atmospheric oxygen. Their desirability in electrical fire stems from the fact that, unlike water or other chemical based methods, Carbon
Carbon
dioxide will not cause short circuits, leading to even more damage to equipment. Because it is a gas, it is also easy to dispense large amounts of the gas automatically in IT infrastructure rooms, where the fire itself might be hard to reach with more immediate methods because it is behind rack doors and inside of cases. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide has also been widely used as an extinguishing agent in fixed fire protection systems for local application of specific hazards and total flooding of a protected space.[40] International Maritime Organization standards also recognize carbon dioxide systems for fire protection of ship holds and engine rooms. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide based fire protection systems have been linked to several deaths, because it can cause suffocation in sufficiently high concentrations. A review of CO2 systems identified 51 incidents between 1975 and the date of the report (2000), causing 72 deaths and 145 injuries.[41] Supercritical CO2 as solvent[edit] See also: Supercritical carbon dioxide Liquid carbon dioxide is a good solvent for many lipophilic organic compounds and is used to remove caffeine from coffee. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide has attracted attention in the pharmaceutical and other chemical processing industries as a less toxic alternative to more traditional solvents such as organochlorides. It is used by some dry cleaners for this reason (see green chemistry). It is used in the preparation of some aerogels because of the properties of supercritical carbon dioxide. Agricultural and biological applications[edit] Plants require carbon dioxide to conduct photosynthesis. The atmospheres of greenhouses may (if of large size, must) be enriched with additional CO2 to sustain and increase the rate of plant growth.[42][43] At very high concentrations (100 times atmospheric concentration, or greater), carbon dioxide can be toxic to animal life, so raising the concentration to 10,000 ppm (1%) or higher for several hours will eliminate pests such as whiteflies and spider mites in a greenhouse.[44] It has been proposed that CO2 from power generation be bubbled into ponds to stimulate growth of algae that could then be converted into biodiesel fuel.[45] Medical and pharmacological uses[edit] In medicine, up to 5% carbon dioxide (130 times atmospheric concentration) is added to oxygen for stimulation of breathing after apnea and to stabilize the O 2/CO 2 balance in blood. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide can be mixed with up to 50% oxygen, forming an inhalable gas; this is known as Carbogen and has a variety of medical and research uses. Oil recovery[edit] Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is used in enhanced oil recovery where it is injected into or adjacent to producing oil wells, usually under supercritical conditions, when it becomes miscible with the oil. This approach can increase original oil recovery by reducing residual oil saturation by between 7% to 23% additional to primary extraction.[46] It acts as both a pressurizing agent and, when dissolved into the underground crude oil, significantly reduces its viscosity, and changing surface chemistry enabling the oil to flow more rapidly through the reservoir to the removal well.[47] In mature oil fields, extensive pipe networks are used to carry the carbon dioxide to the injection points. Bio transformation into fuel[edit] Main article: Carbon
Carbon
capture and utilization A strain of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus
Synechococcus
elongatus has been genetically engineered to produce the fuels isobutyraldehyde and isobutanol from CO2 using photosynthesis.[48] Refrigerant[edit]

Comparison of phase diagrams of carbon dioxide (red) and water (blue) as a log-lin chart with phase transitions points at 1 atmosphere

Liquid and solid carbon dioxide are important refrigerants, especially in the food industry, where they are employed during the transportation and storage of ice cream and other frozen foods. Solid carbon dioxide is called "dry ice" and is used for small shipments where refrigeration equipment is not practical. Solid carbon dioxide is always below −78.5 °C at regular atmospheric pressure, regardless of the air temperature. Liquid carbon dioxide (industry nomenclature R744 or R-744) was used as a refrigerant prior to the discovery of R-12 and may enjoy a renaissance due to the fact that R134a
R134a
contributes to climate change more than CO2 does. Its physical properties are highly favorable for cooling, refrigeration, and heating purposes, having a high volumetric cooling capacity. Due to the need to operate at pressures of up to 130 bar (1880 psi), CO2 systems require highly resistant components that have already been developed for mass production in many sectors. In automobile air conditioning, in more than 90% of all driving conditions for latitudes higher than 50°, R744 operates more efficiently than systems using R134a. Its environmental advantages (GWP of 1, non-ozone depleting, non-toxic, non-flammable) could make it the future working fluid to replace current HFCs in cars, supermarkets, and heat pump water heaters, among others. Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
has fielded CO2-based beverage coolers and the U.S. Army is interested in CO2 refrigeration and heating technology.[49][50] The global automobile industry is expected to decide on the next-generation refrigerant in car air conditioning. CO2 is one discussed option.(see Sustainable automotive air conditioning) Coal
Coal
bed methane recovery[edit] In enhanced coal bed methane recovery, carbon dioxide would be pumped into the coal seam to displace methane, as opposed to current methods which primarily rely on the removal of water (to reduce pressure) to make the coal seam release its trapped methane.[51] Minor uses[edit]

A carbon dioxide laser.

Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is the lasing medium in a carbon dioxide laser, which is one of the earliest type of lasers. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide can be used as a means of controlling the pH of swimming pools,[52] by continuously adding gas to the water, thus keeping the pH from rising. Among the advantages of this is the avoidance of handling (more hazardous) acids. Similarly, it is also used in the maintaining reef aquaria, where it is commonly used in calcium reactors to temporarily lower the pH of water being passed over calcium carbonate in order to allow the calcium carbonate to dissolve into the water more freely where it is used by some corals to build their skeleton. Used as the primary coolant in the British advanced gas-cooled reactor for nuclear power generation. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide induction is commonly used for the euthanasia of laboratory research animals. Methods to administer CO2 include placing animals directly into a closed, prefilled chamber containing CO2, or exposure to a gradually increasing concentration of CO2. In 2013, the American Veterinary Medical Association issued new guidelines for carbon dioxide induction, stating that a displacement rate of 10% to 30% of the gas chamber volume per minute is optimal for the humane euthanization of small rodents.[53] Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is also used in several related cleaning and surface preparation techniques. In Earth's atmosphere[edit] Main articles: Carbon
Carbon
dioxide in Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
and Carbon
Carbon
cycle

The Keeling Curve
Keeling Curve
of atmospheric CO2 concentrations measured at Mauna Loa Observatory

Carbon
Carbon
dioxide in Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
is a trace gas, currently (early 2017) having a global average concentration of 404 parts per million by volume[54][55][56] (or 614 parts per million by mass). Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide fluctuate slightly with the seasons, falling during the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
spring and summer as plants consume the gas and rising during northern autumn and winter as plants go dormant or die and decay. Concentrations also vary on a regional basis, most strongly near the ground with much smaller variations aloft. In urban areas concentrations are generally higher[57] and indoors they can reach 10 times background levels.

Yearly increase of atmospheric CO2: In the 1960s, the average annual increase was 37% of the 2000–2007 average.[58]

The concentration of carbon dioxide has risen due to human activities.[59] Combustion
Combustion
of fossil fuels and deforestation have caused the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide to increase by about 43% since the beginning of the age of industrialization.[60] Most carbon dioxide from human activities is released from burning coal and other fossil fuels. Other human activities, including deforestation, biomass burning, and cement production also produce carbon dioxide. Human activities emit about 29 billion tons of carbon dioxide per year, while volcanoes emit between 0.2 and 0.3 billion tons.[61][62] Human activities have caused CO2 to increase above levels not seen in hundreds of thousands of years. Currently, about half of the carbon dioxide released from the burning of fossil fuels remains in the atmosphere and is not absorbed by vegetation and the oceans.[63][64][65][66] Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is a greenhouse gas, absorbing and emitting infrared radiation at its two infrared-active vibrational frequencies (see the section "Structure and bonding" above). This causes carbon dioxide to warm the surface and lower atmosphere while cooling the upper atmosphere.[67][68] Increases in atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and other long-lived greenhouse gases such as methane, nitrous oxide and ozone have correspondingly strengthened their absorption and emission of infrared radiation, causing the rise in average global temperature since the mid-20th century. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is of greatest concern because it exerts a larger overall warming influence than all of these other gases combined and because it has a long atmospheric lifetime (hundreds to thousands of years).

CO2 in Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
if half of global-warming emissions are not absorbed.[63][64][65][66] ( NASA
NASA
computer simulation).

Not only do increasing carbon dioxide concentrations lead to increases in global surface temperature, but increasing global temperatures also cause increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide. This produces a positive feedback for changes induced by other processes such as orbital cycles.[69] Five hundred million years ago the carbon dioxide concentration was 20 times greater than today, decreasing to 4–5 times during the Jurassic
Jurassic
period and then slowly declining with a particularly swift reduction occurring 49 million years ago.[70][71] Local concentrations of carbon dioxide can reach high values near strong sources, especially those that are isolated by surrounding terrain. At the Bossoleto hot spring near Rapolano Terme
Rapolano Terme
in Tuscany, Italy, situated in a bowl-shaped depression about 100 m (330 ft) in diameter, concentrations of CO2 rise to above 75% overnight, sufficient to kill insects and small animals. After sunrise the gas is dispersed by convection.[72] High concentrations of CO2 produced by disturbance of deep lake water saturated with CO2 are thought to have caused 37 fatalities at Lake
Lake
Monoun, Cameroon
Cameroon
in 1984 and 1700 casualties at Lake
Lake
Nyos, Cameroon
Cameroon
in 1986.[73] In the oceans[edit] Main article: Carbon
Carbon
cycle

Pterapod shell dissolved in seawater adjusted to an ocean chemistry projected for the year 2100.

Carbon
Carbon
dioxide dissolves in the ocean to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), bicarbonate (HCO3−) and carbonate (CO32−). There is about fifty times as much carbon dissolved in the oceans as exists in the atmosphere. The oceans act as an enormous carbon sink, and have taken up about a third of CO2 emitted by human activity.[74] As the concentration of carbon dioxide increases in the atmosphere, the increased uptake of carbon dioxide into the oceans is causing a measurable decrease in the pH of the oceans, which is referred to as ocean acidification. This reduction in pH affects biological systems in the oceans, primarily oceanic calcifying organisms. These effects span the food chain from autotrophs to heterotrophs and include organisms such as coccolithophores, corals, foraminifera, echinoderms, crustaceans and mollusks. Under normal conditions, calcium carbonate is stable in surface waters since the carbonate ion is at supersaturating concentrations. However, as ocean pH falls, so does the concentration of this ion, and when carbonate becomes undersaturated, structures made of calcium carbonate are vulnerable to dissolution.[75] Corals,[76][77][78] coccolithophore algae,[79][80][81][82] coralline algae,[83] foraminifera,[84] shellfish[85] and pteropods[86] experience reduced calcification or enhanced dissolution when exposed to elevated CO 2. Gas
Gas
solubility decreases as the temperature of water increases (except when both pressure exceeds 300 bar and temperature exceeds 393 K, only found near deep geothermal vents)[87] and therefore the rate of uptake from the atmosphere decreases as ocean temperatures rise. Most of the CO2 taken up by the ocean, which is about 30% of the total released into the atmosphere,[88] forms carbonic acid in equilibrium with bicarbonate. Some of these chemical species are consumed by photosynthetic organisms that remove carbon from the cycle. Increased CO2 in the atmosphere has led to decreasing alkalinity of seawater, and there is concern that this may adversely affect organisms living in the water. In particular, with decreasing alkalinity, the availability of carbonates for forming shells decreases,[89] although there's evidence of increased shell production by certain species under increased CO2 content.[90] NOAA states in their May 2008 "State of the science fact sheet for ocean acidification" that: "The oceans have absorbed about 50% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) released from the burning of fossil fuels, resulting in chemical reactions that lower ocean pH. This has caused an increase in hydrogen ion (acidity) of about 30% since the start of the industrial age through a process known as "ocean acidification." A growing number of studies have demonstrated adverse impacts on marine organisms, including:

The rate at which reef-building corals produce their skeletons decreases, while production of numerous varieties of jellyfish increases. The ability of marine algae and free-swimming zooplankton to maintain protective shells is reduced. The survival of larval marine species, including commercial fish and shellfish, is reduced."

Also, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC) writes in their Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report:[91] "The uptake of anthropogenic carbon since 1750 has led to the ocean becoming more acidic with an average decrease in pH of 0.1 units. Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations lead to further acidification ... While the effects of observed ocean acidification on the marine biosphere are as yet undocumented, the progressive acidification of oceans is expected to have negative impacts on marine shell-forming organisms (e.g. corals) and their dependent species." Some marine calcifying organisms (including coral reefs) have been singled out by major research agencies, including NOAA, OSPAR commission, NANOOS and the IPCC, because their most current research shows that ocean acidification should be expected to impact them negatively.[92] Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is also introduced into the oceans through hydrothermal vents. The Champagne hydrothermal vent, found at the Northwest Eifuku volcano in the Marianas Trench, produces almost pure liquid carbon dioxide, one of only two known sites in the world as of 2004, the other being in the Okinawa Trough.[93] The finding of a submarine lake of liquid carbon dioxide in the Okinawa Trough
Okinawa Trough
was reported in 2006.[94] Biological role[edit] Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is an end product of cellular respiration in organisms that obtain energy by breaking down sugars, fats and amino acids with oxygen as part of their metabolism. This includes all plants, algae and animals and aerobic fungi and bacteria. In vertebrates, the carbon dioxide travels in the blood from the body's tissues to the skin (e.g., amphibians) or the gills (e.g., fish), from where it dissolves in the water, or to the lungs from where it is exhaled. During active photosynthesis, plants can absorb more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere than they release in respiration. Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
and carbon fixation[edit]

Overview of photosynthesis and respiration. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide (at right), together with water, form oxygen and organic compounds (at left) by photosynthesis, which can be respired to water and (CO2).

Overview of the Calvin cycle
Calvin cycle
and carbon fixation

Carbon
Carbon
fixation is a biochemical process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is incorporated by plants, algae and (cyanobacteria) into energy-rich organic molecules such as glucose, thus creating their own food by photosynthesis. Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
uses carbon dioxide and water to produce sugars from which other organic compounds can be constructed, and oxygen is produced as a by-product. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase, commonly abbreviated to RuBisCO, is the enzyme involved in the first major step of carbon fixation, the production of two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate
3-phosphoglycerate
from CO2 and ribulose bisphosphate, as shown in the diagram at left. RuBisCO
RuBisCO
is thought to be the single most abundant protein on Earth.[95] Phototrophs use the products of their photosynthesis as internal food sources and as raw material for the biosynthesis of more complex organic molecules, such as polysaccharides, nucleic acids and proteins. These are used for their own growth, and also as the basis of the food chains and webs that feed other organisms, including animals such as ourselves. Some important phototrophs, the coccolithophores synthesise hard calcium carbonate scales.[96] A globally significant species of coccolithophore is Emiliania huxleyi whose calcite scales have formed the basis of many sedimentary rocks such as limestone, where what was previously atmospheric carbon can remain fixed for geological timescales. Plants can grow as much as 50 percent faster in concentrations of 1,000 ppm CO2 when compared with ambient conditions, though this assumes no change in climate and no limitation on other nutrients.[97] Elevated CO2 levels cause increased growth reflected in the harvestable yield of crops, with wheat, rice and soybean all showing increases in yield of 12–14% under elevated CO2 in FACE experiments.[98][99] Increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations result in fewer stomata developing on plants[100] which leads to reduced water usage and increased water-use efficiency.[101] Studies using FACE have shown that CO2 enrichment leads to decreased concentrations of micronutrients in crop plants.[102] This may have knock-on effects on other parts of ecosystems as herbivores will need to eat more food to gain the same amount of protein.[103] The concentration of secondary metabolites such as phenylpropanoids and flavonoids can also be altered in plants exposed to high concentrations of CO2.[104][105] Plants also emit CO2 during respiration, and so the majority of plants and algae, which use C3 photosynthesis, are only net absorbers during the day. Though a growing forest will absorb many tons of CO2 each year, a mature forest will produce as much CO2 from respiration and decomposition of dead specimens (e.g., fallen branches) as is used in photosynthesis in growing plants.[106] Contrary to the long-standing view that they are carbon neutral, mature forests can continue to accumulate carbon[107] and remain valuable carbon sinks, helping to maintain the carbon balance of Earth's atmosphere. Additionally, and crucially to life on earth, photosynthesis by phytoplankton consumes dissolved CO2 in the upper ocean and thereby promotes the absorption of CO2 from the atmosphere.[108] Toxicity[edit] See also: Carbon
Carbon
dioxide poisoning

Main symptoms of carbon dioxide toxicity, by increasing volume percent in air.[109]

Carbon
Carbon
dioxide content in fresh air (averaged between sea-level and 10 kPa level, i.e., about 30 km (19 mi) altitude) varies between 0.036% (360 ppm) and 0.041% (410 ppm), depending on the location.[110][clarification needed] CO2 is an asphyxiant gas and not classified as toxic or harmful in accordance with Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals standards of United Nations Economic Commission for Europe by using the OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals. In concentrations up to 1% (10,000 ppm), it will make some people feel drowsy and give the lungs a stuffy feeling.[109] Concentrations of 7% to 10% (70,000 to 100,000 ppm) may cause suffocation, even in the presence of sufficient oxygen, manifesting as dizziness, headache, visual and hearing dysfunction, and unconsciousness within a few minutes to an hour.[111] The physiological effects of acute carbon dioxide exposure are grouped together under the term hypercapnia, a subset of asphyxiation. Because it is heavier than air, in locations where the gas seeps from the ground (due to sub-surface volcanic or geothermal activity) in relatively high concentrations, without the dispersing effects of wind, it can collect in sheltered/pocketed locations below average ground level, causing animals located therein to be suffocated. Carrion feeders attracted to the carcasses are then also killed. Children have been killed in the same way near the city of Goma
Goma
by CO2 emissions from the nearby volcano Mt. Nyiragongo.[112] The Swahili term for this phenomenon is 'mazuku'.

Rising levels of CO2 threatened the Apollo 13
Apollo 13
astronauts who had to adapt cartridges from the command module to supply the carbon dioxide scrubber in the lunar module, which they used as a lifeboat.

Adaptation to increased concentrations of CO2 occurs in humans, including modified breathing and kidney bicarbonate production, in order to balance the effects of blood acidification (acidosis). Several studies suggested that 2.0 percent inspired concentrations could be used for closed air spaces (e.g. a submarine) since the adaptation is physiological and reversible, as decrement in performance or in normal physical activity does not happen at this level of exposure for five days.[113][114] Yet, other studies show a decrease in cognitive function even at much lower levels.[115][116] Also, with ongoing respiratory acidosis, adaptation or compensatory mechanisms will be unable to reverse such condition. Below 1%[edit] There are few studies of the health effects of long-term continuous CO2 exposure on humans and animals at levels below 1%. Occupational CO2 exposure limits have been set in the United States at 0.5% (5000 ppm) for an eight-hour period.[117] At this CO2 concentration, International Space Station
International Space Station
crew experienced headaches, lethargy, mental slowness, emotional irritation, and sleep disruption.[118] Studies in animals at 0.5% CO2 have demonstrated kidney calcification and bone loss after eight weeks of exposure.[119] A study of humans exposed in 2.5 hour sessions demonstrated significant effects on cognitive abilities at concentrations as low as 0.1% (1000ppm) CO2 likely due to CO2 induced increases in cerebral blood flow.[115] Another study observed a decline in basic activity level and information usage at 1000 ppm, when compared to 500 ppm.[116] Ventilation[edit] Poor ventilation is one of the main causes of excessive CO2 concentrations in closed spaces. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide differential above outdoor concentrations at steady state conditions (when the occupancy and ventilation system operation are sufficiently long that CO2 concentration has stabilized) are sometimes used to estimate ventilation rates per person.[citation needed] Higher CO2 concentrations are associated with occupant health, comfort and performance degradation.[citation needed] ASHRAE
ASHRAE
Standard 62.1–2007 ventilation rates may result in indoor concentrations up to 2,100 ppm above ambient outdoor conditions. Thus if the outdoor concentration is 400 ppm, indoor concentrations may reach 2,500 ppm with ventilation rates that meet this industry consensus standard. Concentrations in poorly ventilated spaces can be found even higher than this (range of 3,000 or 4,000). Miners, who are particularly vulnerable to gas exposure due to an insufficient ventilation, referred to mixtures of carbon dioxide and nitrogen as "blackdamp," "choke damp" or "stythe." Before more effective technologies were developed, miners would frequently monitor for dangerous levels of blackdamp and other gases in mine shafts by bringing a caged canary with them as they worked. The canary is more sensitive to asphyxiant gases than humans, and as it became unconscious would stop singing and fall off its perch. The Davy lamp could also detect high levels of blackdamp (which sinks, and collects near the floor) by burning less brightly, while methane, another suffocating gas and explosion risk, would make the lamp burn more brightly.

Human physiology[edit] Content[edit]

Reference ranges or averages for partial pressures of carbon dioxide (abbreviated pCO2)

kPa mmHg

Venous blood carbon dioxide 5.5–6.8 41–51[120]

Alveolar pulmonary gas pressures 4.8 36

Arterial blood carbon dioxide 4.7–6.0 35–45[120]

The body produces approximately 2.3 pounds (1.0 kg) of carbon dioxide per day per person,[121] containing 0.63 pounds (290 g) of carbon. In humans, this carbon dioxide is carried through the venous system and is breathed out through the lungs, resulting in lower concentrations in the arteries. The carbon dioxide content of the blood is often given as the partial pressure, which is the pressure which carbon dioxide would have had if it alone occupied the volume.[122] In humans, the blood carbon dioxide contents is shown in the table to the right: Transport in the blood[edit] CO2 is carried in blood in three different ways. (The exact percentages vary depending whether it is arterial or venous blood).

Most of it (about 70% to 80%) is converted to bicarbonate ions HCO− 3 by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in the red blood cells,[123] by the reaction CO2 + H 2O → H 2CO 3 → H+ + HCO− 3. 5% – 10% is dissolved in the plasma[123] 5% – 10% is bound to hemoglobin as carbamino compounds[123]

Hemoglobin, the main oxygen-carrying molecule in red blood cells, carries both oxygen and carbon dioxide. However, the CO2 bound to hemoglobin does not bind to the same site as oxygen. Instead, it combines with the N-terminal groups on the four globin chains. However, because of allosteric effects on the hemoglobin molecule, the binding of CO2 decreases the amount of oxygen that is bound for a given partial pressure of oxygen. This is known as the Haldane Effect, and is important in the transport of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. Conversely, a rise in the partial pressure of CO2 or a lower pH will cause offloading of oxygen from hemoglobin, which is known as the Bohr effect. Regulation of respiration[edit]

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Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is one of the mediators of local autoregulation of blood supply. If its concentration is high, the capillaries expand to allow a greater blood flow to that tissue. Bicarbonate
Bicarbonate
ions are crucial for regulating blood pH. A person's breathing rate influences the level of CO2 in their blood. Breathing that is too slow or shallow causes respiratory acidosis, while breathing that is too rapid leads to hyperventilation, which can cause respiratory alkalosis. Although the body requires oxygen for metabolism, low oxygen levels normally do not stimulate breathing. Rather, breathing is stimulated by higher carbon dioxide levels. As a result, breathing low-pressure air or a gas mixture with no oxygen at all (such as pure nitrogen) can lead to loss of consciousness without ever experiencing air hunger. This is especially perilous for high-altitude fighter pilots. It is also why flight attendants instruct passengers, in case of loss of cabin pressure, to apply the oxygen mask to themselves first before helping others; otherwise, one risks losing consciousness.[123] The respiratory centers try to maintain an arterial CO2 pressure of 40 mm Hg. With intentional hyperventilation, the CO2 content of arterial blood may be lowered to 10–20 mm Hg (the oxygen content of the blood is little affected), and the respiratory drive is diminished. This is why one can hold one's breath longer after hyperventilating than without hyperventilating. This carries the risk that unconsciousness may result before the need to breathe becomes overwhelming, which is why hyperventilation is particularly dangerous before free diving. Additional media[edit]

3D model of CO2's HOMO.

3D model of CO2's LUMO.

See also[edit]

Chemistry portal

Acidosis Alkalosis Arterial blood gas Bosch reaction Bottled gas Carbogen Carbon
Carbon
dioxide sensor Carbon
Carbon
sequestration Chemical equilibrium EcoCute
EcoCute
– as refrigerants Emission standards Indoor_air_quality Kaya identity Lake
Lake
Kivu List of least carbon efficient power stations List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions Meromictic lake pCO2 pH pKa Gilbert Plass (early work on CO2 and climate change) Sabatier reaction

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Dioxide, Ventilation, and Volatile Organic Compound Exposures in Office Workers: A Controlled Exposure Study of Green and Conventional Office Environments". Environmental Health Perspectives. 124 (6). doi:10.1289/ehp.1510037. PMC 4892924 . PMID 26502459. Archived from the original on 23 January 2016.  ^ "Exposure Limits for Carbon
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Further reading[edit]

Seppänen, O. A.; Fisk, W. J.; Mendell, M. J. (December 1999). "Association of Ventilation Rates and CO2 Concentrations with Health and Other Responses in Commercial and Institutional Buildings" (PDF). Indoor Air. 9 (4): 226–252. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0668.1999.00003.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2016.  Shendell, D. G.; Prill, R.; Fisk, W. J.; Apte, M. G.; Blake, D.; Faulkner, D. (October 2004). "Associations between classroom CO2 concentrations and student attendance in Washington and Idaho" (PDF). Indoor Air. 14 (5): 333–341. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0668.2004.00251.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2016.  Soentgen, Jens (February 2014). "Hot air: The science and politics of CO2". Global Environment. 7 (1): 134–171. doi:10.3197/197337314X13927191904925.  Good plant design and operation for onshore carbon capture installations and onshore pipelines: a recommended practice guidance document. Global CCS Institute. Energy
Energy
Institute and Global Carbon Capture and Storage Institute. 1 Sep 2010. This new title is an essential guide for engineers, managers, procurement specialists and designers working on global carbon capture and storage projects. 

External links[edit]

Library resources about Carbon
Carbon
dioxide

Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

International Chemical Safety Card 0021 CID 1 from PubChem Carbon
Carbon
dioxide MSDS by Amerigas in the SDSdata.org database. CDC – NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards – Carbon
Carbon
Dioxide CO2 Carbon
Carbon
Dioxide Properties, Uses, Applications Dry Ice information Trends in Atmospheric Carbon
Carbon
Dioxide (NOAA) "A War Gas
Gas
That Saves Lives". Popular Science, June 1942, pp. 53–57. NASA's Orbiting Carbon
Carbon
Observatory The on-line catalogue of CO2 natural emissions in Italy Reactions, Thermochemistry, Uses, and Function of Carbon
Carbon
Dioxide Carbon
Carbon
Dioxide – Part One and Carbon
Carbon
Dioxide – Part Two at The Periodic Table of Videos (University of Nottingham)

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Oxides

Mixed oxidation states

Antimony tetroxide
Antimony tetroxide
(Sb2O4) Cobalt(II,III) oxide
Cobalt(II,III) oxide
(Co3O4) Europium(II,III) oxide (Eu3O4) Iron(II,III) oxide
Iron(II,III) oxide
(Fe3O4) Lead(II,IV) oxide
Lead(II,IV) oxide
(Pb3O4) Manganese(II,III) oxide (Mn3O4) Silver(I,III) oxide (Ag2O2) Triuranium octoxide
Triuranium octoxide
(U3O8) Carbon
Carbon
suboxide (C3O2) Mellitic anhydride
Mellitic anhydride
(C12O9) Praseodymium(III,IV) oxide (Pr6O11) Terbium(III,IV) oxide
Terbium(III,IV) oxide
(Tb4O7)

+1 oxidation state

Copper(I) oxide
Copper(I) oxide
(Cu2O) Dicarbon monoxide
Dicarbon monoxide
(C2O) Dichlorine monoxide
Dichlorine monoxide
(Cl2O) Gallium(I) oxide (Ga2O) Lithium
Lithium
oxide (Li2O) Potassium oxide
Potassium oxide
(K2O) Rubidium oxide
Rubidium oxide
(Rb2O) Silver
Silver
oxide (Ag2O) Thallium(I) oxide
Thallium(I) oxide
(Tl2O) Sodium oxide
Sodium oxide
(Na2O) Water
Water
(hydrogen oxide) (H2O)

+2 oxidation state

Aluminium(II) oxide
Aluminium(II) oxide
(AlO) Barium oxide
Barium oxide
(BaO) Beryllium oxide
Beryllium oxide
(BeO) Cadmium oxide
Cadmium oxide
(CdO) Calcium oxide
Calcium oxide
(CaO) Carbon
Carbon
monoxide (CO) Chromium(II) oxide
Chromium(II) oxide
(CrO) Cobalt(II) oxide
Cobalt(II) oxide
(CoO) Copper(II) oxide
Copper(II) oxide
(CuO) Europium(II) oxide (EuO) Germanium monoxide
Germanium monoxide
(GeO)) Iron(II) oxide
Iron(II) oxide
(FeO) Lead(II) oxide
Lead(II) oxide
(PbO) Magnesium
Magnesium
oxide (MgO) Manganese(II) oxide
Manganese(II) oxide
(MnO) Mercury(II) oxide
Mercury(II) oxide
(HgO) Nickel(II) oxide
Nickel(II) oxide
(NiO) Nitric oxide
Nitric oxide
(NO) Palladium(II) oxide
Palladium(II) oxide
(PdO) Silicon
Silicon
monoxide (SiO) Strontium oxide
Strontium oxide
(SrO) Sulfur monoxide
Sulfur monoxide
(SO) Disulfur dioxide
Disulfur dioxide
(S2O2) Tin(II) oxide
Tin(II) oxide
(SnO) Titanium(II) oxide
Titanium(II) oxide
(TiO) Vanadium(II) oxide
Vanadium(II) oxide
(VO) Zinc oxide
Zinc oxide
(ZnO)

+3 oxidation state

Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide (Al2O3) Antimony
Antimony
trioxide (Sb2O3) Arsenic trioxide
Arsenic trioxide
(As2O3) Bismuth(III) oxide
Bismuth(III) oxide
(Bi2O3) Boron trioxide
Boron trioxide
(B2O3) Cerium(III) oxide
Cerium(III) oxide
(Ce2O3) Dibromine trioxide (Br2O3) Chromium(III) oxide
Chromium(III) oxide
(Cr2O3) Dinitrogen trioxide
Dinitrogen trioxide
(N2O3) Dysprosium(III) oxide
Dysprosium(III) oxide
(Dy2O3) Erbium(III) oxide
Erbium(III) oxide
(Er2O3) Europium(III) oxide
Europium(III) oxide
(Eu2O3) Gadolinium(III) oxide
Gadolinium(III) oxide
(Gd2O3) Gallium(III) oxide
Gallium(III) oxide
(Ga2O3) Holmium(III) oxide
Holmium(III) oxide
(Ho2O3) Indium(III) oxide
Indium(III) oxide
(In2O3) Iron(III) oxide
Iron(III) oxide
(Fe2O3) Lanthanum oxide
Lanthanum oxide
(La2O3) Lutetium(III) oxide (Lu2O3) Manganese(III) oxide
Manganese(III) oxide
(Mn2O3) Neodymium(III) oxide
Neodymium(III) oxide
(Nd2O3) Nickel(III) oxide
Nickel(III) oxide
(Ni2O3) Phosphorus trioxide
Phosphorus trioxide
(P4O6) Praseodymium(III) oxide
Praseodymium(III) oxide
(Pr2O3) Promethium(III) oxide
Promethium(III) oxide
(Pm2O3) Rhodium(III) oxide
Rhodium(III) oxide
(Rh2O3) Samarium(III) oxide
Samarium(III) oxide
(Sm2O3) Scandium oxide
Scandium oxide
(Sc2O3) Terbium(III) oxide
Terbium(III) oxide
(Tb2O3) Thallium(III) oxide
Thallium(III) oxide
(Tl2O3) Thulium(III) oxide
Thulium(III) oxide
(Tm2O3) Titanium(III) oxide (Ti2O3) Tungsten(III) oxide (W2O3) Vanadium(III) oxide
Vanadium(III) oxide
(V2O3) Ytterbium(III) oxide
Ytterbium(III) oxide
(Yb2O3) Yttrium(III) oxide
Yttrium(III) oxide
(Y2O3)

+4 oxidation state

Americium dioxide (AmO2) Carbon
Carbon
dioxide (CO2) Carbon
Carbon
trioxide (CO3) Cerium(IV) oxide
Cerium(IV) oxide
(CeO2) Chlorine
Chlorine
dioxide (ClO2) Chromium(IV) oxide
Chromium(IV) oxide
(CrO2) Dinitrogen tetroxide
Dinitrogen tetroxide
(N2O4) Germanium dioxide
Germanium dioxide
(GeO2) Hafnium(IV) oxide
Hafnium(IV) oxide
(HfO2) Lead dioxide
Lead dioxide
(PbO2) Manganese
Manganese
dioxide (MnO2) Neptunium(IV) oxide
Neptunium(IV) oxide
(NpO2) Nitrogen
Nitrogen
dioxide (NO2) Osmium dioxide
Osmium dioxide
(OsO2) Plutonium(IV) oxide
Plutonium(IV) oxide
(PuO2) Praseodymium(IV) oxide (PrO2) Protactinium(IV) oxide (PaO2) Rhodium(IV) oxide
Rhodium(IV) oxide
(RhO2) Ruthenium(IV) oxide
Ruthenium(IV) oxide
(RuO2) Selenium dioxide
Selenium dioxide
(SeO2) Silicon dioxide
Silicon dioxide
(SiO2) Sulfur
Sulfur
dioxide (SO2) Tellurium dioxide
Tellurium dioxide
(TeO2) Terbium(IV) oxide (TbO2) Thorium dioxide
Thorium dioxide
(ThO2) Tin dioxide
Tin dioxide
(SnO2) Titanium
Titanium
dioxide (TiO2) Tungsten(IV) oxide
Tungsten(IV) oxide
(WO2) Uranium
Uranium
dioxide (UO2) Vanadium(IV) oxide
Vanadium(IV) oxide
(VO2) Zirconium dioxide
Zirconium dioxide
(ZrO2)

+5 oxidation state

Antimony
Antimony
pentoxide (Sb2O5) Arsenic
Arsenic
pentoxide (As2O5) Dinitrogen pentoxide
Dinitrogen pentoxide
(N2O5) Niobium pentoxide
Niobium pentoxide
(Nb2O5) Phosphorus
Phosphorus
pentoxide (P2O5) Protactinium(V) oxide (Pa2O5) Tantalum pentoxide
Tantalum pentoxide
(Ta2O5) Vanadium(V) oxide
Vanadium(V) oxide
(V2O5)

+6 oxidation state

Chromium
Chromium
trioxide (CrO3) Molybdenum trioxide
Molybdenum trioxide
(MoO3) Rhenium trioxide
Rhenium trioxide
(ReO3) Selenium
Selenium
trioxide (SeO3) Sulfur
Sulfur
trioxide (SO3) Tellurium
Tellurium
trioxide (TeO3) Tungsten
Tungsten
trioxide (WO3) Uranium
Uranium
trioxide (UO3) Xenon trioxide
Xenon trioxide
(XeO3) Iridium
Iridium
trioxide (IrO3)

+7 oxidation state

Dichlorine heptoxide
Dichlorine heptoxide
(Cl2O7) Manganese
Manganese
heptoxide (Mn2O7) Rhenium(VII) oxide
Rhenium(VII) oxide
(Re2O7) Technetium(VII) oxide
Technetium(VII) oxide
(Tc2O7)

+8 oxidation state

Osmium
Osmium
tetroxide (OsO4) Ruthenium
Ruthenium
tetroxide (RuO4) Xenon
Xenon
tetroxide (XeO4) Iridium
Iridium
tetroxide (IrO4) Hassium
Hassium
tetroxide (HsO4)

Related

Oxocarbon Suboxide Oxyanion Ozonide Peroxide Superoxide

Oxides are sorted by oxidation state. Category:Oxides

v t e

Oxocarbons

Common oxides

CO CO 2

Exotic oxides

CO 3 CO 4 CO 5 CO 6 C 2O C 2O 2 C 2O 3 C 2O 4 C 2O 4 C 3O C 3O 2 C 3O 3 C 3O 6 C 4O 2 C 4O 4 C 4O 6 C 5O 2 C 5O 5 C 6O 6 C 6O 6 C 8O 8 C 9O 9 C 10O 8 C 10O 10 C 12O 6 C 12O 9 C 12O 12

Polymers

Graphite oxide C3O2 CO CO2

Compounds derived from oxides

Metal carbonyls Carbonic acid Bicarbonates Carbonates Dicarbonates Tricarbonates

v t e

Inorganic compounds of carbon and related ions

Compounds

CBr4 CCl4 CF CF4 CI4 CO CO2 CO3 COS CS CS2 CSe2 C3O2 C3S2 SiC

Carbon
Carbon
ions

Carbides [:C≡C:]2–, [::C::]4–, [:C=C=C:]4– Cyanides [:C≡N:]– Cyanates [:O-C≡N:]– Thiocyanates [:S-C≡N:]– Fulminates [:C≡N-O:]– Thiofulminates [:C≡N-S:]–

Oxides and related

Oxides Metal carbonyls Carbonic acid Bicarbonates Carbonates

v t e

Global warming
Global warming
and climate change

Temperatures

Brightness temperature Effective temperature Geologic record Hiatus Historical climatology Instrumental record Paleoclimatology Paleotempestology Proxy data Record of the past 1,000 years Satellite measurements

Causes

Anthropogenic

Attribution of recent climate change Aviation Biofuel Black carbon Carbon
Carbon
dioxide Deforestation Earth's energy budget Earth's radiation balance Ecocide Fossil fuel Global dimming Global warming
Global warming
potential Greenhouse effect (Infrared window) Greenhouse gases (Halocarbons) Land use, land-use change and forestry Radiative forcing Tropospheric ozone Urban heat island

Natural

Albedo Bond events Climate oscillations Climate sensitivity Cloud forcing Cosmic rays Feedbacks Glaciation Global cooling Milankovitch cycles Ocean variability

AMO ENSO IOD PDO

Orbital forcing Solar variation Volcanism

Models

Global climate model

History

History of climate change science Atmospheric thermodynamics Svante Arrhenius James Hansen Charles David Keeling

Opinion and climate change

Environmental ethics Media coverage of climate change Public opinion on climate change (Popular culture) Scientific opinion on climate change Scientists opposing the mainstream assessment Climate change
Climate change
denial Global warming
Global warming
conspiracy theory By country & region (Africa Arctic Argentina Australia Bangladesh Belgium Canada China Europe European Union Finland Grenada Japan Luxembourg New Zealand Norway Russia Scotland South Korea Sweden Tuvalu United Kingdom United States)

Politics

Clean Power Plan Climate change
Climate change
denial (Manufactured controversy) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC) March for Science People's Climate March United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC / FCCC) Global climate regime

Potential effects and issues

General

Abrupt climate change Anoxic event Arctic dipole anomaly Arctic haze Arctic methane release Climate change
Climate change
and agriculture Climate change
Climate change
and ecosystems Climate change
Climate change
and gender Climate change
Climate change
and poverty Current sea level rise Drought Economics of global warming Effect on plant biodiversity Effects on health Effects on humans Effects on marine mammals Environmental migrant Extinction risk from global warming Fisheries and climate change Forest dieback Industry and society Iris hypothesis Megadrought Ocean acidification Ozone
Ozone
depletion Physical impacts Polar stratospheric cloud Regime shift Retreat of glaciers since 1850 Runaway climate change Season creep Shutdown of thermohaline circulation

By country

Australia South Asia

India Nepal

United States

Mitigation

Kyoto Protocol

Clean Development Mechanism Joint Implementation Bali Road Map 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference

Governmental

European Climate Change Programme G8 Climate Change Roundtable United Kingdom Climate Change Programme Paris Agreement

United States withdrawal

Regional climate change initiatives in the United States List of climate change initiatives

Emissions reduction

Carbon
Carbon
credit Carbon-neutral fuel Carbon
Carbon
offset Carbon
Carbon
tax Emissions trading Fossil-fuel phase-out

Carbon-free energy

Carbon
Carbon
capture and storage Efficient energy use Low-carbon economy Nuclear power Renewable energy

Personal

Individual action on climate change Simple living

Other

Carbon
Carbon
dioxide removal Carbon
Carbon
sink Climate change
Climate change
mitigation scenarios Climate engineering Individual and political action on climate change Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation Reforestation Urban reforestation Climate Action Plan Climate action

Proposed adaptations

Strategies

Damming glacial lakes Desalination Drought
Drought
tolerance Irrigation
Irrigation
investment Rainwater storage Sustainable development Weather modification

Programmes

Avoiding dangerous climate change Land allocation decision support system

Glossary of climate change Index of climate change articles Category:Climate change Category:Global warming Portal:Global warming

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Molecules detected in outer space

Molecules

Diatomic

Aluminium
Aluminium
monochloride Aluminium
Aluminium
monofluoride Aluminium
Aluminium
monoxide Argonium Carbon
Carbon
monophosphide Carbon
Carbon
monosulfide Carbon
Carbon
monoxide Carborundum Cyanogen
Cyanogen
radical Diatomic carbon Fluoromethylidynium Hydrogen
Hydrogen
chloride Hydrogen
Hydrogen
fluoride Hydrogen
Hydrogen
(molecular) Hydroxyl radical Iron(II) oxide Magnesium
Magnesium
monohydride cation Methylidyne radical Nitric oxide Nitrogen
Nitrogen
(molecular) Nitrogen
Nitrogen
monohydride Nitrogen
Nitrogen
sulfide Oxygen
Oxygen
(molecular) Phosphorus
Phosphorus
monoxide Phosphorus
Phosphorus
mononitride Potassium
Potassium
chloride Silicon
Silicon
carbide Silicon
Silicon
mononitride Silicon
Silicon
monoxide Silicon
Silicon
monosulfide Sodium
Sodium
chloride Sodium
Sodium
iodide Sulfur
Sulfur
monohydride Sulfur
Sulfur
monoxide Titanium
Titanium
oxide

Triatomic

Aluminium
Aluminium
hydroxide Aluminium
Aluminium
isocyanide Amino radical Carbon
Carbon
dioxide Carbonyl sulfide CCP radical Chloronium Diazenylium Dicarbon monoxide Disilicon carbide Ethynyl radical Formyl radical Hydrogen
Hydrogen
cyanide (HCN) Hydrogen
Hydrogen
isocyanide (HNC) Hydrogen
Hydrogen
sulfide Hydroperoxyl Iron
Iron
cyanide Isoformyl Magnesium
Magnesium
cyanide Magnesium
Magnesium
isocyanide Methylene radical N2H+ Nitrous oxide Nitroxyl Ozone Phosphaethyne Potassium
Potassium
cyanide Protonated molecular hydrogen Sodium
Sodium
cyanide Sodium
Sodium
hydroxide Silicon
Silicon
carbonitride c- Silicon
Silicon
dicarbide Silicon
Silicon
naphthalocyanine Sulfur
Sulfur
dioxide Thioformyl Thioxoethenylidene Titanium
Titanium
dioxide Tricarbon Water

Four atoms

Acetylene Ammonia Cyanic acid Cyanoethynyl Cyclopropynylidyne Formaldehyde Fulminic acid HCCN Hydrogen
Hydrogen
peroxide Hydromagnesium isocyanide Isocyanic acid Isothiocyanic acid Ketenyl Methylene amidogen Methyl radical Propynylidyne Protonated carbon dioxide Protonated hydrogen cyanide Silicon
Silicon
tricarbide Thioformaldehyde Tricarbon
Tricarbon
monoxide Tricarbon
Tricarbon
sulfide Thiocyanic acid

Five atoms

Ammonium
Ammonium
ion Butadiynyl Carbodiimide Cyanamide Cyanoacetylene Cyanoformaldehyde Cyanomethyl Cyclopropenylidene Formic acid Isocyanoacetylene Ketene Methane Methoxy
Methoxy
radical Methylenimine Propadienylidene Protonated formaldehyde Protonated formaldehyde Silane Silicon-carbide cluster

Six atoms

Acetonitrile Cyanobutadiynyl radical E-Cyanomethanimine Cyclopropenone Diacetylene Ethylene Formamide HC4N Ketenimine Methanethiol Methanol Methyl isocyanide Pentynylidyne Propynal Protonated cyanoacetylene

Seven atoms

Acetaldehyde Acrylonitrile

Vinyl cyanide

Cyanodiacetylene Ethylene
Ethylene
oxide Hexatriynyl radical Methylacetylene Methylamine Methyl isocyanate Vinyl alcohol

Eight atoms

Acetic acid Aminoacetonitrile Cyanoallene Ethanimine Glycolaldehyde Heptatrienyl radical Hexapentaenylidene Methylcyanoacetylene Methyl formate Propenal

Nine atoms

Acetamide Cyanohexatriyne Cyanotriacetylene Dimethyl ether Ethanol Methyldiacetylene Octatetraynyl radical Propene Propionitrile

Ten atoms or more

Acetone Benzene Benzonitrile Buckminsterfullerene
Buckminsterfullerene
(C60 fullerene, buckyball) C70 fullerene Cyanodecapentayne Cyanopentaacetylene Cyanotetra-acetylene Ethylene
Ethylene
glycol Ethyl formate Methyl acetate Methyl-cyano-diacetylene Methyltriacetylene Propanal n-Propyl cyanide Pyrimidine

Deuterated molecules

Ammonia Ammonium
Ammonium
ion Formaldehyde Formyl radical Heavy water Hydrogen
Hydrogen
cyanide Hydrogen
Hydrogen
deuteride Hydrogen
Hydrogen
isocyanide Methylacetylene N2D+ Trihydrogen cation

Unconfirmed

Anthracene Dihydroxyacetone Ethyl methyl ether Glycine Graphene H2NCO+ Linear C5 Naphthalene
Naphthalene
cation Phosphine Pyrene Silylidine

Related

Abiogenesis Astrobiology Astrochemistry Atomic and molecular astrophysics Chemical formula Circumstellar envelope Cosmic dust Cosmic ray Cosmochemistry Diffuse interstellar band Earliest known life forms Extraterrestrial life Extraterrestrial liquid water Forbidden mechanism Helium
Helium
hydride ion Homochirality Intergalactic dust Interplanetary medium Interstellar medium Photodissociation region Iron–sulfur world theory Kerogen Molecules in stars Nexus for Exoplanet System Science Organic compound Outer space PAH world hypothesis Panspermia Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
(PAH) RNA world hypothesis Spectroscopy Tholin

Book:Chemistry Category:Astrochemistry Category:Molecules Portal:Astrobiology Portal:Astronomy Portal:Chemistry

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Inorganic compounds of carbon and related ions

Compounds

CBr4 CCl4 CF CF4 CI4 CO CO2 CO3 COS CS CS2 CSe2 C3O2 C3S2 SiC

Carbon
Carbon
ions

Carbides [:C≡C:]2–, [::C::]4–, [:C=C=C:]4– Cyanides [:C≡N:]– Cyanates [:O-C≡N:]– Thiocyanates [:S-C≡N:]– Fulminates [:C≡N-O:]– Thiofulminates [:C≡N-S:]–

Oxides and related

Oxides Metal carbonyls Carbonic acid Bicarbonates Carbonates

Authority control

LCCN: sh85020108 GND: 4031648-8 NDL: 00568539

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Oxygen
Oxygen
compounds

AgO Al2O3 AmO2 Am2O3 As2O3 As2O5 Au2O3 B2O3 BaO BeO Bi2O3 BiO2 Bi2O5 BrO2 Br2O3 Br2O5 CO CO2 C2O3 CaO CaO2 CdO CeO2 Ce3O4 Ce2O3 ClO2 Cl2O Cl2O3 Cl2O4 Cl2O6 Cl2O7 CoO Co2O3 Co3O4 CrO3 Cr2O3 Cr2O5 Cr5O12 CsO2 Cs2O3 CuO D2O Dy2O3 Er2O3 Eu2O3 F2O F2O2 F2O4 FeO Fe2O3 Fe3O4 Ga2O Ga2O3 GeO GeO2 H2O H218O H2O2 HfO2 HgO Hg2O Ho2O3 I2O4 I2O5 I2O6 I4O9 In2O3 IrO2 KO2 K2O2 La2O3 Li2O Li2O2 Lu2O3 MgO Mg2O3 MnO MnO2 Mn2O3 Mn2O7 MoO2 MoO3 Mo2O3 NO NO2 N2O N2O3 N2O4 N2O5 NaO2 Na2O Na2O2 NbO NbO2 Nd2O3

Chemi

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