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The European Organization for Nuclear Research (french: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (; ; derived from the name ), is a
Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both and , and is bordered by the to the ...

Europe
an research organization that operates the largest
particle physics Particle physics (also known as high energy physics) is a branch of that studies the nature of the particles that constitute and . Although the word ' can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. , gas particles, or even household d ...
laboratory in the world. Established in 1954, the organization is based in a northwest suburb of
Geneva , neighboring_municipalities= Carouge Carouge () is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. History Carouge is first mentioned in the Early Middle Ages as ''Quadruvium'' and ''Quatruvio''. In 1248 ...

Geneva
on the Franco–Swiss border and has 23
member states A member state is a state that is a member of an international organization An international organization (also known as an international institution or intergovernmental organization) is a stable set of norms and rules meant to govern the be ...
.
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
is the only non-European country granted full membership. CERN is an official
United Nations Observer The United Nations General Assembly has granted observer status to international organizations, entities, and non-member Sovereign state, states, to enable them to participate in the work of the United Nations General Assembly, though with limitati ...
. The acronym CERN is also used to refer to the laboratory, which in 2019 had 2,660 scientific, technical, and administrative staff members, and hosted about 12,400 users from institutions in more than 70 countries. In 2016 CERN generated 49
petabyte The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits. Historically, the byte was the number of bits used to encode a single character of text in a computer and for this reason it is the smallest addressable unit ...
s of data. CERN's main function is to provide the
particle accelerator , a synchrotron collider type particle accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, USA. Shut down in 2011, until 2007 it was the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, accelerating protons to an en ...
s and other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research – as a result, numerous experiments have been constructed at CERN through international collaborations. CERN is the site of the
Large Hadron Collider The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and highest-energy particle collider A collider is a type of particle accelerator , a synchrotron collider type particle accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), ...
(LHC), the world's largest and highest-energy particle collider. The main site at
Meyrin Meyrin () is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality of the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. The main site of CERN, the European particle physics research organisation, is in Meyrin. Meyrin was originally a small agricultural village until the ...

Meyrin
hosts a large computing facility, which is primarily used to store and analyse data from experiments, as well as
simulate A simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. Simulations require the use of models; the model represents the key characteristics or behaviors of the selected system or process, whereas the simula ...

simulate
events Event may refer to: Gatherings of people * Ceremony, an event of ritual significance, performed on a special occasion * Convention (meeting), a gathering of individuals engaged in some common interest * Event management, the organization of event ...
. Researchers need remote access to these facilities, so the lab has historically been a major
wide area network A wide area network (WAN) is a telecommunications network A telecommunications network is a group of nodes interconnected by links that are used to exchange messages between the nodes. The links may use a variety of technologies based on t ...
hub. CERN is also the birthplace of the
World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational w ...
.


History

The convention establishing CERN was ratified on 29 September 1954 by 12 countries in Western Europe. The acronym CERN originally represented the French words for (European Council for Nuclear Research), which was a provisional council for building the laboratory, established by 12 European governments in 1952. During these early years, the council worked at the
University of Copenhagen The University of Copenhagen (UCPH) ( da, Københavns Universitet, abbr. ''KU'') is a public research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of h ...

University of Copenhagen
under the direction of
Niels Bohr Niels Henrik David Bohr (; 7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of De ...

Niels Bohr
before moving to its present site in Geneva. The acronym was retained for the new laboratory after the provisional council was dissolved, even though the name changed to the current (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in 1954. According to
Lew Kowarski Lew Kowarski (10 February 1907, Saint Petersburg – 30 July 1979, Geneva , neighboring_municipalities= Carouge, Chêne-Bougeries, Cologny, Lancy, Grand-Saconnex, Pregny-Chambésy, Vernier, Switzerland, Vernier, Veyrier , website = ville-gene ...
, a former director of CERN, when the name was changed, the abbreviation could have become the awkward OERN, and
Werner Heisenberg Werner Karl Heisenberg (; ; 5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental Scientific theory, theory in physics that provides a de ...
said that this could "still be CERN even if the name is . CERN's first president was Sir Benjamin Lockspeiser.
Edoardo Amaldi Edoardo Amaldi (5 September 1908 – 5 December 1989) was an Italian physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area of i ...
was the general secretary of CERN at its early stages when operations were still provisional, while the first Director-General (1954) was
Felix Bloch Felix Bloch (23 October 1905 – 10 September 1983) was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland *Swiss people Places *Swiss, Missouri *Swiss, North Carolina *Swiss, West Virginia *Swiss, Wisconsin Other uses *Swiss-sy ...
. The laboratory was originally devoted to the study of
atomic nuclei The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger-Marsden experiments, Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment. After the d ...
, but was soon applied to higher-energy physics, concerned mainly with the study of interactions between
subatomic particle In physical sciences, subatomic particles are smaller than atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All ...
s. Therefore, the laboratory operated by CERN is commonly referred to as the European laboratory for particle physics (), which better describes the research being performed there.


Founding members

At the sixth session of the CERN Council, which took place in Paris from 29 June – 1 July 1953, the convention establishing the organization was signed, subject to ratification, by 12 states. The convention was gradually ratified by the 12 founding Member States: Belgium, Denmark, France, the
Federal Republic of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, German , government_ ...
, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (; sh, Jugoslavija / ; sl, Jugoslavija ; mk, Југославија ;; rup, Iugoslavia; hu, Jugoszlávia; Pannonian Rusyn Image:Novi Sad mayor office.jpg, 250px, Mayor office written in four official languages used in the ...

Yugoslavia
.


Scientific achievements

Several important achievements in particle physics have been made through experiments at CERN. They include: *1973: The discovery of
neutral current Weak neutral current interactions are one of the ways in which subatomic particles can interact by means of the weak force. These interactions are mediated by the boson In quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental Scientific ...

neutral current
s in the
Gargamelle Gargamelle was a heavy liquid bubble chamber detector in operation at CERN between 1970 and 1979. It was designed to detect neutrinos and Neutrino#antineutrino, antineutrinos, which were produced with a beam from the Proton Synchrotron (PS) betwe ...

Gargamelle
bubble chamber; *1983: The discovery of
W and Z bosons In particle physics, the W and Z bosons are vector bosons that are together known as the weak bosons or more generally as the intermediate vector bosons. These elementary particles force carrier, mediate the weak interaction; the respective symbol ...
in the UA1 and
UA2 experiment The Underground Area 2 (UA2) experiment was a high-energy physics Particle physics (also known as high energy physics) is a branch of physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of n ...
s; *1989: The determination of the number of light
neutrino A neutrino ( or ) (denoted by the Greek letter ) is a fermion (an elementary particle In particle physics Particle physics (also known as high energy physics) is a branch of physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστ ...

neutrino
families at the
Large Electron–Positron Collider 300px, The former LEP tunnel at CERN being filled with magnets for the Large Hadron Collider. The Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP) was one of the largest particle accelerators ever constructed. It was built at CERN, a multi-national cent ...
(LEP) operating on the Z boson peak; *1995: The first creation of
antihydrogen Antihydrogen () is the antimatter In modern physics Modern physics is a branch of physics either developed in the early 20th century and onward or branches greatly influenced by early 20th century physics. Notable branches of modern phys ...
atoms in the PS210 experiment; *1999: The discovery of direct
CP violation In particle physics Particle physics (also known as high energy physics) is a branch of physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is t ...
in the
NA48 experiment The NA48 experiment was a series of particle physics Particle physics (also known as high energy physics) is a branch of physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ...
; *2000: The Heavy Ion Programme discovered new state of matter, the
Quark Gluon Plasma A quark () is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter. Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons, the most stable of which are protons and neutrons, the components of atomic nucleus, atomic nuclei. ...
. *2010: The isolation of 38 atoms of
antihydrogen Antihydrogen () is the antimatter In modern physics Modern physics is a branch of physics either developed in the early 20th century and onward or branches greatly influenced by early 20th century physics. Notable branches of modern phys ...
; *2011: Maintaining
antihydrogen Antihydrogen () is the antimatter In modern physics Modern physics is a branch of physics either developed in the early 20th century and onward or branches greatly influenced by early 20th century physics. Notable branches of modern phys ...
for over 15 minutes; *2012: A
boson In quantum mechanics, a boson (, ) is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics. Bosons make up one of two classes of elementary particles, the other being fermions. The name boson was coined by Paul Dirac to commemorate the contributi ...

boson
with mass around 125 GeV/c2 consistent with the long-sought
Higgs boson The Higgs boson is an elementary particle In , an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a that is not composed of other particles. Particles currently thought to be elementary include the fundamental s (s, s, s, and s), which ge ...

Higgs boson
. In September 2011, CERN attracted media attention when the OPERA Collaboration reported the detection of possibly faster-than-light neutrinos. Further tests showed that the results were flawed due to an incorrectly connected
GPS The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national ...

GPS
synchronization cable. The 1984
Nobel Prize for Physics ) , image = Nobel Prize.png , alt = A golden medallion with an embossed image of a bearded man facing left in profile. To the left of the man is the text "ALFR•" then "NOBEL", and on the right, the text (smaller) "NAT•" then "M ...
was awarded to
Carlo Rubbia Carlo Rubbia, (born 31 March 1934) is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance la ...

Carlo Rubbia
and
Simon van der Meer Simon van der Meer (24 November 19254 March 2011) was a Dutch particle accelerator physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics ) , image = Nobel Prize.png , alt = A golden medallion with an embossed image of a bearded man ...
for the developments that resulted in the discoveries of the W and Z bosons. The 1992 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to CERN staff researcher
Georges Charpak Georges Charpak (; born Jerzy Charpak, 1 August 1924 – 29 September 2010) was a Polish-born French physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in a ...

Georges Charpak
"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber". The 2013 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to
François Englert François, Baron Englert (; born 6 November 1932) is a Belgian theoretical physicist and 2013 Nobel prize laureate. Englert is Professor emeritus at the Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB) where he is member of the Service de Physique Théori ...
and
Peter Higgs Peter Ware Higgs (born 29 May 1929) is a British theoretical physicist, Emeritus Professor ''Emeritus'' (; female: ''Emerita''), in its current usage, is an adjective used to designate a retired chair, professor, pastor, bishop, pope, direc ...

Peter Higgs
for the theoretical description of the Higgs mechanism in the year after the Higgs boson was found by CERN experiments.


Computer science

The
World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational w ...
began as a CERN project named
ENQUIRE ENQUIRE was a software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, physical hardware, from which the system ...
, initiated by
Tim Berners-Lee Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee (born 8 June 1955), also known as TimBL, is an English computer scientist best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system ...

Tim Berners-Lee
in 1989 and
Robert Cailliau Robert Cailliau (born 26 January 1947) is a Belgian informatics engineer, computer scientist A computer scientist is a person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, moralit ...
in 1990. Berners-Lee and Cailliau were jointly honoured by the
Association for Computing Machinery The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is a US-based international learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exists to promote an disciplin ...
in 1995 for their contributions to the development of the World Wide Web. Based on the concept of
hypertext Douglas Engelbart in 2009, at the 40th anniversary celebrations of "The Mother of All Demos" in San Francisco, a 90-minute 1968 presentation of the NLS (computer system)">NLS computer system which was a combination of hardware and softwar ...

hypertext
, the project was intended to facilitate the sharing of information between researchers. The first website was activated in 1991. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone. A copy o
the original first webpage
created by Berners-Lee, is still published on the
World Wide Web Consortium The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary ...
's website as a historical document. Prior to the Web's development, CERN had pioneered the introduction of Internet technology, beginning in the early 1980s. More recently, CERN has become a facility for the development of
grid computing Grid computing is the use of widely distributed computer System resource, resources to reach a common goal. A computing grid can be thought of as a distributed system with non-interactive workloads that involve many files. Grid computing is disti ...
, hosting projects including the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) and
LHC Computing Grid The Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), formerly (until 2006) the LHC Computing Grid (LCG), is an international collaborative project that consists of a grid-based computer network A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of ...
. It also hosts the CERN Internet Exchange Point (CIXP), one of the two main internet exchange points in Switzerland.


Particle accelerators


Current complex

CERN operates a network of six accelerators and a decelerator. Each machine in the chain increases the energy of particle beams before delivering them to experiments or to the next more powerful accelerator. Currently (as of 2019) active machines are: * The LINAC 3 linear accelerator generating low energy particles. It provides heavy ions at 4.2 MeV/Atomic mass unit, u for injection into the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR). * The Proton Synchrotron Booster increases the energy of particles generated by the proton linear accelerator before they are transferred to the other accelerators. * The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) accelerates the ions from the ion linear accelerator LINAC 3, before transferring them to the Proton Synchrotron (PS). This Particle accelerator, accelerator was commissioned in 2005, after having been reconfigured from the previous Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). * The 28 Gigaelectronvolt, GeV Proton Synchrotron (PS), built during 1954—1959 and still operating as a feeder to the more powerful Super Proton Synchrotron, SPS. * The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), a circular accelerator with a diameter of 2 kilometres built in a tunnel, which started operation in 1976. It was designed to deliver an energy of 300 GeV and was gradually upgraded to 450 GeV. As well as having its own beamlines for fixed-target experiments (currently COMPASS experiment, COMPASS and NA62 experiment, NA62), it has been operated as a proton–antiproton collider (the SpS collider), and for accelerating high energy electrons and positrons which were injected into the
Large Electron–Positron Collider 300px, The former LEP tunnel at CERN being filled with magnets for the Large Hadron Collider. The Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP) was one of the largest particle accelerators ever constructed. It was built at CERN, a multi-national cent ...
(LEP). Since 2008, it has been used to inject protons and heavy ions into the
Large Hadron Collider The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and highest-energy particle collider A collider is a type of particle accelerator , a synchrotron collider type particle accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), ...
(LHC). * The On-Line Isotope Mass Separator (ISOLDE), which is used to study radioactive decay, unstable nuclei. The radioactive ions are produced by the impact of protons at an energy of 1.0–1.4 GeV from the Proton Synchrotron Booster. It was first commissioned in 1967 and was rebuilt with major upgrades in 1974 and 1992. * The Antiproton Decelerator (AD), which reduces the velocity of antiprotons to about 10% of the speed of light for research of antimatter. The AD machine was reconfigured from the previous Antiproton Collector (AC) machine. * The AWAKE experiment, which is a proof-of-principle plasma acceleration, plasma wakefield accelerator. * The CERN Linear Electron Accelerator for Research (CLEAR) accelerator research and development facility.


Large Hadron Collider

Many activities at CERN currently involve operating the
Large Hadron Collider The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and highest-energy particle collider A collider is a type of particle accelerator , a synchrotron collider type particle accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), ...
(LHC) and the experiments for it. The LHC represents a large-scale, worldwide scientific cooperation project. The LHC tunnel is located 100 metres underground, in the region between the Geneva International Airport and the nearby Jura mountains. The majority of its length is on the French side of the border. It uses the 27 km circumference circular tunnel previously occupied by the
Large Electron–Positron Collider 300px, The former LEP tunnel at CERN being filled with magnets for the Large Hadron Collider. The Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP) was one of the largest particle accelerators ever constructed. It was built at CERN, a multi-national cent ...
(LEP), which was shut down in November 2000. CERN's existing PS/SPS accelerator complexes are used to pre-accelerate protons and lead ions which are then injected into the LHC. Eight experiments (Compact Muon Solenoid, CMS, ATLAS experiment, ATLAS, LHCb, MoEDAL experiment, MoEDAL, TOTEM, LHCf, FASER experiment, FASER and A Large Ion Collider Experiment, ALICE) are located along the collider; each of them studies particle collisions from a different aspect, and with different technologies. Construction for these experiments required an extraordinary engineering effort. For example, a special Crane (machine), crane was rented from Belgium to lower pieces of the CMS detector into its cavern, since each piece weighed nearly 2,000 tons. The first of the approximately 5,000 magnets necessary for construction was lowered down a special shaft at 13:00 GMT on 7 March 2005. The LHC has begun to generate vast quantities of data, which CERN streams to laboratories around the world for distributed processing (making use of a specialized grid computing, grid infrastructure, the
LHC Computing Grid The Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), formerly (until 2006) the LHC Computing Grid (LCG), is an international collaborative project that consists of a grid-based computer network A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of ...
). During April 2005, a trial successfully streamed 600 MB/s to seven different sites across the world. The initial particle beams were injected into the LHC August 2008.Overbye, Dennis (29 July 2008).
Let the Proton Smashing Begin. (The Rap Is Already Written.)
. ''The New York Times''.
The first beam was circulated through the entire LHC on 10 September 2008, but the system failed 10 days later because of a faulty magnet connection, and it was stopped for repairs on 19 September 2008. The LHC resumed operation on 20 November 2009 by successfully circulating two beams, each with an energy of 3.5 electronvolts, teraelectronvolts (TeV). The challenge for the engineers was then to try to line up the two beams so that they smashed into each other. This is like "firing two needles across the Atlantic and getting them to hit each other" according to Steve Myers, director for accelerators and technology. On 30 March 2010, the LHC successfully collided two proton beams with 3.5 TeV of energy per proton, resulting in a 7 TeV collision energy. However, this was just the start of what was needed for the expected discovery of the
Higgs boson The Higgs boson is an elementary particle In , an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a that is not composed of other particles. Particles currently thought to be elementary include the fundamental s (s, s, s, and s), which ge ...

Higgs boson
. When the 7 TeV experimental period ended, the LHC revved to 8 TeV (4 TeV per proton) starting March 2012, and soon began particle collisions at that energy. In July 2012, CERN scientists announced the discovery of a new sub-atomic particle that was later confirmed to be the
Higgs boson The Higgs boson is an elementary particle In , an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a that is not composed of other particles. Particles currently thought to be elementary include the fundamental s (s, s, s, and s), which ge ...

Higgs boson
. In March 2013, CERN announced that the measurements performed on the newly found particle allowed it to conclude that this is a Higgs boson. In early 2013, the LHC was deactivated for a two-year maintenance period, to strengthen the electrical connections between magnets inside the accelerator and for other upgrades. On 5 April 2015, after two years of maintenance and consolidation, the LHC restarted for a second run. The first ramp to the record-breaking energy of 6.5 TeV was performed on 10 April 2015. In 2016, the design collision rate was exceeded for the first time. A second two-year period of shutdown begun at the end of 2018.


Accelerators under construction

As of October 2019, the construction is on-going to upgrade the LHC's luminosity in a project called High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). This project should see the LHC accelerator upgraded by 2026 to an order of magnitude higher luminosity. As part of the HL-LHC upgrade project, also other CERN accelerators and their subsystems are receiving upgrades. Among other work, the LINAC 2 linear accelerator injector was decommissioned, to be replaced by a new injector accelerator, the LINAC 4, LINAC4 in 2020.


Decommissioned accelerators

* The original linear accelerator LINAC 1. Operated 1959–1992. * The LINAC 2 linear accelerator injector. Accelerated protons to 50 Megaelectronvolt, MeV for injection into the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB). Operated 1978–2018. * The 600 MeV Synchro-Cyclotron (CERN), Synchrony-Cyclotron (SC) which started operation in 1957 and was shut down in 1991. Was made into a public exhibition in 2012–2013. * The Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), an early collider built from 1966 to 1971 and operated until 1984. * The Super Proton–Antiproton Synchrotron (SpS), operated 1981–1991. A modification of Super Proton Synchroton (SPS) to operate as a proton-antiproton collider. * The
Large Electron–Positron Collider 300px, The former LEP tunnel at CERN being filled with magnets for the Large Hadron Collider. The Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP) was one of the largest particle accelerators ever constructed. It was built at CERN, a multi-national cent ...
(LEP), which operated from 1989 to 2000 and was the largest machine of its kind, housed in a 27 km-long circular tunnel which now houses the
Large Hadron Collider The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and highest-energy particle collider A collider is a type of particle accelerator , a synchrotron collider type particle accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), ...
. * The LEP Pre-Injector (LPI) accelerator complex, consisting of two accelerators, a linear accelerator called LEP Injector Linac (LIL; itself consisting of two back-to-back linear accelerators called LIL V and LIL W) and a circular accelerator called Electron Positron Accumulator (EPA). The purpose of these accelerators was to inject positron and electron beams into the CERN accelerator complex (more precisely, to the Proton Synchrotron), to be delivered to LEP after many stages of acceleration. Operational 1987–2001; after the shutdown of LEP and the completion of experiments that were directly feed by the LPI, the LPI facility was adapted to be used for the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3). * The Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) was commissioned in 1982. LEAR assembled the first pieces of true antimatter, in 1995, consisting of nine atoms of
antihydrogen Antihydrogen () is the antimatter In modern physics Modern physics is a branch of physics either developed in the early 20th century and onward or branches greatly influenced by early 20th century physics. Notable branches of modern phys ...
. It was closed in 1996, and superseded by the Antiproton Decelerator. The LEAR apparatus itself was reconfigured into the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) ion booster. * The Antiproton Accumulator (AA), built 1979–1980, operations ended in 1997 and the machine was dismantled. Stored antiprotons produced by the Proton Synchrotron (PS) for use in other experiments and accelerators (for example the ISR, SpS and LEAR). For later half of its working life operated in tandem with Antiproton Collector (AC), to form the Antiproton Accumulation Complex (AAC). * The Antiproton Collector (AC), built 1986–1987, operations ended in 1997 and the machine was converted into the Antiproton Decelerator (AD), which is the successor machine for Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). Operated in tandem with Antiproton Accumulator (AA) and the pair formed the Antiproton Accumulation Complex (AAC), whose purpose was to store antiprotons produced by the Proton Synchrotron (PS) for use in other experiments and accelerators, like the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) and Super Proton–Antiproton Synchrotron (SpS). * The CTF3 (CERN), Compact Linear Collider Test Facility 3 (CTF3), which studied feasibility for the future normal conducting linear collider project (the Compact Linear Collider, CLIC collider). In operation 2001–2016. One of its beamlines has been converted, from 2017 on, into the new CERN Linear Electron Accelerator for Research (CLEAR) facility.


Possible future accelerators

CERN, in collaboration with groups worldwide, is investigating two main concepts for future accelerators: A linear electron-positron collider with a new acceleration concept to increase the energy (Compact Linear Collider, CLIC) and a larger version of the LHC, a project currently named Future Circular Collider.


Sites

The smaller accelerators are on the main
Meyrin Meyrin () is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality of the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. The main site of CERN, the European particle physics research organisation, is in Meyrin. Meyrin was originally a small agricultural village until the ...

Meyrin
site (also known as the West Area), which was originally built in Switzerland alongside the French border, but has been extended to span the border since 1965. The French side is under Swiss jurisdiction and there is no obvious border within the site, apart from a line of marker stones. The SPS and LEP/LHC tunnels are almost entirely outside the main site, and are mostly buried under French farmland and invisible from the surface. However, they have surface sites at various points around them, either as the location of buildings associated with experiments or other facilities needed to operate the colliders such as cryogenic plants and access shafts. The experiments are located at the same underground level as the tunnels at these sites. Three of these experimental sites are in France, with ATLAS in Switzerland, although some of the ancillary cryogenic and access sites are in Switzerland. The largest of the experimental sites is the Prévessin site, also known as the North Area, which is the target station for non-collider experiments on the SPS accelerator. Other sites are the ones which were used for the UA1, UA2 experiment, UA2 and the LEP experiments (the latter are used by LHC experiments). Outside of the LEP and LHC experiments, most are officially named and numbered after the site where they were located. For example, NA32 experiment, NA32 was an experiment looking at the production of so-called "charm quark, charmed" particles and located at the Prévessin (North Area) site while WA22 experiment, WA22 used the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) at the Meyrin (West Area) site to examine neutrino interactions. The UA1 and UA2 experiment, UA2 experiments were considered to be in the Underground Area, i.e. situated underground at sites on the SPS accelerator. Most of the List of streets at CERN, roads on the CERN Meyrin and Prévessin sites are named after famous physicists, such as Wolfgang Pauli, who pushed for CERN's creation. Other notable names are Richard Feynman, Albert Einstein, and Niels Bohr, Bohr.


Participation and funding


Member states and budget

Since its foundation by 12 members in 1954, CERN regularly accepted new members. All new members have remained in the organization continuously since their accession, except Spain and Yugoslavia. Spain first joined CERN in 1961, withdrew in 1969, and rejoined in 1983. Yugoslavia was a founding member of CERN but quit in 1961. Of the 23 members, Israel joined CERN as a full member on 6 January 2014, becoming the first (and currently only) non-European full member. The budget contributions of member states are computed based on their GDP.


Enlargement

Associate Members, Candidates: * Turkey signed an association agreement on 12 May 2014 and became an associate member on 6 May 2015. *Pakistan signed an association agreement on 19 December 2014 and became an associate member on 31 July 2015. * Cyprus signed an association agreement on 5 October 2012 and became an associate Member in the pre-stage to membership on 1 April 2016. * Ukraine signed an association agreement on 3 October 2013. The agreement was ratified on 5 October 2016. * India signed an association agreement on 21 November 2016. The agreement was ratified on 16 January 2017. * Slovenia was approved for admission as an Associate Member state in the pre-stage to membership on 16 December 2016. The agreement was ratified on 4 July 2017. * Lithuania was approved for admission as an Associate Member state on 16 June 2017. The association agreement was signed on 27 June 2017 and ratified on 8 January 2018. * Croatia was approved for admission as an Associate Member state on 28 February 2019. The agreement was ratified on 10 October 2019. *Estonia was approved for admission as an Associate Member in the pre-stage to membership state on 19 June 2020. The agreement was ratified on 1 February 2021.


International relations

Three countries have observer status: * Japan – since 1995 * Russia – since 1993 * United States – since 1997 Also observers are the following international organizations: * UNESCO – since 1954 * European Commission – since 1985 * Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR – since 2014 Non-Member States (with dates of Co-operation Agreements) currently involved in CERN programmes are: CERN also has scientific contacts with the following countries: International research institutions, such as CERN, can aid in science diplomacy.


Associated institutions

A large number of institutes around the world are :Institutes associated with CERN, associated to CERN through current collaboration agreements and/or historical links. The list below contains organizations represented as observers to the CERN Council, organizations to which CERN is an observer and organizations based on the CERN model: * European Molecular Biology Laboratory, organization based on the CERN model *European Space Research Organisation (since 1975 European Space Agency, ESA), organization based on the CERN model * European Southern Observatory, organization based on the CERN model *Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR, observer to CERN Council, CERN is represented in the JINR Council * Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East, SESAME, CERN is an observer to the SESAME Council *UNESCO, observer to CERN Council


Open science

The Open science, Open Science movement focuses on making scientific research openly accessible and on creating knowledge through open tools and processes. Open access, open data, Open-source software, open source software and Open-source hardware, hardware, Open-source license, open licenses, digital preservation and Reproducibility#Reproducible research, reproducible research are primary components of open science and areas in which CERN has been working towards since its formation. CERN has developed a number of policies and official documents that enable and promote open science, starting with CERN's founding convention in 1953 which indicated that all its results are to be published or made generally available. Since then, CERN published its open access policy in 2014, which ensures that all publications by CERN authors will be published with Gold OA, gold open access and most recently an open data policy that was endorsed by the four main LHC collaborations (ALICE experiment, ALICE, ATLAS experiment, ATLAS, Compact Muon Solenoid, CMS and LHCb experiment, LHCb). The open data policy complements the open access policy, addressing the public release of scientific data collected by LHC experiments after a suitable embargo period. Prior to this open data policy, guidelines for data preservation, access and reuse were implemented by each collaboration individually through their own policies which are updated when necessary. The European Strategy for Particle Physics, a document mandated by the CERN Council that forms the cornerstone of Europe's decision-making for the future of particle physics, was last updated in 2020 and strongly affirmed the organisation's role within the open science landscape by stating: “The particle physics community should work with the relevant authorities to help shape the emerging consensus on open science to be adopted for publicly-funded research, and should then implement a policy of open science for the field”. Beyond the policy level, CERN has established a variety of services and tools to enable and guide open science at CERN, and in particle physics more generally. On the publishing side, CERN has initiated and operates a global cooperative project, the Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics, SCOAP3, to convert scientific articles in high-energy physics to open access. Currently, the SCOAP3 partnership represents 3000+ libraries from 44 countries and 3 intergovernmental organizations who have worked collectively to convert research articles in high-energy physics across 11 leading journals in the discipline to open access. Public-facing results can be served by various CERN-based services depending on their use case: th
CERN Open Data portal
Zenodo, th
CERN Document Server
INSPIRE-HEP, INSPIRE an
HEPData
are the core services used by the researchers and community at CERN, as well as the wider high-energy physics community for the publication of their documents, data, software, multimedia, etc. CERN's efforts towards preservation and reproducible research are best represented by a suite of services addressing the entire physics analysis lifecycle (such as data, software and computing environment)
CERN Analysis Preservation
helps researchers to preserve and document the various components of their physics analyses
REANA
(Reusable Analyses) enables the instantiating of preserved research data analyses on the cloud. All of the abovementioned services are built using Open-source software, open source software and strive towards compliance with best effort principles where appropriate and where possible, such as the FAIR data, FAIR principles, the FORCE11, FORCE11 guidelines and Plan S, while at the same time taking into account relevant activities carried out by the European Commission.


Public exhibits

Facilities at CERN open to the public include: *The Globe of Science and Innovation, which opened in late 2005 and is used four times a week for special exhibits. *The Microcosm (CERN), Microcosm museum on
particle physics Particle physics (also known as high energy physics) is a branch of that studies the nature of the particles that constitute and . Although the word ' can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. , gas particles, or even household d ...
and CERN history. CERN also provides daily tours to certain facilities such as the Synchro-cyclotron (CERNs first particle accelerator) and the superconducting magnet workshop.


In popular culture

*The band Les Horribles Cernettes was founded by women from CERN. The name was chosen so to have the same initials as the LHC. * CERN's Large Hadron Collider is the subject o
a 2008 scientifically accurate
Hip hop music, rap video starring Katherine McAlpine with some of the facility's staff. * ''Particle Fever'', a 2013 documentary, explores CERN throughout the inside and depicts the events surrounding the 2012 discovery of the Higgs Boson * John Titor, a self-proclaimed time traveler, alleged that CERN would invent time travel in 2001. * CERN is depicted in the visual novel/anime series ''Steins;Gate'' as SERN, a shadowy organization that has been researching time travel in order to restructure and control the world. * In Robert J. Sawyer's 1999 science fiction novel ''Flashforward (novel), Flashforward'', as CERN's Large Hadron Collider accelerator is performing a run to search for the Higgs boson the entire human race sees themselves twenty-one years and six months in the future. * In Dan Brown's 2000 mystery-thriller novel ''Angels & Demons'' and 2009 film Angels & Demons (film), of the same name, a canister of antimatter is stolen from CERN. * CERN is depicted in a 2009 episode of ''South Park'' (Season 13, Episode 6), "Pinewood Derby (South Park), Pinewood Derby". Randy Marsh, the father of one of the main characters, breaks into the "Hadron Particle Super Collider in Switzerland" and steals a "superconducting bending magnet created for use in tests with particle acceleration" to use in his son Stan's Pinewood Derby racer. *In the 2010 season 3 episode 15 of the TV sitcom ''The Big Bang Theory'', "The Large Hadron Collision", Leonard Hofstadter, Leonard and Raj Koothrappali, Raj travel to CERN to attend a conference and see the LHC. *The 2012 student film ''Decay (2012 film), Decay'', which centers on the idea of the Large Hadron Collider transforming people into zombies, was filmed on location in CERN's maintenance tunnels. * The Compact Muon Solenoid at CERN was used as the basis for the Megadeth's Super Collider (album), ''Super Collider'' album cover. * CERN forms part of the back story of the massively multiplayer online role playing game, massively multiplayer augmented reality game ''Ingress (video game), Ingress'', and in the 2018 Japanese anime television series ''Ingress: The Animation'', based on Niantic's augmented reality mobile game of the same name. * In 2015, Sarah Charley, US communications manager for LHC experiments at CERN with graduate students Jesse Heilman of the University of California, Riverside, and Tom Perry and Laser Seymour Kaplan of the University of Wisconsin–Madison, University of Wisconsin, Madison created
parody video
of “Collide (Howie Day song), Collide” a song by American artist Howie Day. The lyrics were changed to be from the perspective of a proton in the Large Hadron Collider. After seeing the parody, Day re-recorded the song with the new lyrics and in February 2017 Day released thi
new version of "Collide" in a video
created during his visit to CERN.


See also

* Joint Institute for Nuclear Research * CERN Openlab * Fermilab * Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek * Science and Technology Facilities Council * Science and technology in Switzerland * Science diplomacy * Scientific Linux * SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory *
World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational w ...


References


External links

*
''The emerald city – CERN at 50''
by The Economist
''CERN Courier'' – International journal of high-energy physics

''Big Bang Day: The Making of CERN''
September 2008, A BBC Radio program {{Coord, 46, 14, 03, N, 6, 03, 10, E, region:CH_type:landmark, display=title CERN, International organizations based in Europe International research institutes Meyrin Nuclear research institutes Organisations based in Geneva Organizations established in 1954 Particle physics facilities Physics institutes Research institutes in Switzerland Research institutes in France Science and technology in Europe Science diplomacy