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Coordinates: 46°14′03″N 6°03′10″E / 46.23417°N 6.05278°E / 46.23417; 6.05278

European Organization for Nuclear Research Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire

Member states

Formation September 29, 1954; 63 years ago (1954-09-29)[1]

Headquarters Meyrin, Canton of Geneva, Switzerland

Membership

22 countries

 Austria  Belgium  Bulgaria  Czech Republic  Denmark  Finland  France  Germany  Greece  Hungary  Israel  Italy  Netherlands  Norway  Poland  Portugal  Romania  Slovakia  Spain  Sweden   Switzerland  United Kingdom Associate members:  Cyprus  India  Lithuania  Pakistan  Serbia  Slovenia  Turkey  Ukraine

Official languages

English and French

Council President

Sijbrand de Jong[2]

Director General

Fabiola Gianotti

Website home.cern

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN
CERN
(/sɜːrn/; French pronunciation: ​[sɛʁn]; derived from the name Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world. Established in 1954, the organization is based in a northwest suburb of Geneva
Geneva
on the Franco–Swiss border, (46°14′3″N 6°3′19″E / 46.23417°N 6.05528°E / 46.23417; 6.05528) and has 22 member states.[3] Israel
Israel
is the only non-European country granted full membership.[4] CERN
CERN
is an official United Nations Observer.[5] The acronym CERN
CERN
is also used to refer to the laboratory, which in 2016 had 2,500 scientific, technical, and administrative staff members, and hosted about 12,000 users. In the same year, CERN generated 49 petabytes of data.[6] CERN's main function is to provide the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research – as a result, numerous experiments have been constructed at CERN
CERN
through international collaborations. The main site at Meyrin
Meyrin
hosts a large computing facility, which is primarily used to store and analyse data from experiments, as well as simulate events. Researchers need remote access to these facilities, so the lab has historically been a major wide area network hub. CERN
CERN
is also the birthplace of the World Wide Web.[7][8]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Scientific achievements

1.1.1 Computer science

2 Particle accelerators

2.1 Current complex

2.1.1 Large Hadron Collider

2.2 Decommissioned accelerators 2.3 Possible future accelerators

3 Sites 4 Participation and funding

4.1 Member states and budget 4.2 Enlargement 4.3 International relations 4.4 Associated institutions

5 Open access
Open access
publishing 6 Public exhibits 7 In popular culture 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

History

The 12 founding member states of CERN
CERN
in 1954[1] (map borders from 1954–1990)

The convention establishing CERN
CERN
was ratified on 29 September 1954 by 12 countries in Western Europe.[1] The acronym CERN
CERN
originally represented the French words for Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Council for Nuclear Research), which was a provisional council for building the laboratory, established by 12 European governments in 1952. The acronym was retained for the new laboratory after the provisional council was dissolved, even though the name changed to the current Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in 1954.[9] According to Lew Kowarski, a former director of CERN, when the name was changed, the abbreviation could have become the awkward OERN, and Heisenberg said that this could "still be CERN
CERN
even if the name is [not]".[citation needed] CERN's first president was Sir Benjamin Lockspeiser. Edoardo Amaldi was the general secretary of CERN
CERN
at its early stages when operations were still provisional, while the first Director-General (1954) was Felix Bloch.[10] The laboratory was originally devoted to the study of atomic nuclei, but was soon applied to higher-energy physics, concerned mainly with the study of interactions between subatomic particles. Therefore, the laboratory operated by CERN
CERN
is commonly referred to as the European laboratory for particle physics (Laboratoire européen pour la physique des particules), which better describes the research being performed there. Scientific achievements Several important achievements in particle physics have been made through experiments at CERN. They include:

1973: The discovery of neutral currents in the Gargamelle
Gargamelle
bubble chamber;[11] 1983: The discovery of W and Z bosons
W and Z bosons
in the UA1 and UA2 experiments;[12] 1989: The determination of the number of light neutrino families at the Large Electron–Positron Collider
Large Electron–Positron Collider
(LEP) operating on the Z boson peak; 1995: The first creation of antihydrogen atoms in the PS210 experiment;[13] 1999: The discovery of direct CP violation
CP violation
in the NA48 experiment;[14] 2010: The isolation of 38 atoms of antihydrogen;[15] 2011: Maintaining antihydrogen for over 15 minutes;[16] 2012: A boson with mass around 125 GeV/c2 consistent with the long-sought Higgs boson.[17]

In September 2011, CERN
CERN
attracted media attention when the OPERA Collaboration reported the detection of possibly faster-than-light neutrinos.[18] Further tests showed that the results were flawed due to an incorrectly connected GPS
GPS
synchronization cable.[19] The 1984 Nobel Prize for Physics
Nobel Prize for Physics
was awarded to Carlo Rubbia
Carlo Rubbia
and Simon van der Meer for the developments that resulted in the discoveries of the W and Z bosons. The 1992 Nobel Prize for Physics
Nobel Prize for Physics
was awarded to CERN
CERN
staff researcher Georges Charpak
Georges Charpak
"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber". The 2013 Nobel Prize for physics was awarded to François Englert
François Englert
and Peter Higgs
Peter Higgs
for the theoretical description of the Higgs mechanism in the year after the Higgs boson
Higgs boson
was found by CERN
CERN
experiments. Computer science See also: History of the World Wide Web

This NeXT Computer
NeXT Computer
used by British scientist Sir Tim Berners-Lee
Sir Tim Berners-Lee
at CERN
CERN
became the first Web server.

This Cisco Systems
Cisco Systems
router at CERN
CERN
was one of the first IP routers deployed in Europe.

A plaque at CERN
CERN
commemorating the invention of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
by Tim Berners-Lee
Tim Berners-Lee
and Robert Cailliau

The World Wide Web
World Wide Web
began as a CERN
CERN
project named ENQUIRE, initiated by Tim Berners-Lee
Tim Berners-Lee
in 1989 and Robert Cailliau
Robert Cailliau
in 1990.[20] Berners-Lee and Cailliau were jointly honoured by the Association for Computing Machinery in 1995 for their contributions to the development of the World Wide Web. Based on the concept of hypertext, the project was intended to facilitate the sharing of information between researchers. The first website was activated in 1991. On 30 April 1993, CERN
CERN
announced that the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
would be free to anyone. A copy[21] of the original first webpage, created by Berners-Lee, is still published on the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
Consortium's website as a historical document. Prior to the Web's development, CERN
CERN
had pioneered the introduction of Internet technology, beginning in the early 1980s.[22] More recently, CERN
CERN
has become a facility for the development of grid computing, hosting projects including the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) and LHC Computing Grid. It also hosts the CERN
CERN
Internet Exchange Point (CIXP), one of the two main internet exchange points in Switzerland. Particle accelerators Current complex

Map of the CERN
CERN
accelerator complex

Map of the Large Hadron Collider
Large Hadron Collider
together with the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN

CERN
CERN
operates a network of six accelerators and a decelerator. Each machine in the chain increases the energy of particle beams before delivering them to experiments or to the next more powerful accelerator. Currently active machines are:

Two linear accelerators generate low energy particles. LINAC 2 accelerates protons to 50 MeV for injection into the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), and LINAC 3
LINAC 3
provides heavy ions at 4.2 MeV/u for injection into the Low Energy Ion Ring
Low Energy Ion Ring
(LEIR).[23] The Proton Synchrotron Booster
Proton Synchrotron Booster
increases the energy of particles generated by the proton linear accelerator before they are transferred to the other accelerators. The Low Energy Ion Ring
Low Energy Ion Ring
(LEIR) accelerates the ions from the ion linear accelerator, before transferring them to the Proton
Proton
Synchrotron (PS). This accelerator was commissioned in 2005, after having been reconfigured from the previous Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). The 28 GeV Proton Synchrotron
Proton Synchrotron
(PS), built during 1954—1959 and still operating as a feeder to the more powerful SPS. The Super Proton Synchrotron
Super Proton Synchrotron
(SPS), a circular accelerator with a diameter of 2 kilometres built in a tunnel, which started operation in 1976. It was designed to deliver an energy of 300 GeV and was gradually upgraded to 450 GeV. As well as having its own beamlines for fixed-target experiments (currently COMPASS and NA62), it has been operated as a proton–antiproton collider (the SppS collider), and for accelerating high energy electrons and positrons which were injected into the Large Electron–Positron Collider
Large Electron–Positron Collider
(LEP). Since 2008, it has been used to inject protons and heavy ions into the Large Hadron Collider
Large Hadron Collider
(LHC). The On-Line Isotope Mass Separator (ISOLDE), which is used to study unstable nuclei. The radioactive ions are produced by the impact of protons at an energy of 1.0–1.4 GeV from the Proton
Proton
Synchrotron Booster. It was first commissioned in 1967 and was rebuilt with major upgrades in 1974 and 1992. The Antiproton
Antiproton
Decelerator (AD), which reduces the velocity of antiprotons to about 10% of the speed of light for research of antimatter. The Compact Linear Collider Test Facility, which studies feasibility for the future normal conducting linear collider project. The AWAKE
AWAKE
experiment, which is a proof-of-principle plasma wakefield accelerator.

Large Hadron Collider Main article: Large Hadron Collider Many activities at CERN
CERN
currently involve operating the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the experiments for it. The LHC represents a large-scale, worldwide scientific cooperation project.

Construction of the CMS detector for LHC at CERN

The LHC tunnel is located 100 metres underground, in the region between the Geneva
Geneva
International Airport and the nearby Jura mountains. The majority of its length is on the French side of the border. It uses the 27 km circumference circular tunnel previously occupied by the Large Electron–Positron Collider
Large Electron–Positron Collider
(LEP), which was shut down in November 2000. CERN's existing PS/SPS accelerator complexes are used to pre-accelerate protons and lead ions which are then injected into the LHC. Seven experiments (CMS, ATLAS, LHCb, MoEDAL,[24] TOTEM, LHC-forward and ALICE) are located along the collider; each of them studies particle collisions from a different aspect, and with different technologies. Construction for these experiments required an extraordinary engineering effort. For example, a special crane was rented from Belgium
Belgium
to lower pieces of the CMS detector into its underground cavern, since each piece weighed nearly 2,000 tons. The first of the approximately 5,000 magnets necessary for construction was lowered down a special shaft at 13:00  GMT
GMT
on 7 March 2005. The LHC has begun to generate vast quantities of data, which CERN streams to laboratories around the world for distributed processing (making use of a specialized grid infrastructure, the LHC Computing Grid). During April 2005, a trial successfully streamed 600 MB/s to seven different sites across the world. The initial particle beams were injected into the LHC August 2008.[25] The first beam was circulated through the entire LHC on 10 September 2008,[26] but the system failed 10 days later because of a faulty magnet connection, and it was stopped for repairs on 19 September 2008. The LHC resumed operation on 20 November 2009 by successfully circulating two beams, each with an energy of 3.5 teraelectronvolts (TeV). The challenge for the engineers was then to try to line up the two beams so that they smashed into each other. This is like "firing two needles across the Atlantic and getting them to hit each other" according to Steve Myers, director for accelerators and technology. On 30 March 2010, the LHC successfully collided two proton beams with 3.5 TeV of energy per proton, resulting in a 7 TeV collision energy. However, this was just the start of what was needed for the expected discovery of the Higgs boson. When the 7 TeV experimental period ended, the LHC revved to 8 TeV (4 TeV per proton) starting March 2012, and soon began particle collisions at that energy. In July 2012, CERN scientists announced the discovery of a new sub-atomic particle that was later confirmed to be the Higgs boson.[27] In March 2013, CERN announced that the measurements performed on the newly found particle allowed it to conclude that this is a Higgs boson.[28] In early 2013, the LHC was deactivated for a two-year maintenance period, to strengthen the electrical connections between magnets inside the accelerator and for other upgrades. On 5 April 2015, after two years of maintenance and consolidation, the LHC restarted for a second run. The first ramp to the record-breaking energy of 6.5 TeV was performed on 10 April 2015.[29][30] In 2016, the design collision rate was exceeded for the first time.[31] A second two-year period of shutdown is scheduled to begin at the end of 2018. Decommissioned accelerators

The original linear accelerator (LINAC 1). The 600 MeV Synchrocyclotron
Synchrocyclotron
(SC) which started operation in 1957 and was shut down in 1991. The Intersecting Storage Rings
Intersecting Storage Rings
(ISR), an early collider built from 1966 to 1971 and operated until 1984. The Large Electron–Positron Collider
Large Electron–Positron Collider
(LEP), which operated from 1989 to 2000 and was the largest machine of its kind, housed in a 27 km-long circular tunnel which now houses the Large Hadron Collider. The Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR), commissioned in 1982, which assembled the first pieces of true antimatter, in 1995, consisting of nine atoms of antihydrogen. It was closed in 1996, and superseded by the Antiproton
Antiproton
Decelerator.

Possible future accelerators CERN, in collaboration with groups worldwide, is investigating two main concepts for future accelerators: A linear electron-positron collider with a new acceleration concept to increase the energy (CLIC) and a larger version of the LHC, a project currently named Future Circular Collider. Sites

Interior of office building 40 at the Meyrin
Meyrin
site. Building 40 hosts many offices for scientists from the CMS and ATLAS collaborations.

The smaller accelerators are on the main Meyrin
Meyrin
site (also known as the West Area), which was originally built in Switzerland
Switzerland
alongside the French border, but has been extended to span the border since 1965. The French side is under Swiss jurisdiction and there is no obvious border within the site, apart from a line of marker stones. There are six entrances to the Meyrin
Meyrin
site:[citation needed]

A, in Switzerland, for all CERN
CERN
personnel at specific times. B, in Switzerland, for all CERN
CERN
personnel at all times. Often referred to as the main entrance. C, in Switzerland, for all CERN
CERN
personnel at specific times. D, in Switzerland, for goods reception at specific times. E, in France, for French-resident CERN
CERN
personnel at specific times. Named "Porte Charles de Gaulle" in recognition of his role in the creation of CERN.[32] Inter-site tunnel, in France, for equipment transfer to and from CERN sites in France
France
by personnel with a specific permit. This is the only permitted route for such transfers. By the CERN
CERN
treaty, no taxes are payable when such transfers are made. Controlled by customs personnel.[28][33]

CERN's main site, from Switzerland
Switzerland
looking towards France

The SPS and LEP/LHC tunnels are almost entirely outside the main site, and are mostly buried under French farmland and invisible from the surface. However, they have surface sites at various points around them, either as the location of buildings associated with experiments or other facilities needed to operate the colliders such as cryogenic plants and access shafts. The experiments are located at the same underground level as the tunnels at these sites. Three of these experimental sites are in France, with ATLAS in Switzerland, although some of the ancillary cryogenic and access sites are in Switzerland. The largest of the experimental sites is the Prévessin
Prévessin
site, also known as the North Area, which is the target station for non-collider experiments on the SPS accelerator. Other sites are the ones which were used for the UA1, UA2 and the LEP experiments (the latter are used by LHC experiments). Outside of the LEP and LHC experiments, most are officially named and numbered after the site where they were located. For example, NA32 was an experiment looking at the production of so-called "charmed" particles and located at the Prévessin
Prévessin
(North Area) site while WA22 used the Big European Bubble Chamber
Big European Bubble Chamber
(BEBC) at the Meyrin
Meyrin
(West Area) site to examine neutrino interactions. The UA1 and UA2 experiments were considered to be in the Underground Area, i.e. situated underground at sites on the SPS accelerator. Most of the roads on the CERN
CERN
Meyrin
Meyrin
and Prévessin
Prévessin
sites are named after famous physicists, such as Richard Feynman, Niels Bohr, and Albert Einstein. Participation and funding Member states and budget Since its foundation by 12 members in 1954, CERN
CERN
regularly accepted new members. All new members have remained in the organization continuously since their accession, except Spain
Spain
and Yugoslavia. Spain first joined CERN
CERN
in 1961, withdrew in 1969, and rejoined in 1983. Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was a founding member of CERN
CERN
but quit in 1961. Of the 22 members, Israel
Israel
joined CERN
CERN
as a full member on 6 January 2014,[34] becoming the first (and currently only) non-European full member.[35] The budget contributions of member states are computed based on their GDP.[36]

Member state Status since Contribution (million CHF for 2017) Contribution (fraction of total for 2017) Contribution per capita[note 1] (CHF/person for 2017)

Founding Members[note 2]

 Belgium 000000001954-09-29-000029 September 1954 7001309000000000000♠30.9 7000275990000099999♠2.76% 7000270000000000000♠2.7

 Denmark 000000001954-09-29-000029 September 1954 7001198000000000000♠19.8 7000170000000000000♠1.7% 7000340000000000000♠3.4

 France 000000001954-09-29-000029 September 1954 7002160300000000000♠160.3 7001143000000000000♠14.3% 7000260000000000000♠2.6

 Germany 000000001954-09-29-000029 September 1954 7002228900000000000♠228.9 7001204009999900000♠20.4% 7000280000000099999♠2.8

 Greece 000000001954-09-29-000029 September 1954 7001134000000000000♠13.4 7000120000000000000♠1.2% 7000160000000000000♠1.6

 Italy 000000001954-09-29-000029 September 1954 7002118900000000000♠118.9 7001106000000000000♠10.6% 7000210000000000000♠2.1

 Netherlands 000000001954-09-29-000029 September 1954 7001534000000000000♠53.4 7000470000000000000♠4.7% 7000300000000000000♠3.0

 Norway 000000001954-09-29-000029 September 1954 7001324000000000000♠32.4 7000280000000099999♠2.8% 7000540000000000000♠5.4

 Sweden 000000001954-09-29-000029 September 1954 7001306000000000000♠30.6 7000270000000000000♠2.7% 7000300000000000000♠3.0

  Switzerland 000000001954-09-29-000029 September 1954 7001438000000000000♠43.8 7000390000000000000♠3.9% 7000490000000000000♠4.9

 United Kingdom 000000001954-09-29-000029 September 1954 7002169000000000000♠169.0 7001150000000000000♠15.0% 7000240000000000000♠2.4

 Yugoslavia[note 3] 000000001954-09-29-000029 September 1954[39][40] 5000000000000000000♠0 5000000000000000000♠0% 5000000000000000000♠0

Acceded Members[note 4]

 Austria 000000001959-06-01-00001 June 1959 7001242000000000000♠24.2 7000210000000000000♠2.1% 7000290000000000000♠2.9

 Spain[note 5] 000000001983-01-01-00001 January 1983[40][42] 7001808000000000000♠80.8 7000720000000000000♠7.2% 7000200000000000000♠2.0

 Portugal 000000001986-01-01-00001 January 1986 7001124000000000000♠12.4 7000110000000000000♠1.1% 7000130000000000000♠1.3

 Finland 000000001991-01-01-00001 January 1991 7001150000000000000♠15.0 7000130000000000000♠1.3% 7000280000000099999♠2.8

 Poland 000000001991-07-01-00001 July 1991 7001316000000000000♠31.6 7000280000000099999♠2.8% 6999800000000000000♠0.8

 Hungary 000000001992-07-01-00001 July 1992 7000670000000000000♠6.7 6999600000000000000♠0.6% 6999700000000000000♠0.7

 Czech Republic 000000001993-07-01-00001 July 1993 7001105000000000000♠10.5 6999900000000000000♠0.9% 7000110000000000000♠1.1

 Slovakia 000000001993-07-01-00001 July 1993 7000540000000000000♠5.4 6999500000000000000♠0.5% 7000100000000000000♠1.0

 Bulgaria 000000001999-06-11-000011 June 1999 7000330000000000000♠3.3 6999300000000000000♠0.3% 6999400000000000000♠0.4

 Israel 000000002014-01-06-00006 January 2014[34] 7001167000000000000♠16.7 7000150000000000000♠1.5% 7000270000000000000♠2.7

 Romania 000000002016-07-17-000017 July 2016[43] 7001111000000000000♠11.1 7000100000000000000♠1.0% N/A

Associate Member in the pre-stage to Membership[note 6]

 Serbia 000000002012-03-15-000015 March 2012[44] 7000190000000000000♠1.9 6999100000000000000♠0.1% 6999100000000000000♠0.1

 Cyprus 000000002016-04-01-00001 April 2016[45] 7000100000000000000♠1.0 %

 Slovenia 000000002017-07-04-00004 July 2017[46][47] 6999500000000000000♠0.5 %

Associate Members

 Turkey 000000002015-05-06-00006 May 2015[48] 7000470000000000000♠4.7 %

 Pakistan 000000002015-07-31-000031 July 2015[49] 7000140000000099999♠1.4 %

 Ukraine 000000002016-10-05-00005 Oct 2016[50] 7000100000000000000♠1.0 %

 India 000000002017-01-16-000016 Jan 2017[51] 7001116000000000000♠11.6 %

 Lithuania 000000002018-01-08-00008 Jan 2018[52]

%

zaTotal Members, Candidates and Associates

7003114210000099999♠1,142.1[36] 7001994000000000000♠99.4%

^ Based on the population in 2017. ^ 12 founding members drafted the Convention for the Establishment of a European Organization for Nuclear Research which entered into force on 29 September 1954.[37][38] ^ Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
left the organization in 1961. ^ Acceded members become CERN
CERN
member states by ratifying the CERN convention.[41] ^ Spain
Spain
was previously a member state from 1961 to 1969 ^ Additional contribution from Candidates for Accession and Associate Member States.[41]

Maps of the history of CERN
CERN
membership

1954 (12 members): CERN
CERN
is founded a[›] (1954-1990 borders)

1959 (13 members): Austria
Austria
joins (1954-1990 borders)

1961 (13 members): Spain
Spain
joins and Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
leaves (1954-1990 borders)

1969 (12 members): Spain
Spain
leaves (1954-1990 borders)

1983 (13 members): Spain
Spain
re-joins (1954-1990 borders)

1985 (14 members): Portugal
Portugal
joins (1954-1990 borders)

1991 (16 members): Poland
Poland
and Finland
Finland
join, and Germany
Germany
has been reunified (post 1993 borders)

1992 (17 members): Hungary
Hungary
joins (post 1993 borders)

1993 (19 members): Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Slovakia
Slovakia
join (post 1993 borders)

1999 (20 members): Bulgaria
Bulgaria
joins (post 1993 borders)

Animated map showing changes in CERN
CERN
membership from 1954 until 1999 (borders are as at dates of change)

Enlargement Associate Members, Candidates:

  Serbia
Serbia
became a candidate for accession to CERN
CERN
on 19 December 2011, signed an association agreement on 10 January 2012[53][54] and became an associate member in the pre-stage to membership on 15 March 2012.[44]   Turkey
Turkey
signed an association agreement on 12 May 2014[55] and became an associate member on 6 May 2015.   Pakistan
Pakistan
signed an association agreement on 19 December 2014[56] and became an associate member on 31 July 2015.[57][58]   Cyprus
Cyprus
signed an association agreement on 5 October 2012 and became an associate Member in the pre-stage to membership on 1 April 2016.[45]   Ukraine
Ukraine
signed an association agreement on 3 October 2013. The agreement was ratified on 5 October 2016.[50]   India
India
signed an association agreement on 21 November 2016.[59] The agreement was ratified on 16 January 2017.[51]   Slovenia
Slovenia
was approved for admission as an Associate Member state in the pre-stage to membership on 16 December 2016.[46] The agreement was ratified on 4 July 2017.[47]   Lithuania
Lithuania
was approved for admission as an Associate Member state on 16 June 2017. The association agreement was signed on 27 June 2017 and ratified on 8 January 2018.[60][52]

International relations Three countries have observer status:[61]

 Japan – since 1995  Russia – since 1993  United States – since 1997

Also observers are the following international organizations:

  UNESCO
UNESCO
– since 1954 European Commission
European Commission
– since 1985 JINR - since 2014

Non-Member States (with dates of Co-operation Agreements) currently involved in CERN
CERN
programmes are:[62]

 Albania  Algeria  Argentina – 11 March 1992  Armenia – 25 March 1994  Australia – 1 November 1991  Azerbaijan – 3 December 1997  Bangladesh  Belarus – 28 June 1994  Bolivia  Brazil – 19 February 1990 & October 2006  Canada – 11 October 1996  Chile – 10 October 1991  China – 12 July 1991, 14 August 1997 & 17 February 2004  Colombia – 15 May 1993  Croatia – 18 July 1991  Ecuador  Egypt – 16 January 2006  Estonia – 23 April 1996  Georgia – 11 October 1996  Iceland – 11 September 1996  Iran – 5 July 2001  Jordan - 12 June 2003.[63] MoU with Jordan and SESAME, in preparation of a cooperation agreement signed in 2004.[64]   Lithuania
Lithuania
– 9 November 2004  Macedonia – 27 April 2009  Malta – 10 January 2008[65][66]  Mexico – 20 February 1998  Mongolia  Montenegro – 12 October 1990  Morocco – 14 April 1997  New Zealand – 4 December 2003  Peru – 23 February 1993  Saudi Arabia – 21 January 2006  South Africa – 4 July 1992  South Korea – 25 October 2006  United Arab Emirates – 18 January 2006  Vietnam

CERN
CERN
also has scientific contacts with the following countries:[62]

 Cuba  Ghana  Ireland  Latvia  Lebanon  Madagascar  Malaysia  Mozambique  Palestine  Philippines  Qatar  Rwanda  Singapore  Sri Lanka  Taiwan  Thailand  Tunisia  Uzbekistan

International research institutions, such as CERN, can aid in science diplomacy.[67] Associated institutions

ESO
ESO
and CERN
CERN
have a cooperation agreement.[68]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (October 2013)

European Southern Observatory Swiss National Supercomputing Centre

Open access
Open access
publishing CERN
CERN
has initiated an open access publishing project to convert scientific articles in high energy physics into gold open access by redirecting subscription fees. In the first phase from 2014-2016 3,000 libraries, consortia, research organisations, publishers and funding agencies in various countries participated.[69] All publications by CERN
CERN
authors are published with gold open access.[70] Public exhibits

The Globe of Science and Innovation
The Globe of Science and Innovation
at CERN

Facilities at CERN
CERN
open to the public include:

The Globe of Science and Innovation, which opened in late 2005 and is used four times a week for special exhibits. The Microcosm museum on particle physics and CERN
CERN
history.

CERN
CERN
also provides daily tours to certain facilities such as the Synchro-cyclotron (CERNs first particle accelerator) and the superconducting magnet workshop. In popular culture

Line 18 goes to CERN

The statue of Shiva
Shiva
engaging in the Nataraja
Nataraja
dance presented by the Department of Atomic Energy of India.

The band Les Horribles Cernettes
Les Horribles Cernettes
was founded by women from CERN. The name was chosen so to have the same initials as the LHC.[71][72] CERN's Large Hadron Collider
Large Hadron Collider
is the subject of a (scientifically accurate) rap video starring Katherine McAlpine
Katherine McAlpine
with some of the facility's staff.[73][74] Particle Fever, a 2013 documentary, explores CERN
CERN
throughout the inside and depicts the events surrounding the 2012 discovery of the Higgs Boson CERN
CERN
is depicted in an episode of South Park
South Park
(Season 13, Episode 6) called "Pinewood Derby". Randy Marsh, the father of one of the main characters, breaks into the "Hadron Particle Super Collider in Switzerland" and steals a "superconducting bending magnet created for use in tests with particle acceleration" to use in his son Stan's Pinewood Derby racer. Randy breaks into CERN
CERN
dressed in disguise as Princess Leia from the Star Wars saga. The break-in is captured on surveillance tape which is then broadcast on the news.[75] John Titor, a self-proclaimed time traveler, alleged that CERN
CERN
would invent time travel in 2001. CERN
CERN
is depicted in the visual novel/anime series Steins;Gate
Steins;Gate
as SERN, a shadowy organization that has been researching time travel in order to restructure and control the world. In R. M. Weiner's scientific autobiography (2008) "Analogies in Physics and Life" World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-270-470-2. In R. M. Weiner's science fiction novel "The Miniatom Project", CreateSpace, 2010 ISBN 978-1451501728. In Dan Brown's mystery-thriller novel Angels & Demons and film of the same name, a canister of antimatter is stolen from CERN.[76] In the popular children's series The 39 Clues, CERN
CERN
is said to be an Ekaterina stronghold hiding the clue hydrogen. In Robert J. Sawyer's science fiction novel Flashforward, at CERN, the Large Hadron Collider
Large Hadron Collider
accelerator is performing a run to search for the Higgs boson
Higgs boson
when the entire human race sees themselves twenty-one years and six months in the future. In season 3 episode 15 of the TV sitcom The Big Bang Theory
The Big Bang Theory
titled "The Large Hadron Collision", Leonard and Raj travel to CERN
CERN
to attend a conference and see the LHC. The 2012 student film Decay, which centers on the idea of the Large Hadron Collider transforming people into zombies, was filmed on location in CERN's maintenance tunnels.[77] The Compact Muon Solenoid
Compact Muon Solenoid
at CERN
CERN
was used as the basis for the Megadeth's Super Collider album cover. In Super Lovers, Haruko (Ren's mother) worked at CERN, and Ren was taught by CERN
CERN
professors CERN
CERN
forms part of the back story of the massively multiplayer augmented reality game Ingress.[78] In season 10 episode 6 of the BBC TV show Doctor Who
Doctor Who
titled "Extremis", CERN
CERN
and its physicists are involved in a mysterious plot involving a book that causes everyone who reads it to kill themselves.

See also

Science portal

Joint Institute for Nuclear Research CERN
CERN
Openlab Fermilab Large Hadron Collider
Large Hadron Collider
– book Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Science and Technology Facilities council Science and technology in Switzerland Scientific Linux SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory World Wide Web

References

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CERN
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CERN
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CERN
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Israel
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CERN
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CERN
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CERN
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CERN
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Romania
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CERN
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CERN
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Pakistan
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External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to CERN.

Official website of CERN: CERN
CERN
Accelerating science CERN
CERN
at 50 CERN Courier
CERN Courier
– International journal of high-energy physics Israel
Israel
may become first non-European member of nuclear research group CERN Big Bang Day: The Making of CERN, September 2008, A BBC Radio program

v t e

European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)

Large Hadron Collider
Large Hadron Collider
(LHC)

List of LHC experiments ALICE ATLAS CMS LHCb LHCf MoEDAL TOTEM

Large Electron–Positron Collider
Large Electron–Positron Collider
(LEP)

List of LEP experiments ALEPH DELPHI OPAL L3

Super Proton Synchrotron
Super Proton Synchrotron
(SPS)

List of SPS experiments AWAKE CNGS NA48 NA49 NA58/COMPASS NA60 NA61/SHINE NA62 UA1 UA2

Proton Synchrotron
Proton Synchrotron
(PS)

PSB LEIR BEBC PS215/CLOUD Gargamelle

Linear accelerators

AWAKE CTF3 LINAC 1 LINAC 2 LINAC 3 LINAC 4

Other accelerators

AD ISR ISOLDE

ISOLTRAP WITCH

LEAR

PS210

n-TOF

Non-accelerator experiments

CAST

Future projects

High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider Very Large Hadron Collider International Linear Collider Compact Linear Collider Future Circular Collider

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LHC@home Safety of high-energy particle collision experiments CERN
CERN
Courier CERN
CERN
openlab Worldwide LHC Computing Grid Microcosm exhibition Streets in CERN The Globe of Science and Innovation Particle Fever
Particle Fever
(2013 documentary)

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