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BUENOS AIRES (/ˌbweɪnəs ˈɛəriːz/ or /-ˈaɪrɪs/ ; Spanish pronunciation: ) is the capital and most populous city of Argentina . The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata , on the South American
South American
continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the first one was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which also includes several Buenos Aires Province districts , constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas , with a population of around 17 million.

The city of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
is neither part of Buenos Aires Province nor the Province's capital; rather, it is an autonomous district. In 1880, after decades of political infighting , Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Province. The city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Belgrano and Flores ; both are now neighborhoods of the city . The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy , hence its formal name: AUTONOMOUS CITY OF BUENOS AIRES (Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires; "CABA"). Its citizens first elected a chief of government (i.e. mayor) in 1996; previously, the mayor was directly appointed by the President of the Republic .

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
is considered an 'alpha city' by the study GaWC5 . Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 81st in the world and one of the best in Latin America
Latin America
in 2012, with its per capita income among the three highest in the region. It is the most visited city in South America, and the second-most visited city of Latin America (behind Mexico City
Mexico City
).

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
is a top tourist destination, and is known for its preserved Spanish/European-style architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup
1978 FIFA World Cup
. Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
will host the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics and the 2018 G20 summit .

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
is a multicultural city, being home to multiple ethnic and religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country. This is because in the last 150 years the city, and the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world , making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered as one of the most diverse cities of Latin America
Latin America
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Colonial times * 2.2 War of independence * 2.3 19th and 20th century * 2.4 21st century

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Climate

* 4 Government and politics

* 4.1 Government structure

* 5 Demographics

* 5.1 Census
Census
data * 5.2 Districts * 5.3 Population origin * 5.4 Religion

* 6 Urban problems

* 7 Economy

* 7.1 Port * 7.2 Services * 7.3 Manufacturing * 7.4 Government finances

* 8 Culture

* 8.1 Porteño identity * 8.2 Art * 8.3 Literature * 8.4 Language * 8.5 Music * 8.6 Cinema * 8.7 Fashion

* 9 Cityscape

* 9.1 Architecture
Architecture

* 10 Education

* 10.1 Primary education * 10.2 Secondary education * 10.3 University education

* 11 Tourism

* 11.1 Parks * 11.2 Theatre * 11.3 Gay tourism * 11.4 Hotels * 11.5 Landmarks

* 12 Transport

* 12.1 Airports * 12.2 Local roads and personal transport

* 12.3 Local public transport

* 12.3.1 Commuter rail
Commuter rail
* 12.3.2 Cycling * 12.3.3 Underground * 12.3.4 Tramways * 12.3.5 Buses * 12.3.6 Taxis * 12.3.7 Ferries * 12.3.8 Public Transportation Statistics

* 13 Security * 14 Sports * 15 Notable people

* 16 International relations

* 16.1 World rankings * 16.2 Twin towns and sister cities
Twin towns and sister cities
* 16.3 Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities
Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities
* 16.4 Partner city

* 17 See also * 18 Notes

* 19 References

* 19.1 Books

* 20 Further reading * 21 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Main article: Names of Buenos Aires Aldus verthoont hem de stadt Buenos Ayrros geleegen in Rio de la Plata, painting by a Dutch sailor who anchored at the port around 1628.

It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari
Cagliari
( Sardinia ) under the Spanish Crown, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Buen Ayre (or "Bonaria" in Sardinian language ), as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city (the castle area), which is adjacent to swampland . During the siege of Cagliari, the Aragonese built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians , who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
. The statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors, especially Andalusians , venerated this image and frequently invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks . A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be later erected in Seville
Seville
.

In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the River de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
of the Good Winds" who was said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian "Madonna de Bonaria" (that is still to this day the patroness of Sardinia ). Mendoza’s settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, and was abandoned in 1541.

For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo , who is said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero , in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives, ultimately concluded that the name was indeed closely linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre.

A second (and permanent) settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay , who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción (now the capital of Paraguay). Garay preserved the name originally chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire ("City of the Most Holy Trinity and Port of Saint Mary of the Fair Winds"). The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century.

The usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
in Spanish is Bs.As. It is common as well to refer to it as "B.A." or "BA".

While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more often use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word.

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Buenos Aires

COLONIAL TIMES

Juan de Garay founding Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
in 1580. The initial settlement, founded by Pedro de Mendoza , had been abandoned since 1542.

Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís , navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata
Río de la Plata
in 1516. His expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay
Uruguay
.

The city of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre (literally "City of Our Lady Saint Mary of the Fair Winds") after Our Lady of Bonaria (Patroness Saint of Sardinia ) on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza . The settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre.

More attacks by the indigenous people forced the settlers away, and in 1542 the site was abandoned. A second (and permanent) settlement was established on 11 June 1580 by Juan de Garay , who arrived by sailing down the Paraná River from Asunción (now the capital of Paraguay). He dubbed the settlement "Santísima Trinidad" and its port became "Puerto de Santa María de los Buenos Aires."

From its earliest days, Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
depended primarily on trade. During most of the 17th century, Spanish ships were menaced by pirates, so they developed a complex system where ships with military protection were dispatched to Central America in a convoy from Seville the only port allowed to trade with the colonies, to Lima, Peru
Peru
and from it to the inner cities of the viceroyalty. Because of this, products took a very long time to arrive in Buenos Aires, and the taxes generated by the transport made them prohibitive. This scheme frustrated the traders of Buenos Aires, and a thriving informal yet accepted by the authorities contraband industry developed inside the colonies and with the Portuguese. This also instilled a deep resentment among porteños towards the Spanish authorities.

Sensing these feelings, Charles III of Spain
Charles III of Spain
progressively eased the trade restrictions and finally declared Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
an open port in the late 18th century. The capture of Porto Bello by British forces also fueled the need to foster commerce via the Atlantic route, to the detriment of Lima-based trade. One of his rulings was to split a region from the Viceroyalty of Perú and create instead the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata
Río de la Plata
, with Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
as the capital. However, Charles's placating actions did not have the desired effect, and the porteños, some of them versed in the ideology of the French Revolution
French Revolution
, became even more convinced of the need for independence from Spain.

WAR OF INDEPENDENCE

See also: Argentine War of Independence
Argentine War of Independence
Emeric Essex Vidal , General view of Buenos Ayres from the Plaza de Toros, 1820. In this area now lies the Plaza San Martín .

During the British invasions of the Río de la Plata
Río de la Plata
, British forces attacked Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
twice. In 1806 the British successfully invaded Buenos Aires, but an army from Montevideo
Montevideo
led by Santiago
Santiago
de Liniers defeated them. In the brief period of British rule, the viceroy Rafael Sobremonte managed to escape to Córdoba and designated this city as capital. Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
became the capital again after its liberation, but Sobremonte could not resume his duties as viceroy. Santiago
Santiago
de Liniers, chosen as new viceroy, prepared the city against a possible new British attack and repelled the attempted invasion of 1807. The militarization generated in society changed the balance of power favorably for the criollos (in contrast to peninsulars ), as well as the development of the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
in Spain. An attempt by the peninsular merchant Martín de Álzaga to remove Liniers and replace him with a Junta was defeated by the criollo armies. However, by 1810 it would be those same armies who would support a new revolutionary attempt, successfully removing the new viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros . This is known as the May Revolution , which is now celebrated as a national holiday. This event started the Argentine War of Independence , and many armies left Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
to fight the diverse strongholds of royalist resistance, with varying levels of success. The government was held first by two Juntas of many members, then by two triumvirates , and finally by a unipersonal office, the Supreme Director . Formal independence from Spain
Spain
was declared in 1816, at the Congress of Tucumán
Congress of Tucumán
. Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
managed to endure the whole Spanish American wars of independence without falling again under royalist rule. Impression of the Buenos Aires Cathedral by Carlos Pellegrini, 1829.

Historically, Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
has been Argentina's main venue of liberal , free-trading and foreign ideas, while many of the provinces, especially those to the north-west, advocated a more nationalistic and Catholic
Catholic
approach to political and social issues. Much of the internal tension in Argentina's history, starting with the centralist-federalist conflicts of the 19th century, can be traced back to these contrasting views. In the months immediately following the 25 May Revolution, Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
sent a number of military envoys to the provinces with the intention of obtaining their approval. Many of these missions ended in violent clashes, and the enterprise fuelled tensions between the capital and the provinces.

In the 19th century the city was blockaded twice by naval forces: by the French from 1838 to 1840, and later by an Anglo-French expedition from 1845 to 1848. Both blockades failed to force the city into submission, and the foreign powers eventually desisted from their demands.

19TH AND 20TH CENTURY

Argentine Pavilion in Plaza San Martín (1889).

During most of the 19th century, the political status of the city remained a sensitive subject. It was already the capital of Buenos Aires Province , and between 1853 and 1860 it was the capital of the seceded State of Buenos Aires . The issue was fought out more than once on the battlefield, until the matter was finally settled in 1880 when the city was federalized and became the seat of government, with its mayor appointed by the president. The Casa Rosada became the seat of the president .

Health conditions in poor areas were negative, with high rates of tuberculosis. Public-health physicians and politicians typically blamed both the poor themselves and their ramshackle tenement houses (conventillos) for the spread of the dreaded disease. People ignored public-health campaigns to limit the spread of contagious diseases, such as the prohibition of spitting on the streets, the strict guidelines to care for infants and young children, and quarantines that separated families from ill loved ones. The Casa Rosada during the Argentina
Argentina
Centennial , 1910.

In addition to the wealth generated by the Buenos Aires Customs
Buenos Aires Customs
and the fertile pampas , railroad development in the second half of the 19th century increased the economic power of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
as raw materials flowed into its factories. A leading destination for immigrants from Europe, particularly Italy
Italy
and Spain, from 1880 to 1930 Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
became a multicultural city that ranked itself with the major European capitals. The Colón Theater became one of the world's top opera venues, and the city became the regional capital of radio , television , cinema , and theatre . The city's main avenues were built during those years, and the dawn of the 20th century saw the construction of South America's then-tallest buildings and its first underground system. A second construction boom, from 1945 to 1980, reshaped downtown and much of the city. Construction of the Obelisk of Buenos Aires on the 9 de Julio Avenue
9 de Julio Avenue
, 1936. 9 de Julio Avenue , 1986.

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
also attracted migrants from Argentina's provinces and neighboring countries. Shanty towns (villas miseria ) started growing around the city's industrial areas during the 1930s, leading to pervasive social problems and social contrasts with the largely upwardly-mobile Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
population. These laborers became the political base of Peronism , which emerged in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
during the pivotal demonstration of 17 October 1945, at the Plaza de Mayo . Industrial workers of the Greater Buenos Aires industrial belt have been Peronism's main support base ever since, and Plaza de Mayo became the site for demonstrations and many of the country's political events; on 16 June 1955, however, a splinter faction of the Navy bombed the Plaza de Mayo area, killing 364 civilians (see Bombing of Plaza de Mayo ). This was the only time the city was attacked from the air, and the event was followed by a military uprising which deposed President Perón, three months later (see Revolución Libertadora ).

In the 1970s the city suffered from the fighting between left-wing revolutionary movements ( Montoneros , E.R.P. and F.A.R.) and the right-wing paramilitary group Triple A , supported by Isabel Perón , who became president of Argentina
Argentina
in 1974 after Juan Perón's death.

The March 1976 coup , led by General Jorge Videla , only escalated this conflict; the " Dirty War " resulted in 30,000 desaparecidos (people kidnapped and killed by the military during the years of the junta). The silent marches of their mothers (Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo ) are a well-known image of Argentines' suffering during those times. The dictatorship 's appointed mayor, Osvaldo Cacciatore , also drew up plans for a network of freeways intended to relieve the city's acute traffic gridlock. The plan, however, called for a seemingly indiscriminate razing of residential areas and, though only three of the eight planned were put up at the time, they were mostly obtrusive raised freeways that continue to blight a number of formerly comfortable neighborhoods to this day.

The city was visited by Pope John Paul II twice, firstly in 1982 and again in 1987; on these occasions gathered some of the largest crowds in the city's history. The return of democracy in 1983 coincided with a cultural revival, and the 1990s saw an economic revival, particularly in the construction and financial sectors.

On 17 March 1992 a bomb exploded in the Israeli Embassy , killing 29 and injuring 242. Another explosion, on 18 July 1994, destroyed a building housing several Jewish organizations, killing 85 and injuring many more, these incidents marked the beginning of Middle Eastern terrorism to South America. Following a 1993 agreement , the Argentine Constitution was amended to give Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
autonomy and rescinding, among other things, the president's right to appoint the city's mayor (as had been the case since 1880). On 30 June 1996, voters in Buenos Aires chose their first elected mayor (Jefe de Gobierno ).

21ST CENTURY

Aerial view of the city where the important construction of skyscrapers is observed.

In 1996, following the 1994 reform of the Argentine Constitution , the city held its first mayoral elections under the new statutes, with the mayor's title formally changed to "Head of Government". The winner was Fernando de la Rúa , who would later become President of Argentina
Argentina
from 1999 to 2001.

De la Rúa's successor, Aníbal Ibarra
Aníbal Ibarra
, won two popular elections, but was impeached (and ultimately deposed on 6 March 2006) as a result of the fire at the República Cromagnon nightclub. Jorge Telerman , who had been the acting mayor, was invested with the office. In the 2007 elections, Mauricio Macri
Mauricio Macri
of the Republican Proposal (PRO) party won the second-round of voting over Daniel Filmus of the Frente para la Victoria (FPV) party, taking office on 9 December 2007. In 2011, the elections went to a second round with 60.96% of the vote for PRO, compared to 39.04% for FPV, thus re-electing Macri as mayor of the city with María Eugenia Vidal as deputy mayor.

The 2015 elections were the first to use an electronic voting system in the city, similar to the one used in Salta Province . In these elections held on 5 July 2015, Macri stepped down as mayor and pursue his presidential bid and Horacio Rodríguez Larreta took his place as the mayoral candidate for PRO. In the first round of voting, FPV's Mariano Recalde obtained 21.78% of the vote, while Martín Lousteau of the ECO party obtained 25.59% and Larreta obtained 45.55%, meaning that the elections went to a second round since PRO was unable to secure the majority required for victory. The second round was held on 19 July 2015 and Larreta obtained 51.6% of the vote, followed closely by Lousteau with 48.4%, thus, PRO won the elections for a third term with Larreta as mayor and Diego Santilli as deputy. In these elections, PRO was stronger in the wealthier neighbourhoods of northern Buenos Aires, while ECO was stronger in the south of the city.

*

Aerial view of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
at night *

View of 9 de Julio Avenue
9 de Julio Avenue
with the Obelisk *

Puerto Madero district one of the most important districts of the city

GEOGRAPHY

The city of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
lies in the pampa region , except for some zones like the Buenos Aires Ecological Reserve
Buenos Aires Ecological Reserve
, the Boca Juniors (football) Club "sports city", Jorge Newbery Airport , the Puerto Madero neighborhood and the main port itself; these were all built on reclaimed land along the coasts of the Rio de la Plata (the world's widest river).

The region was formerly crossed by different streams and lagoons, some of which were refilled and others tubed. Among the most important streams are Maldonado, Vega, Medrano, Cildañez and White. In 1908 many streams were channelled and rectified, as floods were damaging the city's infrastructure. Starting in 1919, most streams were enclosed. Notably, the Maldonado was tubed in 1954, and runs below Juan B. Justo Avenue . Aerial view of Buenos Aires, its metropolitan area and the Río de la Plata
Río de la Plata
taken by Landsat in 2014

CLIMATE

Main article: Climate of Buenos Aires See also: Climate of Argentina and Climatic regions of Argentina
Argentina

Under Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
, Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) with four distinct seasons. As a result of maritime influences from the adjoining Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, the climate is temperate with extreme temperatures being rare. Because the city is located in an area where the Pampero and Sudestada winds pass by, the weather is variable due to these contrasting air masses.

Summers are hot and humid. The warmest month is January, with a daily average of 24.9 °C (76.8 °F). Heat waves are common during summers. However, most heat waves are of short duration (less than a week) and are followed by the passage of the cold, dry Pampero wind which brings violent and intense thunderstorms followed by cooler temperatures. The highest temperature ever recorded was 43.3 °C (110 °F) on 29 January 1957. Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Playa is an urban beach on the Río de la Plata
Río de la Plata
mostly used in the summer in Buenos Aires.

Winters are cold with mild temperatures during the day and cold nights. Highs during the season average 16.3 °C (61.3 °F) while lows average 8.1 °C (46.6 °F). Relative humidity averages in the upper 70s%, which means the city is noted for moderate-to-heavy fogs during autumn and winter. July is the coolest month, with an average temperature of 11.0 °C (51.8 °F). Cold spells originating from Antarctica occur almost every year, and can persist for several days. Occasionally, warm air masses from the north bring warmer temperatures. The lowest temperature ever recorded in central Buenos Aires ( Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Central Observatory) was −5.4 °C (22 °F) on 9 July 1918. Snow
Snow
is very rare in the city: the last snowfall occurred on 9 July 2007 when, during the coldest winter in Argentina
Argentina
in almost 30 years, severe snowfalls and blizzards hit the country. It was the first major snowfall in the city in 89 years.

Spring and autumn are characterized by changeable weather conditions. Cold air from the south can bring cooler temperatures while hot humid air from the north bring hot temperatures.

The city receives 1,236.3 mm (49 in) of precipitation per year. Because of its geomorphology along with an inadequate drainage network, the city is highly vulnerable to flooding during periods of heavy rainfall.

CLIMATE DATA FOR BUENOS AIRES CENTRAL OBSERVATORY, LOCATED IN VILLA ORTúZAR (1981–2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 30.1 (86.2) 28.6 (83.5) 26.8 (80.2) 22.9 (73.2) 19.3 (66.7) 16.0 (60.8) 15.4 (59.7) 17.7 (63.9) 19.3 (66.7) 22.6 (72.7) 25.6 (78.1) 28.5 (83.3) 22.7 (72.9)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 24.9 (76.8) 23.6 (74.5) 21.9 (71.4) 17.9 (64.2) 14.5 (58.1) 11.7 (53.1) 11.0 (51.8) 12.8 (55) 14.6 (58.3) 17.8 (64) 20.7 (69.3) 23.3 (73.9) 17.9 (64.2)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 20.1 (68.2) 19.3 (66.7) 17.7 (63.9) 13.8 (56.8) 10.7 (51.3) 8.0 (46.4) 7.4 (45.3) 8.8 (47.8) 10.3 (50.5) 13.3 (55.9) 15.9 (60.6) 18.4 (65.1) 13.6 (56.5)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 138.8 (5.465) 127.1 (5.004) 140.1 (5.516) 119.0 (4.685) 92.3 (3.634) 58.8 (2.315) 60.6 (2.386) 64.2 (2.528) 72.0 (2.835) 127.2 (5.008) 117.3 (4.618) 118.9 (4.681) 1,236.3 (48.673)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM) 9 8 9 9 7 7 7 7 7 10 10 9 99

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 279.0 240.8 229.0 220.0 173.6 132.0 142.6 173.6 189.0 227.0 252.0 266.6 2,525.2

Source #1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional

Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst
Deutscher Wetterdienst
(sun, 1961–1990)

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE

The Executive is held by the Chief of Government (Spanish: Jefe de Gobierno), elected for a four-year term together with a Deputy Chief of Government, who presides over the 60-member Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
City Legislature . Each member of the Legislature is elected for a four-year term; half of the legislature is renewed every two years. Elections use the D\'Hondt method of proportional representation. The Judicial branch is composed of the Supreme Court of Justice (Tribunal Superior de Justicia), the Magistrate's Council (Consejo de la Magistratura), the Public Ministry, and other City Courts. Article 61 of the 1996 Constitution of the City of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
states that "Suffrage is free, equal, secret, universal, compulsory and non-accumulative. Resident aliens enjoy this same right, with its corresponding obligations, on equal terms with Argentine citizens registered in the district, under the terms established by law."

Legally, the city has less autonomy than the Provinces
Provinces
. In June 1996, shortly before the City's first Executive elections were held, the Argentine National Congress
Argentine National Congress
issued the National Law 24.588 (known as Ley Cafiero , after the Senator who advanced the projemacct) by which the authority over the 25,000-strong Argentine Federal Police and the responsibility over the federal institutions residing at the City (e.g., National Supreme Court of Justice buildings ) would not be transferred from the National Government to the Autonomous City Government until a new consensus could be reached at the National Congress. Furthermore, it declared that the Port of Buenos Aires
Port of Buenos Aires
, along with some other places, would remain under constituted federal authorities. As of 2011 , the deployment of the Metropolitan Police of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
is ongoing.

Beginning in 2007, the city has embarked on a new decentralization scheme, creating new Communes (comunas) which are to be managed by elected committees of seven members each. Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
is represented in the Argentine Senate by three senators (as of 2017 , Federico Pinedo , Marta Varela and Pino Solanas ). The people of Buenos Aires also elect 25 national deputies to the Argentine Chamber of Deputies
Argentine Chamber of Deputies
.

*

Casa Rosada , workplace of the President of Argentina
Argentina
is in the Monserrat neighbourhood *

Palace of the Argentine National Congress located at the western end of Avenida de Mayo . *

The Palace of Justice of the Argentine Nation is in the San Nicolás, Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
neighbourhood *

The Buenos Aires City Hall in the right corner of entrance to the Avenida de Mayo

DEMOGRAPHICS

See also: Demographics of Argentina
Argentina

CENSUS DATA

Puerto Madero currently represents the largest urban renewal project in the city of Buenos Aires. Having undergone an impressive revival in merely a decade, it is one of the most successful recent waterfront renewal projects in the world.

In the census of 2010 there were 2,891,082 people residing in the city. The population of Greater Buenos Aires was 13,147,638 according to 2010 census data. The population density in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
proper was 13,680 inhabitants per square kilometer (34,800 per mi2), but only about 2,400 per km2 (6,100 per mi2) in the suburbs.

The population of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
proper has hovered around 3 million since 1947, due to low birth rates and a slow migration to the suburbs. The surrounding districts have, however, expanded over fivefold (to around 10 million) since then.

The 2001 census showed a relatively aged population: with 17% under the age of fifteen and 22% over sixty, the people of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
have an age structure similar to those in most European cities. They are older than Argentines as a whole (of whom 28% were under 15, and 14% over 60).

Two-thirds of the city's residents live in apartment buildings and 30% in single-family homes; 4% live in sub-standard housing. Measured in terms of income, the city's poverty rate was 8.4% in 2007 and, including the metro area, 20.6%. Other studies estimate that 4 million people in the metropolitan Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
area live in poverty.

The city's resident labor force of 1.2 million in 2001 was mostly employed in the services sector, particularly social services (25%), commerce and tourism (20%) and business and financial services (17%); despite the city's role as Argentina's capital, public administration employed only 6%. Manufacturing still employed 10%.

DISTRICTS

Main articles: Barrios of Buenos Aires and Communes of Buenos Aires

The city is divided into barrios (neighborhoods) for administrative purposes, a division originally based on Catholic
Catholic
parroquias (parishes). A common expression is that of the Cien barrios porteños ("One hundred porteño neighborhoods"), referring to a composition made popular in the 1940s by tango singer Alberto Castillo ; however, Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
only consists of 48 official barrios. There are a several subdivisions of these districts, some with a long history and others that are the product of a real estate invention. A notable example is Palermo — the city's largest district — which has been subdivided into various barrios, including Palermo Soho , Palermo Hollywood , Las Cañitas and Palermo Viejo , among others. A newer scheme has divided the city into 15 comunas (communes).

Saavedra Núñez V. Urquiza C Belgrano V. P. P. C. V. O. Colegiales Palermo Agronomía L. P. Chacarita V. Crespo Recoleta Retiro V. Devoto V. del P. V. R. M. C. V. S. R. V. G. M. Caballito Almagro Balva- nera S. Nicolás Monserrat Pto. Madero Versalles V. L. V. S. Floresta Flores P. C. Boe- do S. C. P. P. C S. T. Liniers Mataderos P. Avellaneda Villa Lugano Villa Riachuelo Villa Soldati N. Pompeya Barracas La Boca

POPULATION ORIGIN

See also: Immigration in Argentina
Argentina
The Immigrants\' Hotel , constructed in 1906, received and assisted the thousands of immigrants arriving to the city. The hotel is now a National Museum.

The majority of porteños have European origins , mostly from the Calabrian , Ligurian , Piedmont
Piedmont
, Lombardy, Sicily and Campania regions of Italy
Italy
and from the Andalusian , Galician , Asturian , and Basque regions of Spain
Spain
. Unrestricted waves of European immigrants to Argentina
Argentina
starting in the mid-19th century significantly increased the country's population, even causing the number of porteños to triple between 1887 and 1915 from 500,000 to 1.5 million.

Other significant European origins include German, Irish, Norwegian, Polish, French, Portuguese, Swedish, Greek, Czech, Croatian, Dutch, Russian, Montenegrinian, English, Hungarian and Bulgarian. In the 1980s and 1990s, there was a small wave of immigration from Romania and Ukraine. There is a minority of criollo citizens, dating back to the Spanish colonial days. The Criollo and Spanish-aboriginal (mestizo ) population in the city has increased mostly as a result of immigration from the inner provinces and from other countries such as neighboring Bolivia, Paraguay, Chile
Chile
and Peru
Peru
, since the second half of the 20th century.

The Jewish community in Greater Buenos Aires numbers around 250,000, and is the largest in Latin America. Most are of Northern, Western, Central, and Eastern European Ashkenazi origin, primarily Swedish, Dutch, Polish, German, and Russian Jews, with a significant Sephardic minority, mostly made up of Syrian Jews
Jews
and Lebanese Jews
Jews
. Important Lebanese , Georgians , Syrian and Armenian communities have had a significant presence in commerce and civic life since the beginning of the 20th century.

Most East Asian immigration in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
comes from China. Chinese immigration is the fourth largest in Argentina, with the vast majority of them living in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
and its metropolitan area. In the 1980s, most of them were from Taiwan
Taiwan
, but since the 1990s the majority of Chinese immigrants come from the continental province of Fujian
Fujian
. The mainland Chinese who came from Fujian
Fujian
mainly installed supermarkets throughout the city and the suburbs; these supermarkets are so common that, in average, there is one every two and a half blocks and are simply referred to as el chino ("the Chinese"). Japanese immigrants are mostly from the Okinawa Prefecture . They started the dry cleaning business in Argentina, an activity that is considered idiosyncratic to the Japanese immigrants in Buenos Aires. Korean Immigration occurred after the division of Korea ; they mainly settled in Flores and Once .

In the 2010 census , 2.1% of the population or 61,876 persons declared to be Amerindian or first-generation descendants of Amerindians in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
(not including the 24 adjacent Partidos that make up Greater Buenos Aires ). Amongst the 61,876 persons who are of indigenous origin, 15.9% are Quechua people , 15.9% are Guaraní , 15.5% are Aymara and 11% are Mapuche . Within the 24 adjacent Partidos, 186,640 persons or 1.9% of the total population declared themselves to be Amerindian. Amongst the 186,640 persons who are of indigenous origin, 21.2% are Guaraní, 19% are Toba , 11.3% are Mapuche, 10.5% are Quechua and 7.6% are Diaguita .

In the city, 15,764 people identified themselves as Afro-Argentine in the 2010 Census.

RELIGION

According to a 2008 CONICET survey on creeds, Christianity
Christianity
is the most prevalently practiced religion in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
(79.6%), and most inhabitants are Roman Catholic
Catholic
(70%), though studies in recent decades found that fewer than 20% are practicing. Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
is the seat of a Roman Catholic
Catholic
metropolitan archbishop (the Catholic
Catholic
primate of Argentina), currently Archbishop Mario Poli . His predecessor, Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio, was elected to the Papacy as Pope Francis on 13 March 2013. There are Protestant, Orthodox Christian , Muslim , Jewish , Jehovah\'s Witnesses , Mormon
Mormon
, and Buddhist minorities. The city is home to the largest mosque in South America
South America
. Also, irreligion in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
is higher than in other parts of the country, with about an 18.0% of the porteños declaring themselves as either atheist or agnostic .

*

The Metropolitan Cathedral is the main Catholic
Catholic
church in the city. *

King Fahd Islamic Cultural Centre is the largest mosque in Latin America. *

Templo Libertad is a Jewish house of prayer . Argentina's Jewish population is the largest in Latin America. *

Anglican Cathedral of St. John the Baptist , is the oldest non- Catholic
Catholic
church building in Latin America. *

Russian Orthodox church in San Telmo .

URBAN PROBLEMS

Villas miserias range from small groups of precarious houses to larger, more organised communities with thousands of residents. In rural areas, the houses in the villas miserias might be made of mud and wood. Villas miseria are found around and inside the large cities of Buenos Aires, Rosario, Córdoba and Mendoza, among others

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
has below 2 m2 (22 sq ft) of green space per person, which is ten times less than New York, seven times less than Madrid and five times less than Paris. The World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO), in its concern for public health, produced a document stating that every city should have a minimum of 9 m2 (97 sq ft) of green space per person. An optimal amount would sit between 10 and 15 m2 (161 sq ft) per person.

ECONOMY

Puerto Madero is the prime business and commercial centre of the city.

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
is the financial, industrial, and commercial hub of Argentina. The economy in the city proper alone, measured by Gross Geographic Product (adjusted for purchasing power), totaled US$84.7 billion (US$34,200 per capita) in 2011 and amounts to nearly a quarter of Argentina's as a whole. Metro Buenos Aires, according to one well-quoted study, constitutes the 13th largest economy among the world's cities. The Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(0.923 in 1998) is likewise high by international standards.

PORT

Main article: Port of Buenos Aires
Port of Buenos Aires

The port of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
is one of the busiest in South America; navigable rivers by way of the Rio de la Plata connect the port to north-east Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay
Uruguay
and Paraguay. As a result, it serves as the distribution hub for a vast area of the south-eastern region of the continent. The Port of Buenos Aires
Port of Buenos Aires
handles over 11 million revenue tons annually, and Dock Sud , just south of the city proper, handles another 17 million metric tons. Tax collection related to the port has caused many political problems in the past, including a conflict in 2008 that led to protests and a strike in the agricultural sector after the government raised export tariffs . See also: Economy of Argentina
Argentina
Headquarters of the National Bank of Argentina
Argentina
, the national bank and the largest in the country's banking sector. The Buenos Aires Stock Exchange , the main stock exchange and financial center of Argentina.

SERVICES

The city's services sector is diversified and well-developed by international standards, and accounts for 76% of its economy (compared to 59% for all of Argentina's). Advertising, in particular, plays a prominent role in the export of services at home and abroad. The financial and real-estate services sector is the largest, however, and contributes to 31% of the city's economy. Finance (about a third of this) in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
is especially important to Argentina's banking system, accounting for nearly half the nation's bank deposits and lending. Nearly 300 hotels and another 300 hostels and bed "> The Kirchner Cultural Centre is the largest of Latin America.

Strongly influenced by European culture , Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
is sometimes referred to as the " Paris
Paris
of South America". The city has the busiest live theatre industry in Latin America, with scores of theaters and productions. In fact, every weekend, there are about 300 active theatres with plays, a number that places the city as 1st worldwide, more than either London, New York or Paris, cultural Meccas in themselves. The number of cultural festivals with more than 10 sites and 5 years of existence also places the city as 2nd worldwide, after Edinburgh. The Kirchner Cultural Centre located in Buenos Aires, is the largest of Latin America
Latin America
, and the third worldwide.

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
is the home of the Teatro Colón , an internationally rated opera house. There are several symphony orchestras and choral societies. The city has numerous museums related to history, fine arts, modern arts, decorative arts, popular arts, sacred art, arts and crafts, theatre and popular music, as well as the preserved homes of noted art collectors, writers, composers and artists. The city is home to hundreds of bookstores, public libraries and cultural associations (it is sometimes called "the city of books"), as well as the largest concentration of active theatres in Latin America. It has a world-famous zoo and botanical garden , a large number of landscaped parks and squares, as well as churches and places of worship of many denominations, many of which are architecturally noteworthy.

PORTEñO IDENTITY

See also: Argentines Homage to Buenos Aires, a mural located at the Carlos Gardel station of the Buenos Aires Underground . It represents a typical scene from the city and several of its icons, such as singer Carlos Gardel , the Obelisco , the port , tango dancing and the Abasto market .

The identity of porteños has a rich and complex history, and has been the subject of much analysis and scrutiny. The great European immigration wave of the early 20th century was integral to "the growing primacy of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
and the accompanying urban identity", and established the division between urban and rural Argentina
Argentina
more deeply. Immigrants "brought new traditions and cultural markers to the city," which were "then reimagined in the porteño context, with new layers of meanings because of the new location." The heads of state 's attempt to populate the country and reframe the national identity resulted in the concentration of immigrants in the city and its suburbs, who generated a culture that is a "product of their conflicts of integration , their difficulties to live and their communication puzzles." In response to the immigration wave, during the 1920s and 1930s a nationalist trend within the Argentine intellectual elite glorified the gaucho figure as an exemplary archetype of Argentine culture; its synthesis with the European traditions conformed the new urban identity of Buenos Aires. The complexity of Buenos Aires' integration and identity formation issues increased when immigrants realized that their European culture could help them gain a greater social status. As the rural population moved to the industrialized city from the 1930s onwards, they reaffirmed their European roots, adopting endogamy and founding private schools, newspapers in foreign languages, and associations that promoted adherence to their countries of origin.

Porteños are generally characterized as night owls , cultured, talkative, uninhibited, sensitive, nostalgic , observative and arrogant. Argentines outside Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
often stereotype its inhabitants as egotist people, a feature that Latin Americans commonly attribute to the entire Argentine population and use as the subject of numerous jokes. Writing for BBC Mundo Cristina Pérez felt that "the idea of the vastly developed ego finds strong evidence in lunfardo dictionaries," in words such as "engrupido" (meaning "vain" or "conceited") and "compadrito" (meaning both "brave" and "braggart"), the latter being an archetypal figure of tango. Paradoxically, porteños are also described as highly self-critical, something that has been called "the other side of the ego coin." Writers consider that these behaviours are the consequence of the European immigration and prosperity the city experienced during the early 20th century, which generated a feeling of superiority in parts of the population.

ART

See also: Argentine painting and Museums in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
has a thriving arts culture, with "a huge inventory of museums, ranging from obscure to world-class." The barrios of Palermo and Recoleta are the city's traditional bastions in the diffusion of art, although in recent years there has been a tendency of appearance of exhibition venues in other districts such as Puerto Madero or La Boca ; renowned venues include MALBA
MALBA
, the National Museum of Fine Arts , Fundación Proa, Faena Arts Center , and the Usina del Arte. Other popular institutions are the Buenos Aires Museum of Modern Art , the Quinquela Martín Museum, the Evita Museum, the Fernández Blanco Museum, the José Hernández Museum, and the Palais de Glace , among others. A traditional event that occurs once a year is La Noche de los Museos ("Night of the Museums"), when the city's museums, universities, and artistic spaces open their doors for free until early morning; it usually takes place in November.

The first major artistic movements in Argentina
Argentina
coincided with the first signs of political liberty in the country, such as the 1913 sanction of the secret ballot and universal male suffrage, the first president to be popularly elected (1916), and the cultural revolution that involved the University Reform of 1918. In this context, in which there continued to be influence from the Paris School (Modigliani, Chagall, Soutine, Klee), three main groups arose. Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
has been the birthplace of several artists and movements of national and international relevance, and has become a central motif in Argentine artistic production, specially since the 20th century. Examples include: the Paris
Paris
Group - so named for being influenced by the School of Paris
Paris
- constituted by Antonio Berni , Aquiles Badi , Lino Enea Spilimbergo , Raquel Forner and Alfredo Bigatti , among others; and the La Boca
La Boca
artists - including Benito Quinquela Martín and Alfredo Lazzari, among others - who mostly came from Italy
Italy
or were of Italian descent, and usually painted scenes from this working-class port neighbourhood. During the 1960s, the Torcuato di Tella Institute - located in Florida Street - became a leading local center for pop art , performance art , installation art , experimental theatre , and conceptual art ; this generation of artists included Marta Minujín , Dalila Puzzovio , David Lamelas and Clorindo Testa .

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
has also become a prominent center of contemporary street art ; its welcoming attitude has made it one of the world's top capitals of such expression. The city's turbulent modern political history has "bred an intense sense of expression in porteños," and urban art has been used to depict these stories and as a means of protest. However, not all of its street art concerns politics, it is also used as a symbol of democracy and freedom of expression. Murals and graffiti are so common that they are considered "an everyday occurrence," and have become part of the urban landscape of barrios such as Palermo, Villa Urquiza , Coghlan and San Telmo . This has to do with the legality of such activities —provided that the building owner has consented—, and the receptiveness of local authorities, who even subsidize various works. The abundance of places for urban artists to create their work, and the relatively lax rules for street art, have attracted international artists such as Blu , Jef Aérosol , Aryz, ROA , and Ron English . Guided tours to see murals and graffiti around the city have been growing steadily.

*

MALBA
MALBA
*

Recoleta Cultural Center *

Museum of Decorative Arts *

Faena Arts Center

LITERATURE

See also: Argentine literature
Argentine literature
Jorge Luis Borges born in Buenos Aires in 1899.

Despite its short urban history, Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
has an abundant literary production; its mythical-literary network "has grown at the same rate at which the streets of the city earned its shores to the pampas and buildings stretched its shadow on the curb." The city has at least 734 bookstores, more per person than any other city in the world. Gabriela Adamo, former president of the city's annual book fair, relates the popularity of reading among its inhabitants to the wave of mass immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which created "a multicultural environment in which culture and the arts thrived." Publishing experts have also linked it to the city's obsession with psychoanalysis. The city also ranks third in terms of secondhand bookshops per inhabitant, most of them congregated in Corrientes
Corrientes
Avenue. Arguably the most famous bookstore is El Ateneo Grand Splendid , a reformed theatre. The Guardian ranked it second in its list of "The world's 10 best bookshops" in 2008.

Argentine literature
Argentine literature
began around 1550 with the work of Matías Rojas de Oquendo and Pedro González de Prado (from Santiago del Estero , the first important urban settlement in Argentina), who wrote prose and poetry . They were partly inspired by oral aboriginal poetry—in particular, according to Carlos Abregú Virreyra, by the lules, juríes, diaguitas and tonocotés. A symbiosis emerged between the aboriginal and Spanish traditions, creating a distinct literature, geographically limited (well into the 18th century) to the Argentine north and central regions, with the province of Córdoba as its center, due to the foundation of the National University of Córdoba . Two names stand out from this period: Gaspar Juárez Baviano, and Antonia de la Paz y Figueroa, also known as "Beata Antula".

Gradually, with the economic prosperity of the port, the cultural axis moved eastward. The letters of the colonial age (Viceroyalty-neoclassicism , baroque and epic ) grew under the protection of the independentist fervor: Vicente López y Planes , Pantaleón Rivarola and Esteban de Luca . El Ateneo Grand Splendid placed it as the second most beautiful bookshop in the world.

The literary history of the country is linked to Buenos Aires' cafés; some of the old ones still exist, like Café Tortoni , Café La Biela , Esquina Homero Manzi, Confitería Las Violetas, Confitería London City and Confitería Hotel Castelar . The city hosts the National Library of the Argentine Republic , the largest library in the country. Every April, the Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
International Book Fair takes place, which describes itself as "the most important annual literary event in the Spanish speaking world." Every year, it gathers more than one million visitors, and usually features the presence of prestigious international authors.

Today, Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
has more bookshops per person than any other cities in the world .

LANGUAGE

See also: Belgranodeutsch and cocoliche

Known as Rioplatense Spanish , Buenos Aires' Spanish (as that of other cities like Rosario and Montevideo
Montevideo
, Uruguay) is characterised by voseo , yeísmo and aspiration of s in various contexts. It is heavily influenced by the dialects of Spanish spoken in Andalusia and Murcia
Murcia
.

In the early 20th century, Argentina
Argentina
absorbed millions of immigrants, many of them Italians, who spoke mostly in their local dialects (mainly Neapolitan, Sicilian and Genoese ). Their adoption of Spanish was gradual, creating a pidgin of Italian dialects and Spanish that was called cocoliche . Its usage declined around the 1950s. A phonetic study conducted by the Laboratory for Sensory Investigations of CONICET and the University of Toronto
University of Toronto
showed that the prosody of porteño is closer to the Neapolitan language
Neapolitan language
of Italy
Italy
than to any other spoken language.

Many Spanish immigrants were from Galicia , and Spaniards are still generically referred to in Argentina
Argentina
as gallegos (Galicians ). Galician language
Galician language
, cuisine and culture had a major presence in the city for most of the 20th century. In recent years, descendants of Galician immigrants have led a mini-boom in Celtic music (which also highlighted the Welsh traditions of Patagonia ).

Yiddish was commonly heard in Buenos Aires, especially in the Balvanera garment district and in Villa Crespo until the 1960s. Most of the newer immigrants learn Spanish quickly and assimilate into city life.

The Lunfardo
Lunfardo
argot originated within the prison population, and in time spread to all porteños. Lunfardo
Lunfardo
uses words from Italian dialects, from Brazilian Portuguese
Brazilian Portuguese
, from African and Caribbean languages and even from English. Lunfardo
Lunfardo
employs humorous tricks such as inverting the syllables within a word (vesre ). Today, Lunfardo
Lunfardo
is mostly heard in tango lyrics; the slang of the younger generations has been evolving away from it.

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
was also the first city to host a Mundo Lingo event on July 7th 2011, which have been after replicated in up to 15 cities in 13 countries .

MUSIC

See also: Music of Argentina
Argentina
, Argentine tango , and Argentine rock Tango
Tango
dancers during the World tango dance tournament .

According to the Harvard Dictionary of Music , " Argentina
Argentina
has one of the richest art music traditions and perhaps the most active contemporary musical life" in South America. Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
boasts of several professional orchestras, including the Argentine National Symphony Orchestra , the Ensamble Musical de Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
and the Camerata Bariloche ; as well as various conservatories that offer professional music education, like the Conservatorio Nacional Superior de Música . As a result of the growth and commercial prosperity of the city in the late 18th century, the theatre became a vital force in Argentine musical life, offering Italian and French operas and Spanish zarzuelas . Italian music was very influential during the 19th century and the early 20th century, in part because of immigration, but operas and salon music were also composed by Argentines, including Francisco Hargreaves and Juan Gutiérrez. A nationalist trend that drew from Argentine traditions, literature and folk music was an important force during the 19th century, including composers Alberto Williams , Julián Aguirre, Arturo Berutti and Felipe Boero . In the 1930s, composers such as Juan Carlos Paz and Alberto Ginastera "began to espouse a cosmopolitan and modernist style, influenced by twelve-tone techniques and serialism "; while avant-garde music thrived by the 1960s, with the Rockefeller Foundation financing the Centro Interamericano de Altos Estudios Musicales, which brought internationally famous composers to work and teach in Buenos Aires, also establishing an electronic music studio. The Buenos Aires Philharmonic .

The Río de la Plata
Río de la Plata
is known for being the birthplace of tango , which is considered an emblem of Buenos Aires. The city considers itself the Tango
Tango
World Capital, and as such hosts many related events, the most important being an annual festival and world tournament . The most important exponent of the genre is Carlos Gardel , followed by Aníbal Troilo ; other important composers include Alfredo Gobbi, Ástor Piazzolla , Osvaldo Pugliese , Mariano Mores
Mariano Mores
, Juan D\'Arienzo and Juan Carlos Cobián . Tango
Tango
music experienced a period of splendor during the 1940s, while in the 1960s and 1970s nuevo tango appeared, incorporating elements of classical and jazz music. A contemporary trend is neotango (also known as electrotango), with exponents such as Bajofondo and Gotan Project . On 30 September 2009, UNESCO's Intergovernmental Committee of Intangible Heritage declared tango part of the world's cultural heritage, making Argentina
Argentina
eligible to receive financial assistance in safeguarding tango for future generations.

The city hosts several music festivals every year. A popular genre is electronic dance music , with festivals including Creamfields BA , SAMC , Moonpark , and a local edition of Ultra Music Festival . Other well-known events include the Buenos Aires Jazz Festival , Personal Fest , Quilmes Rock and Pepsi Music . Some music festivals are held in Greater Buenos Aires , like Lollapalooza , which takes place at the Hipódromo de San Isidro in San Isidro .

CINEMA

Main article: Cinema of Argentina
Argentina
Gaumont Cinema inaugurated in 1912.

Argentine cinema history began in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
with the first film exhibition on 18 July 1896 at the Teatro Odeón . With his 1897 film, La bandera Argentina
Argentina
, Eugène Py became one of the first filmmakers of the country; the film features a waving Argentine flag located at Plaza de Mayo. In the early 20th century, the first cinema theatres of the country opened in Buenos Aires, and newsreels appeared, most notably El Viaje de Campos Salles a Buenos Aires. The real industry emerged with the advent of sound films , the first one being Muñequitas porteñas (1931). The newly founded Argentina
Argentina
Sono Film released ¡Tango! in 1933, the first integral sound production in the country. During the 1930s and the 1940s (commonly referred as the "Golden Age" of Argentine ciema), many films revolved around the city of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
and tango culture, reflected in titles such as La vida es un tango , El alma del bandoneón , Adiós Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
, El Cantor de Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
and Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
canta . Argentine films were exported across Latin America, specially Libertad Lamarque 's melodramas, and the comedies of Luis Sandrini and Niní Marshall . The popularity of local cinema in the Spanish-speaking world played a key role in the massification of tango music. Carlos Gardel , an iconic figure of tango and Buenos Aires, became an international star by starring in several films during that era. A screening at Parque Centenario , as part of the 2011 edition of BAFICI

In response to large studio productions, the "Generation of the 60s" appeared, a group of filmmakers that produced the first modernist films in Argentina
Argentina
during that early years of that decade. These included Manuel Antín , Lautaro Murúa and René Mugica , among others. During the second half of the decade, films of social protest were presented in clandestine exhibitions, the work of Grupo Cine Liberación and Grupo Cine de la Base, who advocated what they called " Third Cinema ". At that time, the country was under a military dictatorship after the coup d\'état known as Argentine Revolution . One of the most notable films of these movement is La hora de los hornos (1968) by Fernando Solanas . During the period of democracy between 1973 and 1975, the local cinema experienced critical and commercial success, with titles including Juan Moreira (1973), La Patagonia rebelde (1974), La Raulito (1975), and La tregua (1974) – which became the first Argentine film nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film . However, because of censorship and a new military government, Argentine cinema stalled until the return of democracy in the 1980s. This generation – known as "Argentine Cinema in Liberty and Democracy" – were mostly young or postponed filmmakers, and gained international notoriety. Camila (1984) by María Luisa Bemberg was nominated for the Best Foreign Film at the Academy Awards, and Luis Puenzo 's La historia oficial (1985) was the first Argentine film to receive the award.

Located in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
is the Pablo Ducrós Hicken Museum of Cinema, the only one in the country dedicated to Argentine cinema and a pioneer of its kind in Latin America. Every year, the city hosts the Buenos Aires International Festival of Independent Cinema (BAFICI), which, in its 2015 edition, featured 412 films from 37 countries, and an attendance of 380 thousand people. Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
also hosts various other festivals and film cycles, like the Buenos Aires Rojo Sangre , devoted to horror.

FASHION

A fashion show at the Planetarium in 2013, as part of BAFWEEK .

Buenos Aires' inhabitants have been historically characterized as "fashion-conscious". National designers display their collections annually at the Buenos Aires Fashion Week (BAFWEEK) and related events. Inevitably being a season behind, it fails to receive much international attention. Nevertheless, the city remains an important regional fashion capital. According to Global Language Monitor , as of 2012 the city ranks third in Latin America
Latin America
after São Paulo
São Paulo
and Rio de Janeiro . In 2005, Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
was appointed as the first UNESCO
UNESCO
City of Design, and received this title once again in 2007. Since 2015, the Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
International Fashion Film Festival Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
(BAIFFF) takes place, sponsored by the city and Mercedes-Benz . The government of the city also organizes La Ciudad de Moda ("The City of Fashion"), an annual event that serves as a platform for emerging creators and attempts to boost the sector by providing management tools.

The neighbourhood of Palermo, particularly the area known as Soho , is where the latest fashion and design trends are presented. The "sub-barrio" of Palermo Viejo is also a popular port of call for fashion in the city. An increasing number of young, independent designers are also setting up their own shops in the bohemian neighbourhood of San Telmo, known for its wide variety of markets and antique shops. Recoleta, on the other hand, is the quintessential neighbourhood for exclusive and upscale fashion houses. In particular, Avenida Alvear is home to the most exclusive representatives of haute couture in the city.

CITYSCAPE

Panorama of downtown . On the left is the Congressional Plaza , and the river and skyscrapers are far in the back of the panorama.

ARCHITECTURE

See also: Architecture
Architecture
of Argentina
Argentina
View of Bolívar Street facing the Cabildo and Diagonal Norte , on Buenos Aires' historical center. The city's characteristic convergence of diverse architectural styles can be seen, including Spanish Colonial , Beaux-Arts , and modernist architecture .

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
architecture is characterized by its eclectic nature, with elements resembling Paris
Paris
and Madrid
Madrid
. There is a mix, due to immigration , of Colonial , Art Deco
Art Deco
, Art Nouveau , Neo-Gothic and French Bourbon styles. Italian and French influences increased after the declaration of independence at the beginning of the 19th century, though the academic style persisted until the first decades of the 20th century.

Attempts at renovation took place during the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, when European influences penetrated into the country, reflected by several buildings of Buenos Aires such as the Iglesia Santa Felicitas by Ernesto Bunge; the Palace of Justice, the National Congress , all of them by Vittorio Meano , and the Teatro Colón , by Francesco Tamburini and Vittorio Meano .

The simplicity of the Rioplatense baroque style can be clearly seen in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
through the works of Italian architects such as André Blanqui and Antonio Masella, in the churches of San Ignacio , Nuestra Señora del Pilar , the Cathedral and the Cabildo .

In 1912 the Basilica del Santisimo Sacramento was opened to the public. Totally built by the generous donation of Mrs. Mercedes Castellanos de Anchorena, Argentina's most prominent family, the church is an excellent example of French neo-classicism. With extremely high-grade decorations in its interior, the magnificent Mutin-Cavaillé coll organ (the biggest ever installed in an Argentine church with more than four-thousand tubes and four manuals) presided the nave. The altar is full of marble, and was the biggest ever built in South America
South America
at that time.

In 1919 the construction of Palacio Barolo
Palacio Barolo
began. This was South America's tallest building at the time, and was the first Argentine skyscraper built with concrete (1919–1923). The building was equipped with 9 elevators, plus a 20-metre high lobby hall with paintings in the ceiling and Latin phrases embossed in golden bronze letters. A 300,000-candela beacon was installed at the top (110 m), making the building visible even from Uruguay. In 2009 the Barolo Palace went under an exhausive restoration, and the beacon was made operational again.

In 1936 the Kavanagh building
Kavanagh building
was inaugurated, with 120 metres (390 feet) height, 12 elevators (provided by Otis) and the world's first central air-conditioning system (provided by north-American company "Carrier"), is still an architectural landmark in Buenos Aires.

The architecture of the second half of the 20th century continued to reproduce French neoclassic models, such as the headquarters of the Banco de la Nación Argentina
Argentina
built by Alejandro Bustillo , and the Museo Hispanoamericano de Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
of Martín Noel. However, since the 1930s the influence of Le Corbusier
Le Corbusier
and European rationalism consolidated in a group of young architects from the University of Tucumán , among whom Amancio Williams stands out. The construction of skyscrapers proliferated in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
until the 1950s. Newer modern high-technology buildings by Argentine architects in the last years of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st include the Le Parc Tower by Mario Álvarez, the Torre Fortabat by Sánchez Elía and the Repsol-YPF tower by César Pelli
César Pelli
.

EDUCATION

See also: Education in Argentina
Argentina

PRIMARY EDUCATION

Primary education comprise grades 1–7. Most primary schools in the city still adhere to the traditional seven-year primary school, but kids can do grades 1–6 if their high schools lasts 6 years, such as ORT Argentina
Argentina
.

SECONDARY EDUCATION

Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires , a public high school in Buenos Aires, and it is one of the most prestigious in Argentina
Argentina
and Latin America. University of Buenos Aires ' Law School in Recoleta

Secondary education in Argentina
Argentina
is called Polimodal ("polymodal", that is, having multiple modes), since it allows the student to choose his/her orientation. Polimodal is usually 3 years of schooling, although some schools have a fourth year. Before entering the first year of polimodal, students choose an orientation, among these five: Humanities and Social Sciences, Economics and Management of Organizations, Art and Design, Health and Sport and Biology and Natural Sciences.

Nevertheless, in Buenos Aires, secondary education consists of 5 years, called from 1st year to 5th year, as opposed to primary education's 1st to 7th grade. Most schools don't require students to choose their orientation, as they study the basic such as maths, biology, art, history and technology, but there are schools that do, whether they are orientated to a certain profession or they have orientations to choose from when they reach a specific year.

Some high schools depend on the University of Buenos Aires , and these require an admission course when students are taking the last year of high school. These high schools are ILSE , CNBA , Escuela Superior de Comercio Carlos Pellegrini and Escuela de Educación Técnica Profesional en Producción Agropecuaria y Agroalimentaria (School of Professional Technique Education in Agricultural and Agri-food Production). The last two do have a specific orientation.

In December 2006 the Chamber of Deputies of the Argentine Congress passed a new National Education Law restoring the old system of primary followed by secondary education, making secondary education obligatory and a right, and increasing the length of compulsory education to 13 years. The government vowed to put the law in effect gradually, starting in 2007.

UNIVERSITY EDUCATION

See also: University Revolution and List of Argentine universities

There are many public universities in Argentina, as well as a number of private universities . The University of Buenos Aires , one of the top learning institutions in South America, has produced five Nobel Prize winners and provides taxpayer-funded education for students from all around the globe. Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
is a major center for psychoanalysis , particularly the Lacanian school. Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
is home to several private universities of different quality, such as: Universidad Argentina
Argentina
de la Empresa , Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Institute of Technology , CEMA University , Favaloro University , Pontifical Catholic
Catholic
University of Argentina
Argentina
, University of Belgrano , University of Palermo , University of Salvador , Universidad Abierta Interamericana , Universidad John F. Kennedy , Universidad de Ciencias Empresariales y Sociales , Universidad del Museo Social Argentino , Universidad Austral and Torcuato di Tella University .

TOURISM

Main article: Tourism in Buenos Aires Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Bus, the city's touristic bus service. The official estimate is that the bus carries between 700 and 800 passengers per day, and has carried half a million passengers since its opening.

According to the World Travel "> Buenos Aires Japanese Gardens .

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
has over 250 parks and green spaces, the largest concentration of which are on the city’s eastern side in the Puerto Madero, Recoleta, Palermo and Belgrano neighbourhoods. Some of the most important are:

* Parque Tres de Febrero , designed by urbanist Jordán Czeslaw Wysocki and architect Julio Dormal , the park was inaugurated on 11 November 1875. The dramatic economic growth of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
afterwards helped to lead to its transfer to the municipal domain in 1888, whereby French Argentine urbanist Carlos Thays was commissioned to expand and further beautify the park, between 1892 and 1912. Thays designed the Zoological Gardens , the Botanical Gardens , the adjoining Plaza Italia and the Rose Garden. * Botanical Gardens , designed by French architect and landscape designer Carlos Thays , the garden was inaugurated on 7 September 1898. Thays and his family lived in an English style mansion, located within the gardens, between 1892 and 1898, when he served as director of parks and walks in the city. The mansion, built in 1881, is currently the main building of the complex. * Buenos Aires Japanese Gardens Is the largest of its type in the World, outside Japan. Completed in 1967, the gardens were inaugurated on occasion of a State visit to Argentina
Argentina
by then-Crown Prince Akihito and Princess Michiko of Japan. * Plaza de Mayo Since being the scene of 25 May 1810 revolution that led to independence, the plaza has been a hub of political life in Argentina. * Plaza San Martín is a park located in the Retiro neighbourhood of the city. Situated at the northern end of pedestrianized Florida Street , the park is bounded by Libertador Ave. (N), Maipú St. (W), Santa Fe Avenue (S), and Leandro Alem Av. (E).

*

Congressional Plaza *

Buenos Aires Botanical Garden *

Plaza de Mayo *

Parque Tres de Febrero

THEATRE

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
has over 280 theatres, more than any other city in the world. Because of this, Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
is declared "World's capital of theater". The city’s theatres show everything from musicals to ballet, comedy to circuses. Some of them are: Teatro Colón .

* Teatro Colón is ranked the third best opera house in the world by National Geographic, and is acoustically considered to be amongst the five best concert venues in the world. The theatre is bounded by the wide 9 de Julio Avenue
9 de Julio Avenue
(technically Cerrito Street), Libertad Street (the main entrance), Arturo Toscanini Street, and Tucumán Street. It is in the heart of the city on a site once occupied by Ferrocarril Oeste 's Plaza Parque station. * Cervantes Theatre , located on Córdoba Avenue and two blocks north of Buenos Aires' renowned opera house , the Colón Theatre , the Cervantes houses three performance halls. The María Guerrero
María Guerrero
Salon is the theatre's main hall. Its 456 m2 (4,900 ft2) stage features a 12 m (39 ft) rotating circular platform and can be extended by a further 2.7 m (9 ft). The Guerrero Salon can seat 860 spectators, including 512 in the galleries. A secondary hall, the Orestes Caviglia Salon, can seat 150 and is mostly reserved for chamber music concerts. The Luisa Vehíl Salon is a multipurpose room known for its extensive gold leaf decor. * Teatro Gran Rex is an Art Deco
Art Deco
style theatre which opened on 8 July 1937, as the largest cinema in South America
South America
. * Avenida Theatre was inaugurated on Buenos Aires' central Avenida de Mayo in 1908 with a production of Spanish dramatist Lope de Vega 's Justice Without Revenge. The production was directed by María Guerrero , a Spanish Argentine
Spanish Argentine
theatre director who popularized classical drama in Argentina
Argentina
during the late 19th century and would establish the important Cervantes Theatre in 1921.

GAY TOURISM

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
has become a recipient of LGBT tourism . Due to the existence of some gay-friendly sites, the civil union law of 2002. Upon legalising same-sex marriage on 15 July 2010, Argentina
Argentina
became the first country in Latin America
Latin America
, the second in the Americas
Americas
, and the tenth in the world to do so. Its Gender Identity Law, passed in 2012, made Argentina
Argentina
the "only country that allows people to change their gender identities without facing barriers such as hormone therapy , surgery or psychiatric diagnosis that labels them as having an abnormality". In 2015, the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
cited Argentina
Argentina
as an exemplary country for providing transgender rights.

HOTELS

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
has various types of accommodations, from luxurious five star to quality budget located in neighborhoods that are further from the city centre, although the transportation system allows easy and inexpensive access to the city.

There were, as of February 2008, 23 five-star, 61 four-star, 59 three-star and 87 two or one-star hotels, as well as 25 boutique hotels and 39 apart-hotels ; another 298 hostels , bed "> Monument to the Carta Magna and Four Regions of Argentina
Argentina
in the Palermo neighbourhood.

* Cabildo was used as the government house during the colonial times of the Viceroyalty of the River Plate . The original building was finished in 1610 but was soon found to be too small and had to be expanded. Over the years many changes have been made. In 1940, the architect Mario Buschiazzo reconstructed the colonial features of the Cabildo using various original documents. * Kavanagh building
Kavanagh building
is located at 1065 Florida St. in the barrio of Retiro , overlooking Plaza San Martín . It was constructed in the 1930s in the Rationalist style, by the architects Gregorio Sánchez, Ernesto Lagos and Luis María de la Torre and was finished in 1936. The building is characterised by the austerity of its lines, the lack of external ornamentation and its large prismatic volumes. It was declared a national historical monument in 1999, and is one of the most impressive architectural masterpieces of Buenos Aires. Standing at a height of 120 m, it still retains its impact against the modern skyline of the city. In 1939 its façade received an award from the American Institute of Architects. * Metropolitan Cathedral is the main Catholic
Catholic
church in Buenos Aires. It is located in the city centre, overlooking Plaza de Mayo, on the corner of San Martín and Rivadavia streets, in the San Nicolás neighbourhood . It is the mother church of the Archdiocese of Buenos Aires . * National Library is the largest library in Argentina
Argentina
and one of the most important in the Americas
Americas
. * The Obelisk was built in May 1936 to commemorate the 400th anniversary of the first founding of the city. It is located in the center of the Plaza de la República (Republic Square), the spot where the Argentine flag was flown for the first time in Buenos Aires, at the intersection of Nueve de Julio and Corrientes
Corrientes
avenues. Its total height is 67 meters (220 feet) and its base area is 49 square meters (530 square feet). It was designed by architect Alberto Prebisch , and its construction took barely four weeks. * The Water Company Palace
The Water Company Palace
(perhaps the world's most ornate water pumping station)

*

Las Nereidas font by Lola Mora *

Kavanagh building
Kavanagh building
*

La Recoleta Cemetery *

The Water Company Palace
The Water Company Palace

TRANSPORT

AIRPORTS

Pistarini International Airport terminal

The Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
international airport, which goes by the official name of Ministro Pistarini International Airport , is located in the suburb of Ezeiza and is often called the "Ezeiza International Airport". The Aeroparque Jorge Newbery airport, located in the Palermo district next to the riverbank, serves only domestic traffic and flights to Brazil, Chile, Paraguay
Paraguay
and Uruguay. A smaller San Fernando Airport serves only general aviation .

LOCAL ROADS AND PERSONAL TRANSPORT

The General Paz Avenue separates Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
from Greater Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
is based on a square, rectangular grid pattern, save for natural barriers or the relatively rare developments explicitly designed otherwise (notably, the neighbourhood of Parque Chas ). The rectangular grid provides for square blocks named manzanas, with a length of roughly 110 metres (361 feet). Pedestrian zones in the city centre , like Florida Street are partially car-free and always bustling, access provided by bus and the Underground (subte) Line C . Buenos Aires, for the most part, is a very walkable city and the majority of residents in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
use public transport.

Two diagonal avenues in the city centre alleviate traffic and provide better access to Plaza de Mayo . Most avenues running into and out of the city centre are one-way and feature six or more lanes, with computer-controlled green waves to speed up traffic outside of peak times.

The city's principal avenues include the 140-metre (459 ft)-wide July 9 Avenue , the over-35 km (22 mi)-long Rivadavia Avenue , and Corrientes Avenue , the main thoroughfare of culture and entertainment.

In the 1940s and 1950s the General Paz Avenue beltway that surrounds the city along its border with Buenos Aires Province , and the freeways leading to the new international airport and to the northern suburbs, heralded a new era for Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
traffic. Encouraged by pro-automaker policies that were pursued towards the end of the Perón (1955) and Frondizi administrations (1958–62) in particular, auto sales nationally grew from an average of 30,000 during the 1920–57 era to around 250,000 in the 1970s and over 600,000 in 2008. Today, over 1.8 million vehicles (nearly one-fifth of Argentina's total) are registered in Buenos Aires.

Toll motorways opened in the late 1970s by then-mayor Osvaldo Cacciatore provided fast access to the city centre and are today used by over a million vehicles daily. Cacciatore likewise had financial district streets (roughly one square km in area) closed to private cars during daytime. Most major avenues are, however, gridlocked at peak hours. Following the economic mini-boom of the 1990s , record numbers started commuting by car and congestion increased, as did the time-honored Argentine custom of taking weekends off in the countryside.

LOCAL PUBLIC TRANSPORT

Commuter Rail

See also: Rail transport
Rail transport
in Argentina
Argentina
A Mitre Line Trenes Argentinos train in Palermo Map of the Greater Buenos Aires Commuter Rail Network

The Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
commuter rail system has seven lines:

* Belgrano Norte Line
Belgrano Norte Line
* Belgrano Sur Line * Roca Line * San Martín Line
San Martín Line
* Sarmiento Line * Mitre Line * Urquiza Line

The Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
commuter network system is very extensive: every day more than 1.3 million people commute to the Argentine capital. These suburban trains operate between 4 am and 1 am. The Buenos Aires commuter rail network also connects the city with long-distance rail services to Rosario and Córdoba , among other metropolitan areas. There are four principal terminals for both long-distance and local passenger services in the city centre: Constitucion , Retiro , Federico Lacroze and Once , while Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
station is a minor terminus.

Commuter rail
Commuter rail
in the city is mostly operated by the state-owned Trenes Argentinos , though the Urquiza Line and Belgrano Norte Line are operated by private companies Metrovías
Metrovías
and Ferrovías respectively. All services had been operated by Ferrocarriles Argentinos until the company's privatisation in 1993 , and were then operated by a series of private companies until the lines were put back under state control following a series of high-profile accidents.

Since 2013, there has been a series of large investments on the network, with all lines (with the exception of the Urquiza Line) receiving new rolling stock , along with widespread infrastructure improvements, track replacement, electrification work, refurbishments of stations and building entirely new stations. Similarly, almost all level crossings have been replaced by underpasses and overpasses in the city, with plans to replace all of them in the near future. One of the most major projects under way is the electrification of the remaining segments of the Roca Line – the most widely used in the network – and also moving the entire section of the Sarmiento Line which runs through the centre of the city underground to allow for better frequencies on the line and reduce congestion above ground.

There are also three other major projects on the table. The first would elevate a large segment of the San Martín Line
San Martín Line
which runs through the centre of the city and electrify the line, while the second would see the electrification and extension of the Belgrano Sur Line to Constitucion station in the centre of the city. If these two projects are completed, then the Belgrano Norte Line
Belgrano Norte Line
would be the only diesel line to run through the city. The third and most ambitious is to build a series of underground tunnels between three of the city's railway terminals with a large underground central station underneath the Obelisk , connecting all the commuter railway lines in a network dubbed the Red de Expresos Regionales .

Cycling

Main article: EcoBici (Buenos Aires) EcoBici .

In December 2010, the city government launched a bicycle sharing program with bicycles free for hire upon registration. Located in mostly central areas, there are 31 rental stations throughout the city providing over 850 bicycles to be picked up and dropped off at any station within an hour. As of 2013 , the city has constructed 110 km (68.35 mi) of protected bicycle lanes and has plans to construct another 100 km (62.14 mi). In 2015, the stations were automated and the service became 24 hours through use of a smart card or mobile phone application.

Underground

Main article: Buenos Aires Underground Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Underground entrance on Constitución square

The Buenos Aires Underground (locally known as subte, from "subterráneo" meaning underground or subway), is a high-yield system providing access to various parts of the city. Opened in 1913, it is the oldest underground system in the Southern Hemisphere and oldest in the Spanish-speaking world. The system has six underground lines and one overground line, named by letters (A to E, and H) and there are 100 stations , and 58.8 km (37 mi) of route, including the Premetro line. An expansion program is underway to extend existing lines into the outer neighborhoods and add a new north-south line. Route length is expected to reach 89 km (55 mi) by 2011.

Line A is the oldest one (service opened to public in 1913) and stations kept the "belle-époque" decoration, while the original rolling stock from 1913, affectionately known as Las Brujas were retired from the line in 2013. Daily ridership on weekdays is 1.7 million and on the increase. Fares remain relatively cheap, although the city government raised fares by over 125% in January 2012. A single journey, with unlimited interchanges between lines, now costs AR$7.50, which is roughly USD$0.45. Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Underground entrance on May Avenue

The most recent expansions to the network were the addition of numerous stations to the network in 2013: San José de Flores and San Pedrito to Line A , Echeverría and Juan Manuel de Rosas to Line B and Hospitales to Line H . Current works include the completion of Line H northwards and addition of three new stations to Line E in the centre of the city. The construction of Line F is due to commence in 2015, while two other lines are planned for construction in the future.

Tramways

Main article: Trams in Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
had an extensive street railway (tram) system with over 857 km (533 mi) of track, which was dismantled during the 1960s in favour of bus transportation, but surface rail transport has made a small comeback in some parts of the city. The PreMetro or Line E2 is a 7.4 km (4.6 mi) light rail line that connects with Underground Line E at Plaza de los Virreyes station and runs to General Savio and Centro Cívico. It is operated by Metrovías
Metrovías
. The official inauguration took place on 27 August 1987.

A 2 km (1.2 mi) modern tramway , the Tranvía del Este , opened in 2007 in the Puerto Madero district, using two tramcars on temporary loan. However, plans to extend the line and acquire a fleet of trams did not come to fruition, and declining patronage led to the line's closure in October 2012. A heritage streetcar maintained by tram fans operates on weekends, near the Primera Junta line A Underground station in the Caballito neighbourhood.

Buses

Metrobus , 9 de Julio Line

There are over 150 city bus lines called Colectivos , each one managed by an individual company. These compete with each other, and attract exceptionally high use with virtually no public financial support. Their frequency makes them equal to the underground systems of other cities, but buses cover a far wider area than the underground system. Colectivos in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
do not have a fixed timetable, but run from four to several per hour, depending on the bus line and time of the day. With inexpensive tickets and extensive routes, usually no further than four blocks from commuters' residences, the colectivo is the most popular mode of transport around the city.

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
has recently opened a bus rapid transit system, the Metrobus . The system uses modular median stations that serve both directions of travel, which enable pre-paid, multiple-door, level boarding. The first line, opened on 31 May 2011, runs across the Juan B. Justo Ave has 21 stations. The system now has 4 lines with 113 stations on its 43.5 km (27.0 mi) network, while numerous other lines are under construction and planned.

Taxis

Buquebus high-speed ferries connect Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
to Uruguay
Uruguay

A fleet of 40,000 black-and-yellow taxis ply the streets at all hours. License controls are not enforced rigorously. There have been reports of organized crime controlling the access of taxis to the city airports and other major destinations. Taxi drivers are known for trying to take advantage of tourists. Radio-link companies provide reliable and safe service; many such companies provide incentives for frequent users. Low-fare limo services, known as remises, have become popular in recent years.

Ferries

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
is also served by a ferry system operated by the company Buquebus that connects the port of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
with the main cities of Uruguay, ( Colonia del Sacramento , Montevideo
Montevideo
and Punta del Este ). More than 2.2 million people per year travel between Argentina
Argentina
and Uruguay
Uruguay
with Buquebus. One of these ships is a catamaran, which can reach a top speed of about 80 km/h (50 mph).

Public Transportation Statistics

According to data released by Moovit in July 2017, the average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Buenos Aires, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 79 min. 23% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 14 min, while 20% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 8.9 km, while 21% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.

SECURITY

Metropolitan Police of Buenos Aires City

The Guardia Urbana de Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
( Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Urban Guard) was a specialized civilian force of the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina
Argentina
, that used to deal with different urban conflicts with the objective of develop actions of prevention, dissuasion and mediation, promoting effective behaviors that guarantee the security and the integrity of public order and social coexistence. The unit continuously assisted the personnel of the Argentine Federal Police , especially in emergency situations, events of massive concurrence, and protection of tourist establishments .

Urban Guard officials did not carry any weapons in the performing of their duties. Their basic tools were a HT radio transmitter and a whistle.

As of March 2008, the Guardia Urbana was removed.

The Buenos Aires Metropolitan Police was the police force under the authority of the Autonomous City (or Federal District ) of Buenos Aires. The force was created in 2010 and was composed of 1,850 officers.

In 2016, the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Police and part of the Argentine Federal Police were merged to create the new Buenos Aires City Police force.

The Buenos Aires City Police force began operations on 1 January 2017. Security in the city is now the responsibility of the Buenos Aires City Police .

The police is headed by the Chief of Police who is appointed by the head of the executive branch of the city of Buenos Aires.

There are four major departments:

* Public Security * Investigations and Research * Scientific and Technical * Administration

Geographically, the force is divided into 56 stations throughout the city. All police station employees are civilians.

The Buenos Aires City Police force is composed of over 25,000 officers.

SPORTS

Main articles: Sport in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
and Football in Buenos Aires

Football is a passion for Argentines. Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
has the highest concentration of football teams of any city in the world (featuring no fewer than 24 professional football teams), with many of its teams playing in the major league. The best-known rivalry is the one between Boca Juniors
Boca Juniors
and River Plate , the match is better known as Superclásico . Watching a match between these two teams was deemed one of the "50 sporting things you must do before you die" by The Observer. Other major clubs include San Lorenzo de Almagro , Club Atlético Huracán , Vélez Sársfield , Chacarita Juniors , Club Ferro Carril Oeste , Nueva Chicago
Chicago
and Asociación Atlética Argentinos Juniors .

Diego Maradona , born in Lanús Partido (county) south of Buenos Aires, is widely hailed as one of the greatest football players of all time. Maradona started his career with Argentinos Juniors , later playing for Boca Juniors
Boca Juniors
, the Argentina
Argentina
national football team and others (most notably FC Barcelona
FC Barcelona
in Spain
Spain
and SSC Napoli in Italy).

Argentina
Argentina
has been the home of world champions in professional boxing . Carlos Monzon was a hall of fame World Middleweight champion, and the current undisputed linear Middleweight champion Sergio Martinez hails from Argentina. Omar Narvaez , Lucas Matthysse , Carolina Duer , and Marcos Maidana are five modern-day world champions as well. Luna Park Campo Argentino de Polo
Campo Argentino de Polo
, home of the Argentine Open Polo
Polo
Championship , the most important global event of this discipline Buenos Aires Lawn Tennis Club
Buenos Aires Lawn Tennis Club

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
has been a candidate city for the Summer Olympic Games on three occasions: for the 1956 Games , which were lost by a single vote to Melbourne; for the 1968 Summer Olympics , held in Mexico
Mexico
City ; and in 2004 , when the games were awarded to Athens
Athens
. However, Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
hosted the first Pan American Games (1951) and was also host city to several World Championship events: the 1950 and 1990 Basketball
Basketball
World Championships , the 1982 and 2002 Men\'s Volleyball World Championships and, most remembered, the 1978 FIFA World Cup
1978 FIFA World Cup
, won by Argentina
Argentina
on 25 June 1978, when it defeated the Netherlands
Netherlands
at the Estadio Monumental 3–1. In September 2013, the city hosted the 125th IOC Session , Tokyo
Tokyo
was elected the host city of the 2020 Summer Olympics and Thomas Bach was new IOC President . Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
bid to host the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics . On 4 July 2013, the IOC elected Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
as the host city. Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
hosted the 2006 South American Games too.

Juan Manuel Fangio won five Formula One
Formula One
World Driver\'s Championships , and was only outstripped by Michael Schumacher
Michael Schumacher
, with seven Championships. The Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Oscar Gálvez car-racing track hosted 20 Formula One
Formula One
events as the Argentine Grand Prix
Argentine Grand Prix
, between 1953 and 1998; it was discontinued on financial grounds. The track features various local categories on most weekends.

The 2009 , 2010 , 2011 , 2015 Dakar Rally started and ended in the city.

The first rugby union match in Argentina
Argentina
was played in 1873 in the Buenos Aires Cricket Club Ground , located in Palermo neighbourhood, where the Galileo Galilei planetarium is located today. Rugby enjoys widespread popularity in Buenos Aires, most especially in the north of the city, which boasts more than eighty rugby clubs. The city is home to the Argentine Super Rugby franchise, the Jaguares . The Argentina national rugby union team competes in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
in international matches such as the Rugby Championship .

Argentines' love for horses can be experienced in several ways: horse racing at the Hipódromo Argentino de Palermo racetrack , polo in the Campo Argentino de Polo
Campo Argentino de Polo
(located just across Libertador Avenue from the Hipódromo), and pato , a kind of basketball played on horseback that was declared the national game in 1953.

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
native Guillermo Vilas (who was raised in Mar del Plata ) and Gabriela Sabatini were great tennis players of the 1970s and 1980s and popularized tennis Nationwide in Argentina. Vilas won the ATP Buenos Aires numerous times in the 1970s. Other popular sports in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
are golf , basketball , rugby and field hockey . The Estadio Monumental Antonio Vespucio Liberti is one of the most important Olympic stadiums on the continent. Known as "El Monumental", it hosted the final game of the FIFA World Cup Championship in 1978 .

NOTABLE PEOPLE

Notable people originally from Buenos Aires:

*

Writer, Jorge Luis Borges *

Pope Francis *

Argentine NASA
NASA
astronaut , Fernando Caldeiro *

Queen Máxima of the Netherlands *

Luis Scola , basketball player *

Gustavo Cerati
Gustavo Cerati
, singer-songwriter, composer and producer

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

WORLD RANKINGS

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
is classified as an Alpha World City , according to the Loughborough University group's (GaWC) 2008 inventory. It is ranked 22nd in the 2010 ranking of global cities by the American journal Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
, in conjunction with consulting firm A.T. Kearney and the Chicago Council on Global Affairs . (See " Global city
Global city
" for the top 30 in the list).

TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Argentina
Argentina

This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
is twinned with the following cities:

* Beijing
Beijing
, China
China
(since 1993) * Berlin
Berlin
, Germany
Germany
(since 19 May 1994) * Bilbao
Bilbao
, Spain * Brasília
Brasília
, Brazil
Brazil
* Cairo
Cairo
, Egypt
Egypt
* Cádiz , Spain * Calabria
Calabria
, Italy
Italy
(region) * Guadix , Spain
Spain
* Miami, Florida , United States * Moscow
Moscow
, Russia
Russia
* Naples
Naples
, Italy * Osaka
Osaka
, Japan * Oviedo
Oviedo
, Spain
Spain
(since 1983) * Prague
Prague
, Czech Republic * Salamanca
Salamanca
, Spain * Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela
, Spain * São Paulo
São Paulo
, Brazil
Brazil
* Seville
Seville
, Spain
Spain
* Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
, Israel
Israel
(since 1976) * Vigo
Vigo
, Spain * Warsaw
Warsaw
, Poland
Poland
* Yerevan , Armenia
Armenia
(since 2000) * Zagreb
Zagreb
, Croatia
Croatia
(since 1998)

UNION OF IBERO-AMERICAN CAPITAL CITIES

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
is part of the Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities
Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities
from 12 October 1982 establishing brotherly relations with the following cities:

* Andorra
Andorra
la Vella , Andorra * Asunción , Paraguay * Bogotá
Bogotá
, Colombia * Buenos Aires, Argentina * Caracas
Caracas
, Venezuela * Guatemala
Guatemala
City , Guatemala * Havana
Havana
, Cuba * Quito
Quito
, Ecuador * La Paz
La Paz
, Bolivia * Lima
Lima
, Peru
Peru
* Lisbon
Lisbon
, Portugal * Madrid
Madrid
, Spain * Managua
Managua
, Nicaragua * Mexico City
Mexico City
, Mexico * Montevideo
Montevideo
, Uruguay * Panama
Panama
City , Panama * Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
, Brazil * San Jose , Costa Rica * San Juan , Puerto Rico * San Salvador , El Salvador * Santiago
Santiago
, Chile * Santo Domingo , Dominican Republic * Tegucigalpa
Tegucigalpa
, Honduras

PARTNER CITY

* Paris
Paris
, France
France

SEE ALSO

* Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
portal * Argentina
Argentina
portal * Latin America
Latin America
portal * Geography portal

* C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group * Cicerones de Buenos Aires * Largest cities in the Americas
Americas
* List of mayors and chiefs of government of Buenos Aires * List of twin towns and sister cities of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
* OPENCities * Outline of Argentina
Argentina

NOTES

* ^ The World Meteorological Organization Station ID for Buenos Aires Observatorio is 87585 Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration

REFERENCES

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Handbook Transportation". Argentina.gotolatin.com. Retrieved 25 March 2010. * ^ "Radiotaxis & Remises de Argentina". Radiotaxisyremises.com.ar. 22 February 2007. Retrieved 25 March 2010. * ^ "Buquebus". Buquebus. Archived from the original on 21 June 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2009. * ^ " Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved 19 June 2017. Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. * ^ "Entró en funciones la nueva Policía de la Ciudad". www.telam.com.ar. Retrieved 2 February 2017. * ^ A B 50 sporting things you must do before you die, The Observer Royal Madrid, 4 April 2004 * ^ Complete list here on the left Archived 2 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ "Buenos Aires, Argentina
Argentina
to bid for 2018 Youth Olympic Games". Games Bids Inc. 30 August 2011. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2011. * ^ www.lboro.ac.uk The World According to GaWC 2008 – Retrieved on 6 July 2009 * ^ "Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Argentina
– City, Town and Village of the world". db-city.com. * ^ "Sister Cities". Beijing
Beijing
Municipal Government. Retrieved 23 June 2009. * ^ " Berlin
Berlin
– City Partnerships". Der Regierende Bürgermeister Berlin. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013. * ^ "Berlin\'s international city relations". Berlin
Berlin
Mayor's Office. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 1 July 2009. * ^ " Brasília
Brasília
Global Partners" (in Portuguese). ASSESSORIA INTERNACIONAL DO GOVERNO DO DISTRITO FEDERAL. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2016. * ^ A B C D "Listado de ciudades hermanas" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2010. * ^ "Pesquisa de Legislação Municipal – No 14471" (in Portuguese). Prefeitura da Cidade de São Paulo
São Paulo
. Archived from the original on 18 October 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2013. * ^ Lei Municipal de São Paulo
São Paulo
14471 de 2007 WikiSource (in Portuguese) * ^ Hermanamientos con Latinoamérica Archived 13 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. (102,91 kB). * ^ " Yerevan – Twin Towns & Sister Cities". Yerevan Municipality Official Website. © 2005—2013 www.yerevan.am. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2013. * ^ "Intercity and International Cooperation of the City of Zagreb". 2006–2009 City of Zagreb. Retrieved 23 June 2009. * ^ "Declaración de Hermanamiento múltiple y solidario de todas las Capitales de Iberoamérica (12–10–82)" (PDF). 12 October 1982. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2015. * ^ "Les pactes d\'amitié et de coopération". Mairie de Paris. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 14 October 2007.

BOOKS

* (in Spanish) Patricia Moglia, Fabián Sislián and Mónica Alabart, Pensar la historia Argentina
Argentina
desde una historia de América Latina, Buenos Aires:Plus Ultra * Blouet, Brian; Blouet, Olwyn (2010). "Chapter 13: Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay". Latin America
Latin America
and the Caribbean: A Systematic and Regional Survey. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 385–415. ISBN 978-0-470-38773-3 . * Kreimer, Alcira; Arnold, Margaret (2000). Managing Disaster Risk in Emerging Economies (PDF). Disaster Risk Management Series No. 2. Washington D.C: World Bank. ISBN 0-8213-4726-8 . * Lewis Nouwen, Mollie (15 September 2013). Oy, My Buenos Aires: Jewish Immigrants and the Creation of Argentine National Identity. UNM Press . ISBN 978-0826353504 . * Rojas-Mix, Miguel (1991). Los cien nombres de América: eso que descubrió Colón (in Spanish). Lumen. p. 57. ISBN 978-8426412096 . Retrieved 12 December 2016.

FURTHER READING

See also: Bibliography of the history of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires

* Adelman, Jeremy. Republic of capital: Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
and the legal transformation of the Atlantic world (Stanford University Press, 1999) * Baily, Samuel L. "The Adjustment of Italian Immigrants in Buenos Aires and New York, 1870–1914." American Historical Review (1983): 281–305. in JSTOR * Bao, Sandra, and Bridget Gleeson. Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet
Buenos Aires (Travel Guide) (2011) * Benson, Andrew. The Rough Guide to Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
(2011) * Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Travel Guide 2014: Essential Tourist Information, Maps & Photos (2014) * Keeling, David J. Buenos Aires: Global dreams, local crises (Wiley, 1996) * Moya, Jose C. Cousins and strangers: Spanish immigrants in Buenos Aires, 1850–1930 (University of California Press, 1998) * Mulhall, Michael George, and Edward T. Mulhall. Handbook of the River Plate: Comprising Buenos Ayres, the Upper Provinces, Banda Oriental, Paraguay
Paraguay
(2 vol. 1869) online * Scobie, James R. Buenos Aires: plaza to suburb, 1870–1910 (Oxford University Press, 1974) * Socolow, Susan Migden. The Merchants of Buenos Aires, 1778–1810: Family and Commerce (Cambridge University Press, 1978) * Sofer, Eugene F. From Pale to Pampa: A social history of the Jews of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
(Holmes padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutBUENOS AIRESat's sister projects

* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Wikimedia Commons * News from Wikinews * Texts from Wikisource * Travel guide from Wikivoyage * Data from Wikidata

* (in Spanish) Official government website * OPENCities Monitor participant * Population estimates * Encyclopædia Britannica * Microsoft Encarta (Archived 2009-10-31)

* Geographic data related to Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
at OpenStreetMap
OpenStreetMap

ARTICLES RELATED TO BUENOS AIRES

* v * t * e

Neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires

* Agronomía * Almagro * Balvanera * Barracas * Belgrano * Boedo * Caballito * Chacarita * Coghlan * Colegiales * Constitución * Flores * Floresta * La Boca
La Boca
* La Paternal * Liniers * Mataderos * Monte Castro * Monserrat * Nueva Pompeya
Nueva Pompeya
* Núñez * Palermo * Parque Avellaneda * Parque Chacabuco * Parque Chas * Parque Patricios * Puerto Madero * Recoleta * Retiro * Saavedra * San Cristóbal * San Nicolás * San Telmo * Vélez Sársfield * Versalles * Villa Crespo * Villa del Parque * Villa Devoto * Villa Lugano * Villa Luro
Villa Luro
* Villa Mitre * Villa Ortúzar * Villa Pueyrredón * Villa Real * Villa Riachuelo * Villa Santa Rita * Villa Soldati * Villa Urquiza

* v * t * e

Greater Buenos Aires

First-level administrative divisions Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Autonomous City Buenos Aires Province

Buenos Aires Province partidos

* Almirante Brown * Avellaneda * Berazategui * Esteban Echevarría * Ezeiza * Florencio Varela * Hurlingham * Ituzaingó * José C. Paz * Lanús * Lomas de Zamora * La Matanza * Malvinas Argentinas * Merlo * Moreno * Morón * Quilmes * San Fernando * San Isidro * San Martín * San Miguel * Tigre * 3 de Febrero * Vicente López

LIST OF CITIES

* Autonomous City of Buenos Aires * Adrogué * Avellaneda * Banfield * Béccar * Bella Vista * Berazategui * Bernal * Boulogne Sur Mer * Burzaco
Burzaco
* Caseros * Castelar * Ciudadela * Ciudad Evita
Ciudad Evita
* Ciudad Jardín * Ciudad Madero * Claypole * Dock Sud * Don Torcuato
Don Torcuato
* El Palomar * Ezeiza * Florencio Varela * Florida Este * Florida Oeste * Haedo * General Pacheco * Gerli * Glew * González Catán * Gregorio de Laferrère * Grand Bourg
Grand Bourg
* Guernica * Hurlingham * Isidro Casanova * Ituzaingó * José C. Paz * José Mármol * Lanús * La Tablada
La Tablada
* Llavallol * Libertad * Lomas del Mirador
Lomas del Mirador
* Lomas de Zamora * Longchamps * Los Polvorines
Los Polvorines
* Mariano Acosta * Martínez * Merlo * Monte Chingolo * Monte Grande
Monte Grande
* Moreno * Morón * Munro * Muñiz * Olivos * Pablo Nogués * Parque San Martín * Paso del Rey * Pontevedra * Quilmes * Rafael Calzada * Rafael Castillo * Ramos Mejía * Remedios de Escalada * San Antonio de Padua * San Fernando * San Francisco Solano * San Isidro * San José * San Justo * San Martín * San Miguel * Sarandí * Temperley
Temperley
* Tigre * Tortuguitas * Tristán Suárez
Tristán Suárez
* Valentín Alsina * Vicente López * Victoria * Villa Adelina * Villa Ballester * Villa Bosch * Villa Centenario
Villa Centenario
* Villa Domínico
Villa Domínico
* Villa Fiorito * Villa La Florida * Villa Maipú * Villa Martelli
Villa Martelli
* Villa de Mayo * Villa Tesei
Villa Tesei
* Villa Udaondo * Virreyes * Wilde * William C. Morris

Lesser settlements (towns and others)

* Acassuso * Aldo Bonzi * Billinghurst * Campo de Mayo * Carapachay * Churruca * Dock Sud * Don Bosco * El Libertador * José Ingenieros * La Lucila * Loma Hermosa * Lomas del Palomar * Martín Coronado * Once de Septiembre * Pablo Podestá * Ranelagh * Remedios de Escalada, Tres de Febrero * Sáenz Peña * Santos Lugares * Tapiales
Tapiales
* Villa Raffo * Villa Sarmiento

GEOGRAPHIC LOCALE

LAT. AND LONG. 34°36′12″S 58°22′54″W / 34.60333°S 58.38167°W / -34.60333; -58.38167

* v * t * e

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires

* History (timeline ) * Geography * Climate * Demographics * Economy * Transportation * Culture * Tourism * Education

* v * t * e

Landmarks of Buenos Aires City

Public and historic buildings and structures

* Argentine National Congress
Argentine National Congress
Palace * Torre Monumental * Cabildo * Café Tortoni * Casa Rosada * Centro Cultural Néstor Kirchner * Chacarita Cemetery * City Hall * City Legislature * Customs House * Duhau Palace * Estrugamou Building * Floralis Genérica
Floralis Genérica
* Galerías Pacífico * Hotel de Inmigrantes * Kavanagh Building
Kavanagh Building
* Libertador Building
Libertador Building
* May Pyramid * Metropolitan Cathedral * Monument to Giuseppe Garibaldi * Obelisco * Palacio Barolo
Palacio Barolo
* Palacio Haedo
Palacio Haedo
* Pizzurno Palace * Plaza Hotel * Recoleta Cemetery * San Martín Palace * Santo Domingo convent * Sarmiento Frigate * Uruguay
Uruguay
Corvette * The Water Company Palace
The Water Company Palace
* Women\'s Bridge

Precincts and neighbourhoods

* Almagro * Belgrano * Buenos Aires CBD * Caballito * City Centre * Colegiales * Montserrat * Núñez * Palermo * Puerto Madero * Recoleta * Retiro * San Telmo

NATURE AND PARKS

* Avellaneda Park * Botanical gardens * Buenos Aires Ecological Reserve
Buenos Aires Ecological Reserve
* Chacabuco Park * Congressional Plaza * Japanese Gardens * Lezama Park
Lezama Park
* Palermo gardens * Plaza de la República * Plaza de Mayo * Plaza San Martín * Parque Centenario * Buenos Aires Zoo * Plaza Alvear

Cultural Institutions

* El Ateneo Grand Splendid * Argentine Automobile Club * Bernardino Rivadavia Natural Sciences Museum * Buenos Aires Museum of Modern Art * Café Tortoni * Fortabat Art Collection * House of Culture * Illuminated Block * Isaac Fernández Blanco Museum * King Fahd Cultural Center * Latin American Art Museum * Museum of Foreign Debt * National Library * National Museum of Decorative Arts * National Museum of Fine Arts * National Museum of History * Opera House * Paz Palace * Planetarium * Recoleta Cultural Center * San Martín Cultural Center * San Martín National Institute * Sarmiento Museum * Eduardo Sívori Museum * Fundacion Proa

SPORT

* Boca Juniors
Boca Juniors
Stadium * River Plate Stadium * Huracan Stadium * Argentinos Juniors Stadium * Vélez Sársfield Stadium * San Lorenzo Stadium * Argentine Hippodrome of Palermo * Lawn Tennis Club * Polo
Polo
Stadium * Juan y Oscar Gálvez Race Circuit * Obras Sanitarias Arena * CeNARD * Estadio Ricardo Etcheverry * G.E.B.A. Stadium * Luna Park Arena * Malvinas Argentinas Arena * Mary Terán de Weiss Tennis Stadium

TRANSPORT

* Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Belgrano Sur * Subte * Premetro * Constitución station * Federico Lacroze station * Jorge Newbery Airport * Once station * Retiro station * MetroBus * Tranvía del Este (Closed)

Shopping and entertainment

* Abasto Mall * Avenida Theatre * Cervantes Theatre * Fishermen\'s Pier * Galerías Pacífico * Gran Rex Theatre * Paseo La Plaza * Patio Bullrich * Opera Theatre * San Martin Theatre * Parque de la Ciudad * La Trastienda Club * Galería Güemes

Streets and avenues

* 9 de Julio Avenue
9 de Julio Avenue
* Avenida Alvear * Avenida de Mayo * Avenida del Libertador * Callao Avenue * Caminito * Córdoba Avenue * Coronel Díaz Street * Corrientes Avenue * Figueroa Alcorta Avenue * Florida Street * General Paz Avenue * President Julio Argentino Roca Avenue * Leandro Alem Avenue * Pueyrredón Avenue * President Roque Sáenz Peña Avenue * Rivadavia Avenue * Santa Fe Avenue * Sarmiento Avenue * Scalabrini Ortiz Avenue

* v * t * e

Transport in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires

TRAINS

* Belgrano Norte * Belgrano Sur * Mitre * Roca * San Martín * Sarmiento * Urquiza

UNDERGROUND LINES

* * * * * * * * * * List of stations

LIGHT RAIL AND TRAMS

* PreMetro E2 * Tranvía del Este

BUSES

* Colectivo 60 * Colectivo 64

METROBUS

* 25 de Mayo * 9 de Julio * Cabildo * Juan B. Justo * Sur

BICYCLE

* EcoBici

* v * t * e

Provinces
Provinces
of Argentina
Argentina

PROVINCES

* Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
* Catamarca * Chaco * Chubut * Córdoba * Corrientes
Corrientes
* Entre Ríos * Formosa * Jujuy * La Pampa * La Rioja * Mendoza * Misiones * Neuquén * Río Negro * Salta
Salta
* San Juan * San Luis * Santa Cruz * Santa Fe * Santiago del Estero * Tierra del Fuego * Tucumán

AUTONOMOUS CITY

* Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
City

* v * t * e

Provincial capitals of Argentina
Argentina

* La Plata, Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
* San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca, Catamarca * Resistencia, Chaco * Rawson, Chubut * Córdoba, Córdoba * Corrientes, Corrientes
Corrientes
* Paraná, Entre Ríos * Formosa, Formosa * San Salvador de Jujuy, Jujuy * Santa Rosa, La Pampa * La Rioja, La Rioja * Mendoza, Mendoza * Posadas, Misiones * Neuquén, Neuquén * Viedma, Río Negro * Salta, Salta
Salta
* San Juan, San Juan * San Luis, San Luis * Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz * Santa Fe, Santa Fe * Santiago
Santiago
del Estero, Santiago del Estero * Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego * San Miguel de Tucumán, Tucumán

* v * t * e

Railway Companies in Argentina
Argentina

CURRENT

STATE-OWNED

* Ferrocarriles Argentinos
Ferrocarriles Argentinos
(2015) * Tren Patagónico * Operadora Ferroviaria S.E. * Belgrano Cargas y Logística
Belgrano Cargas y Logística

PRIVATE

* Ferroexpreso Pampeano
Ferroexpreso Pampeano
* Ferrosur Roca * Ferrovías
Ferrovías
* Metrovías
Metrovías
* NCA

DEFUNCT

STATE-OWNED

* Andean * BA Western * Belgrano Cargas
Belgrano Cargas
* Central Entre Ríos * Central Northern * Comodoro Rivadavia * Córdoba Central * Córdoba North W. * Corrientes
Corrientes
Economic * FEMESA * Ferrobaires * Ferrocarriles Argentinos
Ferrocarriles Argentinos
* North Argentine * Patagónicos * Prov. Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
* Puerto Deseado * SEFECHA * State Railway * UGOFE * UGOMS

PRIVATE

ARGENTINE

* Argentren
Argentren
* BAP * Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Central * Corredores Ferroviarios * Depietri * Ferrocentral * Mediterráneos * Metropolitano * Península Valdés * TBA * TEA * TUFESA

FOREIGN

* ALL * Argentine Great Western * Bahía Blanca & NW * BA Great Southern * BA Northern * BA & Ensenada * BA & Pacific * BA & Rosario * Central Argentine * Central Chubut * Córdoba Central * Córdoba North Western * Córdoba & Rosario * Compañía General de Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
* Entre Ríos * East Argentine * Midland * North Eastern * North Western * Prov. Santa Fe * Rosario & Puerto Belgrano * San Cristóbal a Tucumán * Santa Fe & Córdoba GS * Santa Fe Western * Villa María ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Pan American Games host cities

* 1951 : Buenos Aires * 1955 : Mexico City
Mexico City
* 1959 : Chicago
Chicago
* 1963 : São Paulo
São Paulo
* 1967 : Winnipeg
Winnipeg
* 1971 : Santiago
Santiago
de Cali * 1975 : Mexico City
Mexico City
* 1979 : San Juan * 1983 : Caracas
Caracas
* 1987 : Indianapolis
Indianapolis
* 1991 : Havana
Havana
* 1995 : Mar del Plata * 1999 : Winnipeg
Winnipeg
* 2003 : Santo Domingo * 2007 : Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
* 2011 : Guadalajara
Guadalajara
* 2015 : Toronto
Toronto
* 2019 : Lima
Lima
* 2023 : Santiago
Santiago

* v * t * e

Capitals of South America
South America

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

* ASUNCIóN , Paraguay
Paraguay
* BOGOTá , Colombia
Colombia
* BRASíLIA , Brazil
Brazil
* BUENOS AIRES, Argentina
Argentina
* CARACAS , Venezuela
Venezuela

* CAYENNE , French Guiana
French Guiana
(France) * GEORGETOWN , Guyana
Guyana
* KING EDWARD POINT , South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
(UK) * LA PAZ (de facto ) • SUCRE (de jure ), Bolivia
Bolivia
* LIMA , Peru
Peru

* MONTEVIDEO , Uruguay
Uruguay
* PARAMARIBO , Suriname
Suriname
* QUITO , Ecuador
Ecuador
* SANTIAGO , Chile
Chile
* STANLEY , Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
(UK)

* v * t * e

Youth Olympic Games
Olympic Games
Host Cities

SUMMER YOUTH OLYMPICS 2010 : Singapore
Singapore
• 2014 : Nanjing
Nanjing
• 2018 : Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires

WINTER YOUTH OLYMPICS 2012 : Innsbruck
Innsbruck
• 2016 : Lillehammer

* v * t * e

World's fifty most-populous urban areas

* Tokyo
Tokyo
Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin ) * Jakarta
Jakarta
( Jabodetabek
Jabodetabek
) * Delhi
Delhi
* Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila
Manila
) * Seoul
Seoul
Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon ) * Shanghai
Shanghai
* Karachi
Karachi
* Beijing
Beijing
* New York City
New York City
* Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Foshan (Guangfo)

* São Paulo
São Paulo
* Mexico City
Mexico City
(Valley of Mexico
Mexico
) * Mumbai
Mumbai
* Osaka
Osaka
Kobe
Kobe
Kyoto
Kyoto
( Keihanshin ) * Moscow
Moscow
* Dhaka
Dhaka
* Greater Cairo
Cairo
* Los Angeles
Los Angeles
* Bangkok
Bangkok
* Kolkata
Kolkata

* Greater Buenos Aires * Tehran
Tehran
* Istanbul
Istanbul
* Lagos * Shenzhen
Shenzhen
* Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
* Kinshasa
Kinshasa
* Tianjin
Tianjin
* Paris
Paris
* Lima
Lima

* Chengdu
Chengdu
* Greater London * Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō ) * Lahore
Lahore
* Chennai
Chennai
* Bangalore
Bangalore
* Chicago
Chicago
* Bogotá
Bogotá
* Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
* Hyderabad
Hyderabad

* Dongguan
Dongguan
* Johannesburg * Wuhan
Wuhan
* Taipei
Taipei
-Taoyuan * Hangzhou
Hangzhou
* Hong Kong
Hong Kong
* Chongqing
Chongqing
* Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
* Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
( Klang Valley ) * Quanzhou
Quanzhou

* v * t * e

World Book Capitals

* 2001: Madrid
Madrid
* 2002: Alexandria
Alexandria
* 2003: New Delhi
Delhi
* 2004: Antwerp
Antwerp
* 2005: Montreal
Montreal
* 2006: Turin
Turin
* 2007: Bogotá
Bogotá
* 2008: Amsterdam
Amsterdam
* 2009: Beirut
Beirut
* 2010: Ljubljana
Ljubljana
* 2011: Buenos Aires * 2012: Yerevan * 2013: Bangkok
Bangkok
* 2014: Port Harcourt
Port Harcourt
* 2015: Incheon
Incheon
* 2016: Wrocław
Wrocław
* 2017: Conakry
Conakry
* 2018: Athens
Athens
* 2019: Sharjah
Sharjah

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 155960902 * LCCN : n79079054 * ISNI : 0000 0001 2359 4874 * GND : 4008756-6 * SELIBR : 141804 * SUDOC : 02640673X * BNF : cb118659776 (data) * NDL

.